Abstract

A new single-shot technique based on linear spectral interferometry between a temporally short reader pulse and a temporally long probe pulse is demonstrated for measuring the spatiotemporal phase and amplitude of an optical probe for use as an ultrafast diagnostic. The probe spatiotemporal field information is recovered, with a resolution set by the duration of the reader pulse, by applying a single Fourier transform operation to the interferogram image, without need of any reference data. The technique was used in conjunction with electro-optic sampling to measure waveforms of coherent, ultrashort THz pulses emitted by electron bunches from a laser-plasma accelerator with sub-50fs resolution. The presence of strong spatiotemporal coupling in the THz waveforms and of complex temporal electron-bunch structure was determined.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  6. M. C. Beard, G. M. Turner, and C. A. Schmuttenmaer, “Transient photconductivity in gaAs as measured by time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 15764–15777 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. C. Hoffmann, J. Hebling, H. Y. Hwang, K.-L. Yeh, and K. A. Nelson, “THz-pump/THz-probe spectroscopy of semiconductors at high field strengths,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26, A29–A34 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. van Tilborg, C. B. Schroeder, C. V. Filip, C. Tóth, C. G. R. Geddes, G. Fubiani, R. Huber, R. A. Kaindl, E. Esarey, and W. P. Leemans, “Temporal characterization of femtosecond laser-plasma-accelerated electron bunches using terahertz radiation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 014801 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. Q. Wu and X.-C. Zhang, “Ultrafast electro-optic field sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1604–1606 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Z. Jiang and X.-C. Zhang, “Electro-optic measurement of THz field pulses with a chirped optical beam,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1945–1947 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Z. Jiang and X.-C. Zhang, “Single-shot spatiotemporal terahertz field imaging,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1114–1116 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  12. F. G. Sun, Z. Jiang, and X.-C. Zhang, “Analysis of terahertz pulse measurement with a chirped probe beam,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2233–2235 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. Fletcher, “Distortion and uncertainty in chirped pulse THz spectrometers,” Opt. Express 10, 1425–1430 (2002).
    [PubMed]
  14. S. Jamison, J. Shen, A. M. MacLeod, W. A. Gillespie, and D. A. Jaroszynski, “High-temporal-resolution, single-shot characterization of terahertz pulses,” Opt. Lett. 28, 1710–1712 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. J. van Tilborg, C. B. Schroeder, C. Tóth, C. G. R. Geddes, E. Esarey, and W. P. Leemans, “Single-shot spatiotemporal measurements of high-field terahertz pulses,” Opt. Lett. 32, 313–315(2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. U. Schmidhammer, V. De Waele, J.-R. Marqus, N. Bourgeois, and M. Mostafavi, “Single shot linear detection of 0.0110THz electromagnetic fields: electro-optic sampling with a supercontinuum in balanced detection,” Appl. Phys. B 94, 95–101 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  17. I. Wilke, A. MacLeod, W. Gillespie, G. Berden, G. Knipples, and A. van der Meer, “Single-shot electron-beam bunch length measurements,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 124801 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. X. Yan, A. MacLeod, W. Gillespie, G. Knippels, D. Oepts, A. van der Meer, and W. Seidel, “Subpicosecond electro-optic measurement of relativistic electron pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3404–3407 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. W. P. Leemans, C. G. R. Geddes, J. Faure, C. Tóth, J. van Tilborg, C. B. Schroeder, E. Esarey, G. Fubiani, D. Auerbrach, B. Marcelis, M. A. Carnahan, R. A. Kaindl, J. Byrd, and M. C. Martin, “Observation of terahertz emission from a laser-plasma-accelerated electron bunch crossing a plasma-vacuum boundary,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 074802 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. W. P. Leemans, J. van Tilborg, J. Faure, C. G. R. Geddes, C. Tóth, C. B. Schroeder, E. Esarey, G. Fubiani, and G. Dugan, “Terahertz radiation from laser accelerated electron bunches,” Phys. Plasmas 11, 2899–2906 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  23. S. P. LeBlanc, E. Gaul, N. H. Matlis, A. Rundquist, and M. C. Downer, “Single-shot ultrafast phase measurement by frequency domain holography,” Opt. Lett. 25, 764–766 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  24. N. H. Matlis, S. Reed, S. S. Bulanov, V. Chvykov, G. Kalintchenko, T. Matsuoka, P. Rousseau, V. Yanovsky, A. Maksimchuk, S. Kalmykov, G. Shvets, and M. C. Downer, “Snapshots of laser wakefields,” Nature Phys. 2, 749–753 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  25. K. Kim, I. Alexeev, and H. Milchberg, “Single-shot supercontinuum spectral interferometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4124–4126(2002).
    [CrossRef]
  26. C. B. Schroeder, E. Esarey, J. van Tilborg, and W. P. Leemans, “Theory of coherent transition radiation generated at a plasma-vacuum interface,” Phys. Rev. E 69, 016501 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  27. R. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics (Academic, 1992).
  28. G. Gallot and D. Grischkowsky, “Electro-optic detection of terahertz radiation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 1204–1212 (1999).
    [CrossRef]

2009 (2)

U. Schmidhammer, V. De Waele, J.-R. Marqus, N. Bourgeois, and M. Mostafavi, “Single shot linear detection of 0.0110THz electromagnetic fields: electro-optic sampling with a supercontinuum in balanced detection,” Appl. Phys. B 94, 95–101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Hoffmann, J. Hebling, H. Y. Hwang, K.-L. Yeh, and K. A. Nelson, “THz-pump/THz-probe spectroscopy of semiconductors at high field strengths,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26, A29–A34 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

2006 (3)

N. H. Matlis, S. Reed, S. S. Bulanov, V. Chvykov, G. Kalintchenko, T. Matsuoka, P. Rousseau, V. Yanovsky, A. Maksimchuk, S. Kalmykov, G. Shvets, and M. C. Downer, “Snapshots of laser wakefields,” Nature Phys. 2, 749–753 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Kaindl, R. Huber, B. A. Schmid, M. A. Carnahan, D. Hägele, and D. S. Chemla, “Ultrafast thz spectroscopy of correlated electron: from excitons to cooper pairs,” Phys. Stat. Sol. (b) 243, 2414–2422 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. van Tilborg, C. B. Schroeder, C. V. Filip, C. Tóth, C. G. R. Geddes, G. Fubiani, R. Huber, R. A. Kaindl, E. Esarey, and W. P. Leemans, “Temporal characterization of femtosecond laser-plasma-accelerated electron bunches using terahertz radiation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 014801 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

W. P. Leemans, J. van Tilborg, J. Faure, C. G. R. Geddes, C. Tóth, C. B. Schroeder, E. Esarey, G. Fubiani, and G. Dugan, “Terahertz radiation from laser accelerated electron bunches,” Phys. Plasmas 11, 2899–2906 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Schroeder, E. Esarey, J. van Tilborg, and W. P. Leemans, “Theory of coherent transition radiation generated at a plasma-vacuum interface,” Phys. Rev. E 69, 016501 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

W. P. Leemans, C. G. R. Geddes, J. Faure, C. Tóth, J. van Tilborg, C. B. Schroeder, E. Esarey, G. Fubiani, D. Auerbrach, B. Marcelis, M. A. Carnahan, R. A. Kaindl, J. Byrd, and M. C. Martin, “Observation of terahertz emission from a laser-plasma-accelerated electron bunch crossing a plasma-vacuum boundary,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 074802 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Jamison, J. Shen, A. M. MacLeod, W. A. Gillespie, and D. A. Jaroszynski, “High-temporal-resolution, single-shot characterization of terahertz pulses,” Opt. Lett. 28, 1710–1712 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (3)

J. Fletcher, “Distortion and uncertainty in chirped pulse THz spectrometers,” Opt. Express 10, 1425–1430 (2002).
[PubMed]

K. Kim, I. Alexeev, and H. Milchberg, “Single-shot supercontinuum spectral interferometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4124–4126(2002).
[CrossRef]

I. Wilke, A. MacLeod, W. Gillespie, G. Berden, G. Knipples, and A. van der Meer, “Single-shot electron-beam bunch length measurements,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 124801 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (3)

X. Yan, A. MacLeod, W. Gillespie, G. Knippels, D. Oepts, A. van der Meer, and W. Seidel, “Subpicosecond electro-optic measurement of relativistic electron pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3404–3407 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. P. LeBlanc, E. Gaul, N. H. Matlis, A. Rundquist, and M. C. Downer, “Single-shot ultrafast phase measurement by frequency domain holography,” Opt. Lett. 25, 764–766 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Beard, G. M. Turner, and C. A. Schmuttenmaer, “Transient photconductivity in gaAs as measured by time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 15764–15777 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

1998 (3)

Z. Jiang and X.-C. Zhang, “Single-shot spatiotemporal terahertz field imaging,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1114–1116 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Z. Jiang and X.-C. Zhang, “Electro-optic measurement of THz field pulses with a chirped optical beam,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1945–1947 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. G. Sun, Z. Jiang, and X.-C. Zhang, “Analysis of terahertz pulse measurement with a chirped probe beam,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2233–2235 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (3)

Q. Wu and X.-C. Zhang, “Ultrafast electro-optic field sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1604–1606 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wu, T. Hewitt, and X.-C. Zhang, “Two-dimensional electro-optic imaging of THz beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1026–1028(1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Nahata, D. H. Auston, and T. F. Heinz, “Coherent detection of freely propagating terahertz radiation by electro-optic sampling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 150–152 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

Q. Wu and X.-C. Zhang, “Free-space electro-optic sampling of terahertz beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3523–3525 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Alexeev, I.

K. Kim, I. Alexeev, and H. Milchberg, “Single-shot supercontinuum spectral interferometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4124–4126(2002).
[CrossRef]

Auerbrach, D.

W. P. Leemans, C. G. R. Geddes, J. Faure, C. Tóth, J. van Tilborg, C. B. Schroeder, E. Esarey, G. Fubiani, D. Auerbrach, B. Marcelis, M. A. Carnahan, R. A. Kaindl, J. Byrd, and M. C. Martin, “Observation of terahertz emission from a laser-plasma-accelerated electron bunch crossing a plasma-vacuum boundary,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 074802 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Auston, D. H.

A. Nahata, D. H. Auston, and T. F. Heinz, “Coherent detection of freely propagating terahertz radiation by electro-optic sampling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 150–152 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Beard, M. C.

M. C. Beard, G. M. Turner, and C. A. Schmuttenmaer, “Transient photconductivity in gaAs as measured by time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 15764–15777 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Berden, G.

I. Wilke, A. MacLeod, W. Gillespie, G. Berden, G. Knipples, and A. van der Meer, “Single-shot electron-beam bunch length measurements,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 124801 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bourgeois, N.

U. Schmidhammer, V. De Waele, J.-R. Marqus, N. Bourgeois, and M. Mostafavi, “Single shot linear detection of 0.0110THz electromagnetic fields: electro-optic sampling with a supercontinuum in balanced detection,” Appl. Phys. B 94, 95–101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, R.

R. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics (Academic, 1992).

Bulanov, S. S.

N. H. Matlis, S. Reed, S. S. Bulanov, V. Chvykov, G. Kalintchenko, T. Matsuoka, P. Rousseau, V. Yanovsky, A. Maksimchuk, S. Kalmykov, G. Shvets, and M. C. Downer, “Snapshots of laser wakefields,” Nature Phys. 2, 749–753 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Byrd, J.

W. P. Leemans, C. G. R. Geddes, J. Faure, C. Tóth, J. van Tilborg, C. B. Schroeder, E. Esarey, G. Fubiani, D. Auerbrach, B. Marcelis, M. A. Carnahan, R. A. Kaindl, J. Byrd, and M. C. Martin, “Observation of terahertz emission from a laser-plasma-accelerated electron bunch crossing a plasma-vacuum boundary,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 074802 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carnahan, M. A.

R. A. Kaindl, R. Huber, B. A. Schmid, M. A. Carnahan, D. Hägele, and D. S. Chemla, “Ultrafast thz spectroscopy of correlated electron: from excitons to cooper pairs,” Phys. Stat. Sol. (b) 243, 2414–2422 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. P. Leemans, C. G. R. Geddes, J. Faure, C. Tóth, J. van Tilborg, C. B. Schroeder, E. Esarey, G. Fubiani, D. Auerbrach, B. Marcelis, M. A. Carnahan, R. A. Kaindl, J. Byrd, and M. C. Martin, “Observation of terahertz emission from a laser-plasma-accelerated electron bunch crossing a plasma-vacuum boundary,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 074802 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chemla, D. S.

R. A. Kaindl, R. Huber, B. A. Schmid, M. A. Carnahan, D. Hägele, and D. S. Chemla, “Ultrafast thz spectroscopy of correlated electron: from excitons to cooper pairs,” Phys. Stat. Sol. (b) 243, 2414–2422 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, M.

Chvykov, V.

N. H. Matlis, S. Reed, S. S. Bulanov, V. Chvykov, G. Kalintchenko, T. Matsuoka, P. Rousseau, V. Yanovsky, A. Maksimchuk, S. Kalmykov, G. Shvets, and M. C. Downer, “Snapshots of laser wakefields,” Nature Phys. 2, 749–753 (2006).
[CrossRef]

De Waele, V.

U. Schmidhammer, V. De Waele, J.-R. Marqus, N. Bourgeois, and M. Mostafavi, “Single shot linear detection of 0.0110THz electromagnetic fields: electro-optic sampling with a supercontinuum in balanced detection,” Appl. Phys. B 94, 95–101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Downer, M. C.

N. H. Matlis, S. Reed, S. S. Bulanov, V. Chvykov, G. Kalintchenko, T. Matsuoka, P. Rousseau, V. Yanovsky, A. Maksimchuk, S. Kalmykov, G. Shvets, and M. C. Downer, “Snapshots of laser wakefields,” Nature Phys. 2, 749–753 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. P. LeBlanc, E. Gaul, N. H. Matlis, A. Rundquist, and M. C. Downer, “Single-shot ultrafast phase measurement by frequency domain holography,” Opt. Lett. 25, 764–766 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dugan, G.

W. P. Leemans, J. van Tilborg, J. Faure, C. G. R. Geddes, C. Tóth, C. B. Schroeder, E. Esarey, G. Fubiani, and G. Dugan, “Terahertz radiation from laser accelerated electron bunches,” Phys. Plasmas 11, 2899–2906 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Esarey, E.

J. van Tilborg, C. B. Schroeder, C. Tóth, C. G. R. Geddes, E. Esarey, and W. P. Leemans, “Single-shot spatiotemporal measurements of high-field terahertz pulses,” Opt. Lett. 32, 313–315(2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. van Tilborg, C. B. Schroeder, C. V. Filip, C. Tóth, C. G. R. Geddes, G. Fubiani, R. Huber, R. A. Kaindl, E. Esarey, and W. P. Leemans, “Temporal characterization of femtosecond laser-plasma-accelerated electron bunches using terahertz radiation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 014801 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. P. Leemans, J. van Tilborg, J. Faure, C. G. R. Geddes, C. Tóth, C. B. Schroeder, E. Esarey, G. Fubiani, and G. Dugan, “Terahertz radiation from laser accelerated electron bunches,” Phys. Plasmas 11, 2899–2906 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Schroeder, E. Esarey, J. van Tilborg, and W. P. Leemans, “Theory of coherent transition radiation generated at a plasma-vacuum interface,” Phys. Rev. E 69, 016501 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. P. Leemans, C. G. R. Geddes, J. Faure, C. Tóth, J. van Tilborg, C. B. Schroeder, E. Esarey, G. Fubiani, D. Auerbrach, B. Marcelis, M. A. Carnahan, R. A. Kaindl, J. Byrd, and M. C. Martin, “Observation of terahertz emission from a laser-plasma-accelerated electron bunch crossing a plasma-vacuum boundary,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 074802 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Faure, J.

W. P. Leemans, J. van Tilborg, J. Faure, C. G. R. Geddes, C. Tóth, C. B. Schroeder, E. Esarey, G. Fubiani, and G. Dugan, “Terahertz radiation from laser accelerated electron bunches,” Phys. Plasmas 11, 2899–2906 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. P. Leemans, C. G. R. Geddes, J. Faure, C. Tóth, J. van Tilborg, C. B. Schroeder, E. Esarey, G. Fubiani, D. Auerbrach, B. Marcelis, M. A. Carnahan, R. A. Kaindl, J. Byrd, and M. C. Martin, “Observation of terahertz emission from a laser-plasma-accelerated electron bunch crossing a plasma-vacuum boundary,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 074802 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Filip, C. V.

J. van Tilborg, C. B. Schroeder, C. V. Filip, C. Tóth, C. G. R. Geddes, G. Fubiani, R. Huber, R. A. Kaindl, E. Esarey, and W. P. Leemans, “Temporal characterization of femtosecond laser-plasma-accelerated electron bunches using terahertz radiation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 014801 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fletcher, J.

Fubiani, G.

J. van Tilborg, C. B. Schroeder, C. V. Filip, C. Tóth, C. G. R. Geddes, G. Fubiani, R. Huber, R. A. Kaindl, E. Esarey, and W. P. Leemans, “Temporal characterization of femtosecond laser-plasma-accelerated electron bunches using terahertz radiation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 014801 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. P. Leemans, J. van Tilborg, J. Faure, C. G. R. Geddes, C. Tóth, C. B. Schroeder, E. Esarey, G. Fubiani, and G. Dugan, “Terahertz radiation from laser accelerated electron bunches,” Phys. Plasmas 11, 2899–2906 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. P. Leemans, C. G. R. Geddes, J. Faure, C. Tóth, J. van Tilborg, C. B. Schroeder, E. Esarey, G. Fubiani, D. Auerbrach, B. Marcelis, M. A. Carnahan, R. A. Kaindl, J. Byrd, and M. C. Martin, “Observation of terahertz emission from a laser-plasma-accelerated electron bunch crossing a plasma-vacuum boundary,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 074802 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gallot, G.

Gaul, E.

Geddes, C. G. R.

J. van Tilborg, C. B. Schroeder, C. Tóth, C. G. R. Geddes, E. Esarey, and W. P. Leemans, “Single-shot spatiotemporal measurements of high-field terahertz pulses,” Opt. Lett. 32, 313–315(2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. van Tilborg, C. B. Schroeder, C. V. Filip, C. Tóth, C. G. R. Geddes, G. Fubiani, R. Huber, R. A. Kaindl, E. Esarey, and W. P. Leemans, “Temporal characterization of femtosecond laser-plasma-accelerated electron bunches using terahertz radiation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 014801 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. P. Leemans, J. van Tilborg, J. Faure, C. G. R. Geddes, C. Tóth, C. B. Schroeder, E. Esarey, G. Fubiani, and G. Dugan, “Terahertz radiation from laser accelerated electron bunches,” Phys. Plasmas 11, 2899–2906 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. P. Leemans, C. G. R. Geddes, J. Faure, C. Tóth, J. van Tilborg, C. B. Schroeder, E. Esarey, G. Fubiani, D. Auerbrach, B. Marcelis, M. A. Carnahan, R. A. Kaindl, J. Byrd, and M. C. Martin, “Observation of terahertz emission from a laser-plasma-accelerated electron bunch crossing a plasma-vacuum boundary,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 074802 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gillespie, W.

I. Wilke, A. MacLeod, W. Gillespie, G. Berden, G. Knipples, and A. van der Meer, “Single-shot electron-beam bunch length measurements,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 124801 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Yan, A. MacLeod, W. Gillespie, G. Knippels, D. Oepts, A. van der Meer, and W. Seidel, “Subpicosecond electro-optic measurement of relativistic electron pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3404–3407 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gillespie, W. A.

Grischkowsky, D.

Hägele, D.

R. A. Kaindl, R. Huber, B. A. Schmid, M. A. Carnahan, D. Hägele, and D. S. Chemla, “Ultrafast thz spectroscopy of correlated electron: from excitons to cooper pairs,” Phys. Stat. Sol. (b) 243, 2414–2422 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hebling, J.

Heinz, T. F.

A. Nahata, D. H. Auston, and T. F. Heinz, “Coherent detection of freely propagating terahertz radiation by electro-optic sampling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 150–152 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hewitt, T.

Q. Wu, T. Hewitt, and X.-C. Zhang, “Two-dimensional electro-optic imaging of THz beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1026–1028(1996).
[CrossRef]

Hoffmann, M. C.

Huber, R.

R. A. Kaindl, R. Huber, B. A. Schmid, M. A. Carnahan, D. Hägele, and D. S. Chemla, “Ultrafast thz spectroscopy of correlated electron: from excitons to cooper pairs,” Phys. Stat. Sol. (b) 243, 2414–2422 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. van Tilborg, C. B. Schroeder, C. V. Filip, C. Tóth, C. G. R. Geddes, G. Fubiani, R. Huber, R. A. Kaindl, E. Esarey, and W. P. Leemans, “Temporal characterization of femtosecond laser-plasma-accelerated electron bunches using terahertz radiation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 014801 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hwang, H. Y.

Jamison, S.

Jaroszynski, D. A.

Jiang, Z.

Z. Jiang and X.-C. Zhang, “2D measurement and spatio-temporal coupling of few-cycle THz pulses,” Opt. Express 5, 243–248(1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Jiang and X.-C. Zhang, “Electro-optic measurement of THz field pulses with a chirped optical beam,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1945–1947 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. G. Sun, Z. Jiang, and X.-C. Zhang, “Analysis of terahertz pulse measurement with a chirped probe beam,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2233–2235 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Z. Jiang and X.-C. Zhang, “Single-shot spatiotemporal terahertz field imaging,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1114–1116 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kaindl, R. A.

R. A. Kaindl, R. Huber, B. A. Schmid, M. A. Carnahan, D. Hägele, and D. S. Chemla, “Ultrafast thz spectroscopy of correlated electron: from excitons to cooper pairs,” Phys. Stat. Sol. (b) 243, 2414–2422 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. van Tilborg, C. B. Schroeder, C. V. Filip, C. Tóth, C. G. R. Geddes, G. Fubiani, R. Huber, R. A. Kaindl, E. Esarey, and W. P. Leemans, “Temporal characterization of femtosecond laser-plasma-accelerated electron bunches using terahertz radiation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 014801 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. P. Leemans, C. G. R. Geddes, J. Faure, C. Tóth, J. van Tilborg, C. B. Schroeder, E. Esarey, G. Fubiani, D. Auerbrach, B. Marcelis, M. A. Carnahan, R. A. Kaindl, J. Byrd, and M. C. Martin, “Observation of terahertz emission from a laser-plasma-accelerated electron bunch crossing a plasma-vacuum boundary,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 074802 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kalintchenko, G.

N. H. Matlis, S. Reed, S. S. Bulanov, V. Chvykov, G. Kalintchenko, T. Matsuoka, P. Rousseau, V. Yanovsky, A. Maksimchuk, S. Kalmykov, G. Shvets, and M. C. Downer, “Snapshots of laser wakefields,” Nature Phys. 2, 749–753 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kalmykov, S.

N. H. Matlis, S. Reed, S. S. Bulanov, V. Chvykov, G. Kalintchenko, T. Matsuoka, P. Rousseau, V. Yanovsky, A. Maksimchuk, S. Kalmykov, G. Shvets, and M. C. Downer, “Snapshots of laser wakefields,” Nature Phys. 2, 749–753 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K.

K. Kim, I. Alexeev, and H. Milchberg, “Single-shot supercontinuum spectral interferometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4124–4126(2002).
[CrossRef]

Knippels, G.

X. Yan, A. MacLeod, W. Gillespie, G. Knippels, D. Oepts, A. van der Meer, and W. Seidel, “Subpicosecond electro-optic measurement of relativistic electron pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3404–3407 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Knipples, G.

I. Wilke, A. MacLeod, W. Gillespie, G. Berden, G. Knipples, and A. van der Meer, “Single-shot electron-beam bunch length measurements,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 124801 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

LeBlanc, S. P.

Leemans, W. P.

J. van Tilborg, C. B. Schroeder, C. Tóth, C. G. R. Geddes, E. Esarey, and W. P. Leemans, “Single-shot spatiotemporal measurements of high-field terahertz pulses,” Opt. Lett. 32, 313–315(2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. van Tilborg, C. B. Schroeder, C. V. Filip, C. Tóth, C. G. R. Geddes, G. Fubiani, R. Huber, R. A. Kaindl, E. Esarey, and W. P. Leemans, “Temporal characterization of femtosecond laser-plasma-accelerated electron bunches using terahertz radiation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 014801 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. P. Leemans, J. van Tilborg, J. Faure, C. G. R. Geddes, C. Tóth, C. B. Schroeder, E. Esarey, G. Fubiani, and G. Dugan, “Terahertz radiation from laser accelerated electron bunches,” Phys. Plasmas 11, 2899–2906 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Schroeder, E. Esarey, J. van Tilborg, and W. P. Leemans, “Theory of coherent transition radiation generated at a plasma-vacuum interface,” Phys. Rev. E 69, 016501 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. P. Leemans, C. G. R. Geddes, J. Faure, C. Tóth, J. van Tilborg, C. B. Schroeder, E. Esarey, G. Fubiani, D. Auerbrach, B. Marcelis, M. A. Carnahan, R. A. Kaindl, J. Byrd, and M. C. Martin, “Observation of terahertz emission from a laser-plasma-accelerated electron bunch crossing a plasma-vacuum boundary,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 074802 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

MacLeod, A.

I. Wilke, A. MacLeod, W. Gillespie, G. Berden, G. Knipples, and A. van der Meer, “Single-shot electron-beam bunch length measurements,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 124801 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Yan, A. MacLeod, W. Gillespie, G. Knippels, D. Oepts, A. van der Meer, and W. Seidel, “Subpicosecond electro-optic measurement of relativistic electron pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3404–3407 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

MacLeod, A. M.

Maksimchuk, A.

N. H. Matlis, S. Reed, S. S. Bulanov, V. Chvykov, G. Kalintchenko, T. Matsuoka, P. Rousseau, V. Yanovsky, A. Maksimchuk, S. Kalmykov, G. Shvets, and M. C. Downer, “Snapshots of laser wakefields,” Nature Phys. 2, 749–753 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Marcelis, B.

W. P. Leemans, C. G. R. Geddes, J. Faure, C. Tóth, J. van Tilborg, C. B. Schroeder, E. Esarey, G. Fubiani, D. Auerbrach, B. Marcelis, M. A. Carnahan, R. A. Kaindl, J. Byrd, and M. C. Martin, “Observation of terahertz emission from a laser-plasma-accelerated electron bunch crossing a plasma-vacuum boundary,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 074802 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marqus, J.-R.

U. Schmidhammer, V. De Waele, J.-R. Marqus, N. Bourgeois, and M. Mostafavi, “Single shot linear detection of 0.0110THz electromagnetic fields: electro-optic sampling with a supercontinuum in balanced detection,” Appl. Phys. B 94, 95–101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Martin, M. C.

W. P. Leemans, C. G. R. Geddes, J. Faure, C. Tóth, J. van Tilborg, C. B. Schroeder, E. Esarey, G. Fubiani, D. Auerbrach, B. Marcelis, M. A. Carnahan, R. A. Kaindl, J. Byrd, and M. C. Martin, “Observation of terahertz emission from a laser-plasma-accelerated electron bunch crossing a plasma-vacuum boundary,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 074802 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matlis, N. H.

N. H. Matlis, S. Reed, S. S. Bulanov, V. Chvykov, G. Kalintchenko, T. Matsuoka, P. Rousseau, V. Yanovsky, A. Maksimchuk, S. Kalmykov, G. Shvets, and M. C. Downer, “Snapshots of laser wakefields,” Nature Phys. 2, 749–753 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. P. LeBlanc, E. Gaul, N. H. Matlis, A. Rundquist, and M. C. Downer, “Single-shot ultrafast phase measurement by frequency domain holography,” Opt. Lett. 25, 764–766 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Matsuoka, T.

N. H. Matlis, S. Reed, S. S. Bulanov, V. Chvykov, G. Kalintchenko, T. Matsuoka, P. Rousseau, V. Yanovsky, A. Maksimchuk, S. Kalmykov, G. Shvets, and M. C. Downer, “Snapshots of laser wakefields,” Nature Phys. 2, 749–753 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Milchberg, H.

K. Kim, I. Alexeev, and H. Milchberg, “Single-shot supercontinuum spectral interferometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4124–4126(2002).
[CrossRef]

Mostafavi, M.

U. Schmidhammer, V. De Waele, J.-R. Marqus, N. Bourgeois, and M. Mostafavi, “Single shot linear detection of 0.0110THz electromagnetic fields: electro-optic sampling with a supercontinuum in balanced detection,” Appl. Phys. B 94, 95–101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nahata, A.

A. Nahata, D. H. Auston, and T. F. Heinz, “Coherent detection of freely propagating terahertz radiation by electro-optic sampling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 150–152 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, K. A.

Oepts, D.

X. Yan, A. MacLeod, W. Gillespie, G. Knippels, D. Oepts, A. van der Meer, and W. Seidel, “Subpicosecond electro-optic measurement of relativistic electron pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3404–3407 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peng, X.-Y.

Pukhov, A.

Reed, S.

N. H. Matlis, S. Reed, S. S. Bulanov, V. Chvykov, G. Kalintchenko, T. Matsuoka, P. Rousseau, V. Yanovsky, A. Maksimchuk, S. Kalmykov, G. Shvets, and M. C. Downer, “Snapshots of laser wakefields,” Nature Phys. 2, 749–753 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rousseau, P.

N. H. Matlis, S. Reed, S. S. Bulanov, V. Chvykov, G. Kalintchenko, T. Matsuoka, P. Rousseau, V. Yanovsky, A. Maksimchuk, S. Kalmykov, G. Shvets, and M. C. Downer, “Snapshots of laser wakefields,” Nature Phys. 2, 749–753 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rundquist, A.

Schmid, B. A.

R. A. Kaindl, R. Huber, B. A. Schmid, M. A. Carnahan, D. Hägele, and D. S. Chemla, “Ultrafast thz spectroscopy of correlated electron: from excitons to cooper pairs,” Phys. Stat. Sol. (b) 243, 2414–2422 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schmidhammer, U.

U. Schmidhammer, V. De Waele, J.-R. Marqus, N. Bourgeois, and M. Mostafavi, “Single shot linear detection of 0.0110THz electromagnetic fields: electro-optic sampling with a supercontinuum in balanced detection,” Appl. Phys. B 94, 95–101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schmuttenmaer, C. A.

M. C. Beard, G. M. Turner, and C. A. Schmuttenmaer, “Transient photconductivity in gaAs as measured by time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 15764–15777 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schroeder, C. B.

J. van Tilborg, C. B. Schroeder, C. Tóth, C. G. R. Geddes, E. Esarey, and W. P. Leemans, “Single-shot spatiotemporal measurements of high-field terahertz pulses,” Opt. Lett. 32, 313–315(2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. van Tilborg, C. B. Schroeder, C. V. Filip, C. Tóth, C. G. R. Geddes, G. Fubiani, R. Huber, R. A. Kaindl, E. Esarey, and W. P. Leemans, “Temporal characterization of femtosecond laser-plasma-accelerated electron bunches using terahertz radiation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 014801 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. P. Leemans, J. van Tilborg, J. Faure, C. G. R. Geddes, C. Tóth, C. B. Schroeder, E. Esarey, G. Fubiani, and G. Dugan, “Terahertz radiation from laser accelerated electron bunches,” Phys. Plasmas 11, 2899–2906 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Schroeder, E. Esarey, J. van Tilborg, and W. P. Leemans, “Theory of coherent transition radiation generated at a plasma-vacuum interface,” Phys. Rev. E 69, 016501 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. P. Leemans, C. G. R. Geddes, J. Faure, C. Tóth, J. van Tilborg, C. B. Schroeder, E. Esarey, G. Fubiani, D. Auerbrach, B. Marcelis, M. A. Carnahan, R. A. Kaindl, J. Byrd, and M. C. Martin, “Observation of terahertz emission from a laser-plasma-accelerated electron bunch crossing a plasma-vacuum boundary,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 074802 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seidel, W.

X. Yan, A. MacLeod, W. Gillespie, G. Knippels, D. Oepts, A. van der Meer, and W. Seidel, “Subpicosecond electro-optic measurement of relativistic electron pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3404–3407 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shen, J.

Shvets, G.

N. H. Matlis, S. Reed, S. S. Bulanov, V. Chvykov, G. Kalintchenko, T. Matsuoka, P. Rousseau, V. Yanovsky, A. Maksimchuk, S. Kalmykov, G. Shvets, and M. C. Downer, “Snapshots of laser wakefields,” Nature Phys. 2, 749–753 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sun, F. G.

F. G. Sun, Z. Jiang, and X.-C. Zhang, “Analysis of terahertz pulse measurement with a chirped probe beam,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2233–2235 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tóth, C.

J. van Tilborg, C. B. Schroeder, C. Tóth, C. G. R. Geddes, E. Esarey, and W. P. Leemans, “Single-shot spatiotemporal measurements of high-field terahertz pulses,” Opt. Lett. 32, 313–315(2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. van Tilborg, C. B. Schroeder, C. V. Filip, C. Tóth, C. G. R. Geddes, G. Fubiani, R. Huber, R. A. Kaindl, E. Esarey, and W. P. Leemans, “Temporal characterization of femtosecond laser-plasma-accelerated electron bunches using terahertz radiation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 014801 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. P. Leemans, J. van Tilborg, J. Faure, C. G. R. Geddes, C. Tóth, C. B. Schroeder, E. Esarey, G. Fubiani, and G. Dugan, “Terahertz radiation from laser accelerated electron bunches,” Phys. Plasmas 11, 2899–2906 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. P. Leemans, C. G. R. Geddes, J. Faure, C. Tóth, J. van Tilborg, C. B. Schroeder, E. Esarey, G. Fubiani, D. Auerbrach, B. Marcelis, M. A. Carnahan, R. A. Kaindl, J. Byrd, and M. C. Martin, “Observation of terahertz emission from a laser-plasma-accelerated electron bunch crossing a plasma-vacuum boundary,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 074802 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Turner, G. M.

M. C. Beard, G. M. Turner, and C. A. Schmuttenmaer, “Transient photconductivity in gaAs as measured by time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 15764–15777 (2000).
[CrossRef]

van der Meer, A.

I. Wilke, A. MacLeod, W. Gillespie, G. Berden, G. Knipples, and A. van der Meer, “Single-shot electron-beam bunch length measurements,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 124801 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Yan, A. MacLeod, W. Gillespie, G. Knippels, D. Oepts, A. van der Meer, and W. Seidel, “Subpicosecond electro-optic measurement of relativistic electron pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3404–3407 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Tilborg, J.

J. van Tilborg, C. B. Schroeder, C. Tóth, C. G. R. Geddes, E. Esarey, and W. P. Leemans, “Single-shot spatiotemporal measurements of high-field terahertz pulses,” Opt. Lett. 32, 313–315(2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. van Tilborg, C. B. Schroeder, C. V. Filip, C. Tóth, C. G. R. Geddes, G. Fubiani, R. Huber, R. A. Kaindl, E. Esarey, and W. P. Leemans, “Temporal characterization of femtosecond laser-plasma-accelerated electron bunches using terahertz radiation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 014801 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. P. Leemans, J. van Tilborg, J. Faure, C. G. R. Geddes, C. Tóth, C. B. Schroeder, E. Esarey, G. Fubiani, and G. Dugan, “Terahertz radiation from laser accelerated electron bunches,” Phys. Plasmas 11, 2899–2906 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Schroeder, E. Esarey, J. van Tilborg, and W. P. Leemans, “Theory of coherent transition radiation generated at a plasma-vacuum interface,” Phys. Rev. E 69, 016501 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. P. Leemans, C. G. R. Geddes, J. Faure, C. Tóth, J. van Tilborg, C. B. Schroeder, E. Esarey, G. Fubiani, D. Auerbrach, B. Marcelis, M. A. Carnahan, R. A. Kaindl, J. Byrd, and M. C. Martin, “Observation of terahertz emission from a laser-plasma-accelerated electron bunch crossing a plasma-vacuum boundary,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 074802 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. van Tilborg, “Coherent terahertz radiation from laser-wakefield-accelerated electron beams,” Ph.D. dissertation (Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, 2006).

Wiili, O.

Wilke, I.

I. Wilke, A. MacLeod, W. Gillespie, G. Berden, G. Knipples, and A. van der Meer, “Single-shot electron-beam bunch length measurements,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 124801 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, Q.

Q. Wu and X.-C. Zhang, “Ultrafast electro-optic field sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1604–1606 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wu, T. Hewitt, and X.-C. Zhang, “Two-dimensional electro-optic imaging of THz beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1026–1028(1996).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wu and X.-C. Zhang, “Free-space electro-optic sampling of terahertz beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3523–3525 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Yan, X.

X. Yan, A. MacLeod, W. Gillespie, G. Knippels, D. Oepts, A. van der Meer, and W. Seidel, “Subpicosecond electro-optic measurement of relativistic electron pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3404–3407 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yanovsky, V.

N. H. Matlis, S. Reed, S. S. Bulanov, V. Chvykov, G. Kalintchenko, T. Matsuoka, P. Rousseau, V. Yanovsky, A. Maksimchuk, S. Kalmykov, G. Shvets, and M. C. Downer, “Snapshots of laser wakefields,” Nature Phys. 2, 749–753 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, K.-L.

Zhang, X.-C.

Z. Jiang and X.-C. Zhang, “2D measurement and spatio-temporal coupling of few-cycle THz pulses,” Opt. Express 5, 243–248(1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Jiang and X.-C. Zhang, “Electro-optic measurement of THz field pulses with a chirped optical beam,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1945–1947 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Z. Jiang and X.-C. Zhang, “Single-shot spatiotemporal terahertz field imaging,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1114–1116 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. G. Sun, Z. Jiang, and X.-C. Zhang, “Analysis of terahertz pulse measurement with a chirped probe beam,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2233–2235 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wu and X.-C. Zhang, “Ultrafast electro-optic field sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1604–1606 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wu, T. Hewitt, and X.-C. Zhang, “Two-dimensional electro-optic imaging of THz beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1026–1028(1996).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wu and X.-C. Zhang, “Free-space electro-optic sampling of terahertz beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3523–3525 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

U. Schmidhammer, V. De Waele, J.-R. Marqus, N. Bourgeois, and M. Mostafavi, “Single shot linear detection of 0.0110THz electromagnetic fields: electro-optic sampling with a supercontinuum in balanced detection,” Appl. Phys. B 94, 95–101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (7)

K. Kim, I. Alexeev, and H. Milchberg, “Single-shot supercontinuum spectral interferometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4124–4126(2002).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wu and X.-C. Zhang, “Free-space electro-optic sampling of terahertz beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3523–3525 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wu, T. Hewitt, and X.-C. Zhang, “Two-dimensional electro-optic imaging of THz beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1026–1028(1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Nahata, D. H. Auston, and T. F. Heinz, “Coherent detection of freely propagating terahertz radiation by electro-optic sampling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 150–152 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wu and X.-C. Zhang, “Ultrafast electro-optic field sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1604–1606 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Z. Jiang and X.-C. Zhang, “Electro-optic measurement of THz field pulses with a chirped optical beam,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1945–1947 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. G. Sun, Z. Jiang, and X.-C. Zhang, “Analysis of terahertz pulse measurement with a chirped probe beam,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2233–2235 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Nature Phys. (1)

N. H. Matlis, S. Reed, S. S. Bulanov, V. Chvykov, G. Kalintchenko, T. Matsuoka, P. Rousseau, V. Yanovsky, A. Maksimchuk, S. Kalmykov, G. Shvets, and M. C. Downer, “Snapshots of laser wakefields,” Nature Phys. 2, 749–753 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Plasmas (1)

W. P. Leemans, J. van Tilborg, J. Faure, C. G. R. Geddes, C. Tóth, C. B. Schroeder, E. Esarey, G. Fubiani, and G. Dugan, “Terahertz radiation from laser accelerated electron bunches,” Phys. Plasmas 11, 2899–2906 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

M. C. Beard, G. M. Turner, and C. A. Schmuttenmaer, “Transient photconductivity in gaAs as measured by time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 15764–15777 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E (1)

C. B. Schroeder, E. Esarey, J. van Tilborg, and W. P. Leemans, “Theory of coherent transition radiation generated at a plasma-vacuum interface,” Phys. Rev. E 69, 016501 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (4)

W. P. Leemans, C. G. R. Geddes, J. Faure, C. Tóth, J. van Tilborg, C. B. Schroeder, E. Esarey, G. Fubiani, D. Auerbrach, B. Marcelis, M. A. Carnahan, R. A. Kaindl, J. Byrd, and M. C. Martin, “Observation of terahertz emission from a laser-plasma-accelerated electron bunch crossing a plasma-vacuum boundary,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 074802 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Wilke, A. MacLeod, W. Gillespie, G. Berden, G. Knipples, and A. van der Meer, “Single-shot electron-beam bunch length measurements,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 124801 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Yan, A. MacLeod, W. Gillespie, G. Knippels, D. Oepts, A. van der Meer, and W. Seidel, “Subpicosecond electro-optic measurement of relativistic electron pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3404–3407 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. van Tilborg, C. B. Schroeder, C. V. Filip, C. Tóth, C. G. R. Geddes, G. Fubiani, R. Huber, R. A. Kaindl, E. Esarey, and W. P. Leemans, “Temporal characterization of femtosecond laser-plasma-accelerated electron bunches using terahertz radiation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 014801 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Stat. Sol. (b) (1)

R. A. Kaindl, R. Huber, B. A. Schmid, M. A. Carnahan, D. Hägele, and D. S. Chemla, “Ultrafast thz spectroscopy of correlated electron: from excitons to cooper pairs,” Phys. Stat. Sol. (b) 243, 2414–2422 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

J. van Tilborg, “Coherent terahertz radiation from laser-wakefield-accelerated electron beams,” Ph.D. dissertation (Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, 2006).

R. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics (Academic, 1992).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the TEX detection scheme.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Amplitude-encoding geometry. The probe polarization is aligned between the principal axes ( S ^ + , S ^ ) of the THz-induced birefringence, resulting in polarization rotation only. (b) Phase-encoding geometry. The probe polarization is parallel with one of the principal axes, resulting in phase shifting only.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Simulated TEX interferogram in the absence of THz showing interference in the spectrometer between copropagating probe and reader pulses separated in time by 2.5 ps . (b) Modulus of the FT of the interferogram in (a) showing a broad side peak at 2.5 ps , which represents the amplitude of the cross correlation between the probe and reader electric fields. (c) Simulated TEX interferogram with THz present. (d) Modulus of the complex FT of the interferogram in (c), showing a THz-induced modulation in the side peak amplitude.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Data showing (a) THz spatiotemporal waveform extracted from the raw interferogram and (b) lineout of waveform at y = 0 mm .

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Power spectrum of THz waveform in Fig. 4. (b) Spectral image calculated using a two-bunch model. (c) Lineouts of spectral images for data (black dotted line), a one-bunch model (blue dashed line), and a two-bunch model (red solid line). Comparison shows that a two-bunch model yields a significantly better fit than a one-bunch model.

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