Abstract

Nonlinear optics has made giant strides in the past 50 years. It has impacted broadly on many disciplines of science and technology. Surface science is one of them because nonlinear optics provides unique opportunities to probe surfaces and interfaces. As surface and interface properties become increasingly important in science and technology, so does nonlinear optics as a surface characterizing tool. This article gives a brief review of the field. We reminisce on the early years of surface nonlinear optics and its subsequent development as surface analytical probes. We discuss how surface nonlinear optics, with emphasis on second harmonic and sum frequency generation, has influenced various areas of surface science and how the impact can be extended in the future.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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  121. H. Wang, E. C. Y. Yan, E. Borguet, and K. B. Eisenthal, “Second harmonic generation from the surface of centrosymmetric particles in bulk solution,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 259, 15–20(1996).
    [CrossRef]
  122. J. M. Hartings, “Second harmonic generation and fluorescence images from surfactants on hanging droplets,” A. Poon, X. Pu, R. K. Chang, and T. M. Leslie, Chem. Phys. Lett. 281, 389–393 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  123. J. I. Dadap, J. Shan, K. B. Eisenthal, and T. F. Heinz, “Second-harmonic Rayleigh scattering from a sphere of centrosymmetric material,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 4045–4048 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  124. N. Yang, W. E. Angerer, and A. G. Yodh, “Angle-resolved second-harmonic light scattering from colloidal particles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 103902-1–103902-4 (2001).
  125. S. Roke, W. G. Roeterkink, J. E. G. J. Wijnhoven, A. V. Petukhov, A. W. Kleyn, and M. Bonn, “Vibrational sum frequency scattering from a submicron suspension,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 258302-1–258302-4 (2003).
    [CrossRef]

2010 (1)

K. Nguyen, R. Soong, S.-C. lm, L. Waskell, A. Ramamoorthy, and Z. Chen, “Probing the spontaneous membrane insertion of a tail-anchored membrane protein by sum frequency generation spectroscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132, 15112–15115(2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (4)

K. Nguyen, S. Le Clair, S. Ye, and Z. Chen, “Molecular Interactions between Magainin 2 and Model Membranes in Situ,” J. Phys. Chem. B 113, 12358–12363 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. C. Anglin and J. C. Conboy, “Kinetics and thermodynamics of flip-flop in binary phospholipid membranes measured by sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopy,” Biochemistry 48, 10220–10234 (2009).

T. C. Anglin, K. L. Brown, and J. C. Conboy, “Phospholipid flip-flop modulated by transmembrane peptides WALP and melittin,” J. Struct. Biol. 168, 37–52 (2009).

S. Nihonyanagi, S. Yamaguchi, and T. J. Tahara, “Direct evidence for orientational flip-flop of water molecules at charged interfaces: A heterodyne-detected vibrational sum frequency generation study,” J. Chem. Phys. 130, 204704-1–204704-5 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

N. Ji, V. Ostroverkhov, C. S. Tian, and Y. R. Shen, “Characterization of vibrational resonances of water-vapor interfaces by phase-sensitive sum-frequency spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 096102-1–096102-4 (2008).

I. V. Stiopkin, H. D. Jayathilake, A. N. Bordenyuk, and A. V. Benderskii, “Heterodyne-detected vibrational sum frequency generation spectroscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130, 2271–2275 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. T. Liu and Y. R. Shen, “Surface vibrational modes of α-Quartz (0001) probed by sum-frequency spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 016101-1–016101-4 (2008).

2007 (4)

T. C. Anglin, J. Liu, and J. C. Conboy, “Facile lipid flip-flop in a phospholipid bilayer induced by gramicidin A measured by sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopy,” Biophys. J. 92, L01–L03 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu and J. C. Conboy, “Asymmetric distribution of lipids in a phase segregated phospholipid bilayer observed by sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111, 8988–8999 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Smits, A. Ghosh, J. Bredenbeck, S. Yamamoto, M. Mller, and M. Bonn, “Ultrafast energy flow in model biological membranes,” New J. Phys. 9, 390-1–390-20(2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Smit, A. Ghosh, M. Sterrer, M. Muller, and M. Bonn, “Ultrafast vibrational energy transfer between surface and bulk water at the air-water interface,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 098302-1–098302-4 (2007).

2006 (1)

J. A. McGuire and Y. R. Shen, “Ultrafast vibrational dynamics at water interfaces,” Science 313, 1945–1948 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

J. Liu and J. C. Conboy, “1,2-diacyl-phosphatidylcholine flip-flop measured directly by sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopy,” Biophys. J. 89, 2522–2532 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

J. Liu and J. C. Conboy, “Phase transition of a single lipid bilayer measured by sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126, 8894–8895 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu and J. C. Conboy, “Direct measurement of the transbilayer movement of phospholipids by sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126, 8376–8377 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

S. Roke, W. G. Roeterkink, J. E. G. J. Wijnhoven, A. V. Petukhov, A. W. Kleyn, and M. Bonn, “Vibrational sum frequency scattering from a submicron suspension,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 258302-1–258302-4 (2003).
[CrossRef]

See, for example, W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424, 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (5)

H. Held, A. I. Lvovsky, X. Wei, and Y. R. Shen, “Bulk contribution from isotropic media in surface sum-frequency generation,” Phys. Rev. B 66, 205110-1–205110-7 (2002).

T. Pons, L. Moreaux, and J. Mertz, “Photoinduced flip-flop of amphiphilic molecules in lipid nilayer membranes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 288104-1–288104-4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, S. M. Buck, M. A. Even, and Z. Chen, “Molecular responses of proteins at different interfacial environments detected by sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124, 13302–13305 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, S. M. Buck, and Z. Chen, “Sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy studies on protein adsorption,” J. Phys. Chem. B 106, 11666–11672 (2002).
[CrossRef]

See the review article by Z. Chen, Y. R. Shen, and G. A. Somorjai, “Studies of polymer surfaces by sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 53, 437–465 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (4)

X. Wei, P. B. Miranda, and Y. R. Shen, “Surface vibrational spectroscopic study of surface melting of ice,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1554–1557 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, E. C. Y. Yan, and K. B. Eisenthal, “Effects of bilayer surface charge density on molecular adsorption and transport across liposome bilayers,” Biophys. J. 80, 1004–1012 (2001).
[CrossRef]

N. Yang, W. E. Angerer, and A. G. Yodh, “Angle-resolved second-harmonic light scattering from colloidal particles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 103902-1–103902-4 (2001).

K. A. Briggman, J. C. Stephenson, W. E. Wallace, and L. J. Richter, “Absolute molecular orientational distribution of the polystyrene surface,” J. Phys. Chem. B 105, 2785–2791(2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (5)

X. Wei, S. C. Hong, X. Ahuang, T. Goto, and Y. R. Shen, “Nonlinear optical studies of liquid crystal alignment on a rubbed polyvinyl alcohol surface,” Phys. Rev. E 62, 5160–5172(2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Bonn, C. Hess, S. Funk, J. H. Miners, B. N. Persson, M. Wolf, and G. Ertl, “Femtosecond surface vibrational spectroscopy of CO adsorbed on Ru(001) during desorption,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4653–4656 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Salafsky and K. B. Eisenthal, “Second harmonic spectroscopy: detection and orientation of molecules at a biomembrane interface,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 319, 435–439(2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, E. C. Y. Yan, and K. B. Eisenthal, “Effect of cholesterol on molecular transport of organic cations across liposome bilayers probed by second harmonic generation,” Biophys. J. 79, 898–903 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. M. Chang, L. Xu, and H. W. K. Tom, “Coherent phonon spectroscopy of GaAs surfaces using time-resolved second harmonic generation,” Chem. Phys. 251, 283–308(2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (6)

Z. Chen, R. Ward, Y. Tian, A. S. Eppler, Y. R. Shen, and G. A. Somorjai, “Surface composition of biopolymer blends biospan-SP/phenoxy and biospan-F/phenoxy observed with SFG, XPS, and contact angle goniometry,” J. Phys. Chem. B 103, 2935–2942 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. I. Dadap, J. Shan, K. B. Eisenthal, and T. F. Heinz, “Second-harmonic Rayleigh scattering from a sphere of centrosymmetric material,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 4045–4048 (1999).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhuang, P. B. Miranda, D. Kim, and Y. R. Shen, “Mapping molecular orientation and conformation at interfaces by surface nonlinear optics,” Phys. Rev. B 59, 12632–12640 (1999).

X. Wei, X. Zhuang, S. C. Hong, T. Goto, and Y. R. Shen, “Sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopic study of a rubbed polymer surface,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4256–4259 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Somorjai and G. Rupprechter, “Molecular studies of catalytic reactions on crystal surfaces at high pressures and high temperatures by infrared-visible sum frequency generation (SFG) surface vibrational spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B 103, 1623–1638 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Miranda and Y. R. Shen, “Liquid interfaces: A study by sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B 103, 3292–3307 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (4)

P. B. Miranda, Q. Du, and Y. R. Shen, “Interaction of water with a fatty acid Langmuir film,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 286, 1–8(1998).
[CrossRef]

G. R. Bell, S. Manning-Benson, and C. D. Bain, “Effect of chain length on the structure of monolayers of alkyltrimethylammonium bromides (C_nTABs) at the air-water interface,” J. Phys. Chem. B 102, 218–222 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. J. Richter, T. P. Petralli, and J. C. Stephenson, “Vibrationally resolved sum-frequency generation with broad-bandwidth infrared pulses,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1594–1596 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Zhang, D. H. Gracias, R. Ward, M. Gauchler, Y. Tian, Y. R. Shen, and G. A. Somorjai, “Surface studies of polymer blends by sum frequency vibrational spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and contact angle goniometry,” J. Phys. Chem. B 102, 6225–6230 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (5)

D. Zhang, Y. R. Shen, and G. A. Somorjai, “Studies of surface structures and compositions of polyethylene and polypropylene by IR plus visible sum frequency vibrational spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 281, 394–400 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. M. Chang, L. Xu, and H. W. K. Tom, “Observation of coherent surface optical phonon oscillations by time-resolved surface second-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 4649–4652 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Hartings, “Second harmonic generation and fluorescence images from surfactants on hanging droplets,” A. Poon, X. Pu, R. K. Chang, and T. M. Leslie, Chem. Phys. Lett. 281, 389–393 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Hartings, “Second harmonic generation and fluorescence images from surfactants on hanging droplets,” A. Poon, X. Pu, R. K. Chang, and T. M. Leslie, Chem. Phys. Lett. 281, 389–393 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Conboy, M. C. Messmer, and G. Richmond, “Dependence of alkyl chain conformation of simple ionic surfactants on head group functionality as studied by vibrational sum-frequency spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B 101, 6724–6733 (1997).
[CrossRef]

X. Su, P. S. Cremer, Y. R. Shen, and G. A. Somorjai, “High-pressure CO oxidation on Pt(111) monitored with infrared-visible sum frequency generation (SFG),” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 119, 3994–4000 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (7)

P. S. Cremer, X. Su, Y. R. Shen, and G. A. Somorjai, “Hydrogenation and dehydrogenation of propylene on Pt(111) studied by sum frequency generation from UHV to atmospheric pressure,” J. Phys. Chem. 100, 16302–16309 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Conboy, M. C. Messmer, and G. L. Richmond, “Investigation of surfactant conformation and order at the liquid-liquid interface by total internal reflection sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. 100, 7617–7622 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. R. Bell, C. D. Bain, and R. N. Ward, “Sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopy of soluble surfactants at the air/water interface,” J. Chem. Soc., Faraday Trans. 92, 515–523 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Y. R. Shen, “A few selected applications of surface nonlinear optical spectroscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 93, 12104–12111 (1996).

H. Wang, E. C. Y. Yan, E. Borguet, and K. B. Eisenthal, “Second harmonic generation from the surface of centrosymmetric particles in bulk solution,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 259, 15–20(1996).
[CrossRef]

V. Vogel, “What do nonlinear optical techniques have to offer the biosciences?” Current opinion in colloid and interface science 1, 257–263 (1996).
[CrossRef]

X. Su, P. Cremer, Y. R. Shen, and G. A. Somorjai, “Pressure dependence (10−10C700 Torr) of the vibrational spectra of adsorbed CO on Pt(111) studied by sum frequency generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3858–3860 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (5)

R. P. Chin, J. Y. Huang, Y. R. Shen, T. J. Chuang, and H. Seki, “Interaction of atomic hydrogen with the diamond C(111) surface studied by infrared-visible sum-frequency-generation spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 52, 5985–5995 (1995).

R. P. Chin, X. Blas, Y. R. Shen, and S. Louie, “Anharmonicity and lifetime of the CH stretch mode on diamond H/C(111)-(1x1),” Euro. Phys. Lett. 30, 399–404 (1995).

M. C. Messmer, J. C. Conboy, and G. Richmond, “Observation of molecular ordering at the liquid-liquid interface by resonant sum frequency generation,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 117, 8039–8040 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Stanners, Q. Du, R. P. Chin, P. Cremer, G. A. Somorjai, and Y. R. Shen, “Polar ordering at the liquid-vapor interface of N-alcohols(C-1-C-8),” Chem. Phys. Lett. 232, 407–413(1995).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Sefler, Q. Du, P. B. Miranda, and Y. R. Shen, “Surface crystallization of liquid N-alkanes and alcohol monolayers studied by surface vibrational spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 235, 347–354 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (5)

R. N. Ward, D. C. Duffy, P. B. Davies, and C. D. Bain, “Sum-frequency spectroscopy of surfactants adsorbed at a flat hydrophobic surface,” J. Phys. Chem. 98, 8536–8542 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Bain, P. B. Davies, and R. N. Ward, “In-situ sum-frequency spectroscopy of sodium dodecyl sulfate and dodecanol coadsorbed at a hydrophobic surface,” Langmuir 10, 2060–2063 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Q. Du, E. Freysz, and Y. R. Shen, “Vibrational spectra of water molecules at quartz/water interfaces,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 238–241 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Q. Du, E. Freysz, and Y. R. Shen, “Surface vibrational spectroscopic studies of hydrogen-bonding and hydrophobicity,” Science 264, 826–828 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Huang and M. H. Wu, “Nonlinear optical studies of binary mixtures of hydrogen bonded liquids,” Phys. Rev. E 50, 3737–3746 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (4)

Q. Du, R. Superfine, E. Freysz, and Y. R. Shen, “Vibrational spectroscopy of water at the vapor/water interface,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 2313–2316 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. Zhang, J. H. Gunow, K. B. Eisenthal, and T. F. Heinz, “Sudden structural change at an air/binary liquid interface: Sum frequency study of the air/acetonitrileCwater interface,” J. Chem. Phys. 98, 5099–5101 (1993).
[CrossRef]

K. Wolfrum, H. Graener, and A. Laubereau, “Sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopy at the liquid air interface of methanol-water solutions,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 213, 41–46 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. N. Ward, P. B. Davies, and C. D. Bain, “Orientation of surfactants adsorbed on a hydrophobic surface,” J, Phys. Chem. 97, 7141–7143 (1993).

1992 (1)

K. A. Shultz and E. G. Seebauer, “Surface diffusion of Sb on Ge(111) monitored quantitatively with optical second harmonic microscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 97, 6958–6967 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (4)

J. Reif, J. C. Zink, C. M. Schneider, and J. Kirschner, “Effects of surface magnetism on optical second harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 2878–2881 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. Superfine, J. Y. Huang, and Y. R. Shen, “Nonlinear optical studies of the pure liquid/vapor interface: Vibrational spectra and polar ordering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1066–1069 (1991).
[CrossRef]

P. Guyot-Sionnest, “Coherent processes at surfaces: Free-induction decay and photon echo of the Si-H stretching vibration for H/Si(111),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1489–1492(1991).
[CrossRef]

A. Castro, E. V. Sitzmann, D. Zhang, and K. B. Eisenthal, “Rotational relaxation at the air/water interface by time-resolved second harmonic generation,” J. Phys. Chem. 95, 6752–6753 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (4)

X. D. Zhu and Y. R. , “Surface photon echoes in the infrared range,” Shen. Appl. Phys. B 50, 535–539 (1990).

A. L. Harris, L. Rothberg, L. H. Dubos, N. J. Levinos, and L. Dahr, “Molecular vibrational energy relaxation at a metal surface: Methyl thiolate on Ag(111),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 2086–2089 (1990).
[CrossRef]

P. Guyto-Sionnest, P. Dumas, Y. J. Chabal, and G. S. Higashi, “Lifetime of an adsorbate-substrate vibration: H on Si(111),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 2156–2159 (1990).
[CrossRef]

R. Superfine, J. Y. Huang, and Y. R. Shen, “Experimental determination of the sign of molecular diople-moment derivatives—an infrared visible sum-frequency generation abosolute phase mesurement study,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 172, 303–306(1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (4)

R. P. Pan, H. D. Wei, and Y. R. Shen, “Optical second-harmonic generation from magnetized surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 39, 1229–1234 (1989).

T. F. Heinz, F. J. Himipsel, E. Palange, and E. Burstein, “Electronic transitions at the CaF2/Si(111) interface probed by resonant three-wave mixing spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 644–647 (1989).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Harris and N. J. Levinos, “Vibrational energy relaxation in a molecular monolayer at a metal surface,” J. Chem. Phys. 90, 3878–3879 (1989).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Heinz, F. J. Himpsel, E. Palange, and E. Burstein, “Electronic transitions at the CaF2/Si(111) interface probed by resonant three-wave mixing spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 644–647 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (6)

E. V. Sitzmann and K. B. Eisenthal, “Picosecond dynamics of a chemical reaction at the air-water interface studied by surface second harmonic generation,” J. Phys. Chem. 92, 4579–4580 (1988).
[CrossRef]

T. Stehlin, M. Feller, P. Guyot-Sionnest, and Y. R. Shen, “Optical second-harmonic generation as a surface probe for noncentrosymmetric media,” Opt. Lett. 13, 389–391 (1988).
[CrossRef]

E. V. Sitzmann and K. B. Eisenthal, “Picosecond dynamics of a chemical reaction at the air-water interface studied by surface second harmonic generation,” J. Phys. Chem. 92, 4579–4580 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. Superfine, P. Guyot-Sionnest, J. H. Hunt, C. T. Kao, and Y. R. Shen, “Surface vibrational spectroscopy of molecular adsorbates on metals and semiconductors by infrared-visible sum-frequency generation,” Surf. Sci. 200, L445–L450 (1988).
[CrossRef]

P. Guyot-Sionnest, R. Superfine, J. H. Hunt, and Y. R. Shen, “Vibrational spectroscopy of a silane monolayer at air solid and liquid solid interfaces using sum-frequency generation,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 144, 1–5 (1988).
[CrossRef]

P. Guyot-Sionnest and Y. R. Shen, “Bulk contribution in surface second-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. B 38, 7985–7989 (1988).

1987 (9)

A. L. Harris, C. E. D. Chidsey, N. J. Levinos, and D. N. Loiacono, “Monolayer vibrational spectroscopy by infrared-visible sum frequency generation at metal and semiconductor surfaces,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 141, 350–356 (1987).
[CrossRef]

P. Guyot-Sionnest, J. H. Hunt, and Y. R. Shen, “Sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopy of a Langmuir film: Study of molecular orientation of a two-dimensional system,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1597–1600 (1987).
[CrossRef]

X. D. Zhu, H. Suhr, and Y. R. Shen, “Surface vibrational spectroscopy by infrared-visible sum frequency generation,” Phys. Rev. B 35, 3047–3050 (1987).

J. H. Hunt, P. Guyot-Sionnest, and Y. R. Shen, “Observation of C-H stretch vibrations of monolayers of molecules optical sum-frequency generation,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 133, 189–192 (1987).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Pan and Y. R. Shen, “Optical second harmonic generation as a probe for surface magnetization,” J. Chinese Phys. 25, 175–177 (1987).

P. Guyot-Sionnest and Y. R. Shen, “Local and nonlocal surface nonlinearities for surface optical second-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. B 35, 4420–4426 (1987).

J. E. Sipe, V. Mizrahi, and G. I. Stegeman, “Phenomenological theory of optical second- and third-harmonic generation from cubic centrosymmetric crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 35, 1129–1141 (1987).

G. L. Richmond, H. M. Rojhantalab, J. M. Robinson, and V. L. Shannon, “Experiments on optical second-harmonic generation as a surface probe of electrodes,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 228–236 (1987).
[CrossRef]

K. Bhattachacharyya, E. V. Sitzmann, and K. B. Eisenthal, “Study of chemical reactions by surface second harmonic generation: p-nitrophenol at the airCwater interface,” J. Chem. Phys. 87, 1442–1443 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (5)

P. Guyot-Sionnest, H. Hsiung, and Y. R. Shen, “Surface polar ordering in a liquid crystal observed by optical second-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2963–2966 (1986).
[CrossRef]

R. T. Boyd, Y. R. Shen, and T. W. Hansch, “Continuous-wave second harmonic generation as a surface microprobe,” Opt. Lett. 11, 97–99 (1986).
[CrossRef]

P. Guyot-Sionnest, W. Chen, and Y. R. Shen, “General considerations on optical second-harmonic generation from surfaces and interfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 33, 8254–8263 (1986).

H. W. K. Tom, X. D. Zhu, Y. R. Shen, and G. A. Somorjai, “Investigation of the Si(111) (7*7) surface by 2nd-harmonic generation—oxidation and the effects of surface phosphorus,” Surf. Sci. 167, 167–176 (1986).
[CrossRef]

G. Berkovic, Th. Rasing, and Y. R. Shen, “Study of monolayer polymerization using nonlinear optics,” J. Chem. Phys. 85, 7374–7376 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

Th. Rasing, Y. R. Shen, M. W. Kim, and S. Grubb, “Observation of molecular reorientation at a two-dimensional-liquid phase transition,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 2903–2906 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

H. W. K. Tom, C. M. Mate, X. D. Zhu, J. E. Crowell, T. F. Heinz, G. A. Somorjai, and Y. R. Shen, “Surface studies by optical second harmonic generation: the adsorption of O2, CO and sodium on the Rh(111) surface,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 348–351 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983 (2)

H. W. K. Tom, T. F. Heinz, and Y. R. Shen, “Determination of molecular orientation of monolayer adsorbates by optical second-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 28, 1883–1885 (1983).
[CrossRef]

C. V. Shank, R. Yen, and C. Hirlimann, “Femtosecond-time-resolved surface structural dynamics of optically excited silicon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 900–902 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

T. F. Heinz, C. K. Chen, D. Ricard, and Y. R. Shen, “Spectroscopy of molecular monolayers by resonant second-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 478–481 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981 (2)

C. K. Chen, A. R. B. de Castro, and Y. R. Shen, “Surface-enhanced second-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 145–148 (1981).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Chen, T. F. Heinz, D. Ricard, and Y. R. Shen, “Detection of molecular monolayers by optical second-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 1010–1012 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

T. E. Furtak and J. Reyes, “A critical analysis of theoretical-models for the giant Raman effect from adsorbed molecules,” Surf. Sci. 93, 351–382 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

F. DeMartini, M. Colocci, S. E. Kohn, and Y. R. Shen, “Nonlinear optical exicitation of surface exciton polaritons in ZnO,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 1223–1226 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

F. DeMartini, F. G. Giuliani, M. Mataloni, E. Palange, and Y. R. Shen, “Study of surface polaritons in GaP by optical four-wave mixing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 37, 440–443 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1974 (2)

H. J. Simon, D. E. Mitchell, and J. G. Watson, “Optical second-harmonic generation with surface plasmons in siliver films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 33, 1531–1534 (1974).
[CrossRef]

M. Fleishman, P. J. Hendra, and A. J. McQuillan, “Raman spectra of pyridine adsorbed at a silver electrode,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 26, 163–166 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

J. M. Chen, J. R. Bower, C. S. Wang, and C. H. Lee, “Optical second-harmonic generation from sub monolayer Na-covered Ge surfaces,” Opt. Commun. 9, 132–134 (1973).

1971 (1)

E. Kretschmann, “Determination of optical constants of metals by excitation of surface plasmons,” Z. Phys. 241, 313–324 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

C. C. Wang, “Second-harmonic generation of light at the boundary of an isotropic medium,” Phys. Rev. 178, 1457–1460 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1968 (2)

A. Otto, “Excitation of nonradiative surface plasma waves in silver by method of frustrated total reflection,” Z. Phys. 216, 398–410 (1968).
[CrossRef]

N. Bloembergen, R. K. Chang, S. S. Jha, and C. H. Lee, “Optical second-harmonic generation in reflection from media with inversion symmetry,” Phys. Rev. 174, 813–822 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1965 (1)

R. K. Chang, C. H. Lee, and N. Bloembergen, “Second-harmonic generation of light in reflection from media with inversion symmetry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 16, 986–989 (1965).

1963 (1)

J. Ducuing and N. Bloembergen, “Observation of reflected light harmonics at the boundary of piezoelectric crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 10, 474–476 (1963).
[CrossRef]

1962 (2)

J. A. Armstrong, N. Bloembergen, J. Ducuing, and P. S. Pershan, “Interactions between light waves in a nonlinear dielectric,” Phys. Rev. 127, 1918–1939 (1962).
[CrossRef]

N. Bloembergen and P. S. Pershan, “Light waves at the bondary of nolinear media,” Phys. Rev. 128, 606–622 (1962).
[CrossRef]

1961 (1)

P. A. Franken, A. E. Hill, C. W. Peters, and G. Weinreich, “Generation of optical harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 7, 118–119 (1961).
[CrossRef]

1909 (1)

A. Sommerfeld, “Propagation of Waves in Wireless Telegraphy,” Ann. Phys. 28, 665–736 (1909).
[CrossRef]

Ahuang, X.

X. Wei, S. C. Hong, X. Ahuang, T. Goto, and Y. R. Shen, “Nonlinear optical studies of liquid crystal alignment on a rubbed polyvinyl alcohol surface,” Phys. Rev. E 62, 5160–5172(2000).
[CrossRef]

Angerer, W. E.

N. Yang, W. E. Angerer, and A. G. Yodh, “Angle-resolved second-harmonic light scattering from colloidal particles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 103902-1–103902-4 (2001).

Anglin, T. C.

T. C. Anglin, K. L. Brown, and J. C. Conboy, “Phospholipid flip-flop modulated by transmembrane peptides WALP and melittin,” J. Struct. Biol. 168, 37–52 (2009).

T. C. Anglin and J. C. Conboy, “Kinetics and thermodynamics of flip-flop in binary phospholipid membranes measured by sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopy,” Biochemistry 48, 10220–10234 (2009).

T. C. Anglin, J. Liu, and J. C. Conboy, “Facile lipid flip-flop in a phospholipid bilayer induced by gramicidin A measured by sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopy,” Biophys. J. 92, L01–L03 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Armstrong, J. A.

J. A. Armstrong, N. Bloembergen, J. Ducuing, and P. S. Pershan, “Interactions between light waves in a nonlinear dielectric,” Phys. Rev. 127, 1918–1939 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Bain, C. D.

G. R. Bell, S. Manning-Benson, and C. D. Bain, “Effect of chain length on the structure of monolayers of alkyltrimethylammonium bromides (C_nTABs) at the air-water interface,” J. Phys. Chem. B 102, 218–222 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. R. Bell, C. D. Bain, and R. N. Ward, “Sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopy of soluble surfactants at the air/water interface,” J. Chem. Soc., Faraday Trans. 92, 515–523 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. N. Ward, D. C. Duffy, P. B. Davies, and C. D. Bain, “Sum-frequency spectroscopy of surfactants adsorbed at a flat hydrophobic surface,” J. Phys. Chem. 98, 8536–8542 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Bain, P. B. Davies, and R. N. Ward, “In-situ sum-frequency spectroscopy of sodium dodecyl sulfate and dodecanol coadsorbed at a hydrophobic surface,” Langmuir 10, 2060–2063 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. N. Ward, P. B. Davies, and C. D. Bain, “Orientation of surfactants adsorbed on a hydrophobic surface,” J, Phys. Chem. 97, 7141–7143 (1993).

Barnes, W. L.

See, for example, W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424, 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bell, G. R.

G. R. Bell, S. Manning-Benson, and C. D. Bain, “Effect of chain length on the structure of monolayers of alkyltrimethylammonium bromides (C_nTABs) at the air-water interface,” J. Phys. Chem. B 102, 218–222 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. R. Bell, C. D. Bain, and R. N. Ward, “Sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopy of soluble surfactants at the air/water interface,” J. Chem. Soc., Faraday Trans. 92, 515–523 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Benderskii, A. V.

I. V. Stiopkin, H. D. Jayathilake, A. N. Bordenyuk, and A. V. Benderskii, “Heterodyne-detected vibrational sum frequency generation spectroscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130, 2271–2275 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Berkovic, G.

G. Berkovic, Th. Rasing, and Y. R. Shen, “Study of monolayer polymerization using nonlinear optics,” J. Chem. Phys. 85, 7374–7376 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Bhattachacharyya, K.

K. Bhattachacharyya, E. V. Sitzmann, and K. B. Eisenthal, “Study of chemical reactions by surface second harmonic generation: p-nitrophenol at the airCwater interface,” J. Chem. Phys. 87, 1442–1443 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Blas, X.

R. P. Chin, X. Blas, Y. R. Shen, and S. Louie, “Anharmonicity and lifetime of the CH stretch mode on diamond H/C(111)-(1x1),” Euro. Phys. Lett. 30, 399–404 (1995).

Bloembergen, N.

N. Bloembergen, R. K. Chang, S. S. Jha, and C. H. Lee, “Optical second-harmonic generation in reflection from media with inversion symmetry,” Phys. Rev. 174, 813–822 (1968).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Chang, C. H. Lee, and N. Bloembergen, “Second-harmonic generation of light in reflection from media with inversion symmetry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 16, 986–989 (1965).

J. Ducuing and N. Bloembergen, “Observation of reflected light harmonics at the boundary of piezoelectric crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 10, 474–476 (1963).
[CrossRef]

N. Bloembergen and P. S. Pershan, “Light waves at the bondary of nolinear media,” Phys. Rev. 128, 606–622 (1962).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Armstrong, N. Bloembergen, J. Ducuing, and P. S. Pershan, “Interactions between light waves in a nonlinear dielectric,” Phys. Rev. 127, 1918–1939 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Bonn, M.

M. Smits, A. Ghosh, J. Bredenbeck, S. Yamamoto, M. Mller, and M. Bonn, “Ultrafast energy flow in model biological membranes,” New J. Phys. 9, 390-1–390-20(2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Smit, A. Ghosh, M. Sterrer, M. Muller, and M. Bonn, “Ultrafast vibrational energy transfer between surface and bulk water at the air-water interface,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 098302-1–098302-4 (2007).

S. Roke, W. G. Roeterkink, J. E. G. J. Wijnhoven, A. V. Petukhov, A. W. Kleyn, and M. Bonn, “Vibrational sum frequency scattering from a submicron suspension,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 258302-1–258302-4 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Bonn, C. Hess, S. Funk, J. H. Miners, B. N. Persson, M. Wolf, and G. Ertl, “Femtosecond surface vibrational spectroscopy of CO adsorbed on Ru(001) during desorption,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4653–4656 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bordenyuk, A. N.

I. V. Stiopkin, H. D. Jayathilake, A. N. Bordenyuk, and A. V. Benderskii, “Heterodyne-detected vibrational sum frequency generation spectroscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130, 2271–2275 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Borguet, E.

H. Wang, E. C. Y. Yan, E. Borguet, and K. B. Eisenthal, “Second harmonic generation from the surface of centrosymmetric particles in bulk solution,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 259, 15–20(1996).
[CrossRef]

Bower, J. R.

J. M. Chen, J. R. Bower, C. S. Wang, and C. H. Lee, “Optical second-harmonic generation from sub monolayer Na-covered Ge surfaces,” Opt. Commun. 9, 132–134 (1973).

Boyd, G. T.

G. T. Boyd, Y. R. Shen, and T. W. Hansch, “Second-harmonic generation from sub-monolayer molecular adsorbates using a cw diode laser—Maui surface experiment,” in Laser Spectroscopy VII, ed. by T. W. Hansch and Y. R. Shen (Springer Verlag, 1985), p. 322–323.

Boyd, R. T.

Bredenbeck, J.

M. Smits, A. Ghosh, J. Bredenbeck, S. Yamamoto, M. Mller, and M. Bonn, “Ultrafast energy flow in model biological membranes,” New J. Phys. 9, 390-1–390-20(2007).
[CrossRef]

Briggman, K. A.

K. A. Briggman, J. C. Stephenson, W. E. Wallace, and L. J. Richter, “Absolute molecular orientational distribution of the polystyrene surface,” J. Phys. Chem. B 105, 2785–2791(2001).
[CrossRef]

Brown, K. L.

T. C. Anglin, K. L. Brown, and J. C. Conboy, “Phospholipid flip-flop modulated by transmembrane peptides WALP and melittin,” J. Struct. Biol. 168, 37–52 (2009).

Buck, S. M.

J. Wang, S. M. Buck, M. A. Even, and Z. Chen, “Molecular responses of proteins at different interfacial environments detected by sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124, 13302–13305 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, S. M. Buck, and Z. Chen, “Sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy studies on protein adsorption,” J. Phys. Chem. B 106, 11666–11672 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Burstein, E.

T. F. Heinz, F. J. Himpsel, E. Palange, and E. Burstein, “Electronic transitions at the CaF2/Si(111) interface probed by resonant three-wave mixing spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 644–647 (1989).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Heinz, F. J. Himipsel, E. Palange, and E. Burstein, “Electronic transitions at the CaF2/Si(111) interface probed by resonant three-wave mixing spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 644–647 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Castro, A.

A. Castro, E. V. Sitzmann, D. Zhang, and K. B. Eisenthal, “Rotational relaxation at the air/water interface by time-resolved second harmonic generation,” J. Phys. Chem. 95, 6752–6753 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Chabal, Y. J.

P. Guyto-Sionnest, P. Dumas, Y. J. Chabal, and G. S. Higashi, “Lifetime of an adsorbate-substrate vibration: H on Si(111),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 2156–2159 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Chang, R. K.

J. M. Hartings, “Second harmonic generation and fluorescence images from surfactants on hanging droplets,” A. Poon, X. Pu, R. K. Chang, and T. M. Leslie, Chem. Phys. Lett. 281, 389–393 (1997).
[CrossRef]

N. Bloembergen, R. K. Chang, S. S. Jha, and C. H. Lee, “Optical second-harmonic generation in reflection from media with inversion symmetry,” Phys. Rev. 174, 813–822 (1968).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Chang, C. H. Lee, and N. Bloembergen, “Second-harmonic generation of light in reflection from media with inversion symmetry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 16, 986–989 (1965).

Chang, Y. M.

Y. M. Chang, L. Xu, and H. W. K. Tom, “Coherent phonon spectroscopy of GaAs surfaces using time-resolved second harmonic generation,” Chem. Phys. 251, 283–308(2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. M. Chang, L. Xu, and H. W. K. Tom, “Observation of coherent surface optical phonon oscillations by time-resolved surface second-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 4649–4652 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. K.

T. F. Heinz, C. K. Chen, D. Ricard, and Y. R. Shen, “Spectroscopy of molecular monolayers by resonant second-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 478–481 (1982).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Chen, A. R. B. de Castro, and Y. R. Shen, “Surface-enhanced second-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 145–148 (1981).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Chen, T. F. Heinz, D. Ricard, and Y. R. Shen, “Detection of molecular monolayers by optical second-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 1010–1012 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J. M.

J. M. Chen, J. R. Bower, C. S. Wang, and C. H. Lee, “Optical second-harmonic generation from sub monolayer Na-covered Ge surfaces,” Opt. Commun. 9, 132–134 (1973).

Chen, W.

P. Guyot-Sionnest, W. Chen, and Y. R. Shen, “General considerations on optical second-harmonic generation from surfaces and interfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 33, 8254–8263 (1986).

Chen, Z.

K. Nguyen, R. Soong, S.-C. lm, L. Waskell, A. Ramamoorthy, and Z. Chen, “Probing the spontaneous membrane insertion of a tail-anchored membrane protein by sum frequency generation spectroscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132, 15112–15115(2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Nguyen, S. Le Clair, S. Ye, and Z. Chen, “Molecular Interactions between Magainin 2 and Model Membranes in Situ,” J. Phys. Chem. B 113, 12358–12363 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, S. M. Buck, M. A. Even, and Z. Chen, “Molecular responses of proteins at different interfacial environments detected by sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124, 13302–13305 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, S. M. Buck, and Z. Chen, “Sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy studies on protein adsorption,” J. Phys. Chem. B 106, 11666–11672 (2002).
[CrossRef]

See the review article by Z. Chen, Y. R. Shen, and G. A. Somorjai, “Studies of polymer surfaces by sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 53, 437–465 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Z. Chen, R. Ward, Y. Tian, A. S. Eppler, Y. R. Shen, and G. A. Somorjai, “Surface composition of biopolymer blends biospan-SP/phenoxy and biospan-F/phenoxy observed with SFG, XPS, and contact angle goniometry,” J. Phys. Chem. B 103, 2935–2942 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chidsey, C. E. D.

A. L. Harris, C. E. D. Chidsey, N. J. Levinos, and D. N. Loiacono, “Monolayer vibrational spectroscopy by infrared-visible sum frequency generation at metal and semiconductor surfaces,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 141, 350–356 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Chin, R. P.

R. P. Chin, J. Y. Huang, Y. R. Shen, T. J. Chuang, and H. Seki, “Interaction of atomic hydrogen with the diamond C(111) surface studied by infrared-visible sum-frequency-generation spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 52, 5985–5995 (1995).

R. P. Chin, X. Blas, Y. R. Shen, and S. Louie, “Anharmonicity and lifetime of the CH stretch mode on diamond H/C(111)-(1x1),” Euro. Phys. Lett. 30, 399–404 (1995).

C. D. Stanners, Q. Du, R. P. Chin, P. Cremer, G. A. Somorjai, and Y. R. Shen, “Polar ordering at the liquid-vapor interface of N-alcohols(C-1-C-8),” Chem. Phys. Lett. 232, 407–413(1995).
[CrossRef]

Chuang, T. J.

R. P. Chin, J. Y. Huang, Y. R. Shen, T. J. Chuang, and H. Seki, “Interaction of atomic hydrogen with the diamond C(111) surface studied by infrared-visible sum-frequency-generation spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 52, 5985–5995 (1995).

Colocci, M.

F. DeMartini, M. Colocci, S. E. Kohn, and Y. R. Shen, “Nonlinear optical exicitation of surface exciton polaritons in ZnO,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 1223–1226 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Conboy, J. C.

T. C. Anglin and J. C. Conboy, “Kinetics and thermodynamics of flip-flop in binary phospholipid membranes measured by sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopy,” Biochemistry 48, 10220–10234 (2009).

T. C. Anglin, K. L. Brown, and J. C. Conboy, “Phospholipid flip-flop modulated by transmembrane peptides WALP and melittin,” J. Struct. Biol. 168, 37–52 (2009).

J. Liu and J. C. Conboy, “Asymmetric distribution of lipids in a phase segregated phospholipid bilayer observed by sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111, 8988–8999 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. C. Anglin, J. Liu, and J. C. Conboy, “Facile lipid flip-flop in a phospholipid bilayer induced by gramicidin A measured by sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopy,” Biophys. J. 92, L01–L03 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu and J. C. Conboy, “1,2-diacyl-phosphatidylcholine flip-flop measured directly by sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopy,” Biophys. J. 89, 2522–2532 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu and J. C. Conboy, “Phase transition of a single lipid bilayer measured by sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126, 8894–8895 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu and J. C. Conboy, “Direct measurement of the transbilayer movement of phospholipids by sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126, 8376–8377 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Conboy, M. C. Messmer, and G. Richmond, “Dependence of alkyl chain conformation of simple ionic surfactants on head group functionality as studied by vibrational sum-frequency spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B 101, 6724–6733 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Conboy, M. C. Messmer, and G. L. Richmond, “Investigation of surfactant conformation and order at the liquid-liquid interface by total internal reflection sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. 100, 7617–7622 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Messmer, J. C. Conboy, and G. Richmond, “Observation of molecular ordering at the liquid-liquid interface by resonant sum frequency generation,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 117, 8039–8040 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Cremer, P.

X. Su, P. Cremer, Y. R. Shen, and G. A. Somorjai, “Pressure dependence (10−10C700 Torr) of the vibrational spectra of adsorbed CO on Pt(111) studied by sum frequency generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3858–3860 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Stanners, Q. Du, R. P. Chin, P. Cremer, G. A. Somorjai, and Y. R. Shen, “Polar ordering at the liquid-vapor interface of N-alcohols(C-1-C-8),” Chem. Phys. Lett. 232, 407–413(1995).
[CrossRef]

Cremer, P. S.

X. Su, P. S. Cremer, Y. R. Shen, and G. A. Somorjai, “High-pressure CO oxidation on Pt(111) monitored with infrared-visible sum frequency generation (SFG),” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 119, 3994–4000 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. S. Cremer, X. Su, Y. R. Shen, and G. A. Somorjai, “Hydrogenation and dehydrogenation of propylene on Pt(111) studied by sum frequency generation from UHV to atmospheric pressure,” J. Phys. Chem. 100, 16302–16309 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Crowell, J. E.

H. W. K. Tom, C. M. Mate, X. D. Zhu, J. E. Crowell, T. F. Heinz, G. A. Somorjai, and Y. R. Shen, “Surface studies by optical second harmonic generation: the adsorption of O2, CO and sodium on the Rh(111) surface,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 348–351 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Dadap, J. I.

J. I. Dadap, J. Shan, K. B. Eisenthal, and T. F. Heinz, “Second-harmonic Rayleigh scattering from a sphere of centrosymmetric material,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 4045–4048 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dahr, L.

A. L. Harris, L. Rothberg, L. H. Dubos, N. J. Levinos, and L. Dahr, “Molecular vibrational energy relaxation at a metal surface: Methyl thiolate on Ag(111),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 2086–2089 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Davies, P. B.

C. D. Bain, P. B. Davies, and R. N. Ward, “In-situ sum-frequency spectroscopy of sodium dodecyl sulfate and dodecanol coadsorbed at a hydrophobic surface,” Langmuir 10, 2060–2063 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. N. Ward, D. C. Duffy, P. B. Davies, and C. D. Bain, “Sum-frequency spectroscopy of surfactants adsorbed at a flat hydrophobic surface,” J. Phys. Chem. 98, 8536–8542 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. N. Ward, P. B. Davies, and C. D. Bain, “Orientation of surfactants adsorbed on a hydrophobic surface,” J, Phys. Chem. 97, 7141–7143 (1993).

de Castro, A. R. B.

C. K. Chen, A. R. B. de Castro, and Y. R. Shen, “Surface-enhanced second-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 145–148 (1981).
[CrossRef]

DeMartini, F.

F. DeMartini, M. Colocci, S. E. Kohn, and Y. R. Shen, “Nonlinear optical exicitation of surface exciton polaritons in ZnO,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 1223–1226 (1977).
[CrossRef]

F. DeMartini, F. G. Giuliani, M. Mataloni, E. Palange, and Y. R. Shen, “Study of surface polaritons in GaP by optical four-wave mixing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 37, 440–443 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Dereux, A.

See, for example, W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424, 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Du, Q.

P. B. Miranda, Q. Du, and Y. R. Shen, “Interaction of water with a fatty acid Langmuir film,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 286, 1–8(1998).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Stanners, Q. Du, R. P. Chin, P. Cremer, G. A. Somorjai, and Y. R. Shen, “Polar ordering at the liquid-vapor interface of N-alcohols(C-1-C-8),” Chem. Phys. Lett. 232, 407–413(1995).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Sefler, Q. Du, P. B. Miranda, and Y. R. Shen, “Surface crystallization of liquid N-alkanes and alcohol monolayers studied by surface vibrational spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 235, 347–354 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Q. Du, E. Freysz, and Y. R. Shen, “Vibrational spectra of water molecules at quartz/water interfaces,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 238–241 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Q. Du, E. Freysz, and Y. R. Shen, “Surface vibrational spectroscopic studies of hydrogen-bonding and hydrophobicity,” Science 264, 826–828 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Q. Du, R. Superfine, E. Freysz, and Y. R. Shen, “Vibrational spectroscopy of water at the vapor/water interface,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 2313–2316 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Dubos, L. H.

A. L. Harris, L. Rothberg, L. H. Dubos, N. J. Levinos, and L. Dahr, “Molecular vibrational energy relaxation at a metal surface: Methyl thiolate on Ag(111),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 2086–2089 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Ducuing, J.

J. Ducuing and N. Bloembergen, “Observation of reflected light harmonics at the boundary of piezoelectric crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 10, 474–476 (1963).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Armstrong, N. Bloembergen, J. Ducuing, and P. S. Pershan, “Interactions between light waves in a nonlinear dielectric,” Phys. Rev. 127, 1918–1939 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Duffy, D. C.

R. N. Ward, D. C. Duffy, P. B. Davies, and C. D. Bain, “Sum-frequency spectroscopy of surfactants adsorbed at a flat hydrophobic surface,” J. Phys. Chem. 98, 8536–8542 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Dumas, P.

P. Guyto-Sionnest, P. Dumas, Y. J. Chabal, and G. S. Higashi, “Lifetime of an adsorbate-substrate vibration: H on Si(111),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 2156–2159 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Ebbesen, T. W.

See, for example, W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424, 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Eisenthal, K. B.

Y. Liu, E. C. Y. Yan, and K. B. Eisenthal, “Effects of bilayer surface charge density on molecular adsorption and transport across liposome bilayers,” Biophys. J. 80, 1004–1012 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, E. C. Y. Yan, and K. B. Eisenthal, “Effect of cholesterol on molecular transport of organic cations across liposome bilayers probed by second harmonic generation,” Biophys. J. 79, 898–903 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Salafsky and K. B. Eisenthal, “Second harmonic spectroscopy: detection and orientation of molecules at a biomembrane interface,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 319, 435–439(2000).
[CrossRef]

J. I. Dadap, J. Shan, K. B. Eisenthal, and T. F. Heinz, “Second-harmonic Rayleigh scattering from a sphere of centrosymmetric material,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 4045–4048 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Wang, E. C. Y. Yan, E. Borguet, and K. B. Eisenthal, “Second harmonic generation from the surface of centrosymmetric particles in bulk solution,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 259, 15–20(1996).
[CrossRef]

D. Zhang, J. H. Gunow, K. B. Eisenthal, and T. F. Heinz, “Sudden structural change at an air/binary liquid interface: Sum frequency study of the air/acetonitrileCwater interface,” J. Chem. Phys. 98, 5099–5101 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. Castro, E. V. Sitzmann, D. Zhang, and K. B. Eisenthal, “Rotational relaxation at the air/water interface by time-resolved second harmonic generation,” J. Phys. Chem. 95, 6752–6753 (1991).
[CrossRef]

E. V. Sitzmann and K. B. Eisenthal, “Picosecond dynamics of a chemical reaction at the air-water interface studied by surface second harmonic generation,” J. Phys. Chem. 92, 4579–4580 (1988).
[CrossRef]

E. V. Sitzmann and K. B. Eisenthal, “Picosecond dynamics of a chemical reaction at the air-water interface studied by surface second harmonic generation,” J. Phys. Chem. 92, 4579–4580 (1988).
[CrossRef]

K. Bhattachacharyya, E. V. Sitzmann, and K. B. Eisenthal, “Study of chemical reactions by surface second harmonic generation: p-nitrophenol at the airCwater interface,” J. Chem. Phys. 87, 1442–1443 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Eppler, A. S.

Z. Chen, R. Ward, Y. Tian, A. S. Eppler, Y. R. Shen, and G. A. Somorjai, “Surface composition of biopolymer blends biospan-SP/phenoxy and biospan-F/phenoxy observed with SFG, XPS, and contact angle goniometry,” J. Phys. Chem. B 103, 2935–2942 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ertl, G.

M. Bonn, C. Hess, S. Funk, J. H. Miners, B. N. Persson, M. Wolf, and G. Ertl, “Femtosecond surface vibrational spectroscopy of CO adsorbed on Ru(001) during desorption,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4653–4656 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Even, M. A.

J. Wang, S. M. Buck, M. A. Even, and Z. Chen, “Molecular responses of proteins at different interfacial environments detected by sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124, 13302–13305 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Feller, M.

Fleishman, M.

M. Fleishman, P. J. Hendra, and A. J. McQuillan, “Raman spectra of pyridine adsorbed at a silver electrode,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 26, 163–166 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Franken, P. A.

P. A. Franken, A. E. Hill, C. W. Peters, and G. Weinreich, “Generation of optical harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 7, 118–119 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Freysz, E.

Q. Du, E. Freysz, and Y. R. Shen, “Vibrational spectra of water molecules at quartz/water interfaces,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 238–241 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Q. Du, E. Freysz, and Y. R. Shen, “Surface vibrational spectroscopic studies of hydrogen-bonding and hydrophobicity,” Science 264, 826–828 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Q. Du, R. Superfine, E. Freysz, and Y. R. Shen, “Vibrational spectroscopy of water at the vapor/water interface,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 2313–2316 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Funk, S.

M. Bonn, C. Hess, S. Funk, J. H. Miners, B. N. Persson, M. Wolf, and G. Ertl, “Femtosecond surface vibrational spectroscopy of CO adsorbed on Ru(001) during desorption,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4653–4656 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Furtak, T. E.

T. E. Furtak and J. Reyes, “A critical analysis of theoretical-models for the giant Raman effect from adsorbed molecules,” Surf. Sci. 93, 351–382 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Gauchler, M.

D. Zhang, D. H. Gracias, R. Ward, M. Gauchler, Y. Tian, Y. R. Shen, and G. A. Somorjai, “Surface studies of polymer blends by sum frequency vibrational spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and contact angle goniometry,” J. Phys. Chem. B 102, 6225–6230 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ghosh, A.

M. Smits, A. Ghosh, J. Bredenbeck, S. Yamamoto, M. Mller, and M. Bonn, “Ultrafast energy flow in model biological membranes,” New J. Phys. 9, 390-1–390-20(2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Smit, A. Ghosh, M. Sterrer, M. Muller, and M. Bonn, “Ultrafast vibrational energy transfer between surface and bulk water at the air-water interface,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 098302-1–098302-4 (2007).

Giuliani, F. G.

F. DeMartini, F. G. Giuliani, M. Mataloni, E. Palange, and Y. R. Shen, “Study of surface polaritons in GaP by optical four-wave mixing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 37, 440–443 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Goto, T.

X. Wei, S. C. Hong, X. Ahuang, T. Goto, and Y. R. Shen, “Nonlinear optical studies of liquid crystal alignment on a rubbed polyvinyl alcohol surface,” Phys. Rev. E 62, 5160–5172(2000).
[CrossRef]

X. Wei, X. Zhuang, S. C. Hong, T. Goto, and Y. R. Shen, “Sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopic study of a rubbed polymer surface,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4256–4259 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gracias, D. H.

D. Zhang, D. H. Gracias, R. Ward, M. Gauchler, Y. Tian, Y. R. Shen, and G. A. Somorjai, “Surface studies of polymer blends by sum frequency vibrational spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and contact angle goniometry,” J. Phys. Chem. B 102, 6225–6230 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Graener, H.

K. Wolfrum, H. Graener, and A. Laubereau, “Sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopy at the liquid air interface of methanol-water solutions,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 213, 41–46 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Grubb, S.

Th. Rasing, Y. R. Shen, M. W. Kim, and S. Grubb, “Observation of molecular reorientation at a two-dimensional-liquid phase transition,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 2903–2906 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Gunow, J. H.

D. Zhang, J. H. Gunow, K. B. Eisenthal, and T. F. Heinz, “Sudden structural change at an air/binary liquid interface: Sum frequency study of the air/acetonitrileCwater interface,” J. Chem. Phys. 98, 5099–5101 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Guyot-Sionnest, P.

P. Guyot-Sionnest, “Coherent processes at surfaces: Free-induction decay and photon echo of the Si-H stretching vibration for H/Si(111),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1489–1492(1991).
[CrossRef]

P. Guyot-Sionnest, R. Superfine, J. H. Hunt, and Y. R. Shen, “Vibrational spectroscopy of a silane monolayer at air solid and liquid solid interfaces using sum-frequency generation,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 144, 1–5 (1988).
[CrossRef]

P. Guyot-Sionnest and Y. R. Shen, “Bulk contribution in surface second-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. B 38, 7985–7989 (1988).

R. Superfine, P. Guyot-Sionnest, J. H. Hunt, C. T. Kao, and Y. R. Shen, “Surface vibrational spectroscopy of molecular adsorbates on metals and semiconductors by infrared-visible sum-frequency generation,” Surf. Sci. 200, L445–L450 (1988).
[CrossRef]

T. Stehlin, M. Feller, P. Guyot-Sionnest, and Y. R. Shen, “Optical second-harmonic generation as a surface probe for noncentrosymmetric media,” Opt. Lett. 13, 389–391 (1988).
[CrossRef]

P. Guyot-Sionnest, J. H. Hunt, and Y. R. Shen, “Sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopy of a Langmuir film: Study of molecular orientation of a two-dimensional system,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1597–1600 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Hunt, P. Guyot-Sionnest, and Y. R. Shen, “Observation of C-H stretch vibrations of monolayers of molecules optical sum-frequency generation,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 133, 189–192 (1987).
[CrossRef]

P. Guyot-Sionnest and Y. R. Shen, “Local and nonlocal surface nonlinearities for surface optical second-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. B 35, 4420–4426 (1987).

P. Guyot-Sionnest, H. Hsiung, and Y. R. Shen, “Surface polar ordering in a liquid crystal observed by optical second-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2963–2966 (1986).
[CrossRef]

P. Guyot-Sionnest, W. Chen, and Y. R. Shen, “General considerations on optical second-harmonic generation from surfaces and interfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 33, 8254–8263 (1986).

Guyto-Sionnest, P.

P. Guyto-Sionnest, P. Dumas, Y. J. Chabal, and G. S. Higashi, “Lifetime of an adsorbate-substrate vibration: H on Si(111),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 2156–2159 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hansch, T. W.

R. T. Boyd, Y. R. Shen, and T. W. Hansch, “Continuous-wave second harmonic generation as a surface microprobe,” Opt. Lett. 11, 97–99 (1986).
[CrossRef]

G. T. Boyd, Y. R. Shen, and T. W. Hansch, “Second-harmonic generation from sub-monolayer molecular adsorbates using a cw diode laser—Maui surface experiment,” in Laser Spectroscopy VII, ed. by T. W. Hansch and Y. R. Shen (Springer Verlag, 1985), p. 322–323.

Harris, A. L.

A. L. Harris, L. Rothberg, L. H. Dubos, N. J. Levinos, and L. Dahr, “Molecular vibrational energy relaxation at a metal surface: Methyl thiolate on Ag(111),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 2086–2089 (1990).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Harris and N. J. Levinos, “Vibrational energy relaxation in a molecular monolayer at a metal surface,” J. Chem. Phys. 90, 3878–3879 (1989).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Harris, C. E. D. Chidsey, N. J. Levinos, and D. N. Loiacono, “Monolayer vibrational spectroscopy by infrared-visible sum frequency generation at metal and semiconductor surfaces,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 141, 350–356 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Hartings, J. M.

J. M. Hartings, “Second harmonic generation and fluorescence images from surfactants on hanging droplets,” A. Poon, X. Pu, R. K. Chang, and T. M. Leslie, Chem. Phys. Lett. 281, 389–393 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Heinz, T. F.

J. I. Dadap, J. Shan, K. B. Eisenthal, and T. F. Heinz, “Second-harmonic Rayleigh scattering from a sphere of centrosymmetric material,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 4045–4048 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Zhang, J. H. Gunow, K. B. Eisenthal, and T. F. Heinz, “Sudden structural change at an air/binary liquid interface: Sum frequency study of the air/acetonitrileCwater interface,” J. Chem. Phys. 98, 5099–5101 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Heinz, F. J. Himpsel, E. Palange, and E. Burstein, “Electronic transitions at the CaF2/Si(111) interface probed by resonant three-wave mixing spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 644–647 (1989).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Heinz, F. J. Himipsel, E. Palange, and E. Burstein, “Electronic transitions at the CaF2/Si(111) interface probed by resonant three-wave mixing spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 644–647 (1989).
[CrossRef]

H. W. K. Tom, C. M. Mate, X. D. Zhu, J. E. Crowell, T. F. Heinz, G. A. Somorjai, and Y. R. Shen, “Surface studies by optical second harmonic generation: the adsorption of O2, CO and sodium on the Rh(111) surface,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 348–351 (1984).
[CrossRef]

H. W. K. Tom, T. F. Heinz, and Y. R. Shen, “Determination of molecular orientation of monolayer adsorbates by optical second-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 28, 1883–1885 (1983).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Heinz, C. K. Chen, D. Ricard, and Y. R. Shen, “Spectroscopy of molecular monolayers by resonant second-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 478–481 (1982).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Chen, T. F. Heinz, D. Ricard, and Y. R. Shen, “Detection of molecular monolayers by optical second-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 1010–1012 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Held, H.

H. Held, A. I. Lvovsky, X. Wei, and Y. R. Shen, “Bulk contribution from isotropic media in surface sum-frequency generation,” Phys. Rev. B 66, 205110-1–205110-7 (2002).

Hendra, P. J.

M. Fleishman, P. J. Hendra, and A. J. McQuillan, “Raman spectra of pyridine adsorbed at a silver electrode,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 26, 163–166 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Hess, C.

M. Bonn, C. Hess, S. Funk, J. H. Miners, B. N. Persson, M. Wolf, and G. Ertl, “Femtosecond surface vibrational spectroscopy of CO adsorbed on Ru(001) during desorption,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4653–4656 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Higashi, G. S.

P. Guyto-Sionnest, P. Dumas, Y. J. Chabal, and G. S. Higashi, “Lifetime of an adsorbate-substrate vibration: H on Si(111),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 2156–2159 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hill, A. E.

P. A. Franken, A. E. Hill, C. W. Peters, and G. Weinreich, “Generation of optical harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 7, 118–119 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Himipsel, F. J.

T. F. Heinz, F. J. Himipsel, E. Palange, and E. Burstein, “Electronic transitions at the CaF2/Si(111) interface probed by resonant three-wave mixing spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 644–647 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Himpsel, F. J.

T. F. Heinz, F. J. Himpsel, E. Palange, and E. Burstein, “Electronic transitions at the CaF2/Si(111) interface probed by resonant three-wave mixing spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 644–647 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Hirlimann, C.

C. V. Shank, R. Yen, and C. Hirlimann, “Femtosecond-time-resolved surface structural dynamics of optically excited silicon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 900–902 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Hong, S. C.

X. Wei, S. C. Hong, X. Ahuang, T. Goto, and Y. R. Shen, “Nonlinear optical studies of liquid crystal alignment on a rubbed polyvinyl alcohol surface,” Phys. Rev. E 62, 5160–5172(2000).
[CrossRef]

X. Wei, X. Zhuang, S. C. Hong, T. Goto, and Y. R. Shen, “Sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopic study of a rubbed polymer surface,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4256–4259 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hsiung, H.

P. Guyot-Sionnest, H. Hsiung, and Y. R. Shen, “Surface polar ordering in a liquid crystal observed by optical second-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2963–2966 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Huang, J. Y.

R. P. Chin, J. Y. Huang, Y. R. Shen, T. J. Chuang, and H. Seki, “Interaction of atomic hydrogen with the diamond C(111) surface studied by infrared-visible sum-frequency-generation spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 52, 5985–5995 (1995).

J. Y. Huang and M. H. Wu, “Nonlinear optical studies of binary mixtures of hydrogen bonded liquids,” Phys. Rev. E 50, 3737–3746 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. Superfine, J. Y. Huang, and Y. R. Shen, “Nonlinear optical studies of the pure liquid/vapor interface: Vibrational spectra and polar ordering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1066–1069 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. Superfine, J. Y. Huang, and Y. R. Shen, “Experimental determination of the sign of molecular diople-moment derivatives—an infrared visible sum-frequency generation abosolute phase mesurement study,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 172, 303–306(1990).
[CrossRef]

Hunt, J. H.

R. Superfine, P. Guyot-Sionnest, J. H. Hunt, C. T. Kao, and Y. R. Shen, “Surface vibrational spectroscopy of molecular adsorbates on metals and semiconductors by infrared-visible sum-frequency generation,” Surf. Sci. 200, L445–L450 (1988).
[CrossRef]

P. Guyot-Sionnest, R. Superfine, J. H. Hunt, and Y. R. Shen, “Vibrational spectroscopy of a silane monolayer at air solid and liquid solid interfaces using sum-frequency generation,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 144, 1–5 (1988).
[CrossRef]

P. Guyot-Sionnest, J. H. Hunt, and Y. R. Shen, “Sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopy of a Langmuir film: Study of molecular orientation of a two-dimensional system,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1597–1600 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Hunt, P. Guyot-Sionnest, and Y. R. Shen, “Observation of C-H stretch vibrations of monolayers of molecules optical sum-frequency generation,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 133, 189–192 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Jayathilake, H. D.

I. V. Stiopkin, H. D. Jayathilake, A. N. Bordenyuk, and A. V. Benderskii, “Heterodyne-detected vibrational sum frequency generation spectroscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130, 2271–2275 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jha, S. S.

N. Bloembergen, R. K. Chang, S. S. Jha, and C. H. Lee, “Optical second-harmonic generation in reflection from media with inversion symmetry,” Phys. Rev. 174, 813–822 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Ji, N.

N. Ji, V. Ostroverkhov, C. S. Tian, and Y. R. Shen, “Characterization of vibrational resonances of water-vapor interfaces by phase-sensitive sum-frequency spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 096102-1–096102-4 (2008).

Kao, C. T.

R. Superfine, P. Guyot-Sionnest, J. H. Hunt, C. T. Kao, and Y. R. Shen, “Surface vibrational spectroscopy of molecular adsorbates on metals and semiconductors by infrared-visible sum-frequency generation,” Surf. Sci. 200, L445–L450 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D.

X. Zhuang, P. B. Miranda, D. Kim, and Y. R. Shen, “Mapping molecular orientation and conformation at interfaces by surface nonlinear optics,” Phys. Rev. B 59, 12632–12640 (1999).

Kim, M. W.

Th. Rasing, Y. R. Shen, M. W. Kim, and S. Grubb, “Observation of molecular reorientation at a two-dimensional-liquid phase transition,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 2903–2906 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Kirschner, J.

J. Reif, J. C. Zink, C. M. Schneider, and J. Kirschner, “Effects of surface magnetism on optical second harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 2878–2881 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kleyn, A. W.

S. Roke, W. G. Roeterkink, J. E. G. J. Wijnhoven, A. V. Petukhov, A. W. Kleyn, and M. Bonn, “Vibrational sum frequency scattering from a submicron suspension,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 258302-1–258302-4 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kohn, S. E.

F. DeMartini, M. Colocci, S. E. Kohn, and Y. R. Shen, “Nonlinear optical exicitation of surface exciton polaritons in ZnO,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 1223–1226 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Kretschmann, E.

E. Kretschmann, “Determination of optical constants of metals by excitation of surface plasmons,” Z. Phys. 241, 313–324 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Laubereau, A.

K. Wolfrum, H. Graener, and A. Laubereau, “Sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopy at the liquid air interface of methanol-water solutions,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 213, 41–46 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Le Clair, S.

K. Nguyen, S. Le Clair, S. Ye, and Z. Chen, “Molecular Interactions between Magainin 2 and Model Membranes in Situ,” J. Phys. Chem. B 113, 12358–12363 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. H.

J. M. Chen, J. R. Bower, C. S. Wang, and C. H. Lee, “Optical second-harmonic generation from sub monolayer Na-covered Ge surfaces,” Opt. Commun. 9, 132–134 (1973).

N. Bloembergen, R. K. Chang, S. S. Jha, and C. H. Lee, “Optical second-harmonic generation in reflection from media with inversion symmetry,” Phys. Rev. 174, 813–822 (1968).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Chang, C. H. Lee, and N. Bloembergen, “Second-harmonic generation of light in reflection from media with inversion symmetry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 16, 986–989 (1965).

Leslie, T. M.

J. M. Hartings, “Second harmonic generation and fluorescence images from surfactants on hanging droplets,” A. Poon, X. Pu, R. K. Chang, and T. M. Leslie, Chem. Phys. Lett. 281, 389–393 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Levinos, N. J.

A. L. Harris, L. Rothberg, L. H. Dubos, N. J. Levinos, and L. Dahr, “Molecular vibrational energy relaxation at a metal surface: Methyl thiolate on Ag(111),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 2086–2089 (1990).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Harris and N. J. Levinos, “Vibrational energy relaxation in a molecular monolayer at a metal surface,” J. Chem. Phys. 90, 3878–3879 (1989).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Harris, C. E. D. Chidsey, N. J. Levinos, and D. N. Loiacono, “Monolayer vibrational spectroscopy by infrared-visible sum frequency generation at metal and semiconductor surfaces,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 141, 350–356 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J.

T. C. Anglin, J. Liu, and J. C. Conboy, “Facile lipid flip-flop in a phospholipid bilayer induced by gramicidin A measured by sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopy,” Biophys. J. 92, L01–L03 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu and J. C. Conboy, “Asymmetric distribution of lipids in a phase segregated phospholipid bilayer observed by sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111, 8988–8999 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu and J. C. Conboy, “1,2-diacyl-phosphatidylcholine flip-flop measured directly by sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopy,” Biophys. J. 89, 2522–2532 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu and J. C. Conboy, “Phase transition of a single lipid bilayer measured by sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126, 8894–8895 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu and J. C. Conboy, “Direct measurement of the transbilayer movement of phospholipids by sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126, 8376–8377 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Liu, W. T.

W. T. Liu and Y. R. Shen, “Surface vibrational modes of α-Quartz (0001) probed by sum-frequency spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 016101-1–016101-4 (2008).

Liu, Y.

Y. Liu, E. C. Y. Yan, and K. B. Eisenthal, “Effects of bilayer surface charge density on molecular adsorption and transport across liposome bilayers,” Biophys. J. 80, 1004–1012 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, E. C. Y. Yan, and K. B. Eisenthal, “Effect of cholesterol on molecular transport of organic cations across liposome bilayers probed by second harmonic generation,” Biophys. J. 79, 898–903 (2000).
[CrossRef]

lm, S.-C.

K. Nguyen, R. Soong, S.-C. lm, L. Waskell, A. Ramamoorthy, and Z. Chen, “Probing the spontaneous membrane insertion of a tail-anchored membrane protein by sum frequency generation spectroscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132, 15112–15115(2010).
[CrossRef]

Loiacono, D. N.

A. L. Harris, C. E. D. Chidsey, N. J. Levinos, and D. N. Loiacono, “Monolayer vibrational spectroscopy by infrared-visible sum frequency generation at metal and semiconductor surfaces,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 141, 350–356 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Louie, S.

R. P. Chin, X. Blas, Y. R. Shen, and S. Louie, “Anharmonicity and lifetime of the CH stretch mode on diamond H/C(111)-(1x1),” Euro. Phys. Lett. 30, 399–404 (1995).

Lvovsky, A. I.

H. Held, A. I. Lvovsky, X. Wei, and Y. R. Shen, “Bulk contribution from isotropic media in surface sum-frequency generation,” Phys. Rev. B 66, 205110-1–205110-7 (2002).

Manning-Benson, S.

G. R. Bell, S. Manning-Benson, and C. D. Bain, “Effect of chain length on the structure of monolayers of alkyltrimethylammonium bromides (C_nTABs) at the air-water interface,” J. Phys. Chem. B 102, 218–222 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mataloni, M.

F. DeMartini, F. G. Giuliani, M. Mataloni, E. Palange, and Y. R. Shen, “Study of surface polaritons in GaP by optical four-wave mixing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 37, 440–443 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Mate, C. M.

H. W. K. Tom, C. M. Mate, X. D. Zhu, J. E. Crowell, T. F. Heinz, G. A. Somorjai, and Y. R. Shen, “Surface studies by optical second harmonic generation: the adsorption of O2, CO and sodium on the Rh(111) surface,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 348–351 (1984).
[CrossRef]

McGuire, J. A.

J. A. McGuire and Y. R. Shen, “Ultrafast vibrational dynamics at water interfaces,” Science 313, 1945–1948 (2006).
[CrossRef]

McQuillan, A. J.

M. Fleishman, P. J. Hendra, and A. J. McQuillan, “Raman spectra of pyridine adsorbed at a silver electrode,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 26, 163–166 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Mertz, J.

T. Pons, L. Moreaux, and J. Mertz, “Photoinduced flip-flop of amphiphilic molecules in lipid nilayer membranes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 288104-1–288104-4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Messmer, M. C.

J. C. Conboy, M. C. Messmer, and G. Richmond, “Dependence of alkyl chain conformation of simple ionic surfactants on head group functionality as studied by vibrational sum-frequency spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B 101, 6724–6733 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Conboy, M. C. Messmer, and G. L. Richmond, “Investigation of surfactant conformation and order at the liquid-liquid interface by total internal reflection sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. 100, 7617–7622 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Messmer, J. C. Conboy, and G. Richmond, “Observation of molecular ordering at the liquid-liquid interface by resonant sum frequency generation,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 117, 8039–8040 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Miners, J. H.

M. Bonn, C. Hess, S. Funk, J. H. Miners, B. N. Persson, M. Wolf, and G. Ertl, “Femtosecond surface vibrational spectroscopy of CO adsorbed on Ru(001) during desorption,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4653–4656 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Miranda, P. B.

X. Wei, P. B. Miranda, and Y. R. Shen, “Surface vibrational spectroscopic study of surface melting of ice,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1554–1557 (2001).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhuang, P. B. Miranda, D. Kim, and Y. R. Shen, “Mapping molecular orientation and conformation at interfaces by surface nonlinear optics,” Phys. Rev. B 59, 12632–12640 (1999).

P. B. Miranda and Y. R. Shen, “Liquid interfaces: A study by sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B 103, 3292–3307 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Miranda, Q. Du, and Y. R. Shen, “Interaction of water with a fatty acid Langmuir film,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 286, 1–8(1998).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Sefler, Q. Du, P. B. Miranda, and Y. R. Shen, “Surface crystallization of liquid N-alkanes and alcohol monolayers studied by surface vibrational spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 235, 347–354 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Mitchell, D. E.

H. J. Simon, D. E. Mitchell, and J. G. Watson, “Optical second-harmonic generation with surface plasmons in siliver films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 33, 1531–1534 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Mizrahi, V.

J. E. Sipe, V. Mizrahi, and G. I. Stegeman, “Phenomenological theory of optical second- and third-harmonic generation from cubic centrosymmetric crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 35, 1129–1141 (1987).

Mller, M.

M. Smits, A. Ghosh, J. Bredenbeck, S. Yamamoto, M. Mller, and M. Bonn, “Ultrafast energy flow in model biological membranes,” New J. Phys. 9, 390-1–390-20(2007).
[CrossRef]

Moreaux, L.

T. Pons, L. Moreaux, and J. Mertz, “Photoinduced flip-flop of amphiphilic molecules in lipid nilayer membranes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 288104-1–288104-4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Muller, M.

M. Smit, A. Ghosh, M. Sterrer, M. Muller, and M. Bonn, “Ultrafast vibrational energy transfer between surface and bulk water at the air-water interface,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 098302-1–098302-4 (2007).

Nguyen, K.

K. Nguyen, R. Soong, S.-C. lm, L. Waskell, A. Ramamoorthy, and Z. Chen, “Probing the spontaneous membrane insertion of a tail-anchored membrane protein by sum frequency generation spectroscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132, 15112–15115(2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Nguyen, S. Le Clair, S. Ye, and Z. Chen, “Molecular Interactions between Magainin 2 and Model Membranes in Situ,” J. Phys. Chem. B 113, 12358–12363 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nihonyanagi, S.

S. Nihonyanagi, S. Yamaguchi, and T. J. Tahara, “Direct evidence for orientational flip-flop of water molecules at charged interfaces: A heterodyne-detected vibrational sum frequency generation study,” J. Chem. Phys. 130, 204704-1–204704-5 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ostroverkhov, V.

N. Ji, V. Ostroverkhov, C. S. Tian, and Y. R. Shen, “Characterization of vibrational resonances of water-vapor interfaces by phase-sensitive sum-frequency spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 096102-1–096102-4 (2008).

Otto, A.

A. Otto, “Excitation of nonradiative surface plasma waves in silver by method of frustrated total reflection,” Z. Phys. 216, 398–410 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Palange, E.

T. F. Heinz, F. J. Himipsel, E. Palange, and E. Burstein, “Electronic transitions at the CaF2/Si(111) interface probed by resonant three-wave mixing spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 644–647 (1989).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Heinz, F. J. Himpsel, E. Palange, and E. Burstein, “Electronic transitions at the CaF2/Si(111) interface probed by resonant three-wave mixing spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 644–647 (1989).
[CrossRef]

F. DeMartini, F. G. Giuliani, M. Mataloni, E. Palange, and Y. R. Shen, “Study of surface polaritons in GaP by optical four-wave mixing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 37, 440–443 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Pan, R. P.

R. P. Pan, H. D. Wei, and Y. R. Shen, “Optical second-harmonic generation from magnetized surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 39, 1229–1234 (1989).

R. P. Pan and Y. R. Shen, “Optical second harmonic generation as a probe for surface magnetization,” J. Chinese Phys. 25, 175–177 (1987).

Pershan, P. S.

N. Bloembergen and P. S. Pershan, “Light waves at the bondary of nolinear media,” Phys. Rev. 128, 606–622 (1962).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Armstrong, N. Bloembergen, J. Ducuing, and P. S. Pershan, “Interactions between light waves in a nonlinear dielectric,” Phys. Rev. 127, 1918–1939 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Persson, B. N.

M. Bonn, C. Hess, S. Funk, J. H. Miners, B. N. Persson, M. Wolf, and G. Ertl, “Femtosecond surface vibrational spectroscopy of CO adsorbed on Ru(001) during desorption,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4653–4656 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Peters, C. W.

P. A. Franken, A. E. Hill, C. W. Peters, and G. Weinreich, “Generation of optical harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 7, 118–119 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Petralli, T. P.

Petukhov, A. V.

S. Roke, W. G. Roeterkink, J. E. G. J. Wijnhoven, A. V. Petukhov, A. W. Kleyn, and M. Bonn, “Vibrational sum frequency scattering from a submicron suspension,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 258302-1–258302-4 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pons, T.

T. Pons, L. Moreaux, and J. Mertz, “Photoinduced flip-flop of amphiphilic molecules in lipid nilayer membranes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 288104-1–288104-4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Poon, A.

J. M. Hartings, “Second harmonic generation and fluorescence images from surfactants on hanging droplets,” A. Poon, X. Pu, R. K. Chang, and T. M. Leslie, Chem. Phys. Lett. 281, 389–393 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Pu, X.

J. M. Hartings, “Second harmonic generation and fluorescence images from surfactants on hanging droplets,” A. Poon, X. Pu, R. K. Chang, and T. M. Leslie, Chem. Phys. Lett. 281, 389–393 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ramamoorthy, A.

K. Nguyen, R. Soong, S.-C. lm, L. Waskell, A. Ramamoorthy, and Z. Chen, “Probing the spontaneous membrane insertion of a tail-anchored membrane protein by sum frequency generation spectroscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132, 15112–15115(2010).
[CrossRef]

Rasing, Th.

G. Berkovic, Th. Rasing, and Y. R. Shen, “Study of monolayer polymerization using nonlinear optics,” J. Chem. Phys. 85, 7374–7376 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Th. Rasing, Y. R. Shen, M. W. Kim, and S. Grubb, “Observation of molecular reorientation at a two-dimensional-liquid phase transition,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 2903–2906 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Reif, J.

J. Reif, J. C. Zink, C. M. Schneider, and J. Kirschner, “Effects of surface magnetism on optical second harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 2878–2881 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Reyes, J.

T. E. Furtak and J. Reyes, “A critical analysis of theoretical-models for the giant Raman effect from adsorbed molecules,” Surf. Sci. 93, 351–382 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Ricard, D.

T. F. Heinz, C. K. Chen, D. Ricard, and Y. R. Shen, “Spectroscopy of molecular monolayers by resonant second-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 478–481 (1982).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Chen, T. F. Heinz, D. Ricard, and Y. R. Shen, “Detection of molecular monolayers by optical second-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 1010–1012 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Richmond, G.

J. C. Conboy, M. C. Messmer, and G. Richmond, “Dependence of alkyl chain conformation of simple ionic surfactants on head group functionality as studied by vibrational sum-frequency spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B 101, 6724–6733 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Messmer, J. C. Conboy, and G. Richmond, “Observation of molecular ordering at the liquid-liquid interface by resonant sum frequency generation,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 117, 8039–8040 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Richmond, G. L.

J. C. Conboy, M. C. Messmer, and G. L. Richmond, “Investigation of surfactant conformation and order at the liquid-liquid interface by total internal reflection sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. 100, 7617–7622 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. L. Richmond, H. M. Rojhantalab, J. M. Robinson, and V. L. Shannon, “Experiments on optical second-harmonic generation as a surface probe of electrodes,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 228–236 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Richter, L. J.

K. A. Briggman, J. C. Stephenson, W. E. Wallace, and L. J. Richter, “Absolute molecular orientational distribution of the polystyrene surface,” J. Phys. Chem. B 105, 2785–2791(2001).
[CrossRef]

L. J. Richter, T. P. Petralli, and J. C. Stephenson, “Vibrationally resolved sum-frequency generation with broad-bandwidth infrared pulses,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1594–1596 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Robinson, J. M.

Roeterkink, W. G.

S. Roke, W. G. Roeterkink, J. E. G. J. Wijnhoven, A. V. Petukhov, A. W. Kleyn, and M. Bonn, “Vibrational sum frequency scattering from a submicron suspension,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 258302-1–258302-4 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rojhantalab, H. M.

Roke, S.

S. Roke, W. G. Roeterkink, J. E. G. J. Wijnhoven, A. V. Petukhov, A. W. Kleyn, and M. Bonn, “Vibrational sum frequency scattering from a submicron suspension,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 258302-1–258302-4 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rothberg, L.

A. L. Harris, L. Rothberg, L. H. Dubos, N. J. Levinos, and L. Dahr, “Molecular vibrational energy relaxation at a metal surface: Methyl thiolate on Ag(111),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 2086–2089 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Rupprechter, G.

G. A. Somorjai and G. Rupprechter, “Molecular studies of catalytic reactions on crystal surfaces at high pressures and high temperatures by infrared-visible sum frequency generation (SFG) surface vibrational spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B 103, 1623–1638 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Salafsky, J. S.

J. S. Salafsky and K. B. Eisenthal, “Second harmonic spectroscopy: detection and orientation of molecules at a biomembrane interface,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 319, 435–439(2000).
[CrossRef]

Schneider, C. M.

J. Reif, J. C. Zink, C. M. Schneider, and J. Kirschner, “Effects of surface magnetism on optical second harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 2878–2881 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Seebauer, E. G.

K. A. Shultz and E. G. Seebauer, “Surface diffusion of Sb on Ge(111) monitored quantitatively with optical second harmonic microscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 97, 6958–6967 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Sefler, G. A.

G. A. Sefler, Q. Du, P. B. Miranda, and Y. R. Shen, “Surface crystallization of liquid N-alkanes and alcohol monolayers studied by surface vibrational spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 235, 347–354 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Seki, H.

R. P. Chin, J. Y. Huang, Y. R. Shen, T. J. Chuang, and H. Seki, “Interaction of atomic hydrogen with the diamond C(111) surface studied by infrared-visible sum-frequency-generation spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 52, 5985–5995 (1995).

Shan, J.

J. I. Dadap, J. Shan, K. B. Eisenthal, and T. F. Heinz, “Second-harmonic Rayleigh scattering from a sphere of centrosymmetric material,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 4045–4048 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Shank, C. V.

C. V. Shank, R. Yen, and C. Hirlimann, “Femtosecond-time-resolved surface structural dynamics of optically excited silicon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 900–902 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Shannon, V. L.

Shen, Y. R.

W. T. Liu and Y. R. Shen, “Surface vibrational modes of α-Quartz (0001) probed by sum-frequency spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 016101-1–016101-4 (2008).

N. Ji, V. Ostroverkhov, C. S. Tian, and Y. R. Shen, “Characterization of vibrational resonances of water-vapor interfaces by phase-sensitive sum-frequency spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 096102-1–096102-4 (2008).

J. A. McGuire and Y. R. Shen, “Ultrafast vibrational dynamics at water interfaces,” Science 313, 1945–1948 (2006).
[CrossRef]

See the review article by Z. Chen, Y. R. Shen, and G. A. Somorjai, “Studies of polymer surfaces by sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 53, 437–465 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Held, A. I. Lvovsky, X. Wei, and Y. R. Shen, “Bulk contribution from isotropic media in surface sum-frequency generation,” Phys. Rev. B 66, 205110-1–205110-7 (2002).

X. Wei, P. B. Miranda, and Y. R. Shen, “Surface vibrational spectroscopic study of surface melting of ice,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1554–1557 (2001).
[CrossRef]

X. Wei, S. C. Hong, X. Ahuang, T. Goto, and Y. R. Shen, “Nonlinear optical studies of liquid crystal alignment on a rubbed polyvinyl alcohol surface,” Phys. Rev. E 62, 5160–5172(2000).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhuang, P. B. Miranda, D. Kim, and Y. R. Shen, “Mapping molecular orientation and conformation at interfaces by surface nonlinear optics,” Phys. Rev. B 59, 12632–12640 (1999).

X. Wei, X. Zhuang, S. C. Hong, T. Goto, and Y. R. Shen, “Sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopic study of a rubbed polymer surface,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4256–4259 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Miranda and Y. R. Shen, “Liquid interfaces: A study by sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B 103, 3292–3307 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Z. Chen, R. Ward, Y. Tian, A. S. Eppler, Y. R. Shen, and G. A. Somorjai, “Surface composition of biopolymer blends biospan-SP/phenoxy and biospan-F/phenoxy observed with SFG, XPS, and contact angle goniometry,” J. Phys. Chem. B 103, 2935–2942 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Miranda, Q. Du, and Y. R. Shen, “Interaction of water with a fatty acid Langmuir film,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 286, 1–8(1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Zhang, D. H. Gracias, R. Ward, M. Gauchler, Y. Tian, Y. R. Shen, and G. A. Somorjai, “Surface studies of polymer blends by sum frequency vibrational spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and contact angle goniometry,” J. Phys. Chem. B 102, 6225–6230 (1998).
[CrossRef]

X. Su, P. S. Cremer, Y. R. Shen, and G. A. Somorjai, “High-pressure CO oxidation on Pt(111) monitored with infrared-visible sum frequency generation (SFG),” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 119, 3994–4000 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Zhang, Y. R. Shen, and G. A. Somorjai, “Studies of surface structures and compositions of polyethylene and polypropylene by IR plus visible sum frequency vibrational spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 281, 394–400 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. S. Cremer, X. Su, Y. R. Shen, and G. A. Somorjai, “Hydrogenation and dehydrogenation of propylene on Pt(111) studied by sum frequency generation from UHV to atmospheric pressure,” J. Phys. Chem. 100, 16302–16309 (1996).
[CrossRef]

X. Su, P. Cremer, Y. R. Shen, and G. A. Somorjai, “Pressure dependence (10−10C700 Torr) of the vibrational spectra of adsorbed CO on Pt(111) studied by sum frequency generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3858–3860 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Y. R. Shen, “A few selected applications of surface nonlinear optical spectroscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 93, 12104–12111 (1996).

R. P. Chin, J. Y. Huang, Y. R. Shen, T. J. Chuang, and H. Seki, “Interaction of atomic hydrogen with the diamond C(111) surface studied by infrared-visible sum-frequency-generation spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 52, 5985–5995 (1995).

C. D. Stanners, Q. Du, R. P. Chin, P. Cremer, G. A. Somorjai, and Y. R. Shen, “Polar ordering at the liquid-vapor interface of N-alcohols(C-1-C-8),” Chem. Phys. Lett. 232, 407–413(1995).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Sefler, Q. Du, P. B. Miranda, and Y. R. Shen, “Surface crystallization of liquid N-alkanes and alcohol monolayers studied by surface vibrational spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 235, 347–354 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Chin, X. Blas, Y. R. Shen, and S. Louie, “Anharmonicity and lifetime of the CH stretch mode on diamond H/C(111)-(1x1),” Euro. Phys. Lett. 30, 399–404 (1995).

Q. Du, E. Freysz, and Y. R. Shen, “Vibrational spectra of water molecules at quartz/water interfaces,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 238–241 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Q. Du, E. Freysz, and Y. R. Shen, “Surface vibrational spectroscopic studies of hydrogen-bonding and hydrophobicity,” Science 264, 826–828 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Q. Du, R. Superfine, E. Freysz, and Y. R. Shen, “Vibrational spectroscopy of water at the vapor/water interface,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 2313–2316 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. Superfine, J. Y. Huang, and Y. R. Shen, “Nonlinear optical studies of the pure liquid/vapor interface: Vibrational spectra and polar ordering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1066–1069 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. Superfine, J. Y. Huang, and Y. R. Shen, “Experimental determination of the sign of molecular diople-moment derivatives—an infrared visible sum-frequency generation abosolute phase mesurement study,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 172, 303–306(1990).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Pan, H. D. Wei, and Y. R. Shen, “Optical second-harmonic generation from magnetized surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 39, 1229–1234 (1989).

P. Guyot-Sionnest, R. Superfine, J. H. Hunt, and Y. R. Shen, “Vibrational spectroscopy of a silane monolayer at air solid and liquid solid interfaces using sum-frequency generation,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 144, 1–5 (1988).
[CrossRef]

P. Guyot-Sionnest and Y. R. Shen, “Bulk contribution in surface second-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. B 38, 7985–7989 (1988).

R. Superfine, P. Guyot-Sionnest, J. H. Hunt, C. T. Kao, and Y. R. Shen, “Surface vibrational spectroscopy of molecular adsorbates on metals and semiconductors by infrared-visible sum-frequency generation,” Surf. Sci. 200, L445–L450 (1988).
[CrossRef]

T. Stehlin, M. Feller, P. Guyot-Sionnest, and Y. R. Shen, “Optical second-harmonic generation as a surface probe for noncentrosymmetric media,” Opt. Lett. 13, 389–391 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Pan and Y. R. Shen, “Optical second harmonic generation as a probe for surface magnetization,” J. Chinese Phys. 25, 175–177 (1987).

X. D. Zhu, H. Suhr, and Y. R. Shen, “Surface vibrational spectroscopy by infrared-visible sum frequency generation,” Phys. Rev. B 35, 3047–3050 (1987).

P. Guyot-Sionnest, J. H. Hunt, and Y. R. Shen, “Sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopy of a Langmuir film: Study of molecular orientation of a two-dimensional system,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1597–1600 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Hunt, P. Guyot-Sionnest, and Y. R. Shen, “Observation of C-H stretch vibrations of monolayers of molecules optical sum-frequency generation,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 133, 189–192 (1987).
[CrossRef]

P. Guyot-Sionnest and Y. R. Shen, “Local and nonlocal surface nonlinearities for surface optical second-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. B 35, 4420–4426 (1987).

P. Guyot-Sionnest, H. Hsiung, and Y. R. Shen, “Surface polar ordering in a liquid crystal observed by optical second-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2963–2966 (1986).
[CrossRef]

H. W. K. Tom, X. D. Zhu, Y. R. Shen, and G. A. Somorjai, “Investigation of the Si(111) (7*7) surface by 2nd-harmonic generation—oxidation and the effects of surface phosphorus,” Surf. Sci. 167, 167–176 (1986).
[CrossRef]

R. T. Boyd, Y. R. Shen, and T. W. Hansch, “Continuous-wave second harmonic generation as a surface microprobe,” Opt. Lett. 11, 97–99 (1986).
[CrossRef]

G. Berkovic, Th. Rasing, and Y. R. Shen, “Study of monolayer polymerization using nonlinear optics,” J. Chem. Phys. 85, 7374–7376 (1986).
[CrossRef]

P. Guyot-Sionnest, W. Chen, and Y. R. Shen, “General considerations on optical second-harmonic generation from surfaces and interfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 33, 8254–8263 (1986).

Th. Rasing, Y. R. Shen, M. W. Kim, and S. Grubb, “Observation of molecular reorientation at a two-dimensional-liquid phase transition,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 2903–2906 (1985).
[CrossRef]

H. W. K. Tom, C. M. Mate, X. D. Zhu, J. E. Crowell, T. F. Heinz, G. A. Somorjai, and Y. R. Shen, “Surface studies by optical second harmonic generation: the adsorption of O2, CO and sodium on the Rh(111) surface,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 348–351 (1984).
[CrossRef]

H. W. K. Tom, T. F. Heinz, and Y. R. Shen, “Determination of molecular orientation of monolayer adsorbates by optical second-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 28, 1883–1885 (1983).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Heinz, C. K. Chen, D. Ricard, and Y. R. Shen, “Spectroscopy of molecular monolayers by resonant second-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 478–481 (1982).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Chen, T. F. Heinz, D. Ricard, and Y. R. Shen, “Detection of molecular monolayers by optical second-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 1010–1012 (1981).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Chen, A. R. B. de Castro, and Y. R. Shen, “Surface-enhanced second-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 145–148 (1981).
[CrossRef]

F. DeMartini, M. Colocci, S. E. Kohn, and Y. R. Shen, “Nonlinear optical exicitation of surface exciton polaritons in ZnO,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 1223–1226 (1977).
[CrossRef]

F. DeMartini, F. G. Giuliani, M. Mataloni, E. Palange, and Y. R. Shen, “Study of surface polaritons in GaP by optical four-wave mixing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 37, 440–443 (1976).
[CrossRef]

G. T. Boyd, Y. R. Shen, and T. W. Hansch, “Second-harmonic generation from sub-monolayer molecular adsorbates using a cw diode laser—Maui surface experiment,” in Laser Spectroscopy VII, ed. by T. W. Hansch and Y. R. Shen (Springer Verlag, 1985), p. 322–323.

Shultz, K. A.

K. A. Shultz and E. G. Seebauer, “Surface diffusion of Sb on Ge(111) monitored quantitatively with optical second harmonic microscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 97, 6958–6967 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Simon, H. J.

H. J. Simon, D. E. Mitchell, and J. G. Watson, “Optical second-harmonic generation with surface plasmons in siliver films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 33, 1531–1534 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Sipe, J. E.

J. E. Sipe, V. Mizrahi, and G. I. Stegeman, “Phenomenological theory of optical second- and third-harmonic generation from cubic centrosymmetric crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 35, 1129–1141 (1987).

Sitzmann, E. V.

A. Castro, E. V. Sitzmann, D. Zhang, and K. B. Eisenthal, “Rotational relaxation at the air/water interface by time-resolved second harmonic generation,” J. Phys. Chem. 95, 6752–6753 (1991).
[CrossRef]

E. V. Sitzmann and K. B. Eisenthal, “Picosecond dynamics of a chemical reaction at the air-water interface studied by surface second harmonic generation,” J. Phys. Chem. 92, 4579–4580 (1988).
[CrossRef]

E. V. Sitzmann and K. B. Eisenthal, “Picosecond dynamics of a chemical reaction at the air-water interface studied by surface second harmonic generation,” J. Phys. Chem. 92, 4579–4580 (1988).
[CrossRef]

K. Bhattachacharyya, E. V. Sitzmann, and K. B. Eisenthal, “Study of chemical reactions by surface second harmonic generation: p-nitrophenol at the airCwater interface,” J. Chem. Phys. 87, 1442–1443 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Smit, M.

M. Smit, A. Ghosh, M. Sterrer, M. Muller, and M. Bonn, “Ultrafast vibrational energy transfer between surface and bulk water at the air-water interface,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 098302-1–098302-4 (2007).

Smits, M.

M. Smits, A. Ghosh, J. Bredenbeck, S. Yamamoto, M. Mller, and M. Bonn, “Ultrafast energy flow in model biological membranes,” New J. Phys. 9, 390-1–390-20(2007).
[CrossRef]

Sommerfeld, A.

A. Sommerfeld, “Propagation of Waves in Wireless Telegraphy,” Ann. Phys. 28, 665–736 (1909).
[CrossRef]

Somorjai, G. A.

See the review article by Z. Chen, Y. R. Shen, and G. A. Somorjai, “Studies of polymer surfaces by sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 53, 437–465 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Somorjai and G. Rupprechter, “Molecular studies of catalytic reactions on crystal surfaces at high pressures and high temperatures by infrared-visible sum frequency generation (SFG) surface vibrational spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B 103, 1623–1638 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Z. Chen, R. Ward, Y. Tian, A. S. Eppler, Y. R. Shen, and G. A. Somorjai, “Surface composition of biopolymer blends biospan-SP/phenoxy and biospan-F/phenoxy observed with SFG, XPS, and contact angle goniometry,” J. Phys. Chem. B 103, 2935–2942 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Zhang, D. H. Gracias, R. Ward, M. Gauchler, Y. Tian, Y. R. Shen, and G. A. Somorjai, “Surface studies of polymer blends by sum frequency vibrational spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and contact angle goniometry,” J. Phys. Chem. B 102, 6225–6230 (1998).
[CrossRef]

X. Su, P. S. Cremer, Y. R. Shen, and G. A. Somorjai, “High-pressure CO oxidation on Pt(111) monitored with infrared-visible sum frequency generation (SFG),” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 119, 3994–4000 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Zhang, Y. R. Shen, and G. A. Somorjai, “Studies of surface structures and compositions of polyethylene and polypropylene by IR plus visible sum frequency vibrational spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 281, 394–400 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. S. Cremer, X. Su, Y. R. Shen, and G. A. Somorjai, “Hydrogenation and dehydrogenation of propylene on Pt(111) studied by sum frequency generation from UHV to atmospheric pressure,” J. Phys. Chem. 100, 16302–16309 (1996).
[CrossRef]

X. Su, P. Cremer, Y. R. Shen, and G. A. Somorjai, “Pressure dependence (10−10C700 Torr) of the vibrational spectra of adsorbed CO on Pt(111) studied by sum frequency generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3858–3860 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Stanners, Q. Du, R. P. Chin, P. Cremer, G. A. Somorjai, and Y. R. Shen, “Polar ordering at the liquid-vapor interface of N-alcohols(C-1-C-8),” Chem. Phys. Lett. 232, 407–413(1995).
[CrossRef]

H. W. K. Tom, X. D. Zhu, Y. R. Shen, and G. A. Somorjai, “Investigation of the Si(111) (7*7) surface by 2nd-harmonic generation—oxidation and the effects of surface phosphorus,” Surf. Sci. 167, 167–176 (1986).
[CrossRef]

H. W. K. Tom, C. M. Mate, X. D. Zhu, J. E. Crowell, T. F. Heinz, G. A. Somorjai, and Y. R. Shen, “Surface studies by optical second harmonic generation: the adsorption of O2, CO and sodium on the Rh(111) surface,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 348–351 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Soong, R.

K. Nguyen, R. Soong, S.-C. lm, L. Waskell, A. Ramamoorthy, and Z. Chen, “Probing the spontaneous membrane insertion of a tail-anchored membrane protein by sum frequency generation spectroscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132, 15112–15115(2010).
[CrossRef]

Stanners, C. D.

C. D. Stanners, Q. Du, R. P. Chin, P. Cremer, G. A. Somorjai, and Y. R. Shen, “Polar ordering at the liquid-vapor interface of N-alcohols(C-1-C-8),” Chem. Phys. Lett. 232, 407–413(1995).
[CrossRef]

Stegeman, G. I.

J. E. Sipe, V. Mizrahi, and G. I. Stegeman, “Phenomenological theory of optical second- and third-harmonic generation from cubic centrosymmetric crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 35, 1129–1141 (1987).

Stehlin, T.

Stephenson, J. C.

K. A. Briggman, J. C. Stephenson, W. E. Wallace, and L. J. Richter, “Absolute molecular orientational distribution of the polystyrene surface,” J. Phys. Chem. B 105, 2785–2791(2001).
[CrossRef]

L. J. Richter, T. P. Petralli, and J. C. Stephenson, “Vibrationally resolved sum-frequency generation with broad-bandwidth infrared pulses,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1594–1596 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sterrer, M.

M. Smit, A. Ghosh, M. Sterrer, M. Muller, and M. Bonn, “Ultrafast vibrational energy transfer between surface and bulk water at the air-water interface,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 098302-1–098302-4 (2007).

Stiopkin, I. V.

I. V. Stiopkin, H. D. Jayathilake, A. N. Bordenyuk, and A. V. Benderskii, “Heterodyne-detected vibrational sum frequency generation spectroscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130, 2271–2275 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Su, X.

X. Su, P. S. Cremer, Y. R. Shen, and G. A. Somorjai, “High-pressure CO oxidation on Pt(111) monitored with infrared-visible sum frequency generation (SFG),” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 119, 3994–4000 (1997).
[CrossRef]

X. Su, P. Cremer, Y. R. Shen, and G. A. Somorjai, “Pressure dependence (10−10C700 Torr) of the vibrational spectra of adsorbed CO on Pt(111) studied by sum frequency generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3858–3860 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. S. Cremer, X. Su, Y. R. Shen, and G. A. Somorjai, “Hydrogenation and dehydrogenation of propylene on Pt(111) studied by sum frequency generation from UHV to atmospheric pressure,” J. Phys. Chem. 100, 16302–16309 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Suhr, H.

X. D. Zhu, H. Suhr, and Y. R. Shen, “Surface vibrational spectroscopy by infrared-visible sum frequency generation,” Phys. Rev. B 35, 3047–3050 (1987).

Superfine, R.

Q. Du, R. Superfine, E. Freysz, and Y. R. Shen, “Vibrational spectroscopy of water at the vapor/water interface,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 2313–2316 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. Superfine, J. Y. Huang, and Y. R. Shen, “Nonlinear optical studies of the pure liquid/vapor interface: Vibrational spectra and polar ordering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1066–1069 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. Superfine, J. Y. Huang, and Y. R. Shen, “Experimental determination of the sign of molecular diople-moment derivatives—an infrared visible sum-frequency generation abosolute phase mesurement study,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 172, 303–306(1990).
[CrossRef]

R. Superfine, P. Guyot-Sionnest, J. H. Hunt, C. T. Kao, and Y. R. Shen, “Surface vibrational spectroscopy of molecular adsorbates on metals and semiconductors by infrared-visible sum-frequency generation,” Surf. Sci. 200, L445–L450 (1988).
[CrossRef]

P. Guyot-Sionnest, R. Superfine, J. H. Hunt, and Y. R. Shen, “Vibrational spectroscopy of a silane monolayer at air solid and liquid solid interfaces using sum-frequency generation,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 144, 1–5 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Tahara, T. J.

S. Nihonyanagi, S. Yamaguchi, and T. J. Tahara, “Direct evidence for orientational flip-flop of water molecules at charged interfaces: A heterodyne-detected vibrational sum frequency generation study,” J. Chem. Phys. 130, 204704-1–204704-5 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tian, C. S.

N. Ji, V. Ostroverkhov, C. S. Tian, and Y. R. Shen, “Characterization of vibrational resonances of water-vapor interfaces by phase-sensitive sum-frequency spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 096102-1–096102-4 (2008).

Tian, Y.

Z. Chen, R. Ward, Y. Tian, A. S. Eppler, Y. R. Shen, and G. A. Somorjai, “Surface composition of biopolymer blends biospan-SP/phenoxy and biospan-F/phenoxy observed with SFG, XPS, and contact angle goniometry,” J. Phys. Chem. B 103, 2935–2942 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Zhang, D. H. Gracias, R. Ward, M. Gauchler, Y. Tian, Y. R. Shen, and G. A. Somorjai, “Surface studies of polymer blends by sum frequency vibrational spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and contact angle goniometry,” J. Phys. Chem. B 102, 6225–6230 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tom, H. W. K.

Y. M. Chang, L. Xu, and H. W. K. Tom, “Coherent phonon spectroscopy of GaAs surfaces using time-resolved second harmonic generation,” Chem. Phys. 251, 283–308(2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. M. Chang, L. Xu, and H. W. K. Tom, “Observation of coherent surface optical phonon oscillations by time-resolved surface second-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 4649–4652 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. W. K. Tom, X. D. Zhu, Y. R. Shen, and G. A. Somorjai, “Investigation of the Si(111) (7*7) surface by 2nd-harmonic generation—oxidation and the effects of surface phosphorus,” Surf. Sci. 167, 167–176 (1986).
[CrossRef]

H. W. K. Tom, C. M. Mate, X. D. Zhu, J. E. Crowell, T. F. Heinz, G. A. Somorjai, and Y. R. Shen, “Surface studies by optical second harmonic generation: the adsorption of O2, CO and sodium on the Rh(111) surface,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 348–351 (1984).
[CrossRef]

H. W. K. Tom, T. F. Heinz, and Y. R. Shen, “Determination of molecular orientation of monolayer adsorbates by optical second-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 28, 1883–1885 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Vogel, V.

V. Vogel, “What do nonlinear optical techniques have to offer the biosciences?” Current opinion in colloid and interface science 1, 257–263 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wallace, W. E.

K. A. Briggman, J. C. Stephenson, W. E. Wallace, and L. J. Richter, “Absolute molecular orientational distribution of the polystyrene surface,” J. Phys. Chem. B 105, 2785–2791(2001).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C. C.

C. C. Wang, “Second-harmonic generation of light at the boundary of an isotropic medium,” Phys. Rev. 178, 1457–1460 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C. S.

J. M. Chen, J. R. Bower, C. S. Wang, and C. H. Lee, “Optical second-harmonic generation from sub monolayer Na-covered Ge surfaces,” Opt. Commun. 9, 132–134 (1973).

Wang, H.

H. Wang, E. C. Y. Yan, E. Borguet, and K. B. Eisenthal, “Second harmonic generation from the surface of centrosymmetric particles in bulk solution,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 259, 15–20(1996).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

J. Wang, S. M. Buck, M. A. Even, and Z. Chen, “Molecular responses of proteins at different interfacial environments detected by sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124, 13302–13305 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, S. M. Buck, and Z. Chen, “Sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy studies on protein adsorption,” J. Phys. Chem. B 106, 11666–11672 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ward, R.

Z. Chen, R. Ward, Y. Tian, A. S. Eppler, Y. R. Shen, and G. A. Somorjai, “Surface composition of biopolymer blends biospan-SP/phenoxy and biospan-F/phenoxy observed with SFG, XPS, and contact angle goniometry,” J. Phys. Chem. B 103, 2935–2942 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Zhang, D. H. Gracias, R. Ward, M. Gauchler, Y. Tian, Y. R. Shen, and G. A. Somorjai, “Surface studies of polymer blends by sum frequency vibrational spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and contact angle goniometry,” J. Phys. Chem. B 102, 6225–6230 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ward, R. N.

G. R. Bell, C. D. Bain, and R. N. Ward, “Sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopy of soluble surfactants at the air/water interface,” J. Chem. Soc., Faraday Trans. 92, 515–523 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. N. Ward, D. C. Duffy, P. B. Davies, and C. D. Bain, “Sum-frequency spectroscopy of surfactants adsorbed at a flat hydrophobic surface,” J. Phys. Chem. 98, 8536–8542 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Bain, P. B. Davies, and R. N. Ward, “In-situ sum-frequency spectroscopy of sodium dodecyl sulfate and dodecanol coadsorbed at a hydrophobic surface,” Langmuir 10, 2060–2063 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. N. Ward, P. B. Davies, and C. D. Bain, “Orientation of surfactants adsorbed on a hydrophobic surface,” J, Phys. Chem. 97, 7141–7143 (1993).

Waskell, L.

K. Nguyen, R. Soong, S.-C. lm, L. Waskell, A. Ramamoorthy, and Z. Chen, “Probing the spontaneous membrane insertion of a tail-anchored membrane protein by sum frequency generation spectroscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132, 15112–15115(2010).
[CrossRef]

Watson, J. G.

H. J. Simon, D. E. Mitchell, and J. G. Watson, “Optical second-harmonic generation with surface plasmons in siliver films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 33, 1531–1534 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Wei, H. D.

R. P. Pan, H. D. Wei, and Y. R. Shen, “Optical second-harmonic generation from magnetized surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 39, 1229–1234 (1989).

Wei, X.

H. Held, A. I. Lvovsky, X. Wei, and Y. R. Shen, “Bulk contribution from isotropic media in surface sum-frequency generation,” Phys. Rev. B 66, 205110-1–205110-7 (2002).

X. Wei, P. B. Miranda, and Y. R. Shen, “Surface vibrational spectroscopic study of surface melting of ice,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1554–1557 (2001).
[CrossRef]

X. Wei, S. C. Hong, X. Ahuang, T. Goto, and Y. R. Shen, “Nonlinear optical studies of liquid crystal alignment on a rubbed polyvinyl alcohol surface,” Phys. Rev. E 62, 5160–5172(2000).
[CrossRef]

X. Wei, X. Zhuang, S. C. Hong, T. Goto, and Y. R. Shen, “Sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopic study of a rubbed polymer surface,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4256–4259 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Weinreich, G.

P. A. Franken, A. E. Hill, C. W. Peters, and G. Weinreich, “Generation of optical harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 7, 118–119 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Wijnhoven, J. E. G. J.

S. Roke, W. G. Roeterkink, J. E. G. J. Wijnhoven, A. V. Petukhov, A. W. Kleyn, and M. Bonn, “Vibrational sum frequency scattering from a submicron suspension,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 258302-1–258302-4 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, M.

M. Bonn, C. Hess, S. Funk, J. H. Miners, B. N. Persson, M. Wolf, and G. Ertl, “Femtosecond surface vibrational spectroscopy of CO adsorbed on Ru(001) during desorption,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4653–4656 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wolfrum, K.

K. Wolfrum, H. Graener, and A. Laubereau, “Sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopy at the liquid air interface of methanol-water solutions,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 213, 41–46 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wu, M. H.

J. Y. Huang and M. H. Wu, “Nonlinear optical studies of binary mixtures of hydrogen bonded liquids,” Phys. Rev. E 50, 3737–3746 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Xu, L.

Y. M. Chang, L. Xu, and H. W. K. Tom, “Coherent phonon spectroscopy of GaAs surfaces using time-resolved second harmonic generation,” Chem. Phys. 251, 283–308(2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. M. Chang, L. Xu, and H. W. K. Tom, “Observation of coherent surface optical phonon oscillations by time-resolved surface second-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 4649–4652 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yamaguchi, S.

S. Nihonyanagi, S. Yamaguchi, and T. J. Tahara, “Direct evidence for orientational flip-flop of water molecules at charged interfaces: A heterodyne-detected vibrational sum frequency generation study,” J. Chem. Phys. 130, 204704-1–204704-5 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, S.

M. Smits, A. Ghosh, J. Bredenbeck, S. Yamamoto, M. Mller, and M. Bonn, “Ultrafast energy flow in model biological membranes,” New J. Phys. 9, 390-1–390-20(2007).
[CrossRef]

Yan, E. C. Y.

Y. Liu, E. C. Y. Yan, and K. B. Eisenthal, “Effects of bilayer surface charge density on molecular adsorption and transport across liposome bilayers,” Biophys. J. 80, 1004–1012 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, E. C. Y. Yan, and K. B. Eisenthal, “Effect of cholesterol on molecular transport of organic cations across liposome bilayers probed by second harmonic generation,” Biophys. J. 79, 898–903 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Wang, E. C. Y. Yan, E. Borguet, and K. B. Eisenthal, “Second harmonic generation from the surface of centrosymmetric particles in bulk solution,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 259, 15–20(1996).
[CrossRef]

Yang, N.

N. Yang, W. E. Angerer, and A. G. Yodh, “Angle-resolved second-harmonic light scattering from colloidal particles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 103902-1–103902-4 (2001).

Ye, S.

K. Nguyen, S. Le Clair, S. Ye, and Z. Chen, “Molecular Interactions between Magainin 2 and Model Membranes in Situ,” J. Phys. Chem. B 113, 12358–12363 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yen, R.

C. V. Shank, R. Yen, and C. Hirlimann, “Femtosecond-time-resolved surface structural dynamics of optically excited silicon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 900–902 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Yodh, A. G.

N. Yang, W. E. Angerer, and A. G. Yodh, “Angle-resolved second-harmonic light scattering from colloidal particles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 103902-1–103902-4 (2001).

Zhang, D.

D. Zhang, D. H. Gracias, R. Ward, M. Gauchler, Y. Tian, Y. R. Shen, and G. A. Somorjai, “Surface studies of polymer blends by sum frequency vibrational spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and contact angle goniometry,” J. Phys. Chem. B 102, 6225–6230 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Zhang, Y. R. Shen, and G. A. Somorjai, “Studies of surface structures and compositions of polyethylene and polypropylene by IR plus visible sum frequency vibrational spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 281, 394–400 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Zhang, J. H. Gunow, K. B. Eisenthal, and T. F. Heinz, “Sudden structural change at an air/binary liquid interface: Sum frequency study of the air/acetonitrileCwater interface,” J. Chem. Phys. 98, 5099–5101 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. Castro, E. V. Sitzmann, D. Zhang, and K. B. Eisenthal, “Rotational relaxation at the air/water interface by time-resolved second harmonic generation,” J. Phys. Chem. 95, 6752–6753 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, X. D.

X. D. Zhu and Y. R. , “Surface photon echoes in the infrared range,” Shen. Appl. Phys. B 50, 535–539 (1990).

X. D. Zhu, H. Suhr, and Y. R. Shen, “Surface vibrational spectroscopy by infrared-visible sum frequency generation,” Phys. Rev. B 35, 3047–3050 (1987).

H. W. K. Tom, X. D. Zhu, Y. R. Shen, and G. A. Somorjai, “Investigation of the Si(111) (7*7) surface by 2nd-harmonic generation—oxidation and the effects of surface phosphorus,” Surf. Sci. 167, 167–176 (1986).
[CrossRef]

H. W. K. Tom, C. M. Mate, X. D. Zhu, J. E. Crowell, T. F. Heinz, G. A. Somorjai, and Y. R. Shen, “Surface studies by optical second harmonic generation: the adsorption of O2, CO and sodium on the Rh(111) surface,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 348–351 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Zhuang, X.

X. Zhuang, P. B. Miranda, D. Kim, and Y. R. Shen, “Mapping molecular orientation and conformation at interfaces by surface nonlinear optics,” Phys. Rev. B 59, 12632–12640 (1999).

X. Wei, X. Zhuang, S. C. Hong, T. Goto, and Y. R. Shen, “Sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopic study of a rubbed polymer surface,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4256–4259 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zink, J. C.

J. Reif, J. C. Zink, C. M. Schneider, and J. Kirschner, “Effects of surface magnetism on optical second harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 2878–2881 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ann. Phys. (1)

A. Sommerfeld, “Propagation of Waves in Wireless Telegraphy,” Ann. Phys. 28, 665–736 (1909).
[CrossRef]

Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. (1)

See the review article by Z. Chen, Y. R. Shen, and G. A. Somorjai, “Studies of polymer surfaces by sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 53, 437–465 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Biochemistry (1)

T. C. Anglin and J. C. Conboy, “Kinetics and thermodynamics of flip-flop in binary phospholipid membranes measured by sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopy,” Biochemistry 48, 10220–10234 (2009).

Biophys. J. (4)

T. C. Anglin, J. Liu, and J. C. Conboy, “Facile lipid flip-flop in a phospholipid bilayer induced by gramicidin A measured by sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopy,” Biophys. J. 92, L01–L03 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu and J. C. Conboy, “1,2-diacyl-phosphatidylcholine flip-flop measured directly by sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopy,” Biophys. J. 89, 2522–2532 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, E. C. Y. Yan, and K. B. Eisenthal, “Effect of cholesterol on molecular transport of organic cations across liposome bilayers probed by second harmonic generation,” Biophys. J. 79, 898–903 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, E. C. Y. Yan, and K. B. Eisenthal, “Effects of bilayer surface charge density on molecular adsorption and transport across liposome bilayers,” Biophys. J. 80, 1004–1012 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. (1)

Y. M. Chang, L. Xu, and H. W. K. Tom, “Coherent phonon spectroscopy of GaAs surfaces using time-resolved second harmonic generation,” Chem. Phys. 251, 283–308(2000).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (12)

D. Zhang, Y. R. Shen, and G. A. Somorjai, “Studies of surface structures and compositions of polyethylene and polypropylene by IR plus visible sum frequency vibrational spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 281, 394–400 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Salafsky and K. B. Eisenthal, “Second harmonic spectroscopy: detection and orientation of molecules at a biomembrane interface,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 319, 435–439(2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Wang, E. C. Y. Yan, E. Borguet, and K. B. Eisenthal, “Second harmonic generation from the surface of centrosymmetric particles in bulk solution,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 259, 15–20(1996).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Hartings, “Second harmonic generation and fluorescence images from surfactants on hanging droplets,” A. Poon, X. Pu, R. K. Chang, and T. M. Leslie, Chem. Phys. Lett. 281, 389–393 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Fleishman, P. J. Hendra, and A. J. McQuillan, “Raman spectra of pyridine adsorbed at a silver electrode,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 26, 163–166 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. H. Hunt, P. Guyot-Sionnest, and Y. R. Shen, “Observation of C-H stretch vibrations of monolayers of molecules optical sum-frequency generation,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 133, 189–192 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (12)

A. L. Harris, C. E. D. Chidsey, N. J. Levinos, and D. N. Loiacono, “Monolayer vibrational spectroscopy by infrared-visible sum frequency generation at metal and semiconductor surfaces,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 141, 350–356 (1987).
[CrossRef]

R. Superfine, J. Y. Huang, and Y. R. Shen, “Experimental determination of the sign of molecular diople-moment derivatives—an infrared visible sum-frequency generation abosolute phase mesurement study,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 172, 303–306(1990).
[CrossRef]

P. Guyot-Sionnest, R. Superfine, J. H. Hunt, and Y. R. Shen, “Vibrational spectroscopy of a silane monolayer at air solid and liquid solid interfaces using sum-frequency generation,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 144, 1–5 (1988).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Miranda, Q. Du, and Y. R. Shen, “Interaction of water with a fatty acid Langmuir film,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 286, 1–8(1998).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Stanners, Q. Du, R. P. Chin, P. Cremer, G. A. Somorjai, and Y. R. Shen, “Polar ordering at the liquid-vapor interface of N-alcohols(C-1-C-8),” Chem. Phys. Lett. 232, 407–413(1995).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Sefler, Q. Du, P. B. Miranda, and Y. R. Shen, “Surface crystallization of liquid N-alkanes and alcohol monolayers studied by surface vibrational spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 235, 347–354 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. Wolfrum, H. Graener, and A. Laubereau, “Sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopy at the liquid air interface of methanol-water solutions,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 213, 41–46 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Current opinion in colloid and interface science (1)

V. Vogel, “What do nonlinear optical techniques have to offer the biosciences?” Current opinion in colloid and interface science 1, 257–263 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Euro. Phys. Lett. (1)

R. P. Chin, X. Blas, Y. R. Shen, and S. Louie, “Anharmonicity and lifetime of the CH stretch mode on diamond H/C(111)-(1x1),” Euro. Phys. Lett. 30, 399–404 (1995).

J, Phys. Chem. (1)

R. N. Ward, P. B. Davies, and C. D. Bain, “Orientation of surfactants adsorbed on a hydrophobic surface,” J, Phys. Chem. 97, 7141–7143 (1993).

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (7)

X. Su, P. S. Cremer, Y. R. Shen, and G. A. Somorjai, “High-pressure CO oxidation on Pt(111) monitored with infrared-visible sum frequency generation (SFG),” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 119, 3994–4000 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Messmer, J. C. Conboy, and G. Richmond, “Observation of molecular ordering at the liquid-liquid interface by resonant sum frequency generation,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 117, 8039–8040 (1995).
[CrossRef]

I. V. Stiopkin, H. D. Jayathilake, A. N. Bordenyuk, and A. V. Benderskii, “Heterodyne-detected vibrational sum frequency generation spectroscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130, 2271–2275 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu and J. C. Conboy, “Direct measurement of the transbilayer movement of phospholipids by sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126, 8376–8377 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu and J. C. Conboy, “Phase transition of a single lipid bilayer measured by sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126, 8894–8895 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, S. M. Buck, M. A. Even, and Z. Chen, “Molecular responses of proteins at different interfacial environments detected by sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124, 13302–13305 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Nguyen, R. Soong, S.-C. lm, L. Waskell, A. Ramamoorthy, and Z. Chen, “Probing the spontaneous membrane insertion of a tail-anchored membrane protein by sum frequency generation spectroscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132, 15112–15115(2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (6)

A. L. Harris and N. J. Levinos, “Vibrational energy relaxation in a molecular monolayer at a metal surface,” J. Chem. Phys. 90, 3878–3879 (1989).
[CrossRef]

K. Bhattachacharyya, E. V. Sitzmann, and K. B. Eisenthal, “Study of chemical reactions by surface second harmonic generation: p-nitrophenol at the airCwater interface,” J. Chem. Phys. 87, 1442–1443 (1987).
[CrossRef]

S. Nihonyanagi, S. Yamaguchi, and T. J. Tahara, “Direct evidence for orientational flip-flop of water molecules at charged interfaces: A heterodyne-detected vibrational sum frequency generation study,” J. Chem. Phys. 130, 204704-1–204704-5 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Zhang, J. H. Gunow, K. B. Eisenthal, and T. F. Heinz, “Sudden structural change at an air/binary liquid interface: Sum frequency study of the air/acetonitrileCwater interface,” J. Chem. Phys. 98, 5099–5101 (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. Berkovic, Th. Rasing, and Y. R. Shen, “Study of monolayer polymerization using nonlinear optics,” J. Chem. Phys. 85, 7374–7376 (1986).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Shultz and E. G. Seebauer, “Surface diffusion of Sb on Ge(111) monitored quantitatively with optical second harmonic microscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 97, 6958–6967 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Soc., Faraday Trans. (1)

G. R. Bell, C. D. Bain, and R. N. Ward, “Sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopy of soluble surfactants at the air/water interface,” J. Chem. Soc., Faraday Trans. 92, 515–523 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Chinese Phys. (1)

R. P. Pan and Y. R. Shen, “Optical second harmonic generation as a probe for surface magnetization,” J. Chinese Phys. 25, 175–177 (1987).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. Chem. (6)

E. V. Sitzmann and K. B. Eisenthal, “Picosecond dynamics of a chemical reaction at the air-water interface studied by surface second harmonic generation,” J. Phys. Chem. 92, 4579–4580 (1988).
[CrossRef]

E. V. Sitzmann and K. B. Eisenthal, “Picosecond dynamics of a chemical reaction at the air-water interface studied by surface second harmonic generation,” J. Phys. Chem. 92, 4579–4580 (1988).
[CrossRef]

A. Castro, E. V. Sitzmann, D. Zhang, and K. B. Eisenthal, “Rotational relaxation at the air/water interface by time-resolved second harmonic generation,” J. Phys. Chem. 95, 6752–6753 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Conboy, M. C. Messmer, and G. L. Richmond, “Investigation of surfactant conformation and order at the liquid-liquid interface by total internal reflection sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. 100, 7617–7622 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. S. Cremer, X. Su, Y. R. Shen, and G. A. Somorjai, “Hydrogenation and dehydrogenation of propylene on Pt(111) studied by sum frequency generation from UHV to atmospheric pressure,” J. Phys. Chem. 100, 16302–16309 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. N. Ward, D. C. Duffy, P. B. Davies, and C. D. Bain, “Sum-frequency spectroscopy of surfactants adsorbed at a flat hydrophobic surface,” J. Phys. Chem. 98, 8536–8542 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. B (9)

G. A. Somorjai and G. Rupprechter, “Molecular studies of catalytic reactions on crystal surfaces at high pressures and high temperatures by infrared-visible sum frequency generation (SFG) surface vibrational spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B 103, 1623–1638 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Miranda and Y. R. Shen, “Liquid interfaces: A study by sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B 103, 3292–3307 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Conboy, M. C. Messmer, and G. Richmond, “Dependence of alkyl chain conformation of simple ionic surfactants on head group functionality as studied by vibrational sum-frequency spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B 101, 6724–6733 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. R. Bell, S. Manning-Benson, and C. D. Bain, “Effect of chain length on the structure of monolayers of alkyltrimethylammonium bromides (C_nTABs) at the air-water interface,” J. Phys. Chem. B 102, 218–222 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Briggman, J. C. Stephenson, W. E. Wallace, and L. J. Richter, “Absolute molecular orientational distribution of the polystyrene surface,” J. Phys. Chem. B 105, 2785–2791(2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Nguyen, S. Le Clair, S. Ye, and Z. Chen, “Molecular Interactions between Magainin 2 and Model Membranes in Situ,” J. Phys. Chem. B 113, 12358–12363 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Zhang, D. H. Gracias, R. Ward, M. Gauchler, Y. Tian, Y. R. Shen, and G. A. Somorjai, “Surface studies of polymer blends by sum frequency vibrational spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and contact angle goniometry,” J. Phys. Chem. B 102, 6225–6230 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Z. Chen, R. Ward, Y. Tian, A. S. Eppler, Y. R. Shen, and G. A. Somorjai, “Surface composition of biopolymer blends biospan-SP/phenoxy and biospan-F/phenoxy observed with SFG, XPS, and contact angle goniometry,” J. Phys. Chem. B 103, 2935–2942 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, S. M. Buck, and Z. Chen, “Sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy studies on protein adsorption,” J. Phys. Chem. B 106, 11666–11672 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. C (1)

J. Liu and J. C. Conboy, “Asymmetric distribution of lipids in a phase segregated phospholipid bilayer observed by sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111, 8988–8999 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Struct. Biol. (1)

T. C. Anglin, K. L. Brown, and J. C. Conboy, “Phospholipid flip-flop modulated by transmembrane peptides WALP and melittin,” J. Struct. Biol. 168, 37–52 (2009).

Langmuir (1)

C. D. Bain, P. B. Davies, and R. N. Ward, “In-situ sum-frequency spectroscopy of sodium dodecyl sulfate and dodecanol coadsorbed at a hydrophobic surface,” Langmuir 10, 2060–2063 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

See, for example, W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424, 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef]

New J. Phys. (1)

M. Smits, A. Ghosh, J. Bredenbeck, S. Yamamoto, M. Mller, and M. Bonn, “Ultrafast energy flow in model biological membranes,” New J. Phys. 9, 390-1–390-20(2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

J. M. Chen, J. R. Bower, C. S. Wang, and C. H. Lee, “Optical second-harmonic generation from sub monolayer Na-covered Ge surfaces,” Opt. Commun. 9, 132–134 (1973).

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. (4)

N. Bloembergen, R. K. Chang, S. S. Jha, and C. H. Lee, “Optical second-harmonic generation in reflection from media with inversion symmetry,” Phys. Rev. 174, 813–822 (1968).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Armstrong, N. Bloembergen, J. Ducuing, and P. S. Pershan, “Interactions between light waves in a nonlinear dielectric,” Phys. Rev. 127, 1918–1939 (1962).
[CrossRef]

N. Bloembergen and P. S. Pershan, “Light waves at the bondary of nolinear media,” Phys. Rev. 128, 606–622 (1962).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Wang, “Second-harmonic generation of light at the boundary of an isotropic medium,” Phys. Rev. 178, 1457–1460 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

H. W. K. Tom, T. F. Heinz, and Y. R. Shen, “Determination of molecular orientation of monolayer adsorbates by optical second-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 28, 1883–1885 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (9)

X. D. Zhu, H. Suhr, and Y. R. Shen, “Surface vibrational spectroscopy by infrared-visible sum frequency generation,” Phys. Rev. B 35, 3047–3050 (1987).

P. Guyot-Sionnest, W. Chen, and Y. R. Shen, “General considerations on optical second-harmonic generation from surfaces and interfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 33, 8254–8263 (1986).

P. Guyot-Sionnest and Y. R. Shen, “Local and nonlocal surface nonlinearities for surface optical second-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. B 35, 4420–4426 (1987).

J. E. Sipe, V. Mizrahi, and G. I. Stegeman, “Phenomenological theory of optical second- and third-harmonic generation from cubic centrosymmetric crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 35, 1129–1141 (1987).

R. P. Pan, H. D. Wei, and Y. R. Shen, “Optical second-harmonic generation from magnetized surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 39, 1229–1234 (1989).

P. Guyot-Sionnest and Y. R. Shen, “Bulk contribution in surface second-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. B 38, 7985–7989 (1988).

H. Held, A. I. Lvovsky, X. Wei, and Y. R. Shen, “Bulk contribution from isotropic media in surface sum-frequency generation,” Phys. Rev. B 66, 205110-1–205110-7 (2002).

R. P. Chin, J. Y. Huang, Y. R. Shen, T. J. Chuang, and H. Seki, “Interaction of atomic hydrogen with the diamond C(111) surface studied by infrared-visible sum-frequency-generation spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 52, 5985–5995 (1995).

X. Zhuang, P. B. Miranda, D. Kim, and Y. R. Shen, “Mapping molecular orientation and conformation at interfaces by surface nonlinear optics,” Phys. Rev. B 59, 12632–12640 (1999).

Phys. Rev. E (2)

X. Wei, S. C. Hong, X. Ahuang, T. Goto, and Y. R. Shen, “Nonlinear optical studies of liquid crystal alignment on a rubbed polyvinyl alcohol surface,” Phys. Rev. E 62, 5160–5172(2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Huang and M. H. Wu, “Nonlinear optical studies of binary mixtures of hydrogen bonded liquids,” Phys. Rev. E 50, 3737–3746 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (35)

X. Su, P. Cremer, Y. R. Shen, and G. A. Somorjai, “Pressure dependence (10−10C700 Torr) of the vibrational spectra of adsorbed CO on Pt(111) studied by sum frequency generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3858–3860 (1996).
[CrossRef]

N. Ji, V. Ostroverkhov, C. S. Tian, and Y. R. Shen, “Characterization of vibrational resonances of water-vapor interfaces by phase-sensitive sum-frequency spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 096102-1–096102-4 (2008).

X. Wei, X. Zhuang, S. C. Hong, T. Goto, and Y. R. Shen, “Sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopic study of a rubbed polymer surface,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4256–4259 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Superfine, J. Y. Huang, and Y. R. Shen, “Nonlinear optical studies of the pure liquid/vapor interface: Vibrational spectra and polar ordering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1066–1069 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Q. Du, R. Superfine, E. Freysz, and Y. R. Shen, “Vibrational spectroscopy of water at the vapor/water interface,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 2313–2316 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Q. Du, E. Freysz, and Y. R. Shen, “Vibrational spectra of water molecules at quartz/water interfaces,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 238–241 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Reif, J. C. Zink, C. M. Schneider, and J. Kirschner, “Effects of surface magnetism on optical second harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 2878–2881 (1991).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Heinz, F. J. Himipsel, E. Palange, and E. Burstein, “Electronic transitions at the CaF2/Si(111) interface probed by resonant three-wave mixing spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 644–647 (1989).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Heinz, C. K. Chen, D. Ricard, and Y. R. Shen, “Spectroscopy of molecular monolayers by resonant second-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 478–481 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Th. Rasing, Y. R. Shen, M. W. Kim, and S. Grubb, “Observation of molecular reorientation at a two-dimensional-liquid phase transition,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 2903–2906 (1985).
[CrossRef]

H. W. K. Tom, C. M. Mate, X. D. Zhu, J. E. Crowell, T. F. Heinz, G. A. Somorjai, and Y. R. Shen, “Surface studies by optical second harmonic generation: the adsorption of O2, CO and sodium on the Rh(111) surface,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 348–351 (1984).
[CrossRef]

P. Guyot-Sionnest, J. H. Hunt, and Y. R. Shen, “Sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopy of a Langmuir film: Study of molecular orientation of a two-dimensional system,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1597–1600 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Ducuing and N. Bloembergen, “Observation of reflected light harmonics at the boundary of piezoelectric crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 10, 474–476 (1963).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Chang, C. H. Lee, and N. Bloembergen, “Second-harmonic generation of light in reflection from media with inversion symmetry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 16, 986–989 (1965).

P. A. Franken, A. E. Hill, C. W. Peters, and G. Weinreich, “Generation of optical harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 7, 118–119 (1961).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Simon, D. E. Mitchell, and J. G. Watson, “Optical second-harmonic generation with surface plasmons in siliver films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 33, 1531–1534 (1974).
[CrossRef]

F. DeMartini, F. G. Giuliani, M. Mataloni, E. Palange, and Y. R. Shen, “Study of surface polaritons in GaP by optical four-wave mixing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 37, 440–443 (1976).
[CrossRef]

F. DeMartini, M. Colocci, S. E. Kohn, and Y. R. Shen, “Nonlinear optical exicitation of surface exciton polaritons in ZnO,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 1223–1226 (1977).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Chen, A. R. B. de Castro, and Y. R. Shen, “Surface-enhanced second-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 145–148 (1981).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Chen, T. F. Heinz, D. Ricard, and Y. R. Shen, “Detection of molecular monolayers by optical second-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 1010–1012 (1981).
[CrossRef]

T. Pons, L. Moreaux, and J. Mertz, “Photoinduced flip-flop of amphiphilic molecules in lipid nilayer membranes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 288104-1–288104-4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

X. Wei, P. B. Miranda, and Y. R. Shen, “Surface vibrational spectroscopic study of surface melting of ice,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1554–1557 (2001).
[CrossRef]

W. T. Liu and Y. R. Shen, “Surface vibrational modes of α-Quartz (0001) probed by sum-frequency spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 016101-1–016101-4 (2008).

Y. M. Chang, L. Xu, and H. W. K. Tom, “Observation of coherent surface optical phonon oscillations by time-resolved surface second-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 4649–4652 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Harris, L. Rothberg, L. H. Dubos, N. J. Levinos, and L. Dahr, “Molecular vibrational energy relaxation at a metal surface: Methyl thiolate on Ag(111),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 2086–2089 (1990).
[CrossRef]

P. Guyto-Sionnest, P. Dumas, Y. J. Chabal, and G. S. Higashi, “Lifetime of an adsorbate-substrate vibration: H on Si(111),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 2156–2159 (1990).
[CrossRef]

P. Guyot-Sionnest, “Coherent processes at surfaces: Free-induction decay and photon echo of the Si-H stretching vibration for H/Si(111),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1489–1492(1991).
[CrossRef]

J. I. Dadap, J. Shan, K. B. Eisenthal, and T. F. Heinz, “Second-harmonic Rayleigh scattering from a sphere of centrosymmetric material,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 4045–4048 (1999).
[CrossRef]

N. Yang, W. E. Angerer, and A. G. Yodh, “Angle-resolved second-harmonic light scattering from colloidal particles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 103902-1–103902-4 (2001).

S. Roke, W. G. Roeterkink, J. E. G. J. Wijnhoven, A. V. Petukhov, A. W. Kleyn, and M. Bonn, “Vibrational sum frequency scattering from a submicron suspension,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 258302-1–258302-4 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Heinz, F. J. Himpsel, E. Palange, and E. Burstein, “Electronic transitions at the CaF2/Si(111) interface probed by resonant three-wave mixing spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 644–647 (1989).
[CrossRef]

P. Guyot-Sionnest, H. Hsiung, and Y. R. Shen, “Surface polar ordering in a liquid crystal observed by optical second-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2963–2966 (1986).
[CrossRef]

C. V. Shank, R. Yen, and C. Hirlimann, “Femtosecond-time-resolved surface structural dynamics of optically excited silicon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 900–902 (1983).
[CrossRef]

M. Bonn, C. Hess, S. Funk, J. H. Miners, B. N. Persson, M. Wolf, and G. Ertl, “Femtosecond surface vibrational spectroscopy of CO adsorbed on Ru(001) during desorption,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4653–4656 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Smit, A. Ghosh, M. Sterrer, M. Muller, and M. Bonn, “Ultrafast vibrational energy transfer between surface and bulk water at the air-water interface,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 098302-1–098302-4 (2007).

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (1)

Y. R. Shen, “A few selected applications of surface nonlinear optical spectroscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 93, 12104–12111 (1996).

Science (2)

Q. Du, E. Freysz, and Y. R. Shen, “Surface vibrational spectroscopic studies of hydrogen-bonding and hydrophobicity,” Science 264, 826–828 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. A. McGuire and Y. R. Shen, “Ultrafast vibrational dynamics at water interfaces,” Science 313, 1945–1948 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shen. Appl. Phys. B (1)

X. D. Zhu and Y. R. , “Surface photon echoes in the infrared range,” Shen. Appl. Phys. B 50, 535–539 (1990).

Surf. Sci. (3)

T. E. Furtak and J. Reyes, “A critical analysis of theoretical-models for the giant Raman effect from adsorbed molecules,” Surf. Sci. 93, 351–382 (1980).
[CrossRef]

R. Superfine, P. Guyot-Sionnest, J. H. Hunt, C. T. Kao, and Y. R. Shen, “Surface vibrational spectroscopy of molecular adsorbates on metals and semiconductors by infrared-visible sum-frequency generation,” Surf. Sci. 200, L445–L450 (1988).
[CrossRef]

H. W. K. Tom, X. D. Zhu, Y. R. Shen, and G. A. Somorjai, “Investigation of the Si(111) (7*7) surface by 2nd-harmonic generation—oxidation and the effects of surface phosphorus,” Surf. Sci. 167, 167–176 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Z. Phys. (2)

E. Kretschmann, “Determination of optical constants of metals by excitation of surface plasmons,” Z. Phys. 241, 313–324 (1971).
[CrossRef]

A. Otto, “Excitation of nonradiative surface plasma waves in silver by method of frustrated total reflection,” Z. Phys. 216, 398–410 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

G. T. Boyd, Y. R. Shen, and T. W. Hansch, “Second-harmonic generation from sub-monolayer molecular adsorbates using a cw diode laser—Maui surface experiment,” in Laser Spectroscopy VII, ed. by T. W. Hansch and Y. R. Shen (Springer Verlag, 1985), p. 322–323.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematics of the beam geometry and energy level diagrams for SF vibrational spectroscopy.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

SF vibrational spectra of three different interfaces obtained with PPP polarization combination. Dashes: silica/hexadecane interface. Solid squares: silica/OTS/CCl4 interfaces. Triangles: silica/OTS/hexadecane interface. The dashed and solid lines are guides for the eye. [60]

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

SF vibrational spectra of (a) PVA/silica and (b) PVA/air interfaces. The input/output polarization combination is SSP. [61]

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

SF vibrational spectra in the OH stretch range of the water/air interface at 20 °C with three different polarization combinations (a) SSP, (b) PPP, and (c) SPS. Presented also in (a) are the IR spectrum of the bulk water (blue curve) and the SF vibrational spectrum of the ice(0001)/air interface (red curve). (After X. Wei and Y.R. Shen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 4799 (2001)).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(A). IR spectra of (a) low density (LDPE) and ultrahigh molecular weight (UHMWPE) polyethylenes, respectively, and Raman spectra of (c) LDPE and (d) commercial low density (CLDPE) polyethylene. (B). SFG surface vibrational spectra of (a) LDPE, (b) UHMWPE, and (c) CLDPE with SSP and SPS polarization combintations [83].

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

S|χS,eff(2)|2χS,eff(2)=χS(2)+χB(2)/iΔk,
χS,eff(2)(ωIR)=χNR(2)+A(ωq)ρ(ωq)ωIRωq+iΓqdωq,ImχS,eff(2)(ωIR)=πA(ωq)ρ(ωq).
χS,eff(2)(ωIR)=χNR(2)+qA(ωq)ωIRωq+iΓq,ImχS,eff(2)(ωIR)=ΓqA(ωq)(ωIRωq)2+Γq2.

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