Abstract

We systematically study the characteristics of the Cherenkov second-harmonic generation in periodically poled lithium niobate by femtosecond pulses. A relatively high conversion efficiency is obtained and what we believe to be a new different explanation is proposed that nonlinearities in the domain wall region have been enhanced significantly, which is a new feature of the domain wall that has not been studied previously.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. F. Zernike and J. E. Midwinter, Applied Nonlinear Optics (Wiley, 1973).
  2. M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, “Quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation: tuning and tolerances,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2631–2654 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. M. Saltiel, D. N. Neshev, W. Krolikowski, A. Arie, O. Bang, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Multiorder nonlinear diffraction in frequency doubling processes,” Opt. Lett. 34, 848–850 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. A. Fragemann, V. Pasiskevicius, and F. Laurell, “Second-order nonlinearities in domain walls of periodically poled KTiOPO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 375–377 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. Fischer, D. N. Neshev, S. M. Saltiel, W. Krolikowski, and Yu. S. Kivshar, “Broadband femtosecond frequency doubling in random media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 191105 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. Trull, C. Cojocaru, R. Fischer, S. Saltiel, K. Staliunas, R. Herrero, R. Vilaseca, D. N. Neshev, W. Krolikowski, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Second-harmonic parametric scattering in ferroelectric crystals with disordered nonlinear domain structures,” Opt. Express 15, 15868–15877 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. V. Roppo, D. Dumay, J. Trull, C. Cojocaru, S. M. Saltiel, K. Staliunas, R. Vilaseca, D. N. Neshev, W. Krolikowski, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Planar second-harmonic generation with noncollinear pumps in disordered media,” Opt. Express 16, 14192–14199 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. S. J. Holmgren, C. Canalias, and V. Pasiskevicius, “Ultrashort single-shot pulse characterization with high spatial resolution using localized nonlinearities in ferroelectric domain walls,” Opt. Lett. 32, 1545–1547 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. M. Baudrier-Raybaut, R. Haïdar, Ph. Kupecek, Ph. Lemasson, and E. Rosencher, “Random quasi-phase-matching in bulk polycrystalline isotropic nonlinear materials,” Nature 432, 374–376 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. S. E. Skipetrov, “Nonlinear optics: Disorder is the new order,” Nature 432, 285–286 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. X. Vidal and J. Martorell, “Generation of light in media with a random distribution of nonlinear domains,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 013902 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. Z. Xianglong, C. Xianfeng, W. Fei, C. Yuping, X. Yuxing, and C. Yingli, “Second-harmonic generation with broadened flattop bandwidth in aperiodic domain-inverted gratings,” Opt. Commun. 204, 407–411 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  13. L. Chen, X. Chen, Y. Chen, and Y. Xia, “Multiple quasi-phase-matching in two-dimensional domain-inverted aperiodic optical superlattice,” Phys. Lett. A 349, 484–487 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  14. I. Freund, “Nonlinear diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 21, 1404–1406 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  15. E. Fermi, “The ionization loss of energy in gases and in condensed materials,” Phys. Rev. 57, 485–493 (1940).
    [CrossRef]
  16. P. K. Tien, R. Ulrich, and R. J. Martin, “Optical second harmonic generation in form of coherent Cherenkov radiation from a thin-film waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 17, 447–450 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  17. A. Zembrod, H. Puell, and J. Giordmaine, “Surface radiation from nonlinear optical polarization,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 1, 64–66 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  18. A. Kaminskii, H. Nishioka, K. Ueda, W. Odajima, M. Tateno, K. Sasaki, and A. V. Butashin, “Second-harmonic generation with Cherenkov-type phase matching in a bulk nonlinear LaBGeO5 crystal,” Quantum Electron. 26, 381–382 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  19. S. M. Saltiel, Y. Sheng, N. Voloch-Bloch, D. N. Neshev, W. Krolikowski, A. Arie, K. Koynov, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Cherenkov-type second-harmonic generation in two-dimensional nonlinear photonic structures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45, 1465–1472 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  20. R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics (Academic, 2003).
  21. G. Stone and V. Dierolf, “Raman enhancement across the domain wall in ferroelectric lithium niobate,” in CLEO/Europe and EQEC 2009 Conference Digest (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper CE6_6.
    [CrossRef]

2009 (2)

S. M. Saltiel, D. N. Neshev, W. Krolikowski, A. Arie, O. Bang, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Multiorder nonlinear diffraction in frequency doubling processes,” Opt. Lett. 34, 848–850 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Saltiel, Y. Sheng, N. Voloch-Bloch, D. N. Neshev, W. Krolikowski, A. Arie, K. Koynov, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Cherenkov-type second-harmonic generation in two-dimensional nonlinear photonic structures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45, 1465–1472 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2007 (2)

2006 (3)

X. Vidal and J. Martorell, “Generation of light in media with a random distribution of nonlinear domains,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 013902 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Chen, X. Chen, Y. Chen, and Y. Xia, “Multiple quasi-phase-matching in two-dimensional domain-inverted aperiodic optical superlattice,” Phys. Lett. A 349, 484–487 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Fischer, D. N. Neshev, S. M. Saltiel, W. Krolikowski, and Yu. S. Kivshar, “Broadband femtosecond frequency doubling in random media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 191105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

A. Fragemann, V. Pasiskevicius, and F. Laurell, “Second-order nonlinearities in domain walls of periodically poled KTiOPO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 375–377 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Baudrier-Raybaut, R. Haïdar, Ph. Kupecek, Ph. Lemasson, and E. Rosencher, “Random quasi-phase-matching in bulk polycrystalline isotropic nonlinear materials,” Nature 432, 374–376 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. E. Skipetrov, “Nonlinear optics: Disorder is the new order,” Nature 432, 285–286 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

Z. Xianglong, C. Xianfeng, W. Fei, C. Yuping, X. Yuxing, and C. Yingli, “Second-harmonic generation with broadened flattop bandwidth in aperiodic domain-inverted gratings,” Opt. Commun. 204, 407–411 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

A. Kaminskii, H. Nishioka, K. Ueda, W. Odajima, M. Tateno, K. Sasaki, and A. V. Butashin, “Second-harmonic generation with Cherenkov-type phase matching in a bulk nonlinear LaBGeO5 crystal,” Quantum Electron. 26, 381–382 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, “Quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation: tuning and tolerances,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2631–2654 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1970 (1)

P. K. Tien, R. Ulrich, and R. J. Martin, “Optical second harmonic generation in form of coherent Cherenkov radiation from a thin-film waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 17, 447–450 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

A. Zembrod, H. Puell, and J. Giordmaine, “Surface radiation from nonlinear optical polarization,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 1, 64–66 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

I. Freund, “Nonlinear diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 21, 1404–1406 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1940 (1)

E. Fermi, “The ionization loss of energy in gases and in condensed materials,” Phys. Rev. 57, 485–493 (1940).
[CrossRef]

Arie, A.

S. M. Saltiel, Y. Sheng, N. Voloch-Bloch, D. N. Neshev, W. Krolikowski, A. Arie, K. Koynov, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Cherenkov-type second-harmonic generation in two-dimensional nonlinear photonic structures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45, 1465–1472 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Saltiel, D. N. Neshev, W. Krolikowski, A. Arie, O. Bang, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Multiorder nonlinear diffraction in frequency doubling processes,” Opt. Lett. 34, 848–850 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bang, O.

Baudrier-Raybaut, M.

M. Baudrier-Raybaut, R. Haïdar, Ph. Kupecek, Ph. Lemasson, and E. Rosencher, “Random quasi-phase-matching in bulk polycrystalline isotropic nonlinear materials,” Nature 432, 374–376 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boyd, R. W.

R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics (Academic, 2003).

Butashin, A. V.

A. Kaminskii, H. Nishioka, K. Ueda, W. Odajima, M. Tateno, K. Sasaki, and A. V. Butashin, “Second-harmonic generation with Cherenkov-type phase matching in a bulk nonlinear LaBGeO5 crystal,” Quantum Electron. 26, 381–382 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Byer, R. L.

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, “Quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation: tuning and tolerances,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2631–2654 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Canalias, C.

Chen, L.

L. Chen, X. Chen, Y. Chen, and Y. Xia, “Multiple quasi-phase-matching in two-dimensional domain-inverted aperiodic optical superlattice,” Phys. Lett. A 349, 484–487 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X.

L. Chen, X. Chen, Y. Chen, and Y. Xia, “Multiple quasi-phase-matching in two-dimensional domain-inverted aperiodic optical superlattice,” Phys. Lett. A 349, 484–487 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

L. Chen, X. Chen, Y. Chen, and Y. Xia, “Multiple quasi-phase-matching in two-dimensional domain-inverted aperiodic optical superlattice,” Phys. Lett. A 349, 484–487 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cojocaru, C.

Dierolf, V.

G. Stone and V. Dierolf, “Raman enhancement across the domain wall in ferroelectric lithium niobate,” in CLEO/Europe and EQEC 2009 Conference Digest (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper CE6_6.
[CrossRef]

Dumay, D.

Fei, W.

Z. Xianglong, C. Xianfeng, W. Fei, C. Yuping, X. Yuxing, and C. Yingli, “Second-harmonic generation with broadened flattop bandwidth in aperiodic domain-inverted gratings,” Opt. Commun. 204, 407–411 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fejer, M. M.

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, “Quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation: tuning and tolerances,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2631–2654 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Fermi, E.

E. Fermi, “The ionization loss of energy in gases and in condensed materials,” Phys. Rev. 57, 485–493 (1940).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, R.

Fragemann, A.

A. Fragemann, V. Pasiskevicius, and F. Laurell, “Second-order nonlinearities in domain walls of periodically poled KTiOPO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 375–377 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Freund, I.

I. Freund, “Nonlinear diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 21, 1404–1406 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Giordmaine, J.

A. Zembrod, H. Puell, and J. Giordmaine, “Surface radiation from nonlinear optical polarization,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 1, 64–66 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Haïdar, R.

M. Baudrier-Raybaut, R. Haïdar, Ph. Kupecek, Ph. Lemasson, and E. Rosencher, “Random quasi-phase-matching in bulk polycrystalline isotropic nonlinear materials,” Nature 432, 374–376 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Herrero, R.

Holmgren, S. J.

Jundt, D. H.

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, “Quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation: tuning and tolerances,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2631–2654 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kaminskii, A.

A. Kaminskii, H. Nishioka, K. Ueda, W. Odajima, M. Tateno, K. Sasaki, and A. V. Butashin, “Second-harmonic generation with Cherenkov-type phase matching in a bulk nonlinear LaBGeO5 crystal,” Quantum Electron. 26, 381–382 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kivshar, Y. S.

Kivshar, Yu. S.

R. Fischer, D. N. Neshev, S. M. Saltiel, W. Krolikowski, and Yu. S. Kivshar, “Broadband femtosecond frequency doubling in random media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 191105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Koynov, K.

S. M. Saltiel, Y. Sheng, N. Voloch-Bloch, D. N. Neshev, W. Krolikowski, A. Arie, K. Koynov, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Cherenkov-type second-harmonic generation in two-dimensional nonlinear photonic structures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45, 1465–1472 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Krolikowski, W.

Kupecek, Ph.

M. Baudrier-Raybaut, R. Haïdar, Ph. Kupecek, Ph. Lemasson, and E. Rosencher, “Random quasi-phase-matching in bulk polycrystalline isotropic nonlinear materials,” Nature 432, 374–376 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laurell, F.

A. Fragemann, V. Pasiskevicius, and F. Laurell, “Second-order nonlinearities in domain walls of periodically poled KTiOPO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 375–377 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lemasson, Ph.

M. Baudrier-Raybaut, R. Haïdar, Ph. Kupecek, Ph. Lemasson, and E. Rosencher, “Random quasi-phase-matching in bulk polycrystalline isotropic nonlinear materials,” Nature 432, 374–376 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Magel, G. A.

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, “Quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation: tuning and tolerances,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2631–2654 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Martin, R. J.

P. K. Tien, R. Ulrich, and R. J. Martin, “Optical second harmonic generation in form of coherent Cherenkov radiation from a thin-film waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 17, 447–450 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Martorell, J.

X. Vidal and J. Martorell, “Generation of light in media with a random distribution of nonlinear domains,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 013902 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Midwinter, J. E.

F. Zernike and J. E. Midwinter, Applied Nonlinear Optics (Wiley, 1973).

Neshev, D. N.

Nishioka, H.

A. Kaminskii, H. Nishioka, K. Ueda, W. Odajima, M. Tateno, K. Sasaki, and A. V. Butashin, “Second-harmonic generation with Cherenkov-type phase matching in a bulk nonlinear LaBGeO5 crystal,” Quantum Electron. 26, 381–382 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Odajima, W.

A. Kaminskii, H. Nishioka, K. Ueda, W. Odajima, M. Tateno, K. Sasaki, and A. V. Butashin, “Second-harmonic generation with Cherenkov-type phase matching in a bulk nonlinear LaBGeO5 crystal,” Quantum Electron. 26, 381–382 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Pasiskevicius, V.

Puell, H.

A. Zembrod, H. Puell, and J. Giordmaine, “Surface radiation from nonlinear optical polarization,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 1, 64–66 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Roppo, V.

Rosencher, E.

M. Baudrier-Raybaut, R. Haïdar, Ph. Kupecek, Ph. Lemasson, and E. Rosencher, “Random quasi-phase-matching in bulk polycrystalline isotropic nonlinear materials,” Nature 432, 374–376 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saltiel, S.

Saltiel, S. M.

S. M. Saltiel, Y. Sheng, N. Voloch-Bloch, D. N. Neshev, W. Krolikowski, A. Arie, K. Koynov, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Cherenkov-type second-harmonic generation in two-dimensional nonlinear photonic structures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45, 1465–1472 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Saltiel, D. N. Neshev, W. Krolikowski, A. Arie, O. Bang, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Multiorder nonlinear diffraction in frequency doubling processes,” Opt. Lett. 34, 848–850 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Roppo, D. Dumay, J. Trull, C. Cojocaru, S. M. Saltiel, K. Staliunas, R. Vilaseca, D. N. Neshev, W. Krolikowski, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Planar second-harmonic generation with noncollinear pumps in disordered media,” Opt. Express 16, 14192–14199 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Fischer, D. N. Neshev, S. M. Saltiel, W. Krolikowski, and Yu. S. Kivshar, “Broadband femtosecond frequency doubling in random media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 191105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, K.

A. Kaminskii, H. Nishioka, K. Ueda, W. Odajima, M. Tateno, K. Sasaki, and A. V. Butashin, “Second-harmonic generation with Cherenkov-type phase matching in a bulk nonlinear LaBGeO5 crystal,” Quantum Electron. 26, 381–382 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sheng, Y.

S. M. Saltiel, Y. Sheng, N. Voloch-Bloch, D. N. Neshev, W. Krolikowski, A. Arie, K. Koynov, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Cherenkov-type second-harmonic generation in two-dimensional nonlinear photonic structures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45, 1465–1472 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Skipetrov, S. E.

S. E. Skipetrov, “Nonlinear optics: Disorder is the new order,” Nature 432, 285–286 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Staliunas, K.

Stone, G.

G. Stone and V. Dierolf, “Raman enhancement across the domain wall in ferroelectric lithium niobate,” in CLEO/Europe and EQEC 2009 Conference Digest (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper CE6_6.
[CrossRef]

Tateno, M.

A. Kaminskii, H. Nishioka, K. Ueda, W. Odajima, M. Tateno, K. Sasaki, and A. V. Butashin, “Second-harmonic generation with Cherenkov-type phase matching in a bulk nonlinear LaBGeO5 crystal,” Quantum Electron. 26, 381–382 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tien, P. K.

P. K. Tien, R. Ulrich, and R. J. Martin, “Optical second harmonic generation in form of coherent Cherenkov radiation from a thin-film waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 17, 447–450 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Trull, J.

Ueda, K.

A. Kaminskii, H. Nishioka, K. Ueda, W. Odajima, M. Tateno, K. Sasaki, and A. V. Butashin, “Second-harmonic generation with Cherenkov-type phase matching in a bulk nonlinear LaBGeO5 crystal,” Quantum Electron. 26, 381–382 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ulrich, R.

P. K. Tien, R. Ulrich, and R. J. Martin, “Optical second harmonic generation in form of coherent Cherenkov radiation from a thin-film waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 17, 447–450 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Vidal, X.

X. Vidal and J. Martorell, “Generation of light in media with a random distribution of nonlinear domains,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 013902 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vilaseca, R.

Voloch-Bloch, N.

S. M. Saltiel, Y. Sheng, N. Voloch-Bloch, D. N. Neshev, W. Krolikowski, A. Arie, K. Koynov, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Cherenkov-type second-harmonic generation in two-dimensional nonlinear photonic structures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45, 1465–1472 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Xia, Y.

L. Chen, X. Chen, Y. Chen, and Y. Xia, “Multiple quasi-phase-matching in two-dimensional domain-inverted aperiodic optical superlattice,” Phys. Lett. A 349, 484–487 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Xianfeng, C.

Z. Xianglong, C. Xianfeng, W. Fei, C. Yuping, X. Yuxing, and C. Yingli, “Second-harmonic generation with broadened flattop bandwidth in aperiodic domain-inverted gratings,” Opt. Commun. 204, 407–411 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Xianglong, Z.

Z. Xianglong, C. Xianfeng, W. Fei, C. Yuping, X. Yuxing, and C. Yingli, “Second-harmonic generation with broadened flattop bandwidth in aperiodic domain-inverted gratings,” Opt. Commun. 204, 407–411 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yingli, C.

Z. Xianglong, C. Xianfeng, W. Fei, C. Yuping, X. Yuxing, and C. Yingli, “Second-harmonic generation with broadened flattop bandwidth in aperiodic domain-inverted gratings,” Opt. Commun. 204, 407–411 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yuping, C.

Z. Xianglong, C. Xianfeng, W. Fei, C. Yuping, X. Yuxing, and C. Yingli, “Second-harmonic generation with broadened flattop bandwidth in aperiodic domain-inverted gratings,” Opt. Commun. 204, 407–411 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yuxing, X.

Z. Xianglong, C. Xianfeng, W. Fei, C. Yuping, X. Yuxing, and C. Yingli, “Second-harmonic generation with broadened flattop bandwidth in aperiodic domain-inverted gratings,” Opt. Commun. 204, 407–411 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zembrod, A.

A. Zembrod, H. Puell, and J. Giordmaine, “Surface radiation from nonlinear optical polarization,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 1, 64–66 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Zernike, F.

F. Zernike and J. E. Midwinter, Applied Nonlinear Optics (Wiley, 1973).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

A. Fragemann, V. Pasiskevicius, and F. Laurell, “Second-order nonlinearities in domain walls of periodically poled KTiOPO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 375–377 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Fischer, D. N. Neshev, S. M. Saltiel, W. Krolikowski, and Yu. S. Kivshar, “Broadband femtosecond frequency doubling in random media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 191105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. K. Tien, R. Ulrich, and R. J. Martin, “Optical second harmonic generation in form of coherent Cherenkov radiation from a thin-film waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 17, 447–450 (1970).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

S. M. Saltiel, Y. Sheng, N. Voloch-Bloch, D. N. Neshev, W. Krolikowski, A. Arie, K. Koynov, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Cherenkov-type second-harmonic generation in two-dimensional nonlinear photonic structures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45, 1465–1472 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, “Quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation: tuning and tolerances,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2631–2654 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Nature (2)

M. Baudrier-Raybaut, R. Haïdar, Ph. Kupecek, Ph. Lemasson, and E. Rosencher, “Random quasi-phase-matching in bulk polycrystalline isotropic nonlinear materials,” Nature 432, 374–376 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. E. Skipetrov, “Nonlinear optics: Disorder is the new order,” Nature 432, 285–286 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

Z. Xianglong, C. Xianfeng, W. Fei, C. Yuping, X. Yuxing, and C. Yingli, “Second-harmonic generation with broadened flattop bandwidth in aperiodic domain-inverted gratings,” Opt. Commun. 204, 407–411 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

A. Zembrod, H. Puell, and J. Giordmaine, “Surface radiation from nonlinear optical polarization,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 1, 64–66 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Lett. A (1)

L. Chen, X. Chen, Y. Chen, and Y. Xia, “Multiple quasi-phase-matching in two-dimensional domain-inverted aperiodic optical superlattice,” Phys. Lett. A 349, 484–487 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. (1)

E. Fermi, “The ionization loss of energy in gases and in condensed materials,” Phys. Rev. 57, 485–493 (1940).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

I. Freund, “Nonlinear diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 21, 1404–1406 (1968).
[CrossRef]

X. Vidal and J. Martorell, “Generation of light in media with a random distribution of nonlinear domains,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 013902 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Quantum Electron. (1)

A. Kaminskii, H. Nishioka, K. Ueda, W. Odajima, M. Tateno, K. Sasaki, and A. V. Butashin, “Second-harmonic generation with Cherenkov-type phase matching in a bulk nonlinear LaBGeO5 crystal,” Quantum Electron. 26, 381–382 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics (Academic, 2003).

G. Stone and V. Dierolf, “Raman enhancement across the domain wall in ferroelectric lithium niobate,” in CLEO/Europe and EQEC 2009 Conference Digest (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper CE6_6.
[CrossRef]

F. Zernike and J. E. Midwinter, Applied Nonlinear Optics (Wiley, 1973).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of our experiment; (b),(c),(d) are the SH patterns when the polarization angles to the Z-axis are (b) γ = 0 ° , (c) γ = 45 ° , and (d) γ = 90 ° ; (e) Cherenkov PM diagrams for different FF polarizations.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) The outside SH and FF spectra when γ = 0 ° and (b) the inner spectra when γ = 90 ° .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) PM diagrams for different frequency components: the slit and the spectrum meter represent the position where they are placed in our experiment; (b) experimental result of the frequency distribution in one outside SH spot (0 mm represents the center of the spot and others are the distances from this central position).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) The SH wavelength changes as a function of external angles; (b) comparison of measured SH (blue open dots) intensity and square of FF intensity.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

SH powers as functions of the FF polarization angle γ.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

SH powers change with FF powers and the corresponding conversion efficiencies. (a) The outside SH when γ = 0 ° and (b) the inner SH when γ = 90 ° .

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

High-resolution-scanning result of CSHG intensity around the single domain wall. The inset is the scanning result in the 30 μ m PPLN sample.

Equations (7)

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n 1 < β / k < n 2 ,
n 1 < n 2 .
cos   α = 2 k 1 e / k 2 e ,
cos   β = 2 k 1 o / k 2 e ,
cos   α = n 1 e / n 2 e ,
cos   β = n 1 o / n 2 e ,
P 2 ω = d eff E ω 2 ,

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