Abstract

We review the use of hollow-core photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) in the field of ultrafast gas-based nonlinear optics, including recent experiments, numerical modeling, and a discussion of future prospects. Concentrating on broadband guiding kagomé-style hollow-core PCF, we describe its potential for moving conventional nonlinear fiber optics both into extreme regimes—such as few-cycle pulse compression and efficient deep ultraviolet wavelength generation—and into regimes hitherto inaccessible, such as single-mode guidance in a photoionized plasma and high-harmonic generation in fiber.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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2011 (9)

P. Hölzer, W. Chang, J. C. Travers, A. Nazarkin, J. Nold, N. Y. Joly, M. Saleh, F. Biancalana, and P. St. J. Russell, “Femtosecond nonlinear fiber optics in the ionization regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 203901 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Benabid and P. J. Roberts, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of hollow core photonic crystal fiber,” J. Mod. Opt. 58, 87–124 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Y. Joly, J. Nold, W. Chang, P. Hölzer, A. Nazarkin, G. K. L. Wong, F. Biancalana, and P. St. J. Russell, “Bright spatially coherent wavelength-tunable deep-UV laser source using an ar-filled photonic crystal fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 203901 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Limpert, S. Hädrich, J. Rothhardt, M. Krebs, T. Eidam, T. Schreiber, and A. Tünnermann, “Ultrafast fiber lasers for strong‐field physics experiments,” Laser Photon. Rev. 5, 634–646 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Saleh, W. Chang, P. Hölzer, A. Nazarkin, J. C. Travers, N. Joly, P. St. J. Russell, and F. Biancalana, “Theory of photoionization-induced blueshift of ultrashort solitons in gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 203902 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Jiang, T. G. Euser, A. Abdolvand, F. Babic, F. Tani, N. Y. Joly, J. C. Travers, and P. St. J. Russell, “Single-mode hollow-core photonic crystal fiber made from soft glass,” Opt. Express 19, 15438–15444 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Rodríguez, Z. Sun, Z. Wang, and W. Rudolph, “Characterization of laser-induced air plasmas by third harmonic generation,” Opt. Express 19, 16115–16125 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. H. Heckl, C. J. Saraceno, C. R. E. Baer, T. Südmeyer, Y. Y. Wang, Y. Cheng, F. Benabid, and U. Keller, “Temporal pulse compression in a xenon-filled kagome-type hollow-core photonic crystal fiber at high average power,” Opt. Express 19, 19142–19149 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Chang, A. Nazarkin, J. C. Travers, J. Nold, P. Hölzer, N. Y. Joly, and P. St. J. Russell, “Influence of ionization on ultrafast gas-based nonlinear fiber optics,” Opt. Express 19, 21018–21027 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (6)

S.-J. Im, A. Husakou, and J. Herrmann, “High-power soliton-induced supercontinuum generation and tunable sub-10 fs VUV pulses from kagome-lattice HC-PCFs,” Opt. Express 18, 5367–5374 (2010).
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J. Nold, P. Hölzer, N. Y. Joly, G. K. L. Wong, A. Nazarkin, A. Podlipensky, M. Scharrer, and P. St. J. Russell, “Pressure-controlled phase matching to third harmonic in Ar-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 35, 2922–2924(2010).
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P. J. Mosley, W. C. Huang, M. G. Welch, B. J. Mangan, W. J. Wadsworth, and J. C. Knight, “Ultrashort pulse compression and delivery in a hollow-core photonic crystal fiber at 540 nm wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 35, 3589–3591 (2010).
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T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, P. Arpin, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “The attosecond nonlinear optics of bright coherent x-ray generation,” Nat. Photon. 4, 822–832 (2010).
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J. C. Travers, “Blue extension of optical fibre supercontinuum generation,” J. Opt. 12, 113001 (2010).
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A. Nazarkin, A. Abdolvand, A. V. Chugreev, and P. St. J. Russell, “Direct observation of self-similarity in evolution of transient stimulated Raman scattering in gas-filled photonic crystal fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 173902 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (7)

P. Londero, V. Venkataraman, A. R. Bhagwat, A. D. Slepkov, and A. L. Gaeta, “Ultralow-power four-wave mixing with Rb in a hollow-core photonic band-gap fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 043602 (2009).
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A. Abdolvand, A. Nazarkin, A. V. Chugreev, C. F. Kaminski, and P. St. J. Russell, “Solitary pulse generation by backward Raman scattering in H2-filled photonic crystal fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 183902 (2009).
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J. M. Dudley and J. R. Taylor, “Ten years of nonlinear optics in photonic crystal fibre,” Nat. Photon. 3, 85–90 (2009).
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O. H. Heckl, C. R. E. Baer, C. Kränkel, S. V. Marchese, F. Schapper, M. Holler, T. Südmeyer, J. S. Robinson, J. W. G. Tisch, F. Couny, P. Light, F. Benabid, and U. Keller, “High harmonic generation in a gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Phys. B 97, 369–373 (2009).
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S.-J. Im, A. Husakou, and J. Herrmann, “Guiding properties and dispersion control of kagome lattice hollow-core photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Express 17, 13050–13058 (2009).
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A. A. Ishaaya, C. J. Hensley, B. Shim, S. Schrauth, K. W. Koch, and A. L. Gaeta, “Highly-efficient coupling of linearly- and radially-polarized femtosecond pulses in hollow-core photonic band-gap fibers,” Opt. Express 17, 18630–18637 (2009).
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J. Lægsgaard and P. J. Roberts, “Theory of adiabatic pressure-gradient soliton compression in hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers,” Opt. Lett. 34, 3710–3712 (2009).
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2008 (10)

F. Gérôme, P. Dupriez, J. Clowes, J. C. Knight, and W. J. Wadsworth, “High power tunable femtosecond soliton source using hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber, and its use for frequency doubling,” Opt. Express 16, 2381–2386 (2008).
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A. R. Bhagwat and A. L. Gaeta, “Nonlinear optics in hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers,” Opt. Express 16, 5035–5047 (2008).
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E. E. Serebryannikov, D. von der Linde, and A. M. Zheltikov, “Broadband dynamic phase matching of high-order harmonic generation by a high-peak-power soliton pump field in a gas-filled hollow photonic-crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 33, 977–979(2008).
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J. Henningsen and J. Hald, “Dynamics of gas flow in hollow core photonic bandgap fibers,” Appl. Opt. 47, 2790–2797 (2008).
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A. Börzsönyi, Z. Heiner, M. P. Kalashnikov, A. P. Kovács, and K. Osvay, “Dispersion measurement of inert gases and gas mixtures at 800 nm,” Appl. Opt. 47, 4856–4863 (2008).
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H. Ren, A. Nazarkin, J. Nold, and P. St. J. Russell, “Quasi-phase-matched high harmonic generation in hollow core photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Express 16, 17052–17059 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617(2008).
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G. Lambert, T. Hara, D. Garzella, T. Tanikawa, M. Labat, B. Carre, H. Kitamura, T. Shintake, M. Bougeard, S. Inoue, Y. Tanaka, P. Salieres, H. Merdji, O. Chubar, O. Gobert, K. Tahara, and M.-E. Couprie, “Injection of harmonics generated in gas in a free-electron laser providing intense and coherent extreme-ultraviolet light,” Nat. Phys. 4, 296–300 (2008).
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A. A. Voronin and A. M. Zheltikov, “Soliton-number analysis of soliton-effect pulse compression to single-cycle pulse widths,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 063834 (2008).
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2007 (6)

E. E. Serebryannikov and A. M. Zheltikov, “Ionization-induced effects in the soliton dynamics of high-peak-power femtosecond pulses in hollow photonic-crystal fibers,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 013820 (2007).
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A. B. Fedotov, E. E. Serebryannikov, and A. M. Zheltikov, “Ionization-induced blueshift of high-peak-power guided-wave ultrashort laser pulses in hollow-core photonic-crystal fibers,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 053811 (2007).
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L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Ultrashort filaments of light in weakly ionized, optically transparent media,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 1633–1713 (2007).
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F. Couny, F. Benabid, P. J. Roberts, P. S. Light, and M. G. Raymer, “Generation and photonic guidance of multi-octave optical-frequency combs,” Science 318, 1118–1121 (2007).
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F. Gérôme, K. Cook, A. K. George, W. J. Wadsworth, and J. C. Knight, “Delivery of sub-100 fs pulses through 8 m of hollow-core fiber using soliton compression,” Opt. Express 15, 7126–7131(2007).
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J. C. Travers, J. M. Stone, A. B. Rulkov, B. A. Cumberland, A. K. George, S. V. Popov, J. C. Knight, and J. R. Taylor, “Optical pulse compression in dispersion decreasing photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Express 15, 13203–13211 (2007).
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2006 (4)

F. Couny, F. Benabid, and P. S. Light, “Large-pitch kagome-structured hollow-core photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 31, 3574–3576 (2006).
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P. St. J. Russell, “Photonic-crystal fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 4729–4749 (2006).
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J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 1135–1184(2006).
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G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
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2005 (5)

S. Naumov, A. Fernandez, R. Graf, P. Dombi, F. Krausz, and A. Apolonski, “Approaching the microjoule frontier with femtosecond laser oscillators,” New J. Phys. 7, 216(2005).
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A. Suda, M. Hatayama, K. Nagasaka, and K. Midorikawa, “Generation of sub-10 fs, 5 mJ-optical pulses using a hollow fiber with a pressure gradient,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 111116(2005).
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S. Ghosh, J. E. Sharping, D. G. Ouzounov, and A. L. Gaeta, “Resonant optical interactions with molecules confined in photonic band-gap fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 093902 (2005).
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P. Roberts, F. Couny, H. Sabert, B. Mangan, D. Williams, L. Farr, M. Mason, A. Tomlinson, T. Birks, J. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “Ultimate low loss of hollow-core photonic crystal fibres,” Opt. Express 13, 236–244 (2005).
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D. Ouzounov, C. Hensley, A. Gaeta, N. Venkateraman, M. Gallagher, and K. Koch, “Soliton pulse compression in photonic band-gap fibers.,” Opt. Express 13, 6153–6159 (2005).
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2004 (4)

F. Benabid, G. Bouwmans, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, and F. Couny, “Ultrahigh efficiency laser wavelength conversion in a gas-filled hollow core photonic crystal fiber by pure stimulated rotational Raman scattering in molecular hydrogen,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 123903 (2004).
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C. J. S. de Matos, S. V. Popov, A. B. Rulkov, J. R. Taylor, J. Broeng, T. P. Hansen, and V. P. Gapontsev, “All-fiber format compression of frequency chirped pulses in air-guiding photonic crystal fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 103901 (2004).
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E. E. Serebryannikov, D. von der Linde, and A. M. Zheltikov, “Phase-matching solutions for high-order harmonic generation in hollow-core photonic-crystal fibers,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 066619 (2004).
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V. S. Popov, “Tunnel and multiphoton ionization of atoms and ions in a strong laser field (Keldysh theory),” Phys. Usp. 47, 855–885 (2004).
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2003 (5)

P. St. J. Russell, “Photonic crystal fibers,” Science 299, 358–362(2003).
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J. C. Knight, “Photonic crystal fibres,” Nature 424, 847–851(2003).
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D. G. Ouzounov, F. R. Ahmad, D. Müller, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, M. G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. W. Koch, and A. L. Gaeta, “Generation of megawatt optical solitons in hollow-core photonic band-gap fibers,” Science 301, 1702–1704 (2003).
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C. J. S. de Matos, J. R. Taylor, T. Hansen, K. Hansen, and J. Broeng, “All-fiber chirped pulse amplification using highly-dispersive air-core photonic bandgap fiber,” Opt. Express 11, 2832–2837 (2003).
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J. Limpert, T. Schreiber, S. Nolte, H. Zellmer, and A. Tünnermann, “All fiber chirped-pulse amplification system based on compression in air-guiding photonic bandgap fiber,” Opt. Express 11, 3332–3337 (2003).
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2002 (5)

C. M. Chen and P. L. Kelley, “Nonlinear pulse compression in optical fibers: scaling laws and numerical analysis,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 1961–1967 (2002).
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F. Benabid, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “Particle levitation and guidance in hollow-core photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Express 10, 1195–1203 (2002).
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F. Benabid, J. C. Knight, G. Antonopoulos, and P. St. J. Russell, “Stimulated Raman scattering in hydrogen-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber,” Science 298, 399–402 (2002).
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M. C. Downer, “A new low for nonlinear optics,” Science 298, 373–375 (2002).
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P. Sprangle, J. R. Peñano, and B. Hafizi, “Propagation of intense short laser pulses in the atmosphere,” Phys. Rev. E 66, 046418(2002).
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2001 (3)

P. G. O’Shea and H. P. Freund, “Free-electron lasers: status and applications,” Science 292, 1853–1858 (2001).
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S. L. Voronov, I. Kohl, J. B. Madsen, J. Simmons, N. Terry, J. Titensor, Q. Wang, and J. Peatross, “Control of laser high-harmonic generation with counterpropagating light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 133902 (2001).
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G. L. Yudin and M. Y. Ivanov, “Nonadiabatic tunnel ionization: looking inside a laser cycle,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 013409(2001).
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2000 (3)

1999 (3)

V. M. Malkin, G. Shvets, and N. J. Fisch, “Fast compression of laser beams to highly overcritical powers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4448–4451 (1999).
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R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, “Single-mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air,” Science 285, 1537–1539(1999).
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F. Dorchies, J. R. Marquès, B. Cros, G. Matthieussent, C. Courtois, T. Vélikoroussov, P. Audebert, J. P. Geindre, S. Rebibo, G. Hamoniaux, and F. Amiranoff, “Monomode guiding of 1016 W/cm2 laser pulses over 100 Rayleigh lengths in hollow capillary dielectric tubes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4655–4658 (1999).
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A. Rundquist, C. G. Durfee, Z. Chang, C. Herne, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase-matched generation of coherent soft x-rays,” Science 280, 1412–1415 (1998).
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N. Akhmediev and M. Karlsson, “Cherenkov radiation emitted by solitons in optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. A 51, 2602–2607(1995).
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S. P. Le Blanc, R. Sauerbrey, S. C. Rae, and K. Burnett, “Spectral blue shifting of a femtosecond laser pulse propagating through a high-pressure gas,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 1801–1809 (1993).
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1985 (2)

E. M. Dianov, A. Y. Karasik, P. V. Mamyshev, A. M. Prokhorov, V. N. Serkin, M. F. Stel’Makh, and A. A. Fomichev, “Stimulated-Raman conversion of multisoliton pulses in quartz optical fibers,” JETP Lett. 41, 242–244 (1985).

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X. Jiang, T. G. Euser, A. Abdolvand, F. Babic, F. Tani, N. Y. Joly, J. C. Travers, and P. St. J. Russell, “Single-mode hollow-core photonic crystal fiber made from soft glass,” Opt. Express 19, 15438–15444 (2011).
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A. Nazarkin, A. Abdolvand, A. V. Chugreev, and P. St. J. Russell, “Direct observation of self-similarity in evolution of transient stimulated Raman scattering in gas-filled photonic crystal fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 173902 (2010).
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A. Abdolvand, A. Nazarkin, A. V. Chugreev, C. F. Kaminski, and P. St. J. Russell, “Solitary pulse generation by backward Raman scattering in H2-filled photonic crystal fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 183902 (2009).
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F. Benabid, J. C. Knight, G. Antonopoulos, and P. St. J. Russell, “Stimulated Raman scattering in hydrogen-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber,” Science 298, 399–402 (2002).
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N. Y. Joly, J. Nold, W. Chang, P. Hölzer, A. Nazarkin, G. K. L. Wong, F. Biancalana, and P. St. J. Russell, “Bright spatially coherent wavelength-tunable deep-UV laser source using an ar-filled photonic crystal fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 203901 (2011).
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M. Saleh, W. Chang, P. Hölzer, A. Nazarkin, J. C. Travers, N. Joly, P. St. J. Russell, and F. Biancalana, “Theory of photoionization-induced blueshift of ultrashort solitons in gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 203902 (2011).
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P. Hölzer, W. Chang, J. C. Travers, A. Nazarkin, J. Nold, N. Y. Joly, M. Saleh, F. Biancalana, and P. St. J. Russell, “Femtosecond nonlinear fiber optics in the ionization regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 203901 (2011).
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Birks, T.

Birks, T. A.

J. C. Knight, J. Arriaga, T. A. Birks, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, “Anomalous dispersion in photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 807–809(2000).
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R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, “Single-mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air,” Science 285, 1537–1539(1999).
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B. Debord, R. Jamier, F. Gérôme, C. Boisse-Laporte, P. Leprince, O. Leroy, J.-M. Blondy, and F. Benabid, “UV light generation induced by microwave microplasma in hollow-core optical waveguides,” in CLEO:2011—Laser Science to Photonic Applications (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper CThD5.

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B. Debord, R. Jamier, F. Gérôme, C. Boisse-Laporte, P. Leprince, O. Leroy, J.-M. Blondy, and F. Benabid, “UV light generation induced by microwave microplasma in hollow-core optical waveguides,” in CLEO:2011—Laser Science to Photonic Applications (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper CThD5.

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F. Benabid, G. Bouwmans, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, and F. Couny, “Ultrahigh efficiency laser wavelength conversion in a gas-filled hollow core photonic crystal fiber by pure stimulated rotational Raman scattering in molecular hydrogen,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 123903 (2004).
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Burnett, N. H.

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G. Lambert, T. Hara, D. Garzella, T. Tanikawa, M. Labat, B. Carre, H. Kitamura, T. Shintake, M. Bougeard, S. Inoue, Y. Tanaka, P. Salieres, H. Merdji, O. Chubar, O. Gobert, K. Tahara, and M.-E. Couprie, “Injection of harmonics generated in gas in a free-electron laser providing intense and coherent extreme-ultraviolet light,” Nat. Phys. 4, 296–300 (2008).
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P. Hölzer, W. Chang, J. C. Travers, A. Nazarkin, J. Nold, N. Y. Joly, M. Saleh, F. Biancalana, and P. St. J. Russell, “Femtosecond nonlinear fiber optics in the ionization regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 203901 (2011).
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W. Chang, A. Nazarkin, J. C. Travers, J. Nold, P. Hölzer, N. Y. Joly, and P. St. J. Russell, “Influence of ionization on ultrafast gas-based nonlinear fiber optics,” Opt. Express 19, 21018–21027 (2011).
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M. Saleh, W. Chang, P. Hölzer, A. Nazarkin, J. C. Travers, N. Joly, P. St. J. Russell, and F. Biancalana, “Theory of photoionization-induced blueshift of ultrashort solitons in gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 203902 (2011).
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N. Y. Joly, J. Nold, W. Chang, P. Hölzer, A. Nazarkin, G. K. L. Wong, F. Biancalana, and P. St. J. Russell, “Bright spatially coherent wavelength-tunable deep-UV laser source using an ar-filled photonic crystal fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 203901 (2011).
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N. Y. Joly, P. Hölzer, J. Nold, W. Chang, J. C. Travers, M. Labat, M.-E. Couprie, and P. St. J. Russell, “New tunable DUV light source for seeding free-electron lasers,” presented at the 33rd Free Electron Laser Conference (FEL 2011), Shanghai, China August 22–26 2011.

K. F. Mak, Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light, Günther-Scharowsky-Strasse 1, 91058 Erlangen, Germany, and J. C. Travers, W. Chang, P. Hölzer, J. Nold, N. Y. Joly, and P. St. J. Russell are preparing a manuscript to be called “Efficiency and tunability of UV-visible dispersive wave emission in gas-filled kagome photonic crystal fiber.”

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A. Rundquist, C. G. Durfee, Z. Chang, C. Herne, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase-matched generation of coherent soft x-rays,” Science 280, 1412–1415 (1998).
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T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, P. Arpin, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “The attosecond nonlinear optics of bright coherent x-ray generation,” Nat. Photon. 4, 822–832 (2010).
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G. Lambert, T. Hara, D. Garzella, T. Tanikawa, M. Labat, B. Carre, H. Kitamura, T. Shintake, M. Bougeard, S. Inoue, Y. Tanaka, P. Salieres, H. Merdji, O. Chubar, O. Gobert, K. Tahara, and M.-E. Couprie, “Injection of harmonics generated in gas in a free-electron laser providing intense and coherent extreme-ultraviolet light,” Nat. Phys. 4, 296–300 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chugreev, A. V.

A. Nazarkin, A. Abdolvand, A. V. Chugreev, and P. St. J. Russell, “Direct observation of self-similarity in evolution of transient stimulated Raman scattering in gas-filled photonic crystal fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 173902 (2010).
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A. Abdolvand, A. Nazarkin, A. V. Chugreev, C. F. Kaminski, and P. St. J. Russell, “Solitary pulse generation by backward Raman scattering in H2-filled photonic crystal fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 183902 (2009).
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F. Couny, F. Benabid, P. J. Roberts, P. S. Light, and M. G. Raymer, “Generation and photonic guidance of multi-octave optical-frequency combs,” Science 318, 1118–1121 (2007).
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F. Benabid, G. Bouwmans, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, and F. Couny, “Ultrahigh efficiency laser wavelength conversion in a gas-filled hollow core photonic crystal fiber by pure stimulated rotational Raman scattering in molecular hydrogen,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 123903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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G. Lambert, T. Hara, D. Garzella, T. Tanikawa, M. Labat, B. Carre, H. Kitamura, T. Shintake, M. Bougeard, S. Inoue, Y. Tanaka, P. Salieres, H. Merdji, O. Chubar, O. Gobert, K. Tahara, and M.-E. Couprie, “Injection of harmonics generated in gas in a free-electron laser providing intense and coherent extreme-ultraviolet light,” Nat. Phys. 4, 296–300 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Y. Joly, P. Hölzer, J. Nold, W. Chang, J. C. Travers, M. Labat, M.-E. Couprie, and P. St. J. Russell, “New tunable DUV light source for seeding free-electron lasers,” presented at the 33rd Free Electron Laser Conference (FEL 2011), Shanghai, China August 22–26 2011.

Courtois, C.

F. Dorchies, J. R. Marquès, B. Cros, G. Matthieussent, C. Courtois, T. Vélikoroussov, P. Audebert, J. P. Geindre, S. Rebibo, G. Hamoniaux, and F. Amiranoff, “Monomode guiding of 1016 W/cm2 laser pulses over 100 Rayleigh lengths in hollow capillary dielectric tubes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4655–4658 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, “Single-mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air,” Science 285, 1537–1539(1999).
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F. Dorchies, J. R. Marquès, B. Cros, G. Matthieussent, C. Courtois, T. Vélikoroussov, P. Audebert, J. P. Geindre, S. Rebibo, G. Hamoniaux, and F. Amiranoff, “Monomode guiding of 1016 W/cm2 laser pulses over 100 Rayleigh lengths in hollow capillary dielectric tubes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4655–4658 (1999).
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C. J. S. de Matos, S. V. Popov, A. B. Rulkov, J. R. Taylor, J. Broeng, T. P. Hansen, and V. P. Gapontsev, “All-fiber format compression of frequency chirped pulses in air-guiding photonic crystal fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 103901 (2004).
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C. J. S. de Matos, J. R. Taylor, T. Hansen, K. Hansen, and J. Broeng, “All-fiber chirped pulse amplification using highly-dispersive air-core photonic bandgap fiber,” Opt. Express 11, 2832–2837 (2003).
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N. Y. Joly, J. Nold, W. Chang, P. Hölzer, A. Nazarkin, G. K. L. Wong, F. Biancalana, and P. St. J. Russell, “Bright spatially coherent wavelength-tunable deep-UV laser source using an ar-filled photonic crystal fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 203901 (2011).
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W. Chang, A. Nazarkin, J. C. Travers, J. Nold, P. Hölzer, N. Y. Joly, and P. St. J. Russell, “Influence of ionization on ultrafast gas-based nonlinear fiber optics,” Opt. Express 19, 21018–21027 (2011).
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J. Nold, P. Hölzer, N. Y. Joly, G. K. L. Wong, A. Nazarkin, A. Podlipensky, M. Scharrer, and P. St. J. Russell, “Pressure-controlled phase matching to third harmonic in Ar-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 35, 2922–2924(2010).
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H. Ren, A. Nazarkin, J. Nold, and P. St. J. Russell, “Quasi-phase-matched high harmonic generation in hollow core photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Express 16, 17052–17059 (2008).
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K. F. Mak, Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light, Günther-Scharowsky-Strasse 1, 91058 Erlangen, Germany, and J. C. Travers, W. Chang, P. Hölzer, J. Nold, N. Y. Joly, and P. St. J. Russell are preparing a manuscript to be called “Efficiency and tunability of UV-visible dispersive wave emission in gas-filled kagome photonic crystal fiber.”

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T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, P. Arpin, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “The attosecond nonlinear optics of bright coherent x-ray generation,” Nat. Photon. 4, 822–832 (2010).
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F. Couny, F. Benabid, P. J. Roberts, P. S. Light, and M. G. Raymer, “Generation and photonic guidance of multi-octave optical-frequency combs,” Science 318, 1118–1121 (2007).
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K. F. Mak, Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light, Günther-Scharowsky-Strasse 1, 91058 Erlangen, Germany, and J. C. Travers, W. Chang, P. Hölzer, J. Nold, N. Y. Joly, and P. St. J. Russell are preparing a manuscript to be called “Efficiency and tunability of UV-visible dispersive wave emission in gas-filled kagome photonic crystal fiber.”

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K. F. Mak, Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light, Günther-Scharowsky-Strasse 1, 91058 Erlangen, Germany, and J. C. Travers, W. Chang, P. Hölzer, J. Nold, N. Y. Joly, and P. St. J. Russell are preparing a manuscript to be called “Efficiency and tunability of UV-visible dispersive wave emission in gas-filled kagome photonic crystal fiber.”

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A. Nazarkin, A. Abdolvand, A. V. Chugreev, and P. St. J. Russell, “Direct observation of self-similarity in evolution of transient stimulated Raman scattering in gas-filled photonic crystal fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 173902 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Londero, V. Venkataraman, A. R. Bhagwat, A. D. Slepkov, and A. L. Gaeta, “Ultralow-power four-wave mixing with Rb in a hollow-core photonic band-gap fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 043602 (2009).
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S. Ghosh, J. E. Sharping, D. G. Ouzounov, and A. L. Gaeta, “Resonant optical interactions with molecules confined in photonic band-gap fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 093902 (2005).
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F. Benabid, J. C. Knight, G. Antonopoulos, and P. St. J. Russell, “Stimulated Raman scattering in hydrogen-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber,” Science 298, 399–402 (2002).
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M. C. Downer, “A new low for nonlinear optics,” Science 298, 373–375 (2002).
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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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A. Rundquist, C. G. Durfee, Z. Chang, C. Herne, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase-matched generation of coherent soft x-rays,” Science 280, 1412–1415 (1998).
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Other (6)

K. F. Mak, Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light, Günther-Scharowsky-Strasse 1, 91058 Erlangen, Germany, and J. C. Travers, W. Chang, P. Hölzer, J. Nold, N. Y. Joly, and P. St. J. Russell are preparing a manuscript to be called “Efficiency and tunability of UV-visible dispersive wave emission in gas-filled kagome photonic crystal fiber.”

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[CrossRef]

N. Y. Joly, P. Hölzer, J. Nold, W. Chang, J. C. Travers, M. Labat, M.-E. Couprie, and P. St. J. Russell, “New tunable DUV light source for seeding free-electron lasers,” presented at the 33rd Free Electron Laser Conference (FEL 2011), Shanghai, China August 22–26 2011.

B. Debord, R. Jamier, F. Gérôme, C. Boisse-Laporte, P. Leprince, O. Leroy, J.-M. Blondy, and F. Benabid, “UV light generation induced by microwave microplasma in hollow-core optical waveguides,” in CLEO:2011—Laser Science to Photonic Applications (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper CThD5.

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Figures (17)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Scanning electron micrographs (SEMs) and FEM of the two main types of HC-PCF: (a) SEM of PBG-guiding HC-PCF, (b) GVD and loss calculated using FEM of an idealized PBG-guiding HC-PCF structure, designed for operation around 800 nm , with 11 μm core diameter and 2.1 μm pitch (Λ), (c) SEM of a kagomé PCF designed for operation in the UV and around 800 nm , and (d) GVD and loss calculated using the FEM of an idealized kagomé PCF structure with 30 μm core diameter, 15 μm pitch (Λ), and 0.23 μm web thickness.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Comparison between the FEM and the capillary model: (a) dispersion of the effective mode index and (b) the GVD. (a) Inset, definitions of the two core radii: flat-to-flat radius ( a f ) and area preserving radius ( a A ); A is the hexagonal core area. The kink at 380 nm in the FEM results is caused by an anticrossing with a cladding state, and it strongly affects the dispersion.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Comparison between the lowest theoretical loss possible in a capillary fiber and the measured loss of a kagomé PCF with a core diameter of 30 μm , (b) dispersion curves for silica-core PCFs (silica strands) with the shortest ZDWs, with core diam eters of 0.47 to 2.86 μm ( 0.2 μm steps), and (c) the dispersion of a kagomé PCF with a 30 μm core diameter, filled with 0 to 20 bar Ar ( 2 bar steps)—note the change of scale compared to (b).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

ZDW scaling for kagomé PCFs with diameters from 10 to 70 μm (steps of 10 μm ), filled with 0 to 60 bar of (a) Xe, (b) Kr, (c) Ar, and (d) He.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

FEM calculations for an idealized kagomé PCF with 30 μm core diameter, 15 μm pitch, and 0.23 μm web thickness—designed for operation in the UV and around 800 nm : (a) wavelength dependence of the fraction of power in glass, (b) axial component of the Poynting vector of the guided mode at the wavelength of a cladding resonance ( 380 nm ), and (c) the same as (b) at 800 nm .

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Experimental setup typically used for ultrafast nonlinear experiments in gas-filled kagomé PCF.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a)–(c) Contour plots of the pump energy ( μJ ) required for formation of 30 fs solitons at 800 nm , plotted against soliton order and ZDW, the ZDW being adjusted by varying the gas pressure: (a)  10 μm diameter filled with Xe, (b)  30 μm diameter filled with Ar, and (c)  50 μm diameter filled with He. The entire parameter spaces would be severely loss-limited in a capillary fiber. The blue region (lower, shaded region) is where the estimated loss of the kagomé PCF would limit nonlinear interaction. (d) Contour plots of the ratio of the peak power to critical self-focusing power for pulses propagating in a kagomé PCF ( 30 μm core diameter, filled with Ar), plotted against soliton order and ZDW, including pulse self- compression effects (discussed in Subsection 4B). The labeled dots correspond to the systems defined in Table 1.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Fiber-grating/mirror pulse compression with kagomé PCF; (a) density plots of the temporal and spectral evolution of a 10 μJ , 30 fs pulse at 800 nm through a kagomé PCF with 70 μm core diameter filled with 43 bar of Ar, placing the ZDW at 1300 nm ; (b) the broadened temporal shape of the intensity, and the smooth parabolic temporal phase after 8 cm of propagation in the kagomé PCF [dashed line in (a)]; (c) pulse duration after linear compression against the kagomé PCF length used for spectral broadening (left axis), and compression quality factor (right axis); (d) pulse after linear compression of (b).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Soliton-effect self-compression at 800 nm in a kagomé PCF with a 30 μm diameter core filled with Ar: (a) dependence of the compressed pulse duration on λ 0 (horizontal axis) and N (numbered curves), (b) corresponding quality factor dependence, (c) temporal and spectral evolution of self-compression of a pulse for λ 0 = 500 nm , N = 3.5 , and (d) field of the compressed output pulse at the point of optimum compression in (c).

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Deep-UV dispersive-wave generation; (a) a series of experimentally achieved tunable output spectra [77] from an Ar-filled, 27 μm core diameter kagomé PCF ( 45 fs pulses at 800 nm with 0.5 3 μJ pulse energy and 4 12 bar filling pressure) and (b) reported UV conversion efficiencies [49].

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

(a) Propagation constant mismatch between solitons ( N = 9 at 800 nm ) and dispersive waves at a given wavelength for a 30 μm kagomé PCF filled with 2 to 20 bar Ar ( 2 bar steps); (b), (c) phase-matching wavelengths for (b) a 10 μm diameter Xe-filled fiber, and (c) for a 50 μm diameter He-filled fiber, assuming pressure- tunable ZDW λ 0 .

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

(a), (b) Spectral evolution of two systems, both with λ 0 = 563 nm and N = 7.5 , over two fission lengths [Eq. (5)]: (a) a 50 nJ , 30 fs pulse through 0.68 cm of 6 μm diameter kagomé PCF filled with 38 bar Xe and (b)  10 μJ 30 fs pulse through 68 cm of 60 μm diameter fiber filled with 36 bar He. (c), (d) Temporal and spectral evolution of a 10 fs pulse with 20 μJ energy propagating in a 50 μm kagomé PCF with 10 bar He (corresponding to λ 0 = 380 nm , N = 3 ).

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Dependence of UV generation on pulse duration (15, 30, 60, and 120 fs ) and soliton order for a fiber with λ 0 = 600 nm (kagomé PCF with 30 μm core filled with 9.8 bar Ar): (a) UV conversion efficiency (to wavelengths shorter than 350 nm ) as a function of normalized soliton order S = N / τ FWHM , corresponding to N = 3 to 9 for a 30 fs pulse; (b) quality factor of UV conversion as defined in the text for the same parameters as (a); (c) spectral evolution along the fiber for each of the pulse durations at S = 0.26 ; and (d) spectral slices at the position of optimum UV conversion for each of the pulse durations.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

(a), (b) Propagation of an N 245 ( 600 fs , 10 μJ ) pulse at 800 nm in a kagomé PCF with λ 0 = 750 nm ( 30 μm core diameter filled with 25 bar Ar): (a) temporal evolution of one shot and (b) spectral evolution of an ensemble average of 30 simulations. (c), (d) Propagation of an N 429 ( 600 fs , 10 μJ ) pulse at 400 nm in a kagomé PCF with λ 0 = 350 nm ( 10 μm core diameter filled with 8.8 bar Ar): (c) temporal evolution of one shot and (d) spectral evolution of an ensemble average of 30 simulations.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Contour plot of (a) the calculated free- electron density ( m 3 ) in a 30 μm diameter kagomé PCF filled with Ar, as a function of ZDW and soliton order, taking into account the self-compression of the solitons upon propagation; the vertical dashed arrow indicates the operation region of Hölzer et al. [5] and (b) the nonlinear refractive index ratio R (defined in the text); the black dashed line indicates a ratio of 1.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

Results of Hölzer et al. [5]: (a) experimental output spectra from a 26 μm diameter kagomé PCF filled with 1.7 bar Ar as a function of input pulse energy, (b) corresponding numerical simulations, and (c) comparison of the transmission between the experiment and the numerical simulations with and without the ionization terms included.

Fig. 17
Fig. 17

Numerical simulation of the propagation of an N = 4 soliton through a 30 μm diameter kagomé PCF with 1.7 bar Ar filling pressure (ZDW at 380 nm ).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Examples of Parameters Describing Certain Sets of Propagation Dynamics (as Described in the Text) Scaled across Different Core Diameters (d), Filling Gases and Gas Pressures (P), and Energies (E)

Equations (12)

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n m n ( λ , p , T ) = n gas 2 ( λ , p , T ) u m n 2 k 2 a 2 1 + δ ( λ ) p 2 p 0 T 0 T u m n 2 2 k 2 a 2 ,
z U = i sgn ( β 2 ) 2 L D τ 2 U + sgn ( β 3 ) 6 L D τ 3 U + i e α z L NL ( U | U | 2 + i s τ ( U | U | 2 ) ) ,
L D = τ 0 2 | β 2 | , L D = τ 0 3 | β 3 | , β n = ω n β | ω 0 , L NL = 1 γ P 0 , s = 1 ω 0 τ 0 .
( L D , L D ) λ 0 ( L D , L NL ) N = γ P 0 τ 0 2 | β 2 | .
L fiss = L D N .
F c 4.6 N , Q c 3.7 / N ,
τ c = τ 0 F c τ 0 N | β 2 | γ P 0 ,
β sol ( ω ) = β ( ω sol ) + β 1 ( ω sol ) [ ω ω sol ] + γ P c 2 ,
n 2 ( ω ω sol ) n n ! β n ( ω sol ) = γ P c 2 2.3 γ P 0 N .
R = | Δ n Kerr Δ n plasma | = n 2 I 2 n 0 ω 0 2 ω p 2 ,
z ψ = i [ m 2 β m ( i t ) m m ! + γ R ( t ) | ψ ( t ) | 2 ω p 2 2 ω 0 c + i A eff I p t N e 2 | ψ | 2 ] ψ ,
N e t = W ( t ) N a η N e β r N e 2 ,

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