Abstract

Dicke narrowing in both the absorption and dispersion modes of detection have been scrutinized by noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectroscopy (NICE-OHMS) using an isolated transition in the v1+v3+v41v41 band of acetylene [Pe(33) at 6439.371cm1] at room temperature. The results represent the first (to our knowledge) demonstration of Dicke narrowing detected in dispersion, as well as by NICE-OHMS, and the paper provides thereby the first comparison of the Dicke narrowing phenomenon for the two modes of detection. It is shown that Dicke narrowing in dispersion can be described by the dispersive counterparts to the conventional Galatry and Rautian absorption line-shape functions, which are explicitly given. Spectroscopic parameters for the targeted transition were extracted in both absorption and dispersion and found to be in agreement with those previously reported for other lines and bands. The shortcomings of the Galatry model to provide physically relevant parameters in this pressure range are discussed.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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2011 (2)

M. Dhyne, P. Joubert, J. C. Populaire, and M. Lepère, “Self-collisional broadening and shift coefficients of lines in the ν4+ν5 band of C122H2 from 173.2 to 298.2 K by diode-laser spectroscopy,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 112, 969–979(2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Kluczynski, S. Lundqvist, J. Westberg, and O. Axner, “Faraday rotation spectrometer with sub-second response time for detection of nitric oxide using a cw DFB quantum cascade laser at 5.33 μm,” Appl. Phys. B 103, 451–459 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (4)

F. M. Schmidt, W. Ma, A. Foltynowicz, and O. Axner, “Highly sensitive dispersion spectroscopy by probing the free spectral range of an optical cavity using dual-frequency modulation,” Appl. Phys. B 101, 497–509 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Foltynowicz, J. Y. Wang, P. Ehlers, and O. Axner, “Distributed-feedback-laser-based NICE-OHMS in the pressure-broadened regime,” Opt. Express 18, 18580–18591 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Martin and M. Lepère, “Temperature dependence of N2- and O2-broadening coefficients in the ν4 band of CH134,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 259, 46–55 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Dhyne, P. Joubert, J. C. Populaire, and M. Lepére, “Collisional broadening and shift coefficients of lines in the ν4+ν5 band of C122H2 diluted in N2 from low to room temperatures,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 111, 973–989 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (8)

G. Casa, R. Wehr, A. Castrillo, E. Fasci, and L. Gianfrani, “The line shape problem in the near-infrared spectrum of self-colliding CO2 molecules: experimental investigation and test of semiclassical models,” J. Chem. Phys. 130, 184306 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Fissiaux, M. Dhyne, and M. Lepère, “Diode-laser spectroscopy: Pressure dependence of N2-broadening coefficients of lines in the ν4+ν5 band of C2H2,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 254, 10–15 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Dhyne, L. Fissiaux, J. C. Populaire, and M. Lepére, “Temperature dependence of the N2-broadening coefficients of acetylene,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 358–366 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Martin and M. Lepére, “O2- and air-broadening coefficients in the ν4 band of CH124 at room temperature,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 255, 6–12 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Borde, “On the theory of linear absorption line shapes in gases,” C.R. Physique 10, 866–882 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Foltynowicz, W. Ma, F. M. Schmidt, and O. Axner, “Wavelength-modulated noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectroscopy signal line shapes in the Doppler limit,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26, 1384–1394 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Lewicki, J. H. Doty, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, and G. Wysocki, “Ultrasensitive detection of nitric oxide at 5.33 mu m by using external cavity quantum cascade laser-based Faraday rotation spectroscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 106, 12587–12592(2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (7)

W. Ma, A. Foltynowicz, and O. Axner, “Theoretical description of Doppler-broadened noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectroscopy under optically saturated conditions,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, 1144–1155 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Foltynowicz, W. Ma, F. M. Schmidt, and O. Axner, “Doppler-broadened noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectroscopy signals from optically saturated transitions under low pressure conditions,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, 1156–1165 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Foltynowicz, W. Ma, and O. Axner, “Characterization of fiber-laser-based sub-Doppler NICE-OHMS for trace gas detection,” Opt. Express 16, 14689–14702 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Foltynowicz, F. M. Schmidt, W. Ma, and O. Axner, “Noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectroscopy: current status and future potential,” Appl. Phys. B 92, 313–326 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Fritsch, M. Horstjann, D. Halmer, Sabana, P. Hering, and M. Murtz, “Magnetic Faraday modulation spectroscopy of the 1-0 band of NO14 and NO15,” Appl. Phys. B 93, 713–723(2008).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Hodges, D. Lisak, N. Lavrentieva, A. Bykov, L. Sinitsa, J. Tennyson, R. J. Barber, and R. N. Tolchenov, “Comparison between theoretical calculations and high-resolution measurements of pressure broadening for near-infrared water spectra,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 249, 86–94 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Martin and M. Lepère, “N2-broadening coefficients in the ν4 band of CH124 at room temperature,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 250, 70–74 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

2004 (1)

M. Lepère, “Line profile study with tunable diode laser spectrometers,” Spectrochim. Acta, Part A 60, 3249–3258 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

H. Ganser, W. Urban, and A. M. Brown, “The sensitive detection of NO by Faraday modulation spectroscopy with a quantum cascade laser,” Mol. Phys. 101, 545–550 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Dufour, D. Hurtmans, A. Henry, A. Valentin, and M. Lepère, “Line profile study from diode laser spectroscopy in the CH1242v3 band perturbed by N2, O2, Ar, and He,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 221, 80–92 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

D. A. Shapiro, R. Ciurylo, J. R. Drummond, and A. D. May, “Solving the line-shape problem with speed-dependent broadening and shifting and with Dicke narrowing. I. formalism,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 012501 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Ciurylo, D. A. Shapiro, J. R. Drummond, and A. D. May, “Solving the line-shape problem with speed-dependent broadening and shifting and with Dicke narrowing. II. application,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 012502 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

D. A. Shapiro, R. Ciurylo, R. Jaworski, and A. D. May, “Modeling the spectral line shapes with speed-dependent broadening and Dicke narrowing,” Can. J. Phys. 79, 1209–1222 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Valipour and D. Zimmermann, “Investigation of J dependence of line shift, line broadening, and line narrowing coefficients in the ν1+3ν3 absorption band of acetylene,” J. Chem. Phys. 114, 3535–3545 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1998 (2)

J. Ye, L. S. Ma, and J. L. Hall, “Ultrasensitive detections in atomic and molecular physics: demonstration in molecular overtone spectroscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 6–15 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Ciurylo, “Shapes of pressure- and Doppler-broadened spectral lines in the core and near wings,” Phys. Rev. A 58, 1029–1039 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

J. Ye, L. S. Ma, and J. L. Hall, “Ultrastable optical frequency reference at 1.064 μm using a C2HD molecular overtone transition,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 46, 178–182 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (3)

1992 (1)

E. V. Podivilov and D. A. Shapiro, “Dicke narrowing in a plasma,” JETP Lett. 56, 449–454 (1992).

1987 (1)

D. R. Rao and T. Oka, “Dicke narrowing and pressure broadening in the infrared fundamental-band of HCl perturbed by Ar,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 122, 16–27 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1985 (2)

R. P. Frueholz and C. H. Volk, “Analysis of Dicke narrowing in wall-coated and buffer-gas-filled atomic storage-cells,” J. Phys. B 18, 4055–4067 (1985).
[CrossRef]

E. A. Whittaker, M. Gehrtz, and G. C. Bjorklund, “Residual amplitude-modulation in laser electro-optic phase modulation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2, 1320–1326 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984 (3)

P. L. Varghese and R. K. Hanson, “Collisional narrowing effects on spectral-line shapes measured at high-resolution,” Appl. Opt. 23, 2376–2385 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. G. DeVoe and R. G. Brewer, “Laser frequency division and stabilization,” Phys. Rev. A 30, 2827–2829 (1984).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Corey and F. R. McCourt, “Dicke narrowing and collisional broadening of spectral-lines in dilute molecular gases,” J. Chem. Phys. 81, 2318–2329 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983 (2)

G. C. Bjorklund, M. D. Levenson, W. Lenth, and C. Oritz, “Frequency modulation (FM) spectroscopy: theory of lineshapes and signal-to-noise analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 32, 145–152 (1983).
[CrossRef]

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

D. R. A. McMahon, “Dicke narrowing reduction of the Doppler contribution to a linewidth,” Aust. J. Phys. 34, 639–675 (1981).

1980 (2)

G. Litfin, C. R. Pollock, R. F. Curl, and F. K. Tittel, “Sensitivity enhancement of laser-absorption spectroscopy by magnetic rotation effect,” J. Chem. Phys. 72, 6602–6605 (1980).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Bjorklund, “Frequency-modulation spectroscopy: a new method for measuring weak absorptions and dispersions,” Opt. Lett. 5, 15–17 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1972 (2)

A. Kaldor, A. G. Maki, and W. B. Olson, “Pollution monitor for nitric oxide—laser device based on Zeeman modulation of absorption,” Science 176, 508–510 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Arteaga, S. W.

S. W. Arteaga, C. M. Bejger, J. L. Gerecke, J. L. Hardwick, Z. T. Martin, J. Mayo, E. A. McIlhattan, J. M. F. Moreau, M. J. Pilkenton, M. J. Polston, B. T. Robertson, and E. N. Wolf, “Line broadening and shift coefficients of acetylene at 1550 nm,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 243, 253–266 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Axner, O.

P. Kluczynski, S. Lundqvist, J. Westberg, and O. Axner, “Faraday rotation spectrometer with sub-second response time for detection of nitric oxide using a cw DFB quantum cascade laser at 5.33 μm,” Appl. Phys. B 103, 451–459 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. M. Schmidt, W. Ma, A. Foltynowicz, and O. Axner, “Highly sensitive dispersion spectroscopy by probing the free spectral range of an optical cavity using dual-frequency modulation,” Appl. Phys. B 101, 497–509 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Foltynowicz, J. Y. Wang, P. Ehlers, and O. Axner, “Distributed-feedback-laser-based NICE-OHMS in the pressure-broadened regime,” Opt. Express 18, 18580–18591 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Foltynowicz, W. Ma, F. M. Schmidt, and O. Axner, “Wavelength-modulated noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectroscopy signal line shapes in the Doppler limit,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26, 1384–1394 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Foltynowicz, W. Ma, F. M. Schmidt, and O. Axner, “Doppler-broadened noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectroscopy signals from optically saturated transitions under low pressure conditions,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, 1156–1165 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Foltynowicz, W. Ma, and O. Axner, “Characterization of fiber-laser-based sub-Doppler NICE-OHMS for trace gas detection,” Opt. Express 16, 14689–14702 (2008).
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W. Ma, A. Foltynowicz, and O. Axner, “Theoretical description of Doppler-broadened noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectroscopy under optically saturated conditions,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, 1144–1155 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Foltynowicz, F. M. Schmidt, W. Ma, and O. Axner, “Noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectroscopy: current status and future potential,” Appl. Phys. B 92, 313–326 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. M. Schmidt, A. Foltynowicz, W. Ma, and O. Axner, “Fiber-laser-based noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectrometry for Doppler-broadened detection of C2H2 in the parts per trillion range,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 1392–1405 (2007).
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F. M. Schmidt, A. Foltynowicz, W. Ma, T. Lock, and O. Axner, “Doppler-broadened fiber-laser-based NICE-OHMS—improved detectability,” Opt. Express 15, 10822–10831 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Silander, P. Ehlers, J. Wang, and O. Axner, Department of Physics, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Modeling frequency modulation background signals from fiber-based electro optic modulators based on crosstalk.”

A. Foltynowicz, I. Silander, and O. Axner, Department of Physics, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Reduction of background signals from fiber-coupled electro-optic modulators in NICE-OHMS.”

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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Barber, R. J.

J. T. Hodges, D. Lisak, N. Lavrentieva, A. Bykov, L. Sinitsa, J. Tennyson, R. J. Barber, and R. N. Tolchenov, “Comparison between theoretical calculations and high-resolution measurements of pressure broadening for near-infrared water spectra,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 249, 86–94 (2008).
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S. W. Arteaga, C. M. Bejger, J. L. Gerecke, J. L. Hardwick, Z. T. Martin, J. Mayo, E. A. McIlhattan, J. M. F. Moreau, M. J. Pilkenton, M. J. Polston, B. T. Robertson, and E. N. Wolf, “Line broadening and shift coefficients of acetylene at 1550 nm,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 243, 253–266 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Birk, M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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Bjorklund, G. C.

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C. J. Borde, “On the theory of linear absorption line shapes in gases,” C.R. Physique 10, 866–882 (2009).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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R. G. DeVoe and R. G. Brewer, “Laser frequency division and stabilization,” Phys. Rev. A 30, 2827–2829 (1984).
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H. Ganser, W. Urban, and A. M. Brown, “The sensitive detection of NO by Faraday modulation spectroscopy with a quantum cascade laser,” Mol. Phys. 101, 545–550 (2003).
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Brown, L. R.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bykov, A.

J. T. Hodges, D. Lisak, N. Lavrentieva, A. Bykov, L. Sinitsa, J. Tennyson, R. J. Barber, and R. N. Tolchenov, “Comparison between theoretical calculations and high-resolution measurements of pressure broadening for near-infrared water spectra,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 249, 86–94 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Campargue, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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Casa, G.

G. Casa, R. Wehr, A. Castrillo, E. Fasci, and L. Gianfrani, “The line shape problem in the near-infrared spectrum of self-colliding CO2 molecules: experimental investigation and test of semiclassical models,” J. Chem. Phys. 130, 184306 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Castrillo, A.

G. Casa, R. Wehr, A. Castrillo, E. Fasci, and L. Gianfrani, “The line shape problem in the near-infrared spectrum of self-colliding CO2 molecules: experimental investigation and test of semiclassical models,” J. Chem. Phys. 130, 184306 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chackerian, C.

Champion, J. P.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chance, K.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ciurylo, R.

R. Ciurylo, D. A. Shapiro, J. R. Drummond, and A. D. May, “Solving the line-shape problem with speed-dependent broadening and shifting and with Dicke narrowing. II. application,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 012502 (2002).
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D. A. Shapiro, R. Ciurylo, J. R. Drummond, and A. D. May, “Solving the line-shape problem with speed-dependent broadening and shifting and with Dicke narrowing. I. formalism,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 012501 (2002).
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D. A. Shapiro, R. Ciurylo, R. Jaworski, and A. D. May, “Modeling the spectral line shapes with speed-dependent broadening and Dicke narrowing,” Can. J. Phys. 79, 1209–1222 (2001).
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R. Ciurylo, “Shapes of pressure- and Doppler-broadened spectral lines in the core and near wings,” Phys. Rev. A 58, 1029–1039 (1998).
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Coudert, L. H.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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Curl, R. F.

R. Lewicki, J. H. Doty, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, and G. Wysocki, “Ultrasensitive detection of nitric oxide at 5.33 mu m by using external cavity quantum cascade laser-based Faraday rotation spectroscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 106, 12587–12592(2009).
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Dana, V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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Devi, V. M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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R. G. DeVoe and R. G. Brewer, “Laser frequency division and stabilization,” Phys. Rev. A 30, 2827–2829 (1984).
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Dhyne, M.

M. Dhyne, P. Joubert, J. C. Populaire, and M. Lepère, “Self-collisional broadening and shift coefficients of lines in the ν4+ν5 band of C122H2 from 173.2 to 298.2 K by diode-laser spectroscopy,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 112, 969–979(2011).
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M. Dhyne, P. Joubert, J. C. Populaire, and M. Lepére, “Collisional broadening and shift coefficients of lines in the ν4+ν5 band of C122H2 diluted in N2 from low to room temperatures,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 111, 973–989 (2010).
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M. Dhyne, L. Fissiaux, J. C. Populaire, and M. Lepére, “Temperature dependence of the N2-broadening coefficients of acetylene,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 358–366 (2009).
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L. Fissiaux, M. Dhyne, and M. Lepère, “Diode-laser spectroscopy: Pressure dependence of N2-broadening coefficients of lines in the ν4+ν5 band of C2H2,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 254, 10–15 (2009).
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Dicke, R. H.

R. H. Dicke, “The effect of collisions upon the Doppler width of spectral lines,” Phys. Rev. 89, 472–473 (1953).
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Doty, J. H.

R. Lewicki, J. H. Doty, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, and G. Wysocki, “Ultrasensitive detection of nitric oxide at 5.33 mu m by using external cavity quantum cascade laser-based Faraday rotation spectroscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 106, 12587–12592(2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
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Drummond, J. R.

R. Ciurylo, D. A. Shapiro, J. R. Drummond, and A. D. May, “Solving the line-shape problem with speed-dependent broadening and shifting and with Dicke narrowing. II. application,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 012502 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Shapiro, R. Ciurylo, J. R. Drummond, and A. D. May, “Solving the line-shape problem with speed-dependent broadening and shifting and with Dicke narrowing. I. formalism,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 012501 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dube, P.

Dufour, G.

G. Dufour, D. Hurtmans, A. Henry, A. Valentin, and M. Lepère, “Line profile study from diode laser spectroscopy in the CH1242v3 band perturbed by N2, O2, Ar, and He,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 221, 80–92 (2003).
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Ehlers, P.

A. Foltynowicz, J. Y. Wang, P. Ehlers, and O. Axner, “Distributed-feedback-laser-based NICE-OHMS in the pressure-broadened regime,” Opt. Express 18, 18580–18591 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Silander, P. Ehlers, J. Wang, and O. Axner, Department of Physics, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Modeling frequency modulation background signals from fiber-based electro optic modulators based on crosstalk.”

Fally, S.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fasci, E.

G. Casa, R. Wehr, A. Castrillo, E. Fasci, and L. Gianfrani, “The line shape problem in the near-infrared spectrum of self-colliding CO2 molecules: experimental investigation and test of semiclassical models,” J. Chem. Phys. 130, 184306 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fissiaux, L.

M. Dhyne, L. Fissiaux, J. C. Populaire, and M. Lepére, “Temperature dependence of the N2-broadening coefficients of acetylene,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 358–366 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Fissiaux, M. Dhyne, and M. Lepère, “Diode-laser spectroscopy: Pressure dependence of N2-broadening coefficients of lines in the ν4+ν5 band of C2H2,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 254, 10–15 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Flaud, J. M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Foltynowicz, A.

A. Foltynowicz, J. Y. Wang, P. Ehlers, and O. Axner, “Distributed-feedback-laser-based NICE-OHMS in the pressure-broadened regime,” Opt. Express 18, 18580–18591 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. M. Schmidt, W. Ma, A. Foltynowicz, and O. Axner, “Highly sensitive dispersion spectroscopy by probing the free spectral range of an optical cavity using dual-frequency modulation,” Appl. Phys. B 101, 497–509 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Foltynowicz, W. Ma, F. M. Schmidt, and O. Axner, “Wavelength-modulated noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectroscopy signal line shapes in the Doppler limit,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26, 1384–1394 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Foltynowicz, W. Ma, and O. Axner, “Characterization of fiber-laser-based sub-Doppler NICE-OHMS for trace gas detection,” Opt. Express 16, 14689–14702 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Ma, A. Foltynowicz, and O. Axner, “Theoretical description of Doppler-broadened noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectroscopy under optically saturated conditions,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, 1144–1155 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Foltynowicz, F. M. Schmidt, W. Ma, and O. Axner, “Noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectroscopy: current status and future potential,” Appl. Phys. B 92, 313–326 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Foltynowicz, W. Ma, F. M. Schmidt, and O. Axner, “Doppler-broadened noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectroscopy signals from optically saturated transitions under low pressure conditions,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, 1156–1165 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. M. Schmidt, A. Foltynowicz, W. Ma, T. Lock, and O. Axner, “Doppler-broadened fiber-laser-based NICE-OHMS—improved detectability,” Opt. Express 15, 10822–10831 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. M. Schmidt, A. Foltynowicz, W. Ma, and O. Axner, “Fiber-laser-based noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectrometry for Doppler-broadened detection of C2H2 in the parts per trillion range,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 1392–1405 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Foltynowicz, “Fiber-laser-based noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectrometry,” PhD. thesis (Umeå University, 2009).

A. Foltynowicz, I. Silander, and O. Axner, Department of Physics, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Reduction of background signals from fiber-coupled electro-optic modulators in NICE-OHMS.”

Ford, G. M.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Fritsch, T.

T. Fritsch, M. Horstjann, D. Halmer, Sabana, P. Hering, and M. Murtz, “Magnetic Faraday modulation spectroscopy of the 1-0 band of NO14 and NO15,” Appl. Phys. B 93, 713–723(2008).
[CrossRef]

Frueholz, R. P.

R. P. Frueholz and C. H. Volk, “Analysis of Dicke narrowing in wall-coated and buffer-gas-filled atomic storage-cells,” J. Phys. B 18, 4055–4067 (1985).
[CrossRef]

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L. Galatry, “Simultaneous effect of Doppler and foreign gas broadening on spectral lines,” Phys. Rev. 122, 1218–1223(1961).
[CrossRef]

Gamache, R. R.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ganser, H.

H. Ganser, W. Urban, and A. M. Brown, “The sensitive detection of NO by Faraday modulation spectroscopy with a quantum cascade laser,” Mol. Phys. 101, 545–550 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gehrtz, M.

Gerecke, J. L.

S. W. Arteaga, C. M. Bejger, J. L. Gerecke, J. L. Hardwick, Z. T. Martin, J. Mayo, E. A. McIlhattan, J. M. F. Moreau, M. J. Pilkenton, M. J. Polston, B. T. Robertson, and E. N. Wolf, “Line broadening and shift coefficients of acetylene at 1550 nm,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 243, 253–266 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ghatak, A.

M. Nelkin and A. Ghatak, “Simple binary collision model for van Hove’s Gs(r,t),” Phys. Rev. 135, A4–A9 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Gianfrani, L.

G. Casa, R. Wehr, A. Castrillo, E. Fasci, and L. Gianfrani, “The line shape problem in the near-infrared spectrum of self-colliding CO2 molecules: experimental investigation and test of semiclassical models,” J. Chem. Phys. 130, 184306 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goldman, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, I. E.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hall, J. L.

Halmer, D.

T. Fritsch, M. Horstjann, D. Halmer, Sabana, P. Hering, and M. Murtz, “Magnetic Faraday modulation spectroscopy of the 1-0 band of NO14 and NO15,” Appl. Phys. B 93, 713–723(2008).
[CrossRef]

Hanson, R. K.

Hardwick, J. L.

S. W. Arteaga, C. M. Bejger, J. L. Gerecke, J. L. Hardwick, Z. T. Martin, J. Mayo, E. A. McIlhattan, J. M. F. Moreau, M. J. Pilkenton, M. J. Polston, B. T. Robertson, and E. N. Wolf, “Line broadening and shift coefficients of acetylene at 1550 nm,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 243, 253–266 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Henry, A.

G. Dufour, D. Hurtmans, A. Henry, A. Valentin, and M. Lepère, “Line profile study from diode laser spectroscopy in the CH1242v3 band perturbed by N2, O2, Ar, and He,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 221, 80–92 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Henry, D. Hurtmans, M. Margottin-Maclou, and A. Valentin, “Confinement narrowing and absorber speed dependent broadening effects on CO lines in the fundamental band perturbed by Xe, Ar, Ne, He and N2,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 56, 647–671 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hering, P.

T. Fritsch, M. Horstjann, D. Halmer, Sabana, P. Hering, and M. Murtz, “Magnetic Faraday modulation spectroscopy of the 1-0 band of NO14 and NO15,” Appl. Phys. B 93, 713–723(2008).
[CrossRef]

Hodges, J. T.

J. T. Hodges, D. Lisak, N. Lavrentieva, A. Bykov, L. Sinitsa, J. Tennyson, R. J. Barber, and R. N. Tolchenov, “Comparison between theoretical calculations and high-resolution measurements of pressure broadening for near-infrared water spectra,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 249, 86–94 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Horstjann, M.

T. Fritsch, M. Horstjann, D. Halmer, Sabana, P. Hering, and M. Murtz, “Magnetic Faraday modulation spectroscopy of the 1-0 band of NO14 and NO15,” Appl. Phys. B 93, 713–723(2008).
[CrossRef]

Hough, J.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Hurtmans, D.

G. Dufour, D. Hurtmans, A. Henry, A. Valentin, and M. Lepère, “Line profile study from diode laser spectroscopy in the CH1242v3 band perturbed by N2, O2, Ar, and He,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 221, 80–92 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Henry, D. Hurtmans, M. Margottin-Maclou, and A. Valentin, “Confinement narrowing and absorber speed dependent broadening effects on CO lines in the fundamental band perturbed by Xe, Ar, Ne, He and N2,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 56, 647–671 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jacquemart, D.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Javan, A.

J. R. Murray and A. Javan, “Effects of collisions on Raman line profiles of hydrogen and deuterium gas,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 42, 1–26 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Jaworski, R.

D. A. Shapiro, R. Ciurylo, R. Jaworski, and A. D. May, “Modeling the spectral line shapes with speed-dependent broadening and Dicke narrowing,” Can. J. Phys. 79, 1209–1222 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Joubert, P.

M. Dhyne, P. Joubert, J. C. Populaire, and M. Lepère, “Self-collisional broadening and shift coefficients of lines in the ν4+ν5 band of C122H2 from 173.2 to 298.2 K by diode-laser spectroscopy,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 112, 969–979(2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Dhyne, P. Joubert, J. C. Populaire, and M. Lepére, “Collisional broadening and shift coefficients of lines in the ν4+ν5 band of C122H2 diluted in N2 from low to room temperatures,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 111, 973–989 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kaldor, A.

A. Kaldor, A. G. Maki, and W. B. Olson, “Pollution monitor for nitric oxide—laser device based on Zeeman modulation of absorption,” Science 176, 508–510 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kleiner, I.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kluczynski, P.

P. Kluczynski, S. Lundqvist, J. Westberg, and O. Axner, “Faraday rotation spectrometer with sub-second response time for detection of nitric oxide using a cw DFB quantum cascade laser at 5.33 μm,” Appl. Phys. B 103, 451–459 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kowalski, F. V.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Kramers, H. A.

H. A. Kramers, “La diffusion de la lumiere par les atomes,” Atti. Congr. Int. Fis. Como. 2, 545–557 (1927).

Kronig, R. L.

Lacome, N.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lafferty, W. J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lavrentieva, N.

J. T. Hodges, D. Lisak, N. Lavrentieva, A. Bykov, L. Sinitsa, J. Tennyson, R. J. Barber, and R. N. Tolchenov, “Comparison between theoretical calculations and high-resolution measurements of pressure broadening for near-infrared water spectra,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 249, 86–94 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lenth, W.

G. C. Bjorklund, M. D. Levenson, W. Lenth, and C. Oritz, “Frequency modulation (FM) spectroscopy: theory of lineshapes and signal-to-noise analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 32, 145–152 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Lepére, M.

M. Dhyne, P. Joubert, J. C. Populaire, and M. Lepére, “Collisional broadening and shift coefficients of lines in the ν4+ν5 band of C122H2 diluted in N2 from low to room temperatures,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 111, 973–989 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Martin and M. Lepére, “O2- and air-broadening coefficients in the ν4 band of CH124 at room temperature,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 255, 6–12 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Dhyne, L. Fissiaux, J. C. Populaire, and M. Lepére, “Temperature dependence of the N2-broadening coefficients of acetylene,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 358–366 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lepère, M.

M. Dhyne, P. Joubert, J. C. Populaire, and M. Lepère, “Self-collisional broadening and shift coefficients of lines in the ν4+ν5 band of C122H2 from 173.2 to 298.2 K by diode-laser spectroscopy,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 112, 969–979(2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Martin and M. Lepère, “Temperature dependence of N2- and O2-broadening coefficients in the ν4 band of CH134,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 259, 46–55 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Fissiaux, M. Dhyne, and M. Lepère, “Diode-laser spectroscopy: Pressure dependence of N2-broadening coefficients of lines in the ν4+ν5 band of C2H2,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 254, 10–15 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Martin and M. Lepère, “N2-broadening coefficients in the ν4 band of CH124 at room temperature,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 250, 70–74 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Lepère, “Line profile study with tunable diode laser spectrometers,” Spectrochim. Acta, Part A 60, 3249–3258 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Dufour, D. Hurtmans, A. Henry, A. Valentin, and M. Lepère, “Line profile study from diode laser spectroscopy in the CH1242v3 band perturbed by N2, O2, Ar, and He,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 221, 80–92 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Levenson, M. D.

G. C. Bjorklund, M. D. Levenson, W. Lenth, and C. Oritz, “Frequency modulation (FM) spectroscopy: theory of lineshapes and signal-to-noise analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 32, 145–152 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Lewicki, R.

R. Lewicki, J. H. Doty, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, and G. Wysocki, “Ultrasensitive detection of nitric oxide at 5.33 mu m by using external cavity quantum cascade laser-based Faraday rotation spectroscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 106, 12587–12592(2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lisak, D.

J. T. Hodges, D. Lisak, N. Lavrentieva, A. Bykov, L. Sinitsa, J. Tennyson, R. J. Barber, and R. N. Tolchenov, “Comparison between theoretical calculations and high-resolution measurements of pressure broadening for near-infrared water spectra,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 249, 86–94 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Litfin, G.

G. Litfin, C. R. Pollock, R. F. Curl, and F. K. Tittel, “Sensitivity enhancement of laser-absorption spectroscopy by magnetic rotation effect,” J. Chem. Phys. 72, 6602–6605 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Lock, T.

Lundqvist, S.

P. Kluczynski, S. Lundqvist, J. Westberg, and O. Axner, “Faraday rotation spectrometer with sub-second response time for detection of nitric oxide using a cw DFB quantum cascade laser at 5.33 μm,” Appl. Phys. B 103, 451–459 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ma, L. S.

Ma, W.

F. M. Schmidt, W. Ma, A. Foltynowicz, and O. Axner, “Highly sensitive dispersion spectroscopy by probing the free spectral range of an optical cavity using dual-frequency modulation,” Appl. Phys. B 101, 497–509 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Foltynowicz, W. Ma, F. M. Schmidt, and O. Axner, “Wavelength-modulated noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectroscopy signal line shapes in the Doppler limit,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26, 1384–1394 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Foltynowicz, W. Ma, and O. Axner, “Characterization of fiber-laser-based sub-Doppler NICE-OHMS for trace gas detection,” Opt. Express 16, 14689–14702 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Ma, A. Foltynowicz, and O. Axner, “Theoretical description of Doppler-broadened noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectroscopy under optically saturated conditions,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, 1144–1155 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Foltynowicz, F. M. Schmidt, W. Ma, and O. Axner, “Noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectroscopy: current status and future potential,” Appl. Phys. B 92, 313–326 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Foltynowicz, W. Ma, F. M. Schmidt, and O. Axner, “Doppler-broadened noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectroscopy signals from optically saturated transitions under low pressure conditions,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, 1156–1165 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. M. Schmidt, A. Foltynowicz, W. Ma, T. Lock, and O. Axner, “Doppler-broadened fiber-laser-based NICE-OHMS—improved detectability,” Opt. Express 15, 10822–10831 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. M. Schmidt, A. Foltynowicz, W. Ma, and O. Axner, “Fiber-laser-based noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectrometry for Doppler-broadened detection of C2H2 in the parts per trillion range,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 1392–1405 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Maki, A. G.

A. Kaldor, A. G. Maki, and W. B. Olson, “Pollution monitor for nitric oxide—laser device based on Zeeman modulation of absorption,” Science 176, 508–510 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mandin, J. Y.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Margottin-Maclou, M.

A. Henry, D. Hurtmans, M. Margottin-Maclou, and A. Valentin, “Confinement narrowing and absorber speed dependent broadening effects on CO lines in the fundamental band perturbed by Xe, Ar, Ne, He and N2,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 56, 647–671 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Martin, B.

B. Martin and M. Lepère, “Temperature dependence of N2- and O2-broadening coefficients in the ν4 band of CH134,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 259, 46–55 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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S. W. Arteaga, C. M. Bejger, J. L. Gerecke, J. L. Hardwick, Z. T. Martin, J. Mayo, E. A. McIlhattan, J. M. F. Moreau, M. J. Pilkenton, M. J. Polston, B. T. Robertson, and E. N. Wolf, “Line broadening and shift coefficients of acetylene at 1550 nm,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 243, 253–266 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Massie, S. T.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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[CrossRef]

R. Ciurylo, D. A. Shapiro, J. R. Drummond, and A. D. May, “Solving the line-shape problem with speed-dependent broadening and shifting and with Dicke narrowing. II. application,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 012502 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Shapiro, R. Ciurylo, R. Jaworski, and A. D. May, “Modeling the spectral line shapes with speed-dependent broadening and Dicke narrowing,” Can. J. Phys. 79, 1209–1222 (2001).
[CrossRef]

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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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Miller, C. E.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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Moazzen-Ahmadi, N.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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S. W. Arteaga, C. M. Bejger, J. L. Gerecke, J. L. Hardwick, Z. T. Martin, J. Mayo, E. A. McIlhattan, J. M. F. Moreau, M. J. Pilkenton, M. J. Polston, B. T. Robertson, and E. N. Wolf, “Line broadening and shift coefficients of acetylene at 1550 nm,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 243, 253–266 (2007).
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Murtz, M.

T. Fritsch, M. Horstjann, D. Halmer, Sabana, P. Hering, and M. Murtz, “Magnetic Faraday modulation spectroscopy of the 1-0 band of NO14 and NO15,” Appl. Phys. B 93, 713–723(2008).
[CrossRef]

Naumenko, O. V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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Nikitin, A. V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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Oka, T.

D. R. Rao and T. Oka, “Dicke narrowing and pressure broadening in the infrared fundamental-band of HCl perturbed by Ar,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 122, 16–27 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Olson, W. B.

A. Kaldor, A. G. Maki, and W. B. Olson, “Pollution monitor for nitric oxide—laser device based on Zeeman modulation of absorption,” Science 176, 508–510 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oritz, C.

G. C. Bjorklund, M. D. Levenson, W. Lenth, and C. Oritz, “Frequency modulation (FM) spectroscopy: theory of lineshapes and signal-to-noise analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 32, 145–152 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Orphal, J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Perevalov, V. I.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Perrin, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pilkenton, M. J.

S. W. Arteaga, C. M. Bejger, J. L. Gerecke, J. L. Hardwick, Z. T. Martin, J. Mayo, E. A. McIlhattan, J. M. F. Moreau, M. J. Pilkenton, M. J. Polston, B. T. Robertson, and E. N. Wolf, “Line broadening and shift coefficients of acetylene at 1550 nm,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 243, 253–266 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Podivilov, E. V.

E. V. Podivilov and D. A. Shapiro, “Dicke narrowing in a plasma,” JETP Lett. 56, 449–454 (1992).

Podolske, J. R.

Pollock, C. R.

G. Litfin, C. R. Pollock, R. F. Curl, and F. K. Tittel, “Sensitivity enhancement of laser-absorption spectroscopy by magnetic rotation effect,” J. Chem. Phys. 72, 6602–6605 (1980).
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Polston, M. J.

S. W. Arteaga, C. M. Bejger, J. L. Gerecke, J. L. Hardwick, Z. T. Martin, J. Mayo, E. A. McIlhattan, J. M. F. Moreau, M. J. Pilkenton, M. J. Polston, B. T. Robertson, and E. N. Wolf, “Line broadening and shift coefficients of acetylene at 1550 nm,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 243, 253–266 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Populaire, J. C.

M. Dhyne, P. Joubert, J. C. Populaire, and M. Lepère, “Self-collisional broadening and shift coefficients of lines in the ν4+ν5 band of C122H2 from 173.2 to 298.2 K by diode-laser spectroscopy,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 112, 969–979(2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Dhyne, P. Joubert, J. C. Populaire, and M. Lepére, “Collisional broadening and shift coefficients of lines in the ν4+ν5 band of C122H2 diluted in N2 from low to room temperatures,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 111, 973–989 (2010).
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M. Dhyne, L. Fissiaux, J. C. Populaire, and M. Lepére, “Temperature dependence of the N2-broadening coefficients of acetylene,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 358–366 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Predoi-Cross, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rao, D. R.

D. R. Rao and T. Oka, “Dicke narrowing and pressure broadening in the infrared fundamental-band of HCl perturbed by Ar,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 122, 16–27 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Rautian, S. G.

S. G. Rautian and I. I. Sobel’man, “Effect of collisions on Doppler broadening of spectral lines,” Sov. Phys. Usp. 9, 701–716 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Rinsland, C. P.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Robertson, B. T.

S. W. Arteaga, C. M. Bejger, J. L. Gerecke, J. L. Hardwick, Z. T. Martin, J. Mayo, E. A. McIlhattan, J. M. F. Moreau, M. J. Pilkenton, M. J. Polston, B. T. Robertson, and E. N. Wolf, “Line broadening and shift coefficients of acetylene at 1550 nm,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 243, 253–266 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rotger, M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rothman, L. S.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sabana,

T. Fritsch, M. Horstjann, D. Halmer, Sabana, P. Hering, and M. Murtz, “Magnetic Faraday modulation spectroscopy of the 1-0 band of NO14 and NO15,” Appl. Phys. B 93, 713–723(2008).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, F. M.

Shapiro, D. A.

R. Ciurylo, D. A. Shapiro, J. R. Drummond, and A. D. May, “Solving the line-shape problem with speed-dependent broadening and shifting and with Dicke narrowing. II. application,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 012502 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Shapiro, R. Ciurylo, J. R. Drummond, and A. D. May, “Solving the line-shape problem with speed-dependent broadening and shifting and with Dicke narrowing. I. formalism,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 012501 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Shapiro, R. Ciurylo, R. Jaworski, and A. D. May, “Modeling the spectral line shapes with speed-dependent broadening and Dicke narrowing,” Can. J. Phys. 79, 1209–1222 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. V. Podivilov and D. A. Shapiro, “Dicke narrowing in a plasma,” JETP Lett. 56, 449–454 (1992).

Silander, I.

I. Silander, P. Ehlers, J. Wang, and O. Axner, Department of Physics, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Modeling frequency modulation background signals from fiber-based electro optic modulators based on crosstalk.”

A. Foltynowicz, I. Silander, and O. Axner, Department of Physics, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Reduction of background signals from fiber-coupled electro-optic modulators in NICE-OHMS.”

Simeckova, M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sinitsa, L.

J. T. Hodges, D. Lisak, N. Lavrentieva, A. Bykov, L. Sinitsa, J. Tennyson, R. J. Barber, and R. N. Tolchenov, “Comparison between theoretical calculations and high-resolution measurements of pressure broadening for near-infrared water spectra,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 249, 86–94 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Smith, M. A. H.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sobel’man, I. I.

S. G. Rautian and I. I. Sobel’man, “Effect of collisions on Doppler broadening of spectral lines,” Sov. Phys. Usp. 9, 701–716 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Sung, K.

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Note that the terms Voigt, Rautian, and Galatry profiles normally refer to absorption line shapes in the literature. In this paper, however, they refer to both absorption and dispersion line shapes, and these are therefore here referred to as Rautian/Galatry absorption/dispersion line shapes.

I. Silander, P. Ehlers, J. Wang, and O. Axner, Department of Physics, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Modeling frequency modulation background signals from fiber-based electro optic modulators based on crosstalk.”

A. Foltynowicz, I. Silander, and O. Axner, Department of Physics, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Reduction of background signals from fiber-coupled electro-optic modulators in NICE-OHMS.”

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Comparison of the Voigt, the Galatry, and the Rautian absorption line-shape functions, (b) the corresponding dispersion line-shape functions. The upper part of each panel shows the line-shape functions, whereas the lower displays the difference between the Rautian and the Voigt line shapes. The inset in the upper part of each panel enlarges a specific part of the panel. The Doppler width, Γ D , is 235 MHz ; the collision width, Γ L , is 60 MHz (corresponding to 40 Torr of a species with a pressure broadening coefficient of 1.5 MHz / Torr ); and the narrowing frequencies, β soft and β hard , are 40 MHz .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Theoretical simulations of the influence of Dicke narrowing on NICE-OHMS signals at a pressure of 40 Torr detected in (a) absorption and (b) dispersion. The solid markers represent simulated NICE-OHMS signals using Rautian line-shape functions, whereas the solid curves indicate the corresponding fitted NICE-OHMS signals using Voigt line-shape functions. The residuals are shown below each panel. The parameter values are the same as in Fig. 1.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic illustration of the experimental setup. Bold lines are optical fibers, dotted lines are free space beam propagation, and thin lines with arrows are electrical wires. OI, optical isolator; AOM, acousto-optic modulator; EOM, electro-optic modulator; pol., polarizer; λ / 2 , half-wave plate; λ / 4 , quarter-wave plate; PBS, polarizing beam splitter; PD, photodetector; Ph, phase shifter; BP, bandpass filter; LP, low pass filter; DBM, double balanced mixer; col1 and col2, collimators.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a)—(f) Three rows of panels [(a) and (b), (c) and (d), (e) and (f)] represent NICE-OHMS signals from ‰ concentrations of acetylene in N 2 taken at pressures of 10, 40, and 90 Torr , respectively. The two columns [(a), (c), and (e); (b), (d), and (f)] correspond to absorption and dispersion modes of detection, respectively. The individual markers in the upper window of each panel represent measurements, whereas the three solid curves denote the best fits of NICE-OHMS signals based on the Voigt, the Galatry, and the Rautian models. The residuals of the fits of each line shape are given in the lower windows, as marked.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Collision width, Γ L , and (b) the narrowing frequencies ( β soft and β hard ) as functions of pressure for Voigt (square markers), Galatry (triangular markers), and Rautian (circular markers) line-shapes models, detected in absorption and dispersion (solid and open markers, respectively). Note that there are no “missing” data points in the panels; seemingly missing open markers are overlapped by solid ones.

Equations (14)

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χ V abs = ln 2 c π Γ D Re [ W ( x , y ) ]
χ V disp = ln 2 c π Γ D Im [ W ( x , y ) ] ,
x = ln 2 Δ ν Γ D
y = ln 2 Γ L Γ D ,
Δ x Δ p ,
χ G abs = ln 2 c π Γ D Re [ 1 ( 1 / 2 z ) + y i x × M ( 1 ; 1 + 1 2 z 2 + y i x z ; 1 2 z 2 ) ] ,
z = ln 2 β soft Γ D ,
χ G disp = ln 2 c π Γ D Im [ 1 ( 1 / 2 z ) + y i x × M ( 1 ; 1 + 1 2 z 2 + y i x z ; 1 2 z 2 ) ] .
χ R abs = ln 2 c π Γ D Re [ W ( x , y + ζ ) 1 π ζ W ( x , y + ζ ) ] ,
ζ = ln 2 β hard Γ D .
χ R disp = ln 2 c π Γ D Im [ W ( x , y + ζ ) 1 π ζ W ( x , y + ζ ) ] .
β diff = k B T 2 π m D ,
S fm-no ( Δ ν , θ ) = η fm F π J 0 ( β ) J 1 ( β ) P 0 S c rel p L × { [ χ abs ( Δ ν ν m ) χ abs ( Δ ν + ν m ) ] sin θ + [ χ disp ( Δ ν ν m ) 2 χ disp ( Δ ν ) + χ disp ( Δ ν + ν m ) ] cos θ } ,
α ( Δ ν ) π F

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