Abstract

We review our recent progress on frequency conversion in integrated devices, focusing primarily on experiments based on strip-loaded and quantum-well intermixed AlGaAs waveguides, and on CMOS-compatible high-index doped silica-glass waveguides. The former includes both second- and third-order interactions, demonstrating wavelength conversion by tunable difference-frequency generation over 100 nm bandwidth, as well as broadband self-phase modulation and tunable four-wave mixing. The latter includes four-wave mixing using low-power continuous-wave light in microring resonators as well as hyperparametric oscillation in a high quality factor resonator, toward the realization of an integrated multiple wavelength source with important applications for telecommunications, spectroscopy, and metrology.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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2011

A. S. Helmy, P. Abolghasem, J. Stewart Aitchison, B. J. Bijlani, J. Han, B. M. Holmes, D. C. Hutchings, U. Younis, and S. J. Wagner, “Recent advances in phase matching of second-order nonlinearities in monolithic semiconductor waveguides,” Laser Photon. Rev. 5, 272–286 (2011).
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K. Dolgaleva, W. C. Ng, L. Qian, and J. S. Aitchison, “Compact highly-nonlinear AlGaAs waveguides for efficient wavelength conversion,” Opt. Express 19, 1496–1498 (2011).
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L.-W. Luo, G. S. Wiederhecker, J. Cardenas, C. Poitras, and M. Lipson, “High quality factor etchless silicon photonic ring resonators,” Opt. Express 19, 6284–6289 (2011).
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M. Ferrera, Y. Park, L. Razzari, B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, R. Morandotti, D. J. Moss, and J. Azaña, “All-optical 1st and 2nd order integration on a chip,” Opt. Express 19, 23153–23161 (2011).
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A. Pasquazi, M. Peccianti, Y. Park, B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, R. Morandotti, J. Azaña, and D. J. Moss, “Sub-picosecond phase-sensitive optical pulse characterization on a chip,” Nat. Photon. 5, 618–623 (2011).
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D. Duchesne, K. A. Rutkowska, M. Volatier, F. Légaré, S. Delprat, M. Chaker, D. Modotto, A. Locatelli, C. De Angelis, M. Sorel, D. N. Christodoulides, G. Salamo, R. Arès, V. Aimez, and R. Morandotti, “Second harmonic generation in AlGaAs photonic wires using low power continuous wave light,” Opt. Express 19, 12408–12417 (2011).
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S. J. Wagner, B. M. Holmes, U. Younis, I. Sigal, A. S. Helmy, J. S. Aitchison, and D. C. Hutchings, “Difference frequency generation by quasi-phase matching in periodically intermixed semiconductor superlattice waveguides,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 47, 834–840 (2011).
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T. J. Kippenberg, R. Holzwarth, and S. A. Diddams, “Microresonator-based optical frequency combs,” Science 332, 555–559 (2011).
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D. Ramirez, A. Rodriguez, H. Hashemi, J. Joannopoulos, M. Soljačić, and S. Johnson, “Degenerate four-wave mixing in triply resonant Kerr cavities,” Physical Review A 83, 033834(2011).
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Y. Okawachi, K. Saha, J. S. Levy, Y. H. Wen, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Octave-spanning frequency comb generation in a silicon nitride chip,” Opt. Lett. 36, 3398–3400 (2011).
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2010

A. Pasquazi, Y. Park, J. Azaña, F. Légaré, R. Morandotti, B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, and D. J. Moss, “Efficient wavelength conversion and net parametric gain via four wave mixing in a high index doped silica waveguide,” Opt. Express 18, 7634–7641 (2010).
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K. Dolgaleva, W. C. Ng, L. Qian, J. S. Aitchison, M. C. Camasta, and M. Sorel, “Broadband self-phase modulation, cross-phase modulation, and four-wave mixing in 9 mm-long AlGaAs waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 35, 4093–4095 (2010).
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D. C. Hutchings, S. J. Wagner, B. M. Holmes, U. Younis, A. S. Helmy, and J. S. Aitchison, “Type-II quasi phase matching in periodically intermixed semiconductor superlattice waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 35, 1299–1301 (2010).
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S. J. Wagner, S. C. Kumar, O. Kokabee, B. M. Holmes, U. Younis, M. Ebrahim Zadeh, D. C. Hutchings, A. S. Helmy, and J. S. Aitchison, “Performance and limitations of quasi-phase matching semiconductor waveguides with picosecond pulses,” Proc. SPIE 7750, 77501K (2010).
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U. Younis, B. M. Holmes, D. C. Hutchings, and J. S. Roberts, “Towards monolithic integration of nonlinear optical frequency conversion,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1358–1360 (2010).
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M. Volatier, D. Duchesne, R. Morandotti, R. Arès, and V. Aimez, “Extremely high aspect ratio GaAs and GaAs/AlGaAs nanowaveguides fabricated using chlorine ICP etching with N2-promoted passivation,” Nanotechnol. 21, 134014 (2010).
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D. Duchesne, M. Peccianti, M. R. E. Lamont, M. Ferrera, L. Razzari, F. Légaré, R. Morandotti, S. Chu, B. E. Little, and D. J. Moss, “Supercontinuum generation in a high index doped silica glass spiral waveguide,” Opt. Express 18, 923–930 (2010).
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M. Peccianti, M. Ferrera, L. Razzari, R. Morandotti, B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, and D. J. Moss, “Subpicosecond optical pulse compression via an integrated nonlinear chirper,” Opt. Express 18, 7625–7633 (2010).
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A. Pasquazi, R. Ahmad, M. Rochette, M. Lamont, B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, R. Morandotti, and D. J. Moss, “All-optical wavelength conversion in an integrated ring resonator,” Opt. Express 18, 3858–3863 (2010).
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M. Ferrera, Y. Park, L. Razzari, B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, R. Morandotti, D. J. Moss, and J. Azaña, “On-chip CMOS-compatible all-optical integrator,” Nat. Commun. 1, 29 (2010).
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2009

D. Duchesne, M. Ferrera, L. Razzari, R. Morandotti, B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, and D. J. Moss, “Efficient self-phase modulation in low loss, high index doped silica glass integrated waveguides,” Opt. Express 17, 1865–1870 (2009).
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M. Ferrera, D. Duchesne, L. Razzari, M. Peccianti, R. Morandotti, P. Cheben, S. Janz, D.-X. Xu, B. E. Little, S. Chu, and D. J. Moss, “Low power four wave mixing in an integrated, micro-ring resonator with Q=1.2 million,” Opt. Express 17, 14098–14103(2009).
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A. Gondarenko, J. S. Levy, and M. Lipson, “High confinement micron-scale silicon nitride high Q ring resonator,” Opt. Express 17, 11366–11370 (2009).
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S. J. Wagner, B. M. Holmes, U. Younis, A. S. Helmy, J. S. Aitchison, and D. C. Hutchings, “Continuous wave second-harmonic generation using domain-disordered quasi-phase matching waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 151107 (2009).
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L. Tsybeskov, D. J. Lockwood, and M. Ichikawa, “Silicon photonics: CMOS going optical,” Proc. IEEE 97, 1161–1165 (2009).
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L. Razzari, D. Duchesne, M. Ferrera, and R. Morandotti, “CMOS-compatible integrated optical hyper-parametric oscillator,” Nat. Photon. 4, 41–45 (2009).
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J. Levy, A. Gondarenko, M. Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “CMOS-compatible multiple-wavelength oscillator for on-chip optical interconnects,” Nat. Photon. 4, 37–40 (2009).
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2008

M. Ferrera, L. Razzari, D. Duchesne, R. Morandotti, Z. Yang, M. Liscidini, J. E. Sipe, S. Chu, B. E. Little, and D. J. Moss, “Low-power continuous-wave nonlinear optics in doped silica glass integrated waveguide structures,” Nat. Photon. 2, 737–740 (2008).
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Z. Zhang, M. Dainese, L. Wosinski, and M. Qiu, “Resonance-splitting and enhanced notch depth in SOI ring resonators with mutual mode coupling,” Opt. Express 16, 4621–4630 (2008).
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B. Bijlani, P. Abolghasem, and A. S. Helmy, “Second harmonic generation in ridge Bragg reflection waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 101124 (2008).
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Q. Lin, T. J. Johnson, R. Perahia, C. P. Michael, and O. J. Painter, “A proposal for highly tunable optical parametric oscillation in silicon micro-resonators.,” Opt. Express 16, 10596–10610 (2008).
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M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Nonlinear optics in photonic nanowires,” Opt. Express 16, 1300–1320 (2008).
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H. K. Tsang and Y. Liu, “Nonlinear optical properties of silicon waveguides,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23, 064007 (2008).
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A. C. Turner, M. A. Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Ultra-low power parametric frequency conversion in a silicon microring resonator,” Opt. Express 16, 4881–4887 (2008).
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2007

R. Salem, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, D. F. Geraghty, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “All-optical regeneration on a silicon chip,” Opt. Express 15, 7802–7809 (2007).
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J. Meier, W. S. Mohammed, A. Jugessur, L. Qian, M. Mojahedi, and J. S. Aitchison, “Group velocity inversion in AlGaAs nanowires,” Opt. Express 15, 12755–12762 (2007).
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A. S. Helmy, B. Bijlani, and P. Abolghasem, “Phase matching in monolithic Bragg reflection waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 32, 2399–2401 (2007).
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Q. Lin, O. J. Painter, and G. P. Agrawal, “Nonlinear optical phenomena in silicon waveguides: modeling and applications,” Opt. Express 15, 16604–16644 (2007).
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E. C. Mägi, L. B. Fu, H. C. Nguyen, M. R. Lamont, D. I. Yeom, and B. J. Eggleton, “Enhanced Kerr nonlinearity in sub-wavelength diameter As2Se3 chalcogenide fiber tapers,” Opt. Express 15, 10324–10329 (2007).
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V. Ta’eed, N. J. Baker, L. Fu, K. Finsterbusch, M. R. E. Lamont, D. J. Moss, H. C. Nguyen, B. J. Eggleton, D.-Y. Choi, S. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, “Ultrafast all-optical chalcogenide glass photonic circuits,” Opt. Express 15, 9205–9221 (2007).
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A. Alduino and M. Paniccia, “Interconnects: Wiring electronics with light,” Nat. Photon. 1, 153–155 (2007).
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A. Rodriguez, M. Soljacic, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson, “χ(2) and χ(3) harmonic generation at a critical power in inhomogeneous doubly resonant cavities,” Opt. Express 15, 7303–7318 (2007).
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P. Scrutton, M. Sorel, D. C. Hutchings, J. S. Aitchison, and A. S. Helmy, “Characterizing bandgap gratings in GaAs:AlAs superlattice structures using interface phonons,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 677–679 (2007).
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P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 450, 1214–1217 (2007).
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L. Fu, V. G. Ta’eed, E. C. Mägi, I. C. M. Littler, M. D. Pelusi, M. R. E. Lamont, A. Fuerbach, H. C. Nguyen, D.-I. Yeom, and B. J. Eggleton, “Highly nonlinear chalcogenide fibres for all-optical signal processing,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 39, 1115–1131 (2007).
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M. D. Pelusi, V. G. Ta’eed, M. R. E. Lamont, S. Madden, D.-Y. Choi, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, “Ultra-high nonlinear As2S3 planar waveguide for 160  Gb/s optical time-division demultiplexing by four-wave mixing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1496–1498 (2007).
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E. Goulielmakis, V. S. Yakovlev, A. L. Cavalieri, M. Uiberacker, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control and measurement: lightwave electronics,” Science 317, 769–775 (2007).
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S. A. Diddams, L. Hollberg, and V. Mbele, “Molecular fingerprinting with the resolved modes of a femtosecond laser frequency comb,” Nature 445, 627–630 (2007).
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2006

M. J. Thorpe, K. D. Moll, R. J. Jones, B. Safdi, and J. Ye, “Broadband cavity ringdown spectroscopy for sensitive and rapid molecular detection,” Science 311, 1595–1599 (2006).
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E. Dulkeith, Y. A. Vlasov, X. Chen, N. C. Panoiu, and R. M. J. Osgood, “Self-phase-modulation in submicron silicon-on-insulator photonic wires,” Opt. Express 14, 5524–5534 (2006).
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B. Jalali and S. Fathpour, “Silicon photonics,” J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4600–4615 (2006).
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G. A. Siviloglou, S. Suntsov, R. El-Ganainy, R. Iwanow, G. I. Stegeman, D. N. Christodoulides, R. Morandotti, D. Modotto, A. Locatelli, C. De Angelis, F. Pozzi, C. R. Stanley, and M. Sorel, “Enhanced third-order nonlinear effects in optical AlGaAs nanowires,” Opt. Express 14, 9377–9384 (2006).
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L. Scaccabarozzi, M. M. Fejer, Y. Huo, S. Fan, X. Yu, and J. S. Harris, “Enhanced second-harmonic generation in AlGaAs/AlxOy tightly confining waveguides and resonant cavities,” Opt. Letters 31, 3626–3628 (2006).
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M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Broad-band optical parametric gain on a silicon photonic chip,” Nature 441, 960–963 (2006).
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A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, V. Van, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Unlu, and B. B. Goldberg, “Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators,” J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 12, 148–155 (2006).
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2005

2004

A. Savchenkov, A. Matsko, D. Strekalov, M. Mohageg, V. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, “Low threshold optical oscillations in a whispering gallery mode CaF2 resonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 243905 (2004).
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C. J. S. de Matos, J. R. Taylor, and K. P. Hansen, “Continuous-wave, totally fiber integrated optical parametric oscillator using holey fiber,” Opt. Lett. 29, 983–985 (2004).
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T. Carmon, L. Yang, and K. Vahala, “Dynamical thermal behavior and thermal self-stability of microcavities.,” Opt. Express 12, 4742–4750 (2004).
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T. Kippenberg, S. Spillane, and K. Vahala, “Kerr-nonlinearity optical parametric oscillation in an ultrahigh-Q toroid microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 083904 (2004).
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T. K. Liang and H. K. Tsang, “Role of free carriers from two-photon absorption in Raman amplification in silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2745–2747 (2004).
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S. Venugopal Rao, K. Moutzouris, and M. Ebrahimzadeh, “Nonlinear frequency conversion in semiconductor optical waveguides using birefringent, modal and quasi-phase-matching techniques,” J. Opt. A-Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 569–584 (2004).

S. Ducci, L. Lanco, V. Berger, A. De Rossi, V. Ortiz, and M. Calligaro, “Continuous-wave second-harmonic generation in modal phase matched semiconductor waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2974–2976 (2004).
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D. C. Hutchings, “Theory of ultrafast nonlinear refraction in semiconductor superlattices,” J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 1124–1132 (2004).
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B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, P. P. Absil, J. V. Hryniewicz, F. G. Johnson, F. Seiferth, D. Gill, V. Van, O. King, and M. Trakalo, “Very high-order microring resonator filters for WDM applications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2263–2265 (2004).
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Y. A. Vlasov and S. J. McNab, “Losses in single-mode silicon-on-insulator strip waveguides and bends,” Opt. Express 12, 1622–1631 (2004).
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2003

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426, 816–819(2003).
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P. Russell, “Photonic crystal fibers,” Science 299, 358–362 (2003).
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O. Leclerc, B. Lavigne, E. Balmefrezol, P. Brindel, L. Pierre, D. Rouvillain, and F. Seguineau, “Optical regeneration at 40  Gb/s and beyond,” J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 2779–2790 (2003).
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A. Zakery and S. R. Elliott, “Optical properties and applications of chalcogenide glasses: a review,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 330, 1–12 (2003).
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K. Zeaiter, D. C. Hutchings, R. M. Gwilliam, K. Moutzouris, S. Venugopal Rao, and M. Ebrahimzadeh, “Quasi-phase-matched second-harmonic generation in a GaAs/AlAs superlattice waveguide by ion-implantation-induced intermixing,” Opt. Lett. 28, 911–913 (2003).
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K. J. Vahala, “Optical microcavities,” Nature 424, 839–846 (2003).
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2002

2001

L. A. Eyres, P. J. Tourreau, T. J. Pinguet, C. B. Ebert, J. S. Harris, M. M. Fejer, L. Becouarn, B. Gerard, and E. Lallier, “All-epitaxial fabrication of thick, orientation-patterned GaAs films for nonlinear optical frequency conversion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 904–906 (2001).
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E. U. Rafailov, P. Loza-Alvarez, C. T. A. Brown, W. Sibbett, R. M. De La Rue, P. Millar, D. A. Yanson, J. S. Roberts, and P. A. Houston, “Second-harmonic generation from a first-order quasi-phase-matched GaAs/AlGaAs waveguide crystal,” Opt. Letters 26, 1984–1986 (2001).
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2000

1999

H. W. M. Salemink, F. Horst, R. Germann, B. J. Offrein, and G. L. Bona, “Silicon-oxynitride (SiON) for photonic integrated circuits,” Proc. MRS 574, 255–260 (1999).

1998

B. Ramamurthy and B. Mukherjee, “Wavelength conversion in WDM networking,” IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Commun. 16, 1061–1073 (1998).
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J. S. Aitchison, M. W. Street, N. D. Whitbread, D. C. Hutchings, J. H. Marsh, G. T. Kennedy, and W. Sibbett, “Modulation of the second-order nonlinear tensor components in multiple-quantum-well structures,” J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 695–700 (1998).
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1997

J. S. Aitchison, D. C. Hutchings, J. U. Kang, G. I. Stegeman, and A. Villeneuve, “The nonlinear optical properties of AlGaAs at the half band gap,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 341–348(1997).
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K. McIlvaney, M. W. Street, A. S. Helmy, S. G. Ayling, A. C. Bryce, J. H. Marsh, and J. S. Roberts, “Selective quantum-well intermixing in GaAs-AlGaAs structures using impurity-free vacancy diffusion,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1784–1793 (1997).
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1996

A. Fiore, V. Berger, E. Rosencher, N. Laurent, S. Theilmann, N. Vodjdani, and J. Nagle, “Huge birefringence in selectively oxidized GaAs/AlAs optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1320–1322 (1996).
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S. J. B. Yoo, “Wavelength conversion technologies for WDM network applications,” J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 955–966 (1996).
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1995

A. Villeneuve, J. S. Aitchison, B. Vögele, R. Tapella, J. U. Kang, C. Trevino, and G. I. Stegeman, “Waveguide design for minimum nonlinear effective area and switching energy in AlGaAs at half the bandgap,” Electron. Lett. 31, 549–551 (1995).
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1994

G. I. Stegeman, A. Villeneuve, J. Kang, J. S. Aitchison, C. N. Ironside, K. Al-Hemyari, C. C. Yang, C.-H. Lin, H.-H. Lin, G. T. Kennedy, R. S. Grant, and W. Sibbett, “AlGaAs below half bandgap: the silicon of nonlinear optical materials,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mat. 3, 347–371 (1994).
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1993

J. H. Marsh, “Quantum well intermixing,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 8, 1136–1155 (1993).
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G. I. Stegeman, “Material figures of merit and implications to all-optical waveguide switching,” Proc. SPIE 1852, 75–89 (1993).
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1991

T. L. Koch and U. Koren, “Semiconductor photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 641–653 (1991).
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1990

1988

G. I. Stegeman, E. M. Wright, N. Finlayson, R. Zanoni, and C. T. Seaton, “Third order nonlinear integrated optics,” J Lightw. Technol. 6, 953–970 (1988).
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1986

W. Sohler, B. Hampel, R. Regener, R. Ricken, H. Suche, and R. Volk, “Integrated optical parametric devices,” J. Lightw. Technol. 4, 772–777 (1986).
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1985

G. I. Stegeman and C. T. Seaton, “Nonlinear integrated optics,” J. Appl. Phys. 58, R57–R78 (1985).
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1977

P. K. Tien, “Integrated optics and new wave phenomena in optical waveguides,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 49, 361–420 (1977).
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1976

M. Choy and R. Byer, “Accurate second-order susceptibility measurements of visible and infrared nonlinear crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 14, 1693–1706 (1976).
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1971

D. B. Anderson and T. J. Boyd, “Wideband CO2 Laser second harmonic generation phase matched in GaAs thin-film waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 266–268 (1971).
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1967

F. Shimizu, “Frequency broadening in liquids by a short light pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 19, 1097–1100 (1967).
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F. DeMartini, C. Townes, T. Gustafson, and P. Kelley, “Self-steepening of light pulses,” Phys. Rev. 164, 312–323 (1967).
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1962

J. Armstrong, N. Bloembergen, J. Ducuing, and P. Pershan, “Interactions between light waves in a nonlinear dielectric,” Phys. Rev. 127, 1918–1939 (1962).
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N. Bloembergen and P. Pershan, “Light waves at the boundary of nonlinear media,” Phys. Rev. 128, 606–622 (1962).
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1961

P. Franken, A. Hill, C. Peters, and G. Weinreich, “Generation of optical harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 7, 118–119 (1961).
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Figures (19)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Schematic of the quantum interaction between incident and outgoing photons within the propagating nonlinear medium for a degenerate FWM process. (b) Energy diagram for degenerate FWM where the dashed lines represent virtual levels.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Ratio of the effective nonlinear length Leff to the total propagation length L as a function of the linear losses. The blue curve is for the nonlinear phase accumulated for SPM, whereas the red curve is for wavelength conversion using FWM.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Cross-sectional view of the Hydex® waveguide showing (a) the geometry (picture of the device prior to final SiO2 deposition to bury the waveguide) and (b) the distribution of the electric field of the fundamental mode. (c) Schematic of the vertically coupled microring resonator.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Designed AlGaAs wafer composition and (b) the schematic of a strip-loaded waveguide studied in our experiments: w=23μm, h=1.01.2μm. Image source: [47].

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Quantum-well intermixing process and the effect on the nonlinear susceptibility. Intermixing increases the band gap energy to Eg,new, causing a shift in the dispersion of χ(2) and reducing the magnitude by Δχ(2) at photon energies near the original band gap Eg.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

A domain-disordered quasi-phase-matching waveguide. As-grown regions retain a large nonlinearity while intermixed regions have a suppressed nonlinearity. Image source: [79].

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

DD-QPM gratings formed using (a) impurity-free vacancy disordering via the sputtered silica cap method, and (b) ion-implantation disordering.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Selection rule for the conservation of angular momentum. The dashed lines represent resonances, also identified by an integer number, whereas the color pairs represent resonances that pair with the pump resonance (black) and that automatically conserve angular momentum.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Spectral broadening due to SPM in an AlGaAs strip-loaded waveguide. The legend shows the values of the in-waveguide peak power and the corresponding values of the nonlinear phase shift in brackets. The low-power spectrum exhibiting no broadening is represented with a thin black solid line. Image source: [47].

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

XPM and FWM results. (a) The input signal (amplified CW laser at 1547nm), green curve, broadens in frequency due to the XPM (red curve) caused by the strong input pump (centered at 1565 nm, black curve). FWM is also observed at 1580nm (red curve). (b) Wavelength tunability of the FWM process, obtained by varying the input signal frequency. Image source: [47].

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Phase-matching wavelengths for SHG in DD-QPM waveguides for different grating periods in both type-I and type-II polarization configurations. Measured data (symbols) and fit trends (solid lines) are shown alongside the predicted phase-matching wavelengths (dashed lines). Image source: [79].

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

Modulation in χ(2) between as-grown and intermixed AlGaAs/GaAs superlattices.

Fig. 13.
Fig. 13.

Output spectra for type-I phase-matched DFG in a DD-QPM waveguide with different input wavelengths. Reproduced from [79].

Fig. 14.
Fig. 14.

Schematic of a fully integrated all-optical wavelength converter based on a wave mixer in the form of a DD-QPM waveguide.

Fig. 15.
Fig. 15.

Frequency mismatch in the Hydex® high Q ring resonator. The color intensity plot represents the net frequency mismatch as a function of the excited pump and signal frequencies (resonances). The region where the frequency mismatch is too large to observe tangible FWM is represented in black. Note that we interpolated the data between resonances for aesthetics and to add clarity in reading the figure. Adapted from [66].

Fig. 16.
Fig. 16.

FWM experimental results for two different excitation conditions; dashed lines correspond to resonant frequencies. (upper) The pump and signal lasers are tuned to adjacent resonances and generate a series of idlers (through cascaded FWM) that are neighboring resonances. (lower) The pump and signal lasers are tuned to resonances that are 7 resonances apart (1.2 THz), resulting in idlers that are also separated by this frequency spacing. Adapted from [50].

Fig. 17.
Fig. 17.

(left) Conversion efficiency of FWM, neglecting the effects of SPM/XPM, in a microring resonator as a function of the input pump and idler powers. As the signal power is reduced to arbitrary low values, maximal frequency conversion remains viable at a fixed pump power (100 in the figure). (right) Plot of the efficiency of FWM in a microring resonator for a low signal power of 1 pW (blue line), showing a threshold power for oscillation (20 in the figure).

Fig. 18.
Fig. 18.

Experimentally obtained parametric oscillation in the Hydex® microring resonator as a function of the pump (λp=1544.15nm) power. At threshold (Pp54mW) we found that a pair of idlers (λs=1596.98nm, λi=1494.70nm) that grows out of noise with an exponential dependence on the pump power is generated. Cascaded FWM can also be observed above threshold, creating another pair of idlers (1448nm and 1654nm). Adapted from [112].

Fig. 19.
Fig. 19.

Threshold behavior of the hyperparametric oscillator. Threshold is found at approximately 54 mW of pump power, and the differential slope efficiency (for the Drop channel exclusively and for a single line at 1596.98 nm) was determined to be 7.4%. Adapted from [112].

Equations (9)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

k1k2k3=2πm/Λ,
k2ω2kω=2πm/Λ,
χeff(2)=Δχ(2)sin(ςπ)/π,
mik=mp=ms+k,
4γPpc/ng<Δω<0,
Piγ2Pp2PsLeff2FE8,
Leff=Lexp(αL/2)(1exp(αL)αL),
ηPiPp=ωi2ωp.
1T=n2λ0α2,

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