Abstract

In the fluorescence light of a single atom, the probability for emission of a photon with certain polarization depends on the polarization of the photon emitted immediately before. Here correlations of such kind are investigated with a single trapped calcium ion by means of second-order correlation functions. A theoretical model is developed and fitted to the experimental data, which show 91% probability for the emission of polarization-correlated photon pairs within 24ns.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2009 (2)

S. Olmschenk, D. Hayes, D. N. Matsukevich, P. Maunz, D. L. Moehring, K. C. Younge, and C. Monroe, “Measurement of the lifetime of the 6p2P1/2o level of Yb+,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 022502 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Gerber, D. Rotter, M. Hennrich, R. Blatt, F. Rohde, C. Schuck, M. Almendros, R. Gehr, F. Dubin, and J. Eschner, “Quantum interference from remotely trapped ions,” New J. Phys. 11, 013032 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

D. Rotter, M. Mukherjee, F. Dubin, and R. Blatt, “Monitoring a single ion's motion by second-order photon correlations,” New J. Phys. 10, 043011 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (4)

F. Dubin, D. Rotter, M. Mukherjee, S. Gerber, and R. Blatt, “Single-ion two-photon source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 183001 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Wilk, S. C. Webster, H. P. Specht, G. Rempe, and A. Kuhn, “Polarization-controlled single photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 063601 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Wilk, H. P. Specht, S. C. Webster, G. Rempe, and A. Kuhn, “Scheme for generating a sequence of single photons of alternating polarization,” J. Mod. Opt. 54, 1569-1580 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Wilk, S. C. Webster, A. Kuhn, and G. Rempe, “Single-atom single-photon quantum interface,” Science 317, 488-490 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

J. Volz, M. Weber, D. Schlenk, W. Rosenfeld, J. Vrana, K. Saucke, C. Kurtsiefer, and H. Weinfurter, “Observation of entanglement of a single photon with a trapped atom,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 030404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

P. Zoller, Th. Beth, D. Binosi, R. Blatt, H. Briegel, D. Bruss, T. Calarco, J. I. Cirac, D. Deutsc, J. Eisert, A. Ekert, C. Fabre, N. Gisin, P. Grangiere, M. Grassl, S. Haroche, A. Imamoglu, A. Karlson, J. Kempe, L. Kouwenhoven, S. Kröll, G. Leuchs, M. Lewenstein, D. Loss, N. Lütkenhaus, S. Massar, J. E. Mooij, M. B. Plenio, E. Polzik, S. Popescu, G. Rempe, A. Sergienko, D. Suter, J. Twamley, G. Wendin, R. Werner, A. Winter, J. Wrachtrup, and A. Zeilinger, “Quantum information processing and communication,” Eur. Phys. J. D 36, 203-228 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

B. B. Blinov, D. L. Moehring, L. M. Duan, and C. Monroe, “Observation of entanglement between a single trapped atom and a single photon,” Nature 428, 153-157 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Carreño, M. A. Antón, and O. G. Calderón, “Intensity-intensity correlations in a v-type atom driven by a coherent field in a broadband squeezed vacuum,” J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclassical Opt. 6, 315 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (4)

D. E. Browne, M. B. Plenio, and S. F. Huelga, “Robust creation of entanglement between ions in spatially separate cavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 067901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X.-L. Feng, Z.-M. Zhang, X.-D. Li, S.-Q. Gong, and Z.-Z. Xu, “Entangling distant atoms by interference of polarized photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 217902 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L.-M. Duan and H. J. Kimble, “Efficient engineering of multiatom entanglement through single-photon detections,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 253601 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Simon and W. T. M. Irvine, “Robust long-distance entanglement and a loophole-free bell test with ions and photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 110405 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

M. Jakob and J. A. Bergou, “Polarization-correlated photon pairs in the fluorescence from a bichromatically driven four-level atom,” J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclassical Opt. 4, 308-315 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

C. Skornia, J. v. Zanthier, G. S. Agarwal, E. Werner, and H. Walther, “Nonclassical interference effects in the radiation from coherently driven uncorrelated atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 063801 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

M. Jakob and G. Y. Kryuchkyan, “Photon correlation in an ion-trap system,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 2111-2119 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Cabrillo, J. I. Cirac, P. García-Fernández, and P. Zoller, “Creation of entangled states of distant atoms by interference,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 1025-1033 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (3)

H.-J. Briegel, W. Dür, J. I. Cirac, and P. Zoller, “Quantum repeaters: the role of imperfect local operations in quantum communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5932-5935 (1998).
[CrossRef]

V. Gomer, F. Strauch, B. Ueberholz, S. Knappe, and D. Meschede, “Single-atom dynamics revealed by photon correlations,” Phys. Rev. A 58, R1657-R1660 (1998).
[CrossRef]

V. Gomer, B. Ueberholz, S. Knappe, F. Strauch, D. Frese, and D. Meschede, “Decoding the dynamics of a single trapped atom from photon correlations,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 689-697 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

C. Jurczak, B. Desruelle, K. Sengstock, J. Y. Courtois, C. I. Westbrook, and A. Aspect, “Atomic transport in an optical lattice: an investigation through polarization-selective intensity correlations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1727-1730 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

M. Schubert, I. Siemers, R. Blatt, W. Neuhauser, and P. E. Toschek, “Transient internal dynamics of a multilevel ion,” Phys. Rev. A 52, 2994-3006 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

M. Schubert, I. Siemers, R. Blatt, W. Neuhauser, and P. E. Toschek, “Photon antibunching and non-Poissonian fluorescence of a single three-level ion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3016-3019 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

F. Diedrich and H. Walther, “Nonclassical radiation of a single stored ion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 203-206 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1977 (1)

H. J. Kimble, M. Dagenais, and L. Mandel, “Photon antibunching in resonance fluorescence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 39, 691-695 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Agarwal, G. S.

C. Skornia, J. v. Zanthier, G. S. Agarwal, E. Werner, and H. Walther, “Nonclassical interference effects in the radiation from coherently driven uncorrelated atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 063801 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Almendros, M.

S. Gerber, D. Rotter, M. Hennrich, R. Blatt, F. Rohde, C. Schuck, M. Almendros, R. Gehr, F. Dubin, and J. Eschner, “Quantum interference from remotely trapped ions,” New J. Phys. 11, 013032 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Rohde, M. Almendros, C. Schuck, J. Huwer, M. Hennrich, and J. Eschner, “A diode laser stabilization scheme for 40Ca+ single ion spectroscopy,” arXiv:0910.1052v1 [quant-ph] (2009).

Antón, M. A.

F. Carreño, M. A. Antón, and O. G. Calderón, “Intensity-intensity correlations in a v-type atom driven by a coherent field in a broadband squeezed vacuum,” J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclassical Opt. 6, 315 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Aspect, A.

C. Jurczak, B. Desruelle, K. Sengstock, J. Y. Courtois, C. I. Westbrook, and A. Aspect, “Atomic transport in an optical lattice: an investigation through polarization-selective intensity correlations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1727-1730 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bergou, J. A.

M. Jakob and J. A. Bergou, “Polarization-correlated photon pairs in the fluorescence from a bichromatically driven four-level atom,” J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclassical Opt. 4, 308-315 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Beth, Th.

P. Zoller, Th. Beth, D. Binosi, R. Blatt, H. Briegel, D. Bruss, T. Calarco, J. I. Cirac, D. Deutsc, J. Eisert, A. Ekert, C. Fabre, N. Gisin, P. Grangiere, M. Grassl, S. Haroche, A. Imamoglu, A. Karlson, J. Kempe, L. Kouwenhoven, S. Kröll, G. Leuchs, M. Lewenstein, D. Loss, N. Lütkenhaus, S. Massar, J. E. Mooij, M. B. Plenio, E. Polzik, S. Popescu, G. Rempe, A. Sergienko, D. Suter, J. Twamley, G. Wendin, R. Werner, A. Winter, J. Wrachtrup, and A. Zeilinger, “Quantum information processing and communication,” Eur. Phys. J. D 36, 203-228 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Binosi, D.

P. Zoller, Th. Beth, D. Binosi, R. Blatt, H. Briegel, D. Bruss, T. Calarco, J. I. Cirac, D. Deutsc, J. Eisert, A. Ekert, C. Fabre, N. Gisin, P. Grangiere, M. Grassl, S. Haroche, A. Imamoglu, A. Karlson, J. Kempe, L. Kouwenhoven, S. Kröll, G. Leuchs, M. Lewenstein, D. Loss, N. Lütkenhaus, S. Massar, J. E. Mooij, M. B. Plenio, E. Polzik, S. Popescu, G. Rempe, A. Sergienko, D. Suter, J. Twamley, G. Wendin, R. Werner, A. Winter, J. Wrachtrup, and A. Zeilinger, “Quantum information processing and communication,” Eur. Phys. J. D 36, 203-228 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Blatt, R.

S. Gerber, D. Rotter, M. Hennrich, R. Blatt, F. Rohde, C. Schuck, M. Almendros, R. Gehr, F. Dubin, and J. Eschner, “Quantum interference from remotely trapped ions,” New J. Phys. 11, 013032 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Rotter, M. Mukherjee, F. Dubin, and R. Blatt, “Monitoring a single ion's motion by second-order photon correlations,” New J. Phys. 10, 043011 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Dubin, D. Rotter, M. Mukherjee, S. Gerber, and R. Blatt, “Single-ion two-photon source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 183001 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Zoller, Th. Beth, D. Binosi, R. Blatt, H. Briegel, D. Bruss, T. Calarco, J. I. Cirac, D. Deutsc, J. Eisert, A. Ekert, C. Fabre, N. Gisin, P. Grangiere, M. Grassl, S. Haroche, A. Imamoglu, A. Karlson, J. Kempe, L. Kouwenhoven, S. Kröll, G. Leuchs, M. Lewenstein, D. Loss, N. Lütkenhaus, S. Massar, J. E. Mooij, M. B. Plenio, E. Polzik, S. Popescu, G. Rempe, A. Sergienko, D. Suter, J. Twamley, G. Wendin, R. Werner, A. Winter, J. Wrachtrup, and A. Zeilinger, “Quantum information processing and communication,” Eur. Phys. J. D 36, 203-228 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Schubert, I. Siemers, R. Blatt, W. Neuhauser, and P. E. Toschek, “Transient internal dynamics of a multilevel ion,” Phys. Rev. A 52, 2994-3006 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Schubert, I. Siemers, R. Blatt, W. Neuhauser, and P. E. Toschek, “Photon antibunching and non-Poissonian fluorescence of a single three-level ion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3016-3019 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blinov, B. B.

B. B. Blinov, D. L. Moehring, L. M. Duan, and C. Monroe, “Observation of entanglement between a single trapped atom and a single photon,” Nature 428, 153-157 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Briegel, H.

P. Zoller, Th. Beth, D. Binosi, R. Blatt, H. Briegel, D. Bruss, T. Calarco, J. I. Cirac, D. Deutsc, J. Eisert, A. Ekert, C. Fabre, N. Gisin, P. Grangiere, M. Grassl, S. Haroche, A. Imamoglu, A. Karlson, J. Kempe, L. Kouwenhoven, S. Kröll, G. Leuchs, M. Lewenstein, D. Loss, N. Lütkenhaus, S. Massar, J. E. Mooij, M. B. Plenio, E. Polzik, S. Popescu, G. Rempe, A. Sergienko, D. Suter, J. Twamley, G. Wendin, R. Werner, A. Winter, J. Wrachtrup, and A. Zeilinger, “Quantum information processing and communication,” Eur. Phys. J. D 36, 203-228 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Briegel, H.-J.

H.-J. Briegel, W. Dür, J. I. Cirac, and P. Zoller, “Quantum repeaters: the role of imperfect local operations in quantum communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5932-5935 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Browne, D. E.

D. E. Browne, M. B. Plenio, and S. F. Huelga, “Robust creation of entanglement between ions in spatially separate cavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 067901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bruss, D.

P. Zoller, Th. Beth, D. Binosi, R. Blatt, H. Briegel, D. Bruss, T. Calarco, J. I. Cirac, D. Deutsc, J. Eisert, A. Ekert, C. Fabre, N. Gisin, P. Grangiere, M. Grassl, S. Haroche, A. Imamoglu, A. Karlson, J. Kempe, L. Kouwenhoven, S. Kröll, G. Leuchs, M. Lewenstein, D. Loss, N. Lütkenhaus, S. Massar, J. E. Mooij, M. B. Plenio, E. Polzik, S. Popescu, G. Rempe, A. Sergienko, D. Suter, J. Twamley, G. Wendin, R. Werner, A. Winter, J. Wrachtrup, and A. Zeilinger, “Quantum information processing and communication,” Eur. Phys. J. D 36, 203-228 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cabrillo, C.

C. Cabrillo, J. I. Cirac, P. García-Fernández, and P. Zoller, “Creation of entangled states of distant atoms by interference,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 1025-1033 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Calarco, T.

P. Zoller, Th. Beth, D. Binosi, R. Blatt, H. Briegel, D. Bruss, T. Calarco, J. I. Cirac, D. Deutsc, J. Eisert, A. Ekert, C. Fabre, N. Gisin, P. Grangiere, M. Grassl, S. Haroche, A. Imamoglu, A. Karlson, J. Kempe, L. Kouwenhoven, S. Kröll, G. Leuchs, M. Lewenstein, D. Loss, N. Lütkenhaus, S. Massar, J. E. Mooij, M. B. Plenio, E. Polzik, S. Popescu, G. Rempe, A. Sergienko, D. Suter, J. Twamley, G. Wendin, R. Werner, A. Winter, J. Wrachtrup, and A. Zeilinger, “Quantum information processing and communication,” Eur. Phys. J. D 36, 203-228 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Calderón, O. G.

F. Carreño, M. A. Antón, and O. G. Calderón, “Intensity-intensity correlations in a v-type atom driven by a coherent field in a broadband squeezed vacuum,” J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclassical Opt. 6, 315 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Carreño, F.

F. Carreño, M. A. Antón, and O. G. Calderón, “Intensity-intensity correlations in a v-type atom driven by a coherent field in a broadband squeezed vacuum,” J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclassical Opt. 6, 315 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cirac, J. I.

P. Zoller, Th. Beth, D. Binosi, R. Blatt, H. Briegel, D. Bruss, T. Calarco, J. I. Cirac, D. Deutsc, J. Eisert, A. Ekert, C. Fabre, N. Gisin, P. Grangiere, M. Grassl, S. Haroche, A. Imamoglu, A. Karlson, J. Kempe, L. Kouwenhoven, S. Kröll, G. Leuchs, M. Lewenstein, D. Loss, N. Lütkenhaus, S. Massar, J. E. Mooij, M. B. Plenio, E. Polzik, S. Popescu, G. Rempe, A. Sergienko, D. Suter, J. Twamley, G. Wendin, R. Werner, A. Winter, J. Wrachtrup, and A. Zeilinger, “Quantum information processing and communication,” Eur. Phys. J. D 36, 203-228 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Cabrillo, J. I. Cirac, P. García-Fernández, and P. Zoller, “Creation of entangled states of distant atoms by interference,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 1025-1033 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H.-J. Briegel, W. Dür, J. I. Cirac, and P. Zoller, “Quantum repeaters: the role of imperfect local operations in quantum communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5932-5935 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Courtois, J. Y.

C. Jurczak, B. Desruelle, K. Sengstock, J. Y. Courtois, C. I. Westbrook, and A. Aspect, “Atomic transport in an optical lattice: an investigation through polarization-selective intensity correlations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1727-1730 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dagenais, M.

H. J. Kimble, M. Dagenais, and L. Mandel, “Photon antibunching in resonance fluorescence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 39, 691-695 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Desruelle, B.

C. Jurczak, B. Desruelle, K. Sengstock, J. Y. Courtois, C. I. Westbrook, and A. Aspect, “Atomic transport in an optical lattice: an investigation through polarization-selective intensity correlations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1727-1730 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Deutsc, D.

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J. Volz, M. Weber, D. Schlenk, W. Rosenfeld, J. Vrana, K. Saucke, C. Kurtsiefer, and H. Weinfurter, “Observation of entanglement of a single photon with a trapped atom,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 030404 (2006).
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V. Gomer, B. Ueberholz, S. Knappe, F. Strauch, D. Frese, and D. Meschede, “Decoding the dynamics of a single trapped atom from photon correlations,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 689-697 (1998).
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J. Volz, M. Weber, D. Schlenk, W. Rosenfeld, J. Vrana, K. Saucke, C. Kurtsiefer, and H. Weinfurter, “Observation of entanglement of a single photon with a trapped atom,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 030404 (2006).
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J. Volz, M. Weber, D. Schlenk, W. Rosenfeld, J. Vrana, K. Saucke, C. Kurtsiefer, and H. Weinfurter, “Observation of entanglement of a single photon with a trapped atom,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 030404 (2006).
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C. Skornia, J. v. Zanthier, G. S. Agarwal, E. Werner, and H. Walther, “Nonclassical interference effects in the radiation from coherently driven uncorrelated atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 063801 (2001).
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J. Volz, M. Weber, D. Schlenk, W. Rosenfeld, J. Vrana, K. Saucke, C. Kurtsiefer, and H. Weinfurter, “Observation of entanglement of a single photon with a trapped atom,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 030404 (2006).
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T. Wilk, H. P. Specht, S. C. Webster, G. Rempe, and A. Kuhn, “Scheme for generating a sequence of single photons of alternating polarization,” J. Mod. Opt. 54, 1569-1580 (2007).
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J. Volz, M. Weber, D. Schlenk, W. Rosenfeld, J. Vrana, K. Saucke, C. Kurtsiefer, and H. Weinfurter, “Observation of entanglement of a single photon with a trapped atom,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 030404 (2006).
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C. Skornia, J. v. Zanthier, G. S. Agarwal, E. Werner, and H. Walther, “Nonclassical interference effects in the radiation from coherently driven uncorrelated atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 063801 (2001).
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P. Zoller, Th. Beth, D. Binosi, R. Blatt, H. Briegel, D. Bruss, T. Calarco, J. I. Cirac, D. Deutsc, J. Eisert, A. Ekert, C. Fabre, N. Gisin, P. Grangiere, M. Grassl, S. Haroche, A. Imamoglu, A. Karlson, J. Kempe, L. Kouwenhoven, S. Kröll, G. Leuchs, M. Lewenstein, D. Loss, N. Lütkenhaus, S. Massar, J. E. Mooij, M. B. Plenio, E. Polzik, S. Popescu, G. Rempe, A. Sergienko, D. Suter, J. Twamley, G. Wendin, R. Werner, A. Winter, J. Wrachtrup, and A. Zeilinger, “Quantum information processing and communication,” Eur. Phys. J. D 36, 203-228 (2005).
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T. Wilk, H. P. Specht, S. C. Webster, G. Rempe, and A. Kuhn, “Scheme for generating a sequence of single photons of alternating polarization,” J. Mod. Opt. 54, 1569-1580 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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T. Wilk, S. C. Webster, H. P. Specht, G. Rempe, and A. Kuhn, “Polarization-controlled single photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 063601 (2007).
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Wrachtrup, J.

P. Zoller, Th. Beth, D. Binosi, R. Blatt, H. Briegel, D. Bruss, T. Calarco, J. I. Cirac, D. Deutsc, J. Eisert, A. Ekert, C. Fabre, N. Gisin, P. Grangiere, M. Grassl, S. Haroche, A. Imamoglu, A. Karlson, J. Kempe, L. Kouwenhoven, S. Kröll, G. Leuchs, M. Lewenstein, D. Loss, N. Lütkenhaus, S. Massar, J. E. Mooij, M. B. Plenio, E. Polzik, S. Popescu, G. Rempe, A. Sergienko, D. Suter, J. Twamley, G. Wendin, R. Werner, A. Winter, J. Wrachtrup, and A. Zeilinger, “Quantum information processing and communication,” Eur. Phys. J. D 36, 203-228 (2005).
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S. Olmschenk, D. Hayes, D. N. Matsukevich, P. Maunz, D. L. Moehring, K. C. Younge, and C. Monroe, “Measurement of the lifetime of the 6p2P1/2o level of Yb+,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 022502 (2009).
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Zanthier, J. v.

C. Skornia, J. v. Zanthier, G. S. Agarwal, E. Werner, and H. Walther, “Nonclassical interference effects in the radiation from coherently driven uncorrelated atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 063801 (2001).
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P. Zoller, Th. Beth, D. Binosi, R. Blatt, H. Briegel, D. Bruss, T. Calarco, J. I. Cirac, D. Deutsc, J. Eisert, A. Ekert, C. Fabre, N. Gisin, P. Grangiere, M. Grassl, S. Haroche, A. Imamoglu, A. Karlson, J. Kempe, L. Kouwenhoven, S. Kröll, G. Leuchs, M. Lewenstein, D. Loss, N. Lütkenhaus, S. Massar, J. E. Mooij, M. B. Plenio, E. Polzik, S. Popescu, G. Rempe, A. Sergienko, D. Suter, J. Twamley, G. Wendin, R. Werner, A. Winter, J. Wrachtrup, and A. Zeilinger, “Quantum information processing and communication,” Eur. Phys. J. D 36, 203-228 (2005).
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Appl. Phys. B (1)

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Other (8)

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Note that we identify the photon polarization (σ− or σ+) by the transition on which the photon has been emitted.

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Since the parameters used in fitting the spectrum as well as the g(2) functions are not fully independent from each other, various sets of parameters are consistent with the data, in the sense that the whole set of parameters for the spectrum fits the correlations within 1 of the χ2 deviation and vice versa.

These error values minimize the reduced χ2 of the fit; however, they have an uncertainty on the order of magnitude of the error values themselves.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Level scheme of Ca + 40 for a nonzero magnetic field B . The S 1 2 2 , P 1 2 2 , and D 3 2 2 states split into eight levels according to their magnetic quantum number m j and the Landé factors g j . The splitting shown is not to scale.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Detection of σ - and σ + -polarized photons, conditioned on the previous detection of a σ -polarized photon. Excitation happens with σ + σ -polarized light, i.e., linear polarization perpendicular to the magnetic field. (a) Detection of a σ -polarized photon projects the ion into the state | 2 = | S 1 2 , m j = 1 2 . (b) To detect a subsequent σ -polarized photon, the ion has to be re-excited under the absorption of a σ -polarized photon. (c) To detect a σ + -polarized photon, the ion has to be re-excited under the absorption of a σ -polarized photon, then decay to state |1〉 under emission of a π-polarized photon and then be excited to the state |4〉 by reabsorbing a σ + -polarized photon from the exciting beams.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Conditioned second-order correlation functions g σ ( 2 ) ( τ ) (top) and g σ + ( 2 ) ( τ ) (bottom) for weak excitation. The functions have been calculated with an eight-level Bloch equation model for Rabi frequencies of Ω 397 = 2 π 9.2 MHz and Ω 866 = 2 π 1.3 MHz , detunings Δ 397 2 π = 15 MHz and Δ 866 2 π = 5.8 MHz , and a magnetic field of B = 3.5 G . (b) Ratio p ( τ ) [Eq. (7)] of the integrals over time of the two conditioned correlation functions. The inset shows a logarithmic plot.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Conditioned second-order correlation functions g σ ( 2 ) ( τ ) (top) and g σ + ( 2 ) ( τ ) (bottom) for strong excitation. The functions have been calculated with an eight-level Bloch equation model for Rabi frequencies of Ω 397 = 2 π 20.2 MHz and Ω 866 = 2 π 20.3 MHz , detunings Δ 397 2 π = 15 MHz and Δ 866 2 π = 5.8 MHz , and a magnetic field of B = 3.5 G . (b) Ratio p ( τ ) [Eq. (7)] of the integrals over time of the two conditioned correlation functions. The inset shows a logarithmic plot.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Setup for the measurement of polarization-conditioned correlation functions. The fluorescence light is split into two parts by collecting it with the two HALO lenses. Multimode fibers are used to couple the light to two PMTs.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Excitation spectrum of a single ion. The 397 and 866 nm lasers are approximately vertically polarized and propagate under 90° to the quantization axis (see Fig. 5). The solid line is the calculated spectrum for the Rabi frequencies Ω 397 = 2 π 9.9 MHz and Ω 866 = 2 π 1.5 MHz , the detuning Δ 397 2 π = 15 MHz , and a magnetic field of B = 3.5 G . The background is 89 c.p.s. and the data points shown have Poissonian errors.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Top: ( g σ ( 2 ) ) . Bottom: ( g σ + ( 2 ) ) . The solid lines are the correlation functions expected from the theoretical model for the Rabi frequencies Ω 397 = 2 π 9.2 MHz and Ω 866 = 2 π 1.3 MHz and the detuning Δ 866 2 π = 5.8 MHz . The inset shows data and model for time scales up to 5 μ s .

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Zoom of Fig. 7.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Purity p for the model calculation fitted to the measured data from Figs. 7, 8. To avoid artifacts at times close to zero p is presented without background.

Equations (7)

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σ ̂ 1 = | 1 4 | , σ ̂ 1 = | 4 1 | ,
σ ̂ 2 = | 2 3 | , σ ̂ 2 = | 3 2 | .
g ( 2 ) ( τ ) = i , j = 1 2 σ ̂ i ( t ) σ ̂ j ( t + τ ) σ ̂ j ( t + τ ) σ ̂ i ( t ) σ ̂ 1 ( t ) σ ̂ 1 ( t ) + σ ̂ 2 ( t ) σ ̂ 2 ( t ) 2 .
g ( 2 ) ( τ ) = ρ 33 ( τ ) + ρ 44 ( τ ) ρ 33 ( ) + ρ 44 ( ) ,
g σ ( 2 ) ( τ ) = ρ 33 ( τ ) ρ 33 ( )
g σ + ( 2 ) ( τ ) = ρ 44 ( τ ) ρ 44 ( ) ,
p ( τ ) = 0 τ g σ ( 2 ) ( t ) d t 0 τ g σ + ( 2 ) ( t ) d t

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