Abstract

High-precision inertial sensing demonstrations with light pulse atom interferometry have typically used Raman pulses having durations orders of magnitude shorter than the dwell time between interferometer pulses. Environmentally robust sensors operating at high-bandwidth will be required to operate at short (millisecond scale) dwell times between Raman pulses. In such an operational mode, the Raman pulse duration becomes an appreciable fraction of the dwell time between pulses. In addition, high-precision inertial sensing applications have typically been demonstrated in mildly dynamic or nondynamic environments having low rate of change of inertial input, ensuring that applied Raman pulses satisfy the Raman resonance condition. Application of nonresonant pulses will be inevitable in sensors registering time-varying inertial input. We present a diagrammatic technique for calculation of atomic output state populations for multipulse atom optics manipulations that explicitly account for the effects of finite pulse duration and finite Raman detuning effects on the laser-induced atomic phase. We analyze several atom interferometer sequences. We report accelerometer and gyroscope phase evolution for fixed Raman laser frequency difference incorporating corrections in powers of the ratio of pulse duration to time interval between interferometer pulses. Our accelerometer result agrees with other published results.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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