Abstract

We have demonstrated the possibility for a compact frequency standard based on a sample of cold cesium atoms. In a cylindrical microwave cavity, the atoms are cooled and interrogated during a free expansion and then detected. The operation of this experiment is different from conventional atomic fountains since all the steps are sequentially performed in the same position of space. In this paper we report the analysis of a Ramsey pattern observed to present a (47±5)Hz linewidth and a stability of (5±0.5)x1013τ1/2 for an integration time longer than 100s. Some of the main limitations of the standard are analyzed. This present report demonstrates considerable improvement of our previous work [J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, 909 (2008)] where the atoms were in a free space and not inside a microwave cavity.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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  1. S. Bize, P. Laurent, M. Abgrall, H. Marion, I. Maksimovic, L. Cacciapuoti, J. Grünert, C. Vian, F. Pereira dos Santos, P. Rosenbusch, P. Lemonde, G. Santarelli, P. Wolf, A. Clairon, A. Luiten, M. Tobar, and C. Salomon, “Cold atom clocks and applications,” J. Phys. B 38, S449–S468 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  2. N. F. Ramsey, “Application of atomic clocks,” in Laser Physics at the Limits, H.Figger, D.Meschede, and C.Zimmermann, eds. (Springer, 2002), pp. 3–8.
  3. J. Jespersen and J. Fitz-Randolph, From Sundials to Atomic Clocks (Dover, 1999).
  4. F. Teles, D. V. Magalhães, M. S. Santos, G. D. Rovera, and V. S. Bagnato, “Construction and evaluation of the first Brazilian atomic clock,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 47, 1111–1114 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Tremine, S. Guerandel, D. Holleville, J. Delporte, N. Dimarcq, and A. Clairon, “Limitations to the short term frequency stability in a compact cold atom clock,” in Proceedings of the 2005 IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, 2005), pp. 111–116.
    [CrossRef]
  6. T. Zanon, S. Tremine, S. Guerandel, E. De Clercq, D. Holleville, N. Dimarcq, and A. Clairon, “Observation of Raman–Ramsey fringes with optical CPT pulses,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 54, 776–779 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. T. Müller, D. V. Magalhães, A. Bebeachibuli, T. A. Ortega, M. Ahmed, and V. S. Bagnato, “Free expanding cloud of cold atoms as an atomic standard: Ramsey fringes contrast,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, 909–914 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  8. H. Metcalf and P. Van Der Straten, “Laser cooling and trapping of atoms,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 887–908 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. Vanier and C. Audoin, The Quantum Physics of Atomic Frequency Standards (Adam Hilger, 1989), Vol.  2.
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. Kajfez and P. Guillon, Dielectric Resonators (Artech House, 1986).
  11. J. F. Garcia Nava, F. L. Walls, J. H. Shirley, W. D. Lee, and M. C. Delgado Aramburo, “Environmental effects in frequency synthesizers for passive frequency standards,” in Proceedings of the 1996 IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, 1996), pp. 973–979.
    [CrossRef]
  12. National Institute of Standards and Technology, “Cs Synthesiser,” operation manual, 1996.
  13. D. Allan, “Statistics of atomic frequency standards,” Proc. IEEE 54, 221–231 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  14. S. T. Müller, “Padrão de Frequência Compacto,” Ph.D. thesis (Instituto de Física de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo, 2010).
  15. D. J. Glaze, H. Hellwig, D. W. Allan, and S. Jarvis, “NBS-4 and NBS-6: the NBS primary frequency standards,” Metrologia 13, 17–28 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  16. S. Tremine, S. Guerandel, D. Holleville, A. Clairon, and N. Dimarcq, “Development of a compact cold atom clock,” in Proceedings of the 2004 IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium and Exposition (IEEE, 2004), pp. 65–70.
    [CrossRef]
  17. F. X. Esnault, S. Perrin, S. Tremine, S. Guerandel, D. Holleville, N. Dimarcq, V. Hermann, and J. Delporte, “Stability of the compact cold atom clock HORACE,” in Proceedings of the 2007 IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, 2007), pp. 1342–1345.

2010 (1)

S. T. Müller, “Padrão de Frequência Compacto,” Ph.D. thesis (Instituto de Física de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo, 2010).

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

F. X. Esnault, S. Perrin, S. Tremine, S. Guerandel, D. Holleville, N. Dimarcq, V. Hermann, and J. Delporte, “Stability of the compact cold atom clock HORACE,” in Proceedings of the 2007 IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, 2007), pp. 1342–1345.

2005 (3)

S. Bize, P. Laurent, M. Abgrall, H. Marion, I. Maksimovic, L. Cacciapuoti, J. Grünert, C. Vian, F. Pereira dos Santos, P. Rosenbusch, P. Lemonde, G. Santarelli, P. Wolf, A. Clairon, A. Luiten, M. Tobar, and C. Salomon, “Cold atom clocks and applications,” J. Phys. B 38, S449–S468 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Tremine, S. Guerandel, D. Holleville, J. Delporte, N. Dimarcq, and A. Clairon, “Limitations to the short term frequency stability in a compact cold atom clock,” in Proceedings of the 2005 IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, 2005), pp. 111–116.
[CrossRef]

T. Zanon, S. Tremine, S. Guerandel, E. De Clercq, D. Holleville, N. Dimarcq, and A. Clairon, “Observation of Raman–Ramsey fringes with optical CPT pulses,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 54, 776–779 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

S. Tremine, S. Guerandel, D. Holleville, A. Clairon, and N. Dimarcq, “Development of a compact cold atom clock,” in Proceedings of the 2004 IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium and Exposition (IEEE, 2004), pp. 65–70.
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

2002 (1)

N. F. Ramsey, “Application of atomic clocks,” in Laser Physics at the Limits, H.Figger, D.Meschede, and C.Zimmermann, eds. (Springer, 2002), pp. 3–8.

2000 (1)

F. Teles, D. V. Magalhães, M. S. Santos, G. D. Rovera, and V. S. Bagnato, “Construction and evaluation of the first Brazilian atomic clock,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 47, 1111–1114 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

J. Jespersen and J. Fitz-Randolph, From Sundials to Atomic Clocks (Dover, 1999).

1996 (2)

J. F. Garcia Nava, F. L. Walls, J. H. Shirley, W. D. Lee, and M. C. Delgado Aramburo, “Environmental effects in frequency synthesizers for passive frequency standards,” in Proceedings of the 1996 IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, 1996), pp. 973–979.
[CrossRef]

National Institute of Standards and Technology, “Cs Synthesiser,” operation manual, 1996.

1989 (1)

J. Vanier and C. Audoin, The Quantum Physics of Atomic Frequency Standards (Adam Hilger, 1989), Vol.  2.
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

D. Kajfez and P. Guillon, Dielectric Resonators (Artech House, 1986).

1977 (1)

D. J. Glaze, H. Hellwig, D. W. Allan, and S. Jarvis, “NBS-4 and NBS-6: the NBS primary frequency standards,” Metrologia 13, 17–28 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1966 (1)

D. Allan, “Statistics of atomic frequency standards,” Proc. IEEE 54, 221–231 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Abgrall, M.

S. Bize, P. Laurent, M. Abgrall, H. Marion, I. Maksimovic, L. Cacciapuoti, J. Grünert, C. Vian, F. Pereira dos Santos, P. Rosenbusch, P. Lemonde, G. Santarelli, P. Wolf, A. Clairon, A. Luiten, M. Tobar, and C. Salomon, “Cold atom clocks and applications,” J. Phys. B 38, S449–S468 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ahmed, M.

Allan, D.

D. Allan, “Statistics of atomic frequency standards,” Proc. IEEE 54, 221–231 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Allan, D. W.

D. J. Glaze, H. Hellwig, D. W. Allan, and S. Jarvis, “NBS-4 and NBS-6: the NBS primary frequency standards,” Metrologia 13, 17–28 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Audoin, C.

J. Vanier and C. Audoin, The Quantum Physics of Atomic Frequency Standards (Adam Hilger, 1989), Vol.  2.
[CrossRef]

Bagnato, V. S.

S. T. Müller, D. V. Magalhães, A. Bebeachibuli, T. A. Ortega, M. Ahmed, and V. S. Bagnato, “Free expanding cloud of cold atoms as an atomic standard: Ramsey fringes contrast,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, 909–914 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Teles, D. V. Magalhães, M. S. Santos, G. D. Rovera, and V. S. Bagnato, “Construction and evaluation of the first Brazilian atomic clock,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 47, 1111–1114 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bebeachibuli, A.

Bize, S.

S. Bize, P. Laurent, M. Abgrall, H. Marion, I. Maksimovic, L. Cacciapuoti, J. Grünert, C. Vian, F. Pereira dos Santos, P. Rosenbusch, P. Lemonde, G. Santarelli, P. Wolf, A. Clairon, A. Luiten, M. Tobar, and C. Salomon, “Cold atom clocks and applications,” J. Phys. B 38, S449–S468 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cacciapuoti, L.

S. Bize, P. Laurent, M. Abgrall, H. Marion, I. Maksimovic, L. Cacciapuoti, J. Grünert, C. Vian, F. Pereira dos Santos, P. Rosenbusch, P. Lemonde, G. Santarelli, P. Wolf, A. Clairon, A. Luiten, M. Tobar, and C. Salomon, “Cold atom clocks and applications,” J. Phys. B 38, S449–S468 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Clairon, A.

S. Bize, P. Laurent, M. Abgrall, H. Marion, I. Maksimovic, L. Cacciapuoti, J. Grünert, C. Vian, F. Pereira dos Santos, P. Rosenbusch, P. Lemonde, G. Santarelli, P. Wolf, A. Clairon, A. Luiten, M. Tobar, and C. Salomon, “Cold atom clocks and applications,” J. Phys. B 38, S449–S468 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Tremine, S. Guerandel, D. Holleville, J. Delporte, N. Dimarcq, and A. Clairon, “Limitations to the short term frequency stability in a compact cold atom clock,” in Proceedings of the 2005 IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, 2005), pp. 111–116.
[CrossRef]

T. Zanon, S. Tremine, S. Guerandel, E. De Clercq, D. Holleville, N. Dimarcq, and A. Clairon, “Observation of Raman–Ramsey fringes with optical CPT pulses,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 54, 776–779 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Tremine, S. Guerandel, D. Holleville, A. Clairon, and N. Dimarcq, “Development of a compact cold atom clock,” in Proceedings of the 2004 IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium and Exposition (IEEE, 2004), pp. 65–70.
[CrossRef]

De Clercq, E.

T. Zanon, S. Tremine, S. Guerandel, E. De Clercq, D. Holleville, N. Dimarcq, and A. Clairon, “Observation of Raman–Ramsey fringes with optical CPT pulses,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 54, 776–779 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Delgado Aramburo, M. C.

J. F. Garcia Nava, F. L. Walls, J. H. Shirley, W. D. Lee, and M. C. Delgado Aramburo, “Environmental effects in frequency synthesizers for passive frequency standards,” in Proceedings of the 1996 IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, 1996), pp. 973–979.
[CrossRef]

Delporte, J.

F. X. Esnault, S. Perrin, S. Tremine, S. Guerandel, D. Holleville, N. Dimarcq, V. Hermann, and J. Delporte, “Stability of the compact cold atom clock HORACE,” in Proceedings of the 2007 IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, 2007), pp. 1342–1345.

S. Tremine, S. Guerandel, D. Holleville, J. Delporte, N. Dimarcq, and A. Clairon, “Limitations to the short term frequency stability in a compact cold atom clock,” in Proceedings of the 2005 IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, 2005), pp. 111–116.
[CrossRef]

Dimarcq, N.

F. X. Esnault, S. Perrin, S. Tremine, S. Guerandel, D. Holleville, N. Dimarcq, V. Hermann, and J. Delporte, “Stability of the compact cold atom clock HORACE,” in Proceedings of the 2007 IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, 2007), pp. 1342–1345.

S. Tremine, S. Guerandel, D. Holleville, J. Delporte, N. Dimarcq, and A. Clairon, “Limitations to the short term frequency stability in a compact cold atom clock,” in Proceedings of the 2005 IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, 2005), pp. 111–116.
[CrossRef]

T. Zanon, S. Tremine, S. Guerandel, E. De Clercq, D. Holleville, N. Dimarcq, and A. Clairon, “Observation of Raman–Ramsey fringes with optical CPT pulses,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 54, 776–779 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Tremine, S. Guerandel, D. Holleville, A. Clairon, and N. Dimarcq, “Development of a compact cold atom clock,” in Proceedings of the 2004 IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium and Exposition (IEEE, 2004), pp. 65–70.
[CrossRef]

Esnault, F. X.

F. X. Esnault, S. Perrin, S. Tremine, S. Guerandel, D. Holleville, N. Dimarcq, V. Hermann, and J. Delporte, “Stability of the compact cold atom clock HORACE,” in Proceedings of the 2007 IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, 2007), pp. 1342–1345.

Fitz-Randolph, J.

J. Jespersen and J. Fitz-Randolph, From Sundials to Atomic Clocks (Dover, 1999).

Garcia Nava, J. F.

J. F. Garcia Nava, F. L. Walls, J. H. Shirley, W. D. Lee, and M. C. Delgado Aramburo, “Environmental effects in frequency synthesizers for passive frequency standards,” in Proceedings of the 1996 IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, 1996), pp. 973–979.
[CrossRef]

Glaze, D. J.

D. J. Glaze, H. Hellwig, D. W. Allan, and S. Jarvis, “NBS-4 and NBS-6: the NBS primary frequency standards,” Metrologia 13, 17–28 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Grünert, J.

S. Bize, P. Laurent, M. Abgrall, H. Marion, I. Maksimovic, L. Cacciapuoti, J. Grünert, C. Vian, F. Pereira dos Santos, P. Rosenbusch, P. Lemonde, G. Santarelli, P. Wolf, A. Clairon, A. Luiten, M. Tobar, and C. Salomon, “Cold atom clocks and applications,” J. Phys. B 38, S449–S468 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Guerandel, S.

F. X. Esnault, S. Perrin, S. Tremine, S. Guerandel, D. Holleville, N. Dimarcq, V. Hermann, and J. Delporte, “Stability of the compact cold atom clock HORACE,” in Proceedings of the 2007 IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, 2007), pp. 1342–1345.

T. Zanon, S. Tremine, S. Guerandel, E. De Clercq, D. Holleville, N. Dimarcq, and A. Clairon, “Observation of Raman–Ramsey fringes with optical CPT pulses,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 54, 776–779 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Tremine, S. Guerandel, D. Holleville, J. Delporte, N. Dimarcq, and A. Clairon, “Limitations to the short term frequency stability in a compact cold atom clock,” in Proceedings of the 2005 IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, 2005), pp. 111–116.
[CrossRef]

S. Tremine, S. Guerandel, D. Holleville, A. Clairon, and N. Dimarcq, “Development of a compact cold atom clock,” in Proceedings of the 2004 IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium and Exposition (IEEE, 2004), pp. 65–70.
[CrossRef]

Guillon, P.

D. Kajfez and P. Guillon, Dielectric Resonators (Artech House, 1986).

Hellwig, H.

D. J. Glaze, H. Hellwig, D. W. Allan, and S. Jarvis, “NBS-4 and NBS-6: the NBS primary frequency standards,” Metrologia 13, 17–28 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Hermann, V.

F. X. Esnault, S. Perrin, S. Tremine, S. Guerandel, D. Holleville, N. Dimarcq, V. Hermann, and J. Delporte, “Stability of the compact cold atom clock HORACE,” in Proceedings of the 2007 IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, 2007), pp. 1342–1345.

Holleville, D.

F. X. Esnault, S. Perrin, S. Tremine, S. Guerandel, D. Holleville, N. Dimarcq, V. Hermann, and J. Delporte, “Stability of the compact cold atom clock HORACE,” in Proceedings of the 2007 IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, 2007), pp. 1342–1345.

S. Tremine, S. Guerandel, D. Holleville, J. Delporte, N. Dimarcq, and A. Clairon, “Limitations to the short term frequency stability in a compact cold atom clock,” in Proceedings of the 2005 IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, 2005), pp. 111–116.
[CrossRef]

T. Zanon, S. Tremine, S. Guerandel, E. De Clercq, D. Holleville, N. Dimarcq, and A. Clairon, “Observation of Raman–Ramsey fringes with optical CPT pulses,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 54, 776–779 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Tremine, S. Guerandel, D. Holleville, A. Clairon, and N. Dimarcq, “Development of a compact cold atom clock,” in Proceedings of the 2004 IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium and Exposition (IEEE, 2004), pp. 65–70.
[CrossRef]

Jarvis, S.

D. J. Glaze, H. Hellwig, D. W. Allan, and S. Jarvis, “NBS-4 and NBS-6: the NBS primary frequency standards,” Metrologia 13, 17–28 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Jespersen, J.

J. Jespersen and J. Fitz-Randolph, From Sundials to Atomic Clocks (Dover, 1999).

Kajfez, D.

D. Kajfez and P. Guillon, Dielectric Resonators (Artech House, 1986).

Laurent, P.

S. Bize, P. Laurent, M. Abgrall, H. Marion, I. Maksimovic, L. Cacciapuoti, J. Grünert, C. Vian, F. Pereira dos Santos, P. Rosenbusch, P. Lemonde, G. Santarelli, P. Wolf, A. Clairon, A. Luiten, M. Tobar, and C. Salomon, “Cold atom clocks and applications,” J. Phys. B 38, S449–S468 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, W. D.

J. F. Garcia Nava, F. L. Walls, J. H. Shirley, W. D. Lee, and M. C. Delgado Aramburo, “Environmental effects in frequency synthesizers for passive frequency standards,” in Proceedings of the 1996 IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, 1996), pp. 973–979.
[CrossRef]

Lemonde, P.

S. Bize, P. Laurent, M. Abgrall, H. Marion, I. Maksimovic, L. Cacciapuoti, J. Grünert, C. Vian, F. Pereira dos Santos, P. Rosenbusch, P. Lemonde, G. Santarelli, P. Wolf, A. Clairon, A. Luiten, M. Tobar, and C. Salomon, “Cold atom clocks and applications,” J. Phys. B 38, S449–S468 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Luiten, A.

S. Bize, P. Laurent, M. Abgrall, H. Marion, I. Maksimovic, L. Cacciapuoti, J. Grünert, C. Vian, F. Pereira dos Santos, P. Rosenbusch, P. Lemonde, G. Santarelli, P. Wolf, A. Clairon, A. Luiten, M. Tobar, and C. Salomon, “Cold atom clocks and applications,” J. Phys. B 38, S449–S468 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Magalhães, D. V.

S. T. Müller, D. V. Magalhães, A. Bebeachibuli, T. A. Ortega, M. Ahmed, and V. S. Bagnato, “Free expanding cloud of cold atoms as an atomic standard: Ramsey fringes contrast,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, 909–914 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Teles, D. V. Magalhães, M. S. Santos, G. D. Rovera, and V. S. Bagnato, “Construction and evaluation of the first Brazilian atomic clock,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 47, 1111–1114 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Maksimovic, I.

S. Bize, P. Laurent, M. Abgrall, H. Marion, I. Maksimovic, L. Cacciapuoti, J. Grünert, C. Vian, F. Pereira dos Santos, P. Rosenbusch, P. Lemonde, G. Santarelli, P. Wolf, A. Clairon, A. Luiten, M. Tobar, and C. Salomon, “Cold atom clocks and applications,” J. Phys. B 38, S449–S468 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Marion, H.

S. Bize, P. Laurent, M. Abgrall, H. Marion, I. Maksimovic, L. Cacciapuoti, J. Grünert, C. Vian, F. Pereira dos Santos, P. Rosenbusch, P. Lemonde, G. Santarelli, P. Wolf, A. Clairon, A. Luiten, M. Tobar, and C. Salomon, “Cold atom clocks and applications,” J. Phys. B 38, S449–S468 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Metcalf, H.

Müller, S. T.

Ortega, T. A.

Pereira dos Santos, F.

S. Bize, P. Laurent, M. Abgrall, H. Marion, I. Maksimovic, L. Cacciapuoti, J. Grünert, C. Vian, F. Pereira dos Santos, P. Rosenbusch, P. Lemonde, G. Santarelli, P. Wolf, A. Clairon, A. Luiten, M. Tobar, and C. Salomon, “Cold atom clocks and applications,” J. Phys. B 38, S449–S468 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Perrin, S.

F. X. Esnault, S. Perrin, S. Tremine, S. Guerandel, D. Holleville, N. Dimarcq, V. Hermann, and J. Delporte, “Stability of the compact cold atom clock HORACE,” in Proceedings of the 2007 IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, 2007), pp. 1342–1345.

Ramsey, N. F.

N. F. Ramsey, “Application of atomic clocks,” in Laser Physics at the Limits, H.Figger, D.Meschede, and C.Zimmermann, eds. (Springer, 2002), pp. 3–8.

Rosenbusch, P.

S. Bize, P. Laurent, M. Abgrall, H. Marion, I. Maksimovic, L. Cacciapuoti, J. Grünert, C. Vian, F. Pereira dos Santos, P. Rosenbusch, P. Lemonde, G. Santarelli, P. Wolf, A. Clairon, A. Luiten, M. Tobar, and C. Salomon, “Cold atom clocks and applications,” J. Phys. B 38, S449–S468 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rovera, G. D.

F. Teles, D. V. Magalhães, M. S. Santos, G. D. Rovera, and V. S. Bagnato, “Construction and evaluation of the first Brazilian atomic clock,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 47, 1111–1114 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Salomon, C.

S. Bize, P. Laurent, M. Abgrall, H. Marion, I. Maksimovic, L. Cacciapuoti, J. Grünert, C. Vian, F. Pereira dos Santos, P. Rosenbusch, P. Lemonde, G. Santarelli, P. Wolf, A. Clairon, A. Luiten, M. Tobar, and C. Salomon, “Cold atom clocks and applications,” J. Phys. B 38, S449–S468 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Santarelli, G.

S. Bize, P. Laurent, M. Abgrall, H. Marion, I. Maksimovic, L. Cacciapuoti, J. Grünert, C. Vian, F. Pereira dos Santos, P. Rosenbusch, P. Lemonde, G. Santarelli, P. Wolf, A. Clairon, A. Luiten, M. Tobar, and C. Salomon, “Cold atom clocks and applications,” J. Phys. B 38, S449–S468 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Santos, M. S.

F. Teles, D. V. Magalhães, M. S. Santos, G. D. Rovera, and V. S. Bagnato, “Construction and evaluation of the first Brazilian atomic clock,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 47, 1111–1114 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Shirley, J. H.

J. F. Garcia Nava, F. L. Walls, J. H. Shirley, W. D. Lee, and M. C. Delgado Aramburo, “Environmental effects in frequency synthesizers for passive frequency standards,” in Proceedings of the 1996 IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, 1996), pp. 973–979.
[CrossRef]

Teles, F.

F. Teles, D. V. Magalhães, M. S. Santos, G. D. Rovera, and V. S. Bagnato, “Construction and evaluation of the first Brazilian atomic clock,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 47, 1111–1114 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tobar, M.

S. Bize, P. Laurent, M. Abgrall, H. Marion, I. Maksimovic, L. Cacciapuoti, J. Grünert, C. Vian, F. Pereira dos Santos, P. Rosenbusch, P. Lemonde, G. Santarelli, P. Wolf, A. Clairon, A. Luiten, M. Tobar, and C. Salomon, “Cold atom clocks and applications,” J. Phys. B 38, S449–S468 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tremine, S.

F. X. Esnault, S. Perrin, S. Tremine, S. Guerandel, D. Holleville, N. Dimarcq, V. Hermann, and J. Delporte, “Stability of the compact cold atom clock HORACE,” in Proceedings of the 2007 IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, 2007), pp. 1342–1345.

S. Tremine, S. Guerandel, D. Holleville, J. Delporte, N. Dimarcq, and A. Clairon, “Limitations to the short term frequency stability in a compact cold atom clock,” in Proceedings of the 2005 IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, 2005), pp. 111–116.
[CrossRef]

T. Zanon, S. Tremine, S. Guerandel, E. De Clercq, D. Holleville, N. Dimarcq, and A. Clairon, “Observation of Raman–Ramsey fringes with optical CPT pulses,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 54, 776–779 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Tremine, S. Guerandel, D. Holleville, A. Clairon, and N. Dimarcq, “Development of a compact cold atom clock,” in Proceedings of the 2004 IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium and Exposition (IEEE, 2004), pp. 65–70.
[CrossRef]

Van Der Straten, P.

Vanier, J.

J. Vanier and C. Audoin, The Quantum Physics of Atomic Frequency Standards (Adam Hilger, 1989), Vol.  2.
[CrossRef]

Vian, C.

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Walls, F. L.

J. F. Garcia Nava, F. L. Walls, J. H. Shirley, W. D. Lee, and M. C. Delgado Aramburo, “Environmental effects in frequency synthesizers for passive frequency standards,” in Proceedings of the 1996 IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, 1996), pp. 973–979.
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S. Bize, P. Laurent, M. Abgrall, H. Marion, I. Maksimovic, L. Cacciapuoti, J. Grünert, C. Vian, F. Pereira dos Santos, P. Rosenbusch, P. Lemonde, G. Santarelli, P. Wolf, A. Clairon, A. Luiten, M. Tobar, and C. Salomon, “Cold atom clocks and applications,” J. Phys. B 38, S449–S468 (2005).
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T. Zanon, S. Tremine, S. Guerandel, E. De Clercq, D. Holleville, N. Dimarcq, and A. Clairon, “Observation of Raman–Ramsey fringes with optical CPT pulses,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 54, 776–779 (2005).
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IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. (1)

T. Zanon, S. Tremine, S. Guerandel, E. De Clercq, D. Holleville, N. Dimarcq, and A. Clairon, “Observation of Raman–Ramsey fringes with optical CPT pulses,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 54, 776–779 (2005).
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F. X. Esnault, S. Perrin, S. Tremine, S. Guerandel, D. Holleville, N. Dimarcq, V. Hermann, and J. Delporte, “Stability of the compact cold atom clock HORACE,” in Proceedings of the 2007 IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, 2007), pp. 1342–1345.

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S. Tremine, S. Guerandel, D. Holleville, J. Delporte, N. Dimarcq, and A. Clairon, “Limitations to the short term frequency stability in a compact cold atom clock,” in Proceedings of the 2005 IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, 2005), pp. 111–116.
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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) View of the vacuum chamber built for the compact clock project. (b) Cutting view of the cylindrical microwave cavity sculpted inside a vacuum chamber, where all interactions take place.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Temporal working cycle: each interaction is performed sequentially inside the microwave cavity. (1) Loading in an MOT configuration to confine atoms in the F = 4 state, followed by a molasses phase and a frequency sweep to obtain sub-Doppler cooling of the atoms. (2) The repumping light is switched off and the atoms are optically pumped to the F = 3 state. After some milliseconds, the main beams are also switched off. (3) A sequence of two microwave pulses is applied during a total interrogation time of 8 ms . (4) The main beams are switched on again, tuned to a cycling transition, and the fluorescence of the cloud is acquired by a photodetector.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Energy levels for the D 2 line of Cs atoms and the transitions used to trap, repump, and detect the atoms.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Control signals of the temporal sequence. The scale is intentionally not preserved to allow better view of the different states.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Drawing of a cylindrical microwave cavity of radius a and length L. The dotted lines show the microwave field for the mode TE 011 .

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Diagram showing the angle and the spatial distribution of the atoms used in the simulation.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Simulation of the expected fringes when we consider the relative motion of atoms with the microwave field profile.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Observed resonance for the clock transition using Ramsey pulses of 1 ms separated by 8 ms . The FWHM is close to 47 Hz .

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Scan over the experimental points of the central Ramsey fringes observed in Fig. 8, superposed to simulation represented by the continuous line. The contrast is better than 80%.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Allan standard deviation of the system when the central fringe is locked to a hydrogen maser.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Preliminary List of Systematic Effects in a Compact Atomic Clock

Equations (2)

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H ( r ) = { H r = π a x 01 cos ( π z L ) J 1 ( x 01 r a ) H θ = 0 H z = sin ( π z L ) J 0 ( x 01 r a ) ,
d N = 2 π R 2 n ( R ) sin θ d θ d R ,

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