Abstract

In this work, we use a multi-heterodyne scanning near-field optical microscope to investigate the polarization and propagation of Bloch surface waves in an ultrathin (λ10) ridge waveguide. First, we show that the structure sustains three surface modes, and demonstrate selective excitation of each. Then, by numerically processing the experimental data, we retrieve the transverse and longitudinal components of each of the modes, in good agreement with the calculated fields. Finally, we provide an experimental estimation of the effective indices and the dispersion relations of the modes.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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2010 (2)

E. Descrovi, M. Quaglio, T. Sfez, D. Brunazzo, L. Dominici, F. Michelotti, H. P. Herzig, O. J. F. Martin, and F. Giorgis, “Guided Bloch surface waves on ultra-thin polymeric ridges,” Nano Lett. 10, 2087–2091 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Sfez, E. Descrovi, L. Yu, M. Quaglio, L. Dominici, W. Nakagawa, F. Michelotti, F. Giorgis, and H. P. Herzig, “Two-dimensional optics on silicon nitride multilayer: refraction of Bloch surface waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 151101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (5)

B. Bai, X. Meng, J. Laukkanen, T. Sfez, L. Yu, W. Nakagawa, H. P. Herzig, L. Li, and J. Turunen, “Asymmetrical excitation of surface plasmon polaritons on blazed gratings at normal incidence,” Phys. Rev. B 80, 035407 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Vignolini, F. Intonti, F. Riboli, D. S. Wiersma, L. Balet, L. H. Li, M. Francardi, A. Gerardino, A. Fiore, and M. Gurioli, “Polarization-sensitive near-field investigation of photonic crystal microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 163102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Verhagen, M. Spasenović, A. Polman, and L. Kuipers, “Nanowire plasmon excitation by adiabatic mode transformation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 203904 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Spasenović, D. van Oosten, E. Verhagen, and L. Kuipers, “Measurements of modal symmetry in subwavelength plasmonic slot waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 203109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Burresi, R. J. P. Engelen, A. Opheij, D. van Oosten, D. Mori, T. Baba, and L. Kuipers, “Observation of polarization singularities at the nanoscale,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 033902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (4)

T. Sfez, E. Descrovi, L. Dominici, W. Nakagawa, F. Michelotti, F. Giorgis, and H. P. Herzig, “Near-field analysis of surface electromagnetic waves in the bandgap region of a polymeric grating written on a one-dimensional photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 061108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Sandtke and L. Kuipers, “Spatial distribution and near-field coupling of surface plasmon polariton Bloch modes,” Phys. Rev. B 77, 235439 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Deutsch, R. Hillenbrand, and L. Novotny, “Near-field amplitude and phase recovery using phase-shifting interferometry,” Opt. Express 16, 494–501 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Descrovi, T. Sfez, L. Dominici, W. Nakagawa, F. Michelotti, F. Giorgis, and H. P. Herzig, “Near-field imaging of Bloch surface waves on silicon nitride one-dimensional photonic crystals,” Opt. Express 16, 5453–5464 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (4)

K. G. Lee, H. W. Kihm, J. E. Kihm, W. J. Choi, H. Kim, C. Ropers, D. J. Park, Y. C. Yoon, S. B. Choi, D. H. Woo, K. Kim, B. Lee, Q. H. Park, C. Lienau, and D. S. Kim, “Vector field microscopic imaging of light,” Nat. Phot. 1, 53-56 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Liscidini and J. E. Sipe, “Enhancement of diffraction for biosensing applications via Bloch surface waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 253125 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Descrovi, F. Frascella, B. Sciacca, F. Geobaldo, L. Dominici, and F. Michelotti, “Coupling of surface waves in highly defined one-dimensional porous silicon photonic crystals for gas sensing applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 241109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. N. Konopsky and E. V. Alieva, “Photonic crystal surface waves for optical biosensors,” Anal. Chem. 79, 4729–4735 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

P. Tortora, R. Dändliker, W. Nakagawa, and L. Vaccaro, “Detection of non-paraxial optical fields by optical fiber tip probes,” Opt. Commun. 259, 876882 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

Y. Wu, M. Villanueva-Ibanez, C. L. Luyer, J. Shen, and J. Mugnier, “Application of multi-wavelength m-lines spectroscopy for optical analysis of sol-gel prepared waveguide thin films,” Proc. SPIE 5946, 396–407 (2005).

A. Huber, N. Ocelic, D. Kazantsev, and R. Hillenbrand, “Near-field imaging of mid-infrared surface phonon polariton propagation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 081103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

R. Dändliker, P. Tortora, L. Vaccaro, and A. Nesci, “Measuring three-dimensional polarization with scanning optical probes,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 6, S18–S23 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

2002 (1)

2001 (1)

2000 (2)

R. Hillenbrand and F. Keilmann, “Complex optical constants on a subwavelength scale,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3029–3032 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. L. M. Balistreri, J. P. Korterik, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, “Local observations of phase singularities in optical fields in waveguide structures,” Phys. Rev. B 85, 294–297 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

S. I. Boshevolnyi, B. Vohnsen, and E. A. Bozhevolnaya, “Transfer functions in collection mode scanning near-field optical microscopy,” Opt. Commun. 172, 171–179 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

K. Nakajima, Y. Mitsuoka, N. Chiba, H. Muramatsu, T. Ataka, K. Sato, and M. Fujihira, “Polarization effect in scanning near-field optic/atomic-force microscopy (SNOM/AFM),” Ultramicroscopy 71, 257–262 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

J.-J. Greffet and R. Carminati, “Image formation in near-field optics,” Prog. Surf. Sci. 56, 133–237 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

1991 (1)

R. D. Meade, K. D. Brommer, A. M. Rappe, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Electromagnetic Bloch waves at the surface of a photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. B 44, 10961–10964 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

P. Yeh, A. Yariv, and A. Y. Cho, “Optical surface waves in periodic layered media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 104–105 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Alieva, E. V.

V. N. Konopsky and E. V. Alieva, “Photonic crystal surface waves for optical biosensors,” Anal. Chem. 79, 4729–4735 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ataka, T.

K. Nakajima, Y. Mitsuoka, N. Chiba, H. Muramatsu, T. Ataka, K. Sato, and M. Fujihira, “Polarization effect in scanning near-field optic/atomic-force microscopy (SNOM/AFM),” Ultramicroscopy 71, 257–262 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Baba, T.

M. Burresi, R. J. P. Engelen, A. Opheij, D. van Oosten, D. Mori, T. Baba, and L. Kuipers, “Observation of polarization singularities at the nanoscale,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 033902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bai, B.

B. Bai, X. Meng, J. Laukkanen, T. Sfez, L. Yu, W. Nakagawa, H. P. Herzig, L. Li, and J. Turunen, “Asymmetrical excitation of surface plasmon polaritons on blazed gratings at normal incidence,” Phys. Rev. B 80, 035407 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Balet, L.

S. Vignolini, F. Intonti, F. Riboli, D. S. Wiersma, L. Balet, L. H. Li, M. Francardi, A. Gerardino, A. Fiore, and M. Gurioli, “Polarization-sensitive near-field investigation of photonic crystal microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 163102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Balistreri, M. L. M.

M. L. M. Balistreri, J. P. Korterik, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, “Local observations of phase singularities in optical fields in waveguide structures,” Phys. Rev. B 85, 294–297 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Betzig, E.

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Cambridge Univ. Press, 1999).

Boshevolnyi, S. I.

S. I. Boshevolnyi, B. Vohnsen, and E. A. Bozhevolnaya, “Transfer functions in collection mode scanning near-field optical microscopy,” Opt. Commun. 172, 171–179 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bozhevolnaya, E. A.

S. I. Boshevolnyi, B. Vohnsen, and E. A. Bozhevolnaya, “Transfer functions in collection mode scanning near-field optical microscopy,” Opt. Commun. 172, 171–179 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Brommer, K. D.

R. D. Meade, K. D. Brommer, A. M. Rappe, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Electromagnetic Bloch waves at the surface of a photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. B 44, 10961–10964 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Brunazzo, D.

E. Descrovi, M. Quaglio, T. Sfez, D. Brunazzo, L. Dominici, F. Michelotti, H. P. Herzig, O. J. F. Martin, and F. Giorgis, “Guided Bloch surface waves on ultra-thin polymeric ridges,” Nano Lett. 10, 2087–2091 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burresi, M.

M. Burresi, R. J. P. Engelen, A. Opheij, D. van Oosten, D. Mori, T. Baba, and L. Kuipers, “Observation of polarization singularities at the nanoscale,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 033902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Campillo, A. L.

Carminati, R.

J.-J. Greffet and R. Carminati, “Image formation in near-field optics,” Prog. Surf. Sci. 56, 133–237 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chiba, N.

K. Nakajima, Y. Mitsuoka, N. Chiba, H. Muramatsu, T. Ataka, K. Sato, and M. Fujihira, “Polarization effect in scanning near-field optic/atomic-force microscopy (SNOM/AFM),” Ultramicroscopy 71, 257–262 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cho, A. Y.

P. Yeh, A. Yariv, and A. Y. Cho, “Optical surface waves in periodic layered media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 104–105 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Choi, S. B.

K. G. Lee, H. W. Kihm, J. E. Kihm, W. J. Choi, H. Kim, C. Ropers, D. J. Park, Y. C. Yoon, S. B. Choi, D. H. Woo, K. Kim, B. Lee, Q. H. Park, C. Lienau, and D. S. Kim, “Vector field microscopic imaging of light,” Nat. Phot. 1, 53-56 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Choi, W. J.

K. G. Lee, H. W. Kihm, J. E. Kihm, W. J. Choi, H. Kim, C. Ropers, D. J. Park, Y. C. Yoon, S. B. Choi, D. H. Woo, K. Kim, B. Lee, Q. H. Park, C. Lienau, and D. S. Kim, “Vector field microscopic imaging of light,” Nat. Phot. 1, 53-56 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dändliker, R.

P. Tortora, R. Dändliker, W. Nakagawa, and L. Vaccaro, “Detection of non-paraxial optical fields by optical fiber tip probes,” Opt. Commun. 259, 876882 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Dändliker, P. Tortora, L. Vaccaro, and A. Nesci, “Measuring three-dimensional polarization with scanning optical probes,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 6, S18–S23 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Nesci, R. Dändliker, and H. P. Herzig, “Quantitative amplitude and phase measurement by use of a heterodyne scanning near-field optical microscope,” Opt. Lett. 26, 208–210 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Descrovi, E.

E. Descrovi, M. Quaglio, T. Sfez, D. Brunazzo, L. Dominici, F. Michelotti, H. P. Herzig, O. J. F. Martin, and F. Giorgis, “Guided Bloch surface waves on ultra-thin polymeric ridges,” Nano Lett. 10, 2087–2091 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Sfez, E. Descrovi, L. Yu, M. Quaglio, L. Dominici, W. Nakagawa, F. Michelotti, F. Giorgis, and H. P. Herzig, “Two-dimensional optics on silicon nitride multilayer: refraction of Bloch surface waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 151101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Descrovi, T. Sfez, L. Dominici, W. Nakagawa, F. Michelotti, F. Giorgis, and H. P. Herzig, “Near-field imaging of Bloch surface waves on silicon nitride one-dimensional photonic crystals,” Opt. Express 16, 5453–5464 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Sfez, E. Descrovi, L. Dominici, W. Nakagawa, F. Michelotti, F. Giorgis, and H. P. Herzig, “Near-field analysis of surface electromagnetic waves in the bandgap region of a polymeric grating written on a one-dimensional photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 061108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Descrovi, F. Frascella, B. Sciacca, F. Geobaldo, L. Dominici, and F. Michelotti, “Coupling of surface waves in highly defined one-dimensional porous silicon photonic crystals for gas sensing applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 241109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Deutsch, B.

Dominici, L.

T. Sfez, E. Descrovi, L. Yu, M. Quaglio, L. Dominici, W. Nakagawa, F. Michelotti, F. Giorgis, and H. P. Herzig, “Two-dimensional optics on silicon nitride multilayer: refraction of Bloch surface waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 151101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Descrovi, M. Quaglio, T. Sfez, D. Brunazzo, L. Dominici, F. Michelotti, H. P. Herzig, O. J. F. Martin, and F. Giorgis, “Guided Bloch surface waves on ultra-thin polymeric ridges,” Nano Lett. 10, 2087–2091 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Descrovi, T. Sfez, L. Dominici, W. Nakagawa, F. Michelotti, F. Giorgis, and H. P. Herzig, “Near-field imaging of Bloch surface waves on silicon nitride one-dimensional photonic crystals,” Opt. Express 16, 5453–5464 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Sfez, E. Descrovi, L. Dominici, W. Nakagawa, F. Michelotti, F. Giorgis, and H. P. Herzig, “Near-field analysis of surface electromagnetic waves in the bandgap region of a polymeric grating written on a one-dimensional photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 061108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Descrovi, F. Frascella, B. Sciacca, F. Geobaldo, L. Dominici, and F. Michelotti, “Coupling of surface waves in highly defined one-dimensional porous silicon photonic crystals for gas sensing applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 241109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Engelen, R. J. P.

M. Burresi, R. J. P. Engelen, A. Opheij, D. van Oosten, D. Mori, T. Baba, and L. Kuipers, “Observation of polarization singularities at the nanoscale,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 033902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fejer, M. M.

Fiore, A.

S. Vignolini, F. Intonti, F. Riboli, D. S. Wiersma, L. Balet, L. H. Li, M. Francardi, A. Gerardino, A. Fiore, and M. Gurioli, “Polarization-sensitive near-field investigation of photonic crystal microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 163102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Francardi, M.

S. Vignolini, F. Intonti, F. Riboli, D. S. Wiersma, L. Balet, L. H. Li, M. Francardi, A. Gerardino, A. Fiore, and M. Gurioli, “Polarization-sensitive near-field investigation of photonic crystal microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 163102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Frascella, F.

E. Descrovi, F. Frascella, B. Sciacca, F. Geobaldo, L. Dominici, and F. Michelotti, “Coupling of surface waves in highly defined one-dimensional porous silicon photonic crystals for gas sensing applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 241109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fujihira, M.

K. Nakajima, Y. Mitsuoka, N. Chiba, H. Muramatsu, T. Ataka, K. Sato, and M. Fujihira, “Polarization effect in scanning near-field optic/atomic-force microscopy (SNOM/AFM),” Ultramicroscopy 71, 257–262 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gaspar-Armenta, J.

Geobaldo, F.

E. Descrovi, F. Frascella, B. Sciacca, F. Geobaldo, L. Dominici, and F. Michelotti, “Coupling of surface waves in highly defined one-dimensional porous silicon photonic crystals for gas sensing applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 241109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gerardino, A.

S. Vignolini, F. Intonti, F. Riboli, D. S. Wiersma, L. Balet, L. H. Li, M. Francardi, A. Gerardino, A. Fiore, and M. Gurioli, “Polarization-sensitive near-field investigation of photonic crystal microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 163102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Giorgis, F.

T. Sfez, E. Descrovi, L. Yu, M. Quaglio, L. Dominici, W. Nakagawa, F. Michelotti, F. Giorgis, and H. P. Herzig, “Two-dimensional optics on silicon nitride multilayer: refraction of Bloch surface waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 151101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Descrovi, M. Quaglio, T. Sfez, D. Brunazzo, L. Dominici, F. Michelotti, H. P. Herzig, O. J. F. Martin, and F. Giorgis, “Guided Bloch surface waves on ultra-thin polymeric ridges,” Nano Lett. 10, 2087–2091 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Descrovi, T. Sfez, L. Dominici, W. Nakagawa, F. Michelotti, F. Giorgis, and H. P. Herzig, “Near-field imaging of Bloch surface waves on silicon nitride one-dimensional photonic crystals,” Opt. Express 16, 5453–5464 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Sfez, E. Descrovi, L. Dominici, W. Nakagawa, F. Michelotti, F. Giorgis, and H. P. Herzig, “Near-field analysis of surface electromagnetic waves in the bandgap region of a polymeric grating written on a one-dimensional photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 061108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gizeli, E.

E. Gizeli and C. R. Lowe, Biomolecular Sensors (Taylor & Francis, 2002).

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Gurioli, M.

S. Vignolini, F. Intonti, F. Riboli, D. S. Wiersma, L. Balet, L. H. Li, M. Francardi, A. Gerardino, A. Fiore, and M. Gurioli, “Polarization-sensitive near-field investigation of photonic crystal microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 163102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Harris, T. D.

Herzig, H. P.

T. Sfez, E. Descrovi, L. Yu, M. Quaglio, L. Dominici, W. Nakagawa, F. Michelotti, F. Giorgis, and H. P. Herzig, “Two-dimensional optics on silicon nitride multilayer: refraction of Bloch surface waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 151101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Descrovi, M. Quaglio, T. Sfez, D. Brunazzo, L. Dominici, F. Michelotti, H. P. Herzig, O. J. F. Martin, and F. Giorgis, “Guided Bloch surface waves on ultra-thin polymeric ridges,” Nano Lett. 10, 2087–2091 (2010).
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B. Bai, X. Meng, J. Laukkanen, T. Sfez, L. Yu, W. Nakagawa, H. P. Herzig, L. Li, and J. Turunen, “Asymmetrical excitation of surface plasmon polaritons on blazed gratings at normal incidence,” Phys. Rev. B 80, 035407 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Descrovi, T. Sfez, L. Dominici, W. Nakagawa, F. Michelotti, F. Giorgis, and H. P. Herzig, “Near-field imaging of Bloch surface waves on silicon nitride one-dimensional photonic crystals,” Opt. Express 16, 5453–5464 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Sfez, E. Descrovi, L. Dominici, W. Nakagawa, F. Michelotti, F. Giorgis, and H. P. Herzig, “Near-field analysis of surface electromagnetic waves in the bandgap region of a polymeric grating written on a one-dimensional photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 061108 (2008).
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A. Nesci, R. Dändliker, and H. P. Herzig, “Quantitative amplitude and phase measurement by use of a heterodyne scanning near-field optical microscope,” Opt. Lett. 26, 208–210 (2001).
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B. Deutsch, R. Hillenbrand, and L. Novotny, “Near-field amplitude and phase recovery using phase-shifting interferometry,” Opt. Express 16, 494–501 (2008).
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A. Huber, N. Ocelic, D. Kazantsev, and R. Hillenbrand, “Near-field imaging of mid-infrared surface phonon polariton propagation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 081103 (2005).
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R. Hillenbrand and F. Keilmann, “Complex optical constants on a subwavelength scale,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3029–3032 (2000).
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Hsu, J. W. P.

Huber, A.

A. Huber, N. Ocelic, D. Kazantsev, and R. Hillenbrand, “Near-field imaging of mid-infrared surface phonon polariton propagation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 081103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Intonti, F.

S. Vignolini, F. Intonti, F. Riboli, D. S. Wiersma, L. Balet, L. H. Li, M. Francardi, A. Gerardino, A. Fiore, and M. Gurioli, “Polarization-sensitive near-field investigation of photonic crystal microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 163102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Joannopoulos, J. D.

R. D. Meade, K. D. Brommer, A. M. Rappe, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Electromagnetic Bloch waves at the surface of a photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. B 44, 10961–10964 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kazantsev, D.

A. Huber, N. Ocelic, D. Kazantsev, and R. Hillenbrand, “Near-field imaging of mid-infrared surface phonon polariton propagation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 081103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Keilmann, F.

R. Hillenbrand and F. Keilmann, “Complex optical constants on a subwavelength scale,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3029–3032 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kihm, H. W.

K. G. Lee, H. W. Kihm, J. E. Kihm, W. J. Choi, H. Kim, C. Ropers, D. J. Park, Y. C. Yoon, S. B. Choi, D. H. Woo, K. Kim, B. Lee, Q. H. Park, C. Lienau, and D. S. Kim, “Vector field microscopic imaging of light,” Nat. Phot. 1, 53-56 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kihm, J. E.

K. G. Lee, H. W. Kihm, J. E. Kihm, W. J. Choi, H. Kim, C. Ropers, D. J. Park, Y. C. Yoon, S. B. Choi, D. H. Woo, K. Kim, B. Lee, Q. H. Park, C. Lienau, and D. S. Kim, “Vector field microscopic imaging of light,” Nat. Phot. 1, 53-56 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D. S.

K. G. Lee, H. W. Kihm, J. E. Kihm, W. J. Choi, H. Kim, C. Ropers, D. J. Park, Y. C. Yoon, S. B. Choi, D. H. Woo, K. Kim, B. Lee, Q. H. Park, C. Lienau, and D. S. Kim, “Vector field microscopic imaging of light,” Nat. Phot. 1, 53-56 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H.

K. G. Lee, H. W. Kihm, J. E. Kihm, W. J. Choi, H. Kim, C. Ropers, D. J. Park, Y. C. Yoon, S. B. Choi, D. H. Woo, K. Kim, B. Lee, Q. H. Park, C. Lienau, and D. S. Kim, “Vector field microscopic imaging of light,” Nat. Phot. 1, 53-56 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K.

K. G. Lee, H. W. Kihm, J. E. Kihm, W. J. Choi, H. Kim, C. Ropers, D. J. Park, Y. C. Yoon, S. B. Choi, D. H. Woo, K. Kim, B. Lee, Q. H. Park, C. Lienau, and D. S. Kim, “Vector field microscopic imaging of light,” Nat. Phot. 1, 53-56 (2007).
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V. N. Konopsky and E. V. Alieva, “Photonic crystal surface waves for optical biosensors,” Anal. Chem. 79, 4729–4735 (2007).
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Korterik, J. P.

M. L. M. Balistreri, J. P. Korterik, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, “Local observations of phase singularities in optical fields in waveguide structures,” Phys. Rev. B 85, 294–297 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kuipers, L.

M. Burresi, R. J. P. Engelen, A. Opheij, D. van Oosten, D. Mori, T. Baba, and L. Kuipers, “Observation of polarization singularities at the nanoscale,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 033902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Verhagen, M. Spasenović, A. Polman, and L. Kuipers, “Nanowire plasmon excitation by adiabatic mode transformation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 203904 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Spasenović, D. van Oosten, E. Verhagen, and L. Kuipers, “Measurements of modal symmetry in subwavelength plasmonic slot waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 203109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Sandtke and L. Kuipers, “Spatial distribution and near-field coupling of surface plasmon polariton Bloch modes,” Phys. Rev. B 77, 235439 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. L. M. Balistreri, J. P. Korterik, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, “Local observations of phase singularities in optical fields in waveguide structures,” Phys. Rev. B 85, 294–297 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Laukkanen, J.

B. Bai, X. Meng, J. Laukkanen, T. Sfez, L. Yu, W. Nakagawa, H. P. Herzig, L. Li, and J. Turunen, “Asymmetrical excitation of surface plasmon polaritons on blazed gratings at normal incidence,” Phys. Rev. B 80, 035407 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, B.

K. G. Lee, H. W. Kihm, J. E. Kihm, W. J. Choi, H. Kim, C. Ropers, D. J. Park, Y. C. Yoon, S. B. Choi, D. H. Woo, K. Kim, B. Lee, Q. H. Park, C. Lienau, and D. S. Kim, “Vector field microscopic imaging of light,” Nat. Phot. 1, 53-56 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K. G.

K. G. Lee, H. W. Kihm, J. E. Kihm, W. J. Choi, H. Kim, C. Ropers, D. J. Park, Y. C. Yoon, S. B. Choi, D. H. Woo, K. Kim, B. Lee, Q. H. Park, C. Lienau, and D. S. Kim, “Vector field microscopic imaging of light,” Nat. Phot. 1, 53-56 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Li, L.

B. Bai, X. Meng, J. Laukkanen, T. Sfez, L. Yu, W. Nakagawa, H. P. Herzig, L. Li, and J. Turunen, “Asymmetrical excitation of surface plasmon polaritons on blazed gratings at normal incidence,” Phys. Rev. B 80, 035407 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Li, L. H.

S. Vignolini, F. Intonti, F. Riboli, D. S. Wiersma, L. Balet, L. H. Li, M. Francardi, A. Gerardino, A. Fiore, and M. Gurioli, “Polarization-sensitive near-field investigation of photonic crystal microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 163102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lienau, C.

K. G. Lee, H. W. Kihm, J. E. Kihm, W. J. Choi, H. Kim, C. Ropers, D. J. Park, Y. C. Yoon, S. B. Choi, D. H. Woo, K. Kim, B. Lee, Q. H. Park, C. Lienau, and D. S. Kim, “Vector field microscopic imaging of light,” Nat. Phot. 1, 53-56 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liscidini, M.

M. Liscidini and J. E. Sipe, “Enhancement of diffraction for biosensing applications via Bloch surface waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 253125 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lopez-Ríos, T.

Lowe, C. R.

E. Gizeli and C. R. Lowe, Biomolecular Sensors (Taylor & Francis, 2002).

Luyer, C. L.

Y. Wu, M. Villanueva-Ibanez, C. L. Luyer, J. Shen, and J. Mugnier, “Application of multi-wavelength m-lines spectroscopy for optical analysis of sol-gel prepared waveguide thin films,” Proc. SPIE 5946, 396–407 (2005).

Martin, O. J. F.

E. Descrovi, M. Quaglio, T. Sfez, D. Brunazzo, L. Dominici, F. Michelotti, H. P. Herzig, O. J. F. Martin, and F. Giorgis, “Guided Bloch surface waves on ultra-thin polymeric ridges,” Nano Lett. 10, 2087–2091 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meade, R. D.

R. D. Meade, K. D. Brommer, A. M. Rappe, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Electromagnetic Bloch waves at the surface of a photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. B 44, 10961–10964 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Meng, X.

B. Bai, X. Meng, J. Laukkanen, T. Sfez, L. Yu, W. Nakagawa, H. P. Herzig, L. Li, and J. Turunen, “Asymmetrical excitation of surface plasmon polaritons on blazed gratings at normal incidence,” Phys. Rev. B 80, 035407 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Michelotti, F.

T. Sfez, E. Descrovi, L. Yu, M. Quaglio, L. Dominici, W. Nakagawa, F. Michelotti, F. Giorgis, and H. P. Herzig, “Two-dimensional optics on silicon nitride multilayer: refraction of Bloch surface waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 151101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Descrovi, M. Quaglio, T. Sfez, D. Brunazzo, L. Dominici, F. Michelotti, H. P. Herzig, O. J. F. Martin, and F. Giorgis, “Guided Bloch surface waves on ultra-thin polymeric ridges,” Nano Lett. 10, 2087–2091 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Descrovi, T. Sfez, L. Dominici, W. Nakagawa, F. Michelotti, F. Giorgis, and H. P. Herzig, “Near-field imaging of Bloch surface waves on silicon nitride one-dimensional photonic crystals,” Opt. Express 16, 5453–5464 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Sfez, E. Descrovi, L. Dominici, W. Nakagawa, F. Michelotti, F. Giorgis, and H. P. Herzig, “Near-field analysis of surface electromagnetic waves in the bandgap region of a polymeric grating written on a one-dimensional photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 061108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Descrovi, F. Frascella, B. Sciacca, F. Geobaldo, L. Dominici, and F. Michelotti, “Coupling of surface waves in highly defined one-dimensional porous silicon photonic crystals for gas sensing applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 241109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mitsuoka, Y.

K. Nakajima, Y. Mitsuoka, N. Chiba, H. Muramatsu, T. Ataka, K. Sato, and M. Fujihira, “Polarization effect in scanning near-field optic/atomic-force microscopy (SNOM/AFM),” Ultramicroscopy 71, 257–262 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mori, D.

M. Burresi, R. J. P. Engelen, A. Opheij, D. van Oosten, D. Mori, T. Baba, and L. Kuipers, “Observation of polarization singularities at the nanoscale,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 033902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mugnier, J.

Y. Wu, M. Villanueva-Ibanez, C. L. Luyer, J. Shen, and J. Mugnier, “Application of multi-wavelength m-lines spectroscopy for optical analysis of sol-gel prepared waveguide thin films,” Proc. SPIE 5946, 396–407 (2005).

Muramatsu, H.

K. Nakajima, Y. Mitsuoka, N. Chiba, H. Muramatsu, T. Ataka, K. Sato, and M. Fujihira, “Polarization effect in scanning near-field optic/atomic-force microscopy (SNOM/AFM),” Ultramicroscopy 71, 257–262 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nakagawa, W.

T. Sfez, E. Descrovi, L. Yu, M. Quaglio, L. Dominici, W. Nakagawa, F. Michelotti, F. Giorgis, and H. P. Herzig, “Two-dimensional optics on silicon nitride multilayer: refraction of Bloch surface waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 151101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Bai, X. Meng, J. Laukkanen, T. Sfez, L. Yu, W. Nakagawa, H. P. Herzig, L. Li, and J. Turunen, “Asymmetrical excitation of surface plasmon polaritons on blazed gratings at normal incidence,” Phys. Rev. B 80, 035407 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Descrovi, T. Sfez, L. Dominici, W. Nakagawa, F. Michelotti, F. Giorgis, and H. P. Herzig, “Near-field imaging of Bloch surface waves on silicon nitride one-dimensional photonic crystals,” Opt. Express 16, 5453–5464 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Sfez, E. Descrovi, L. Dominici, W. Nakagawa, F. Michelotti, F. Giorgis, and H. P. Herzig, “Near-field analysis of surface electromagnetic waves in the bandgap region of a polymeric grating written on a one-dimensional photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 061108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Tortora, R. Dändliker, W. Nakagawa, and L. Vaccaro, “Detection of non-paraxial optical fields by optical fiber tip probes,” Opt. Commun. 259, 876882 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nakajima, K.

K. Nakajima, Y. Mitsuoka, N. Chiba, H. Muramatsu, T. Ataka, K. Sato, and M. Fujihira, “Polarization effect in scanning near-field optic/atomic-force microscopy (SNOM/AFM),” Ultramicroscopy 71, 257–262 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nesci, A.

R. Dändliker, P. Tortora, L. Vaccaro, and A. Nesci, “Measuring three-dimensional polarization with scanning optical probes,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 6, S18–S23 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Nesci, R. Dändliker, and H. P. Herzig, “Quantitative amplitude and phase measurement by use of a heterodyne scanning near-field optical microscope,” Opt. Lett. 26, 208–210 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Novotny, L.

Ocelic, N.

A. Huber, N. Ocelic, D. Kazantsev, and R. Hillenbrand, “Near-field imaging of mid-infrared surface phonon polariton propagation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 081103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opheij, A.

M. Burresi, R. J. P. Engelen, A. Opheij, D. van Oosten, D. Mori, T. Baba, and L. Kuipers, “Observation of polarization singularities at the nanoscale,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 033902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Parameswaran, K. R.

Park, D. J.

K. G. Lee, H. W. Kihm, J. E. Kihm, W. J. Choi, H. Kim, C. Ropers, D. J. Park, Y. C. Yoon, S. B. Choi, D. H. Woo, K. Kim, B. Lee, Q. H. Park, C. Lienau, and D. S. Kim, “Vector field microscopic imaging of light,” Nat. Phot. 1, 53-56 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Park, Q. H.

K. G. Lee, H. W. Kihm, J. E. Kihm, W. J. Choi, H. Kim, C. Ropers, D. J. Park, Y. C. Yoon, S. B. Choi, D. H. Woo, K. Kim, B. Lee, Q. H. Park, C. Lienau, and D. S. Kim, “Vector field microscopic imaging of light,” Nat. Phot. 1, 53-56 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Polman, A.

E. Verhagen, M. Spasenović, A. Polman, and L. Kuipers, “Nanowire plasmon excitation by adiabatic mode transformation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 203904 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Quaglio, M.

T. Sfez, E. Descrovi, L. Yu, M. Quaglio, L. Dominici, W. Nakagawa, F. Michelotti, F. Giorgis, and H. P. Herzig, “Two-dimensional optics on silicon nitride multilayer: refraction of Bloch surface waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 151101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Descrovi, M. Quaglio, T. Sfez, D. Brunazzo, L. Dominici, F. Michelotti, H. P. Herzig, O. J. F. Martin, and F. Giorgis, “Guided Bloch surface waves on ultra-thin polymeric ridges,” Nano Lett. 10, 2087–2091 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ramos-Mendieta, F.

Rappe, A. M.

R. D. Meade, K. D. Brommer, A. M. Rappe, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Electromagnetic Bloch waves at the surface of a photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. B 44, 10961–10964 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Regalado, L. E.

Riboli, F.

S. Vignolini, F. Intonti, F. Riboli, D. S. Wiersma, L. Balet, L. H. Li, M. Francardi, A. Gerardino, A. Fiore, and M. Gurioli, “Polarization-sensitive near-field investigation of photonic crystal microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 163102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ropers, C.

K. G. Lee, H. W. Kihm, J. E. Kihm, W. J. Choi, H. Kim, C. Ropers, D. J. Park, Y. C. Yoon, S. B. Choi, D. H. Woo, K. Kim, B. Lee, Q. H. Park, C. Lienau, and D. S. Kim, “Vector field microscopic imaging of light,” Nat. Phot. 1, 53-56 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Saleh, B. E. A.

B. E. A. Saleh and M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics (Wiley, 1991).
[CrossRef]

Sandtke, M.

M. Sandtke and L. Kuipers, “Spatial distribution and near-field coupling of surface plasmon polariton Bloch modes,” Phys. Rev. B 77, 235439 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sato, K.

K. Nakajima, Y. Mitsuoka, N. Chiba, H. Muramatsu, T. Ataka, K. Sato, and M. Fujihira, “Polarization effect in scanning near-field optic/atomic-force microscopy (SNOM/AFM),” Ultramicroscopy 71, 257–262 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sciacca, B.

E. Descrovi, F. Frascella, B. Sciacca, F. Geobaldo, L. Dominici, and F. Michelotti, “Coupling of surface waves in highly defined one-dimensional porous silicon photonic crystals for gas sensing applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 241109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sfez, T.

E. Descrovi, M. Quaglio, T. Sfez, D. Brunazzo, L. Dominici, F. Michelotti, H. P. Herzig, O. J. F. Martin, and F. Giorgis, “Guided Bloch surface waves on ultra-thin polymeric ridges,” Nano Lett. 10, 2087–2091 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Sfez, E. Descrovi, L. Yu, M. Quaglio, L. Dominici, W. Nakagawa, F. Michelotti, F. Giorgis, and H. P. Herzig, “Two-dimensional optics on silicon nitride multilayer: refraction of Bloch surface waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 151101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Bai, X. Meng, J. Laukkanen, T. Sfez, L. Yu, W. Nakagawa, H. P. Herzig, L. Li, and J. Turunen, “Asymmetrical excitation of surface plasmon polaritons on blazed gratings at normal incidence,” Phys. Rev. B 80, 035407 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Descrovi, T. Sfez, L. Dominici, W. Nakagawa, F. Michelotti, F. Giorgis, and H. P. Herzig, “Near-field imaging of Bloch surface waves on silicon nitride one-dimensional photonic crystals,” Opt. Express 16, 5453–5464 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Sfez, E. Descrovi, L. Dominici, W. Nakagawa, F. Michelotti, F. Giorgis, and H. P. Herzig, “Near-field analysis of surface electromagnetic waves in the bandgap region of a polymeric grating written on a one-dimensional photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 061108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shen, J.

Y. Wu, M. Villanueva-Ibanez, C. L. Luyer, J. Shen, and J. Mugnier, “Application of multi-wavelength m-lines spectroscopy for optical analysis of sol-gel prepared waveguide thin films,” Proc. SPIE 5946, 396–407 (2005).

Sipe, J. E.

M. Liscidini and J. E. Sipe, “Enhancement of diffraction for biosensing applications via Bloch surface waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 253125 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Spasenovic, M.

M. Spasenović, D. van Oosten, E. Verhagen, and L. Kuipers, “Measurements of modal symmetry in subwavelength plasmonic slot waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 203109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Verhagen, M. Spasenović, A. Polman, and L. Kuipers, “Nanowire plasmon excitation by adiabatic mode transformation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 203904 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Teich, M. C.

B. E. A. Saleh and M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics (Wiley, 1991).
[CrossRef]

Tortora, P.

P. Tortora, R. Dändliker, W. Nakagawa, and L. Vaccaro, “Detection of non-paraxial optical fields by optical fiber tip probes,” Opt. Commun. 259, 876882 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Dändliker, P. Tortora, L. Vaccaro, and A. Nesci, “Measuring three-dimensional polarization with scanning optical probes,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 6, S18–S23 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Trautman, J. K.

Turunen, J.

B. Bai, X. Meng, J. Laukkanen, T. Sfez, L. Yu, W. Nakagawa, H. P. Herzig, L. Li, and J. Turunen, “Asymmetrical excitation of surface plasmon polaritons on blazed gratings at normal incidence,” Phys. Rev. B 80, 035407 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vaccaro, L.

P. Tortora, R. Dändliker, W. Nakagawa, and L. Vaccaro, “Detection of non-paraxial optical fields by optical fiber tip probes,” Opt. Commun. 259, 876882 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Dändliker, P. Tortora, L. Vaccaro, and A. Nesci, “Measuring three-dimensional polarization with scanning optical probes,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 6, S18–S23 (2004).
[CrossRef]

van Hulst, N. F.

M. L. M. Balistreri, J. P. Korterik, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, “Local observations of phase singularities in optical fields in waveguide structures,” Phys. Rev. B 85, 294–297 (2000).
[CrossRef]

van Oosten, D.

M. Burresi, R. J. P. Engelen, A. Opheij, D. van Oosten, D. Mori, T. Baba, and L. Kuipers, “Observation of polarization singularities at the nanoscale,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 033902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Spasenović, D. van Oosten, E. Verhagen, and L. Kuipers, “Measurements of modal symmetry in subwavelength plasmonic slot waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 203109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Verhagen, E.

M. Spasenović, D. van Oosten, E. Verhagen, and L. Kuipers, “Measurements of modal symmetry in subwavelength plasmonic slot waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 203109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Verhagen, M. Spasenović, A. Polman, and L. Kuipers, “Nanowire plasmon excitation by adiabatic mode transformation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 203904 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vignolini, S.

S. Vignolini, F. Intonti, F. Riboli, D. S. Wiersma, L. Balet, L. H. Li, M. Francardi, A. Gerardino, A. Fiore, and M. Gurioli, “Polarization-sensitive near-field investigation of photonic crystal microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 163102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Villa, F.

Villanueva-Ibanez, M.

Y. Wu, M. Villanueva-Ibanez, C. L. Luyer, J. Shen, and J. Mugnier, “Application of multi-wavelength m-lines spectroscopy for optical analysis of sol-gel prepared waveguide thin films,” Proc. SPIE 5946, 396–407 (2005).

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S. I. Boshevolnyi, B. Vohnsen, and E. A. Bozhevolnaya, “Transfer functions in collection mode scanning near-field optical microscopy,” Opt. Commun. 172, 171–179 (1999).
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Y. Wu, M. Villanueva-Ibanez, C. L. Luyer, J. Shen, and J. Mugnier, “Application of multi-wavelength m-lines spectroscopy for optical analysis of sol-gel prepared waveguide thin films,” Proc. SPIE 5946, 396–407 (2005).

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[CrossRef]

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K. G. Lee, H. W. Kihm, J. E. Kihm, W. J. Choi, H. Kim, C. Ropers, D. J. Park, Y. C. Yoon, S. B. Choi, D. H. Woo, K. Kim, B. Lee, Q. H. Park, C. Lienau, and D. S. Kim, “Vector field microscopic imaging of light,” Nat. Phot. 1, 53-56 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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T. Sfez, E. Descrovi, L. Yu, M. Quaglio, L. Dominici, W. Nakagawa, F. Michelotti, F. Giorgis, and H. P. Herzig, “Two-dimensional optics on silicon nitride multilayer: refraction of Bloch surface waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 151101 (2010).
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B. Bai, X. Meng, J. Laukkanen, T. Sfez, L. Yu, W. Nakagawa, H. P. Herzig, L. Li, and J. Turunen, “Asymmetrical excitation of surface plasmon polaritons on blazed gratings at normal incidence,” Phys. Rev. B 80, 035407 (2009).
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Anal. Chem. (1)

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Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (8)

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[CrossRef]

M. Spasenović, D. van Oosten, E. Verhagen, and L. Kuipers, “Measurements of modal symmetry in subwavelength plasmonic slot waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 203109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Liscidini and J. E. Sipe, “Enhancement of diffraction for biosensing applications via Bloch surface waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 253125 (2007).
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E. Descrovi, F. Frascella, B. Sciacca, F. Geobaldo, L. Dominici, and F. Michelotti, “Coupling of surface waves in highly defined one-dimensional porous silicon photonic crystals for gas sensing applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 241109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Sfez, E. Descrovi, L. Dominici, W. Nakagawa, F. Michelotti, F. Giorgis, and H. P. Herzig, “Near-field analysis of surface electromagnetic waves in the bandgap region of a polymeric grating written on a one-dimensional photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 061108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

A. Huber, N. Ocelic, D. Kazantsev, and R. Hillenbrand, “Near-field imaging of mid-infrared surface phonon polariton propagation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 081103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Sfez, E. Descrovi, L. Yu, M. Quaglio, L. Dominici, W. Nakagawa, F. Michelotti, F. Giorgis, and H. P. Herzig, “Two-dimensional optics on silicon nitride multilayer: refraction of Bloch surface waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 151101 (2010).
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E. Descrovi, M. Quaglio, T. Sfez, D. Brunazzo, L. Dominici, F. Michelotti, H. P. Herzig, O. J. F. Martin, and F. Giorgis, “Guided Bloch surface waves on ultra-thin polymeric ridges,” Nano Lett. 10, 2087–2091 (2010).
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[CrossRef]

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Y. Wu, M. Villanueva-Ibanez, C. L. Luyer, J. Shen, and J. Mugnier, “Application of multi-wavelength m-lines spectroscopy for optical analysis of sol-gel prepared waveguide thin films,” Proc. SPIE 5946, 396–407 (2005).

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[CrossRef]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic diagram of the silicon nitride multilayer with a polymeric ridge on top. (b) A topographic cross-section of the ridge as obtained from the shear-force feedback (dotted line). The gray rectangle represents the structure used in the calculation (height h = 140 nm and width w = 4.5 μ m ).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Calculated transverse intensity distributions of the (a) fundamental, (b) first-, and (c) second-order modes ( λ = 1520 nm ) .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic diagram of the multi-heterodyne interferometer constituting the MH-SNOM. The sample is illuminated in the Kretschmann configuration.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

In (a) and (b), near-field intensities over the waveguide under TE- and TM-polarized illumination, respectively ( λ = 1538 nm ) . The Airy-type patterns at left indicate the region where the incident light impinges on the sample surface. The inset shows the topographical defect responsible for the change in the propagating optical mode. (c) and (d) present ( λ , x ) plots for TE and TM polarization, respectively. The x line follows the white arrows displayed in (a) and (b).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

At the detector plane, the reference frame ( x ̂ , y ̂ ) is fixed by the two linearly polarized references of the multi-heterodyne interferometer. At the sample surface, the reference frame ( x ̂ , y ̂ ) is set according to the BSW waveguide.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(A): (a–b) and (c–d), the amplitudes and phases of the mode 0 projected onto the two reference beams r 1 and r 2 . In (e–f) and (g–h), the respective amplitudes and phases of E x and E y retrieved after numerical data processing. In (i–j) and (k–l), the measured and calculated real parts of E x and E y ( λ = 1568 nm ) . In (B) and (C), the equivalent for mode 1 ( λ = 1514 nm ) and mode 2 ( λ = 1478 nm ) .

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Typical Fourier spectrum obtained for both TE- and TM-polarized fields along the BSW propagation direction ( λ = 1530 nm ) . (b) Repartition of the measured effective indices over the whole wavelength range. The filled circle diameters account for the peak occurrences. The dotted lines are the linear curve fits. (c) The corresponding dispersion relations of the modes. In addition the dispersion relations of the bare multilayer and coated multilayer (with a 140-nm-thick polymeric layer) are also reported.

Equations (8)

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I ( t ) = A r 2 + A o 2 + 2 A r A o cos [ 2 π Δ f t + ( φ o φ r ) ] ,
R = 2 A r A o and Φ = φ o φ r .
R r 1 , r 2 TE , TM = 2 A r 1 , r 2 A x y TE , TM ,
Φ r 1 , r 2 TE , TM = φ x y TE , TM φ r 1 , r 2 ,
E det TE ( x , y ) = ( R r 1 TE ( x , y ) exp [ i Φ r 1 TE ( x , y ) ] R r 2 TE ( x , y ) exp [ i Φ r 2 TE ( x , y ) ] ) ,
E det TM ( x , y ) = ( R r 1 TM ( x , y ) exp [ i Φ r 1 TM ( x , y ) ] R r 2 TM ( x , y ) exp [ i Φ r 2 TM ( x , y ) ] ) .
E sample TE , TM ( x , y ) = M E det TE , TM ( x , y ) ,
V r 1 , r 2 TE , TM ( y ) = R r 1 , r 2 TE , TM ( y ) exp [ i Φ r 1 , r 2 TE , TM ( y ) ] .

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