Abstract

We present a set of long-term quantum key distribution (QKD) results from the QuantumCity initiative in Durban, South Africa. Many QKD experimental setups have failed to provide a long-term analysis of QKD systems in commercial environments. Long-term analysis of the stability and performance of these systems is an imperative step towards the market acceptance of QKD technology. The Durban–QuantumCity project intends to develop a multi-user quantum communication network that is currently overlaid on the fiber infrastructure of the eThekwini Municipality. The first phase of this project includes the deployment of a four-node star network. To date, two links have been deployed and one link has run continuously for a number of months. We provide a brief overview of practical implementations of quantum networks and the first set of results from the live data encryption of the QuantumCity project.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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  1. N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum cryptography,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145–195 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. Bennett and G. Brassard, “Quantum cryptography: public key distribution and coin tossing,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Computers, Systems, and Signal Processing, Bangalore (IEEE, 1984), pp. 175–179.
  3. R. Alleaume, F. Roueff, O. Maurhart, and N. Lutkenhaus, “Architecture, security and topology of a global QKD network,” in Proceedings of IEEE/LEOS Summer Topical Meeting on Quantum Communications in Telecom Networks (IEEE, 2006), pp. 38–39.
  4. C. Elliott, A. Colvin, D. Pearson, O. Pikalo, J. Schlafer, and H. Yeh, “Current status of the DARPA quantum network,” http://arxiv.org/pdf/quant-ph/0503058.
  5. P. D. Kumavor, A. C. Beal, S. Yelin, E. Donkor, and B. C. Wang, “Comparison of four multi-user quantum key distribution schemes over passive optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 268–277 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. Alléaume, J. Bouda, C. Branciard, T. Debuisschert, M. Dianati, N. Gisin, M. Godfrey, P. Grangier, T. Länger, A. Leverrier, N. Lütkenhaus, P. Painchault, M. Peev, A. Poppe, T. Pornin, J. Rarity, R. Renner, G. Ribordy, M. Riguidel, L. Salvail, A. Shields, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “SECOQC White Paper on Quantum Key Distribution and Cryptography,” http://arxiv.org/pdf/quant-ph/0701168v1.
  7. C. Elliott, “The DARPA quantum network, BBN Technologies,” http://arxiv.org/pdf/quant-ph/0412029v1.
  8. F. Xu, W. Chen, S. Wang, Z. Yin, Y. Zhang, Y. Liu, Z. Zhou, Y. Zhao, H. Li, D. Liu, Z. Han, and G. Guo, “Field experiment on a robust hierarchical metropolitan quantum cryptography network,” Chin. Sci. Bull. 54, 2991–2997 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. Neerachand, “Transforming the City of Durban into a Smart City,” http://smartcitydurban.wordpress.com/.
  10. G. Ribordy, J. Gautier, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, and H. Zbinden, “Fast and user friendly quantum key distribution,” J. Mod. Opt. 47, 517–531 (2000).
  11. B. Schneier, “Applied cryptography,” (Academic, 2007).
  12. M. J. Fischer, “Cryptography and computer security,” (Academic, 2006).
  13. P. Eraerds, N. Walenta, M. Legre, N. Gisin, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum key distribution and 1 Gbit∕s data encryption over a single fiber,” http://arxiv.org/pdf/quant-ph/0912.1798.

2009 (1)

F. Xu, W. Chen, S. Wang, Z. Yin, Y. Zhang, Y. Liu, Z. Zhou, Y. Zhao, H. Li, D. Liu, Z. Han, and G. Guo, “Field experiment on a robust hierarchical metropolitan quantum cryptography network,” Chin. Sci. Bull. 54, 2991–2997 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2002 (1)

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum cryptography,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145–195 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

G. Ribordy, J. Gautier, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, and H. Zbinden, “Fast and user friendly quantum key distribution,” J. Mod. Opt. 47, 517–531 (2000).

Alleaume, R.

R. Alleaume, F. Roueff, O. Maurhart, and N. Lutkenhaus, “Architecture, security and topology of a global QKD network,” in Proceedings of IEEE/LEOS Summer Topical Meeting on Quantum Communications in Telecom Networks (IEEE, 2006), pp. 38–39.

Alléaume, R.

R. Alléaume, J. Bouda, C. Branciard, T. Debuisschert, M. Dianati, N. Gisin, M. Godfrey, P. Grangier, T. Länger, A. Leverrier, N. Lütkenhaus, P. Painchault, M. Peev, A. Poppe, T. Pornin, J. Rarity, R. Renner, G. Ribordy, M. Riguidel, L. Salvail, A. Shields, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “SECOQC White Paper on Quantum Key Distribution and Cryptography,” http://arxiv.org/pdf/quant-ph/0701168v1.

Beal, A. C.

Bennett, C.

C. Bennett and G. Brassard, “Quantum cryptography: public key distribution and coin tossing,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Computers, Systems, and Signal Processing, Bangalore (IEEE, 1984), pp. 175–179.

Bouda, J.

R. Alléaume, J. Bouda, C. Branciard, T. Debuisschert, M. Dianati, N. Gisin, M. Godfrey, P. Grangier, T. Länger, A. Leverrier, N. Lütkenhaus, P. Painchault, M. Peev, A. Poppe, T. Pornin, J. Rarity, R. Renner, G. Ribordy, M. Riguidel, L. Salvail, A. Shields, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “SECOQC White Paper on Quantum Key Distribution and Cryptography,” http://arxiv.org/pdf/quant-ph/0701168v1.

Branciard, C.

R. Alléaume, J. Bouda, C. Branciard, T. Debuisschert, M. Dianati, N. Gisin, M. Godfrey, P. Grangier, T. Länger, A. Leverrier, N. Lütkenhaus, P. Painchault, M. Peev, A. Poppe, T. Pornin, J. Rarity, R. Renner, G. Ribordy, M. Riguidel, L. Salvail, A. Shields, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “SECOQC White Paper on Quantum Key Distribution and Cryptography,” http://arxiv.org/pdf/quant-ph/0701168v1.

Brassard, G.

C. Bennett and G. Brassard, “Quantum cryptography: public key distribution and coin tossing,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Computers, Systems, and Signal Processing, Bangalore (IEEE, 1984), pp. 175–179.

Chen, W.

F. Xu, W. Chen, S. Wang, Z. Yin, Y. Zhang, Y. Liu, Z. Zhou, Y. Zhao, H. Li, D. Liu, Z. Han, and G. Guo, “Field experiment on a robust hierarchical metropolitan quantum cryptography network,” Chin. Sci. Bull. 54, 2991–2997 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Colvin, A.

C. Elliott, A. Colvin, D. Pearson, O. Pikalo, J. Schlafer, and H. Yeh, “Current status of the DARPA quantum network,” http://arxiv.org/pdf/quant-ph/0503058.

Debuisschert, T.

R. Alléaume, J. Bouda, C. Branciard, T. Debuisschert, M. Dianati, N. Gisin, M. Godfrey, P. Grangier, T. Länger, A. Leverrier, N. Lütkenhaus, P. Painchault, M. Peev, A. Poppe, T. Pornin, J. Rarity, R. Renner, G. Ribordy, M. Riguidel, L. Salvail, A. Shields, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “SECOQC White Paper on Quantum Key Distribution and Cryptography,” http://arxiv.org/pdf/quant-ph/0701168v1.

Dianati, M.

R. Alléaume, J. Bouda, C. Branciard, T. Debuisschert, M. Dianati, N. Gisin, M. Godfrey, P. Grangier, T. Länger, A. Leverrier, N. Lütkenhaus, P. Painchault, M. Peev, A. Poppe, T. Pornin, J. Rarity, R. Renner, G. Ribordy, M. Riguidel, L. Salvail, A. Shields, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “SECOQC White Paper on Quantum Key Distribution and Cryptography,” http://arxiv.org/pdf/quant-ph/0701168v1.

Donkor, E.

Elliott, C.

C. Elliott, A. Colvin, D. Pearson, O. Pikalo, J. Schlafer, and H. Yeh, “Current status of the DARPA quantum network,” http://arxiv.org/pdf/quant-ph/0503058.

C. Elliott, “The DARPA quantum network, BBN Technologies,” http://arxiv.org/pdf/quant-ph/0412029v1.

Eraerds, P.

P. Eraerds, N. Walenta, M. Legre, N. Gisin, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum key distribution and 1 Gbit∕s data encryption over a single fiber,” http://arxiv.org/pdf/quant-ph/0912.1798.

Fischer, M. J.

M. J. Fischer, “Cryptography and computer security,” (Academic, 2006).

Gautier, J.

G. Ribordy, J. Gautier, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, and H. Zbinden, “Fast and user friendly quantum key distribution,” J. Mod. Opt. 47, 517–531 (2000).

Gisin, N.

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum cryptography,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145–195 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Ribordy, J. Gautier, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, and H. Zbinden, “Fast and user friendly quantum key distribution,” J. Mod. Opt. 47, 517–531 (2000).

R. Alléaume, J. Bouda, C. Branciard, T. Debuisschert, M. Dianati, N. Gisin, M. Godfrey, P. Grangier, T. Länger, A. Leverrier, N. Lütkenhaus, P. Painchault, M. Peev, A. Poppe, T. Pornin, J. Rarity, R. Renner, G. Ribordy, M. Riguidel, L. Salvail, A. Shields, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “SECOQC White Paper on Quantum Key Distribution and Cryptography,” http://arxiv.org/pdf/quant-ph/0701168v1.

P. Eraerds, N. Walenta, M. Legre, N. Gisin, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum key distribution and 1 Gbit∕s data encryption over a single fiber,” http://arxiv.org/pdf/quant-ph/0912.1798.

Godfrey, M.

R. Alléaume, J. Bouda, C. Branciard, T. Debuisschert, M. Dianati, N. Gisin, M. Godfrey, P. Grangier, T. Länger, A. Leverrier, N. Lütkenhaus, P. Painchault, M. Peev, A. Poppe, T. Pornin, J. Rarity, R. Renner, G. Ribordy, M. Riguidel, L. Salvail, A. Shields, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “SECOQC White Paper on Quantum Key Distribution and Cryptography,” http://arxiv.org/pdf/quant-ph/0701168v1.

Grangier, P.

R. Alléaume, J. Bouda, C. Branciard, T. Debuisschert, M. Dianati, N. Gisin, M. Godfrey, P. Grangier, T. Länger, A. Leverrier, N. Lütkenhaus, P. Painchault, M. Peev, A. Poppe, T. Pornin, J. Rarity, R. Renner, G. Ribordy, M. Riguidel, L. Salvail, A. Shields, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “SECOQC White Paper on Quantum Key Distribution and Cryptography,” http://arxiv.org/pdf/quant-ph/0701168v1.

Guinnard, O.

G. Ribordy, J. Gautier, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, and H. Zbinden, “Fast and user friendly quantum key distribution,” J. Mod. Opt. 47, 517–531 (2000).

Guo, G.

F. Xu, W. Chen, S. Wang, Z. Yin, Y. Zhang, Y. Liu, Z. Zhou, Y. Zhao, H. Li, D. Liu, Z. Han, and G. Guo, “Field experiment on a robust hierarchical metropolitan quantum cryptography network,” Chin. Sci. Bull. 54, 2991–2997 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Han, Z.

F. Xu, W. Chen, S. Wang, Z. Yin, Y. Zhang, Y. Liu, Z. Zhou, Y. Zhao, H. Li, D. Liu, Z. Han, and G. Guo, “Field experiment on a robust hierarchical metropolitan quantum cryptography network,” Chin. Sci. Bull. 54, 2991–2997 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kumavor, P. D.

Länger, T.

R. Alléaume, J. Bouda, C. Branciard, T. Debuisschert, M. Dianati, N. Gisin, M. Godfrey, P. Grangier, T. Länger, A. Leverrier, N. Lütkenhaus, P. Painchault, M. Peev, A. Poppe, T. Pornin, J. Rarity, R. Renner, G. Ribordy, M. Riguidel, L. Salvail, A. Shields, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “SECOQC White Paper on Quantum Key Distribution and Cryptography,” http://arxiv.org/pdf/quant-ph/0701168v1.

Legre, M.

P. Eraerds, N. Walenta, M. Legre, N. Gisin, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum key distribution and 1 Gbit∕s data encryption over a single fiber,” http://arxiv.org/pdf/quant-ph/0912.1798.

Leverrier, A.

R. Alléaume, J. Bouda, C. Branciard, T. Debuisschert, M. Dianati, N. Gisin, M. Godfrey, P. Grangier, T. Länger, A. Leverrier, N. Lütkenhaus, P. Painchault, M. Peev, A. Poppe, T. Pornin, J. Rarity, R. Renner, G. Ribordy, M. Riguidel, L. Salvail, A. Shields, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “SECOQC White Paper on Quantum Key Distribution and Cryptography,” http://arxiv.org/pdf/quant-ph/0701168v1.

Li, H.

F. Xu, W. Chen, S. Wang, Z. Yin, Y. Zhang, Y. Liu, Z. Zhou, Y. Zhao, H. Li, D. Liu, Z. Han, and G. Guo, “Field experiment on a robust hierarchical metropolitan quantum cryptography network,” Chin. Sci. Bull. 54, 2991–2997 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, D.

F. Xu, W. Chen, S. Wang, Z. Yin, Y. Zhang, Y. Liu, Z. Zhou, Y. Zhao, H. Li, D. Liu, Z. Han, and G. Guo, “Field experiment on a robust hierarchical metropolitan quantum cryptography network,” Chin. Sci. Bull. 54, 2991–2997 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

F. Xu, W. Chen, S. Wang, Z. Yin, Y. Zhang, Y. Liu, Z. Zhou, Y. Zhao, H. Li, D. Liu, Z. Han, and G. Guo, “Field experiment on a robust hierarchical metropolitan quantum cryptography network,” Chin. Sci. Bull. 54, 2991–2997 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lutkenhaus, N.

R. Alleaume, F. Roueff, O. Maurhart, and N. Lutkenhaus, “Architecture, security and topology of a global QKD network,” in Proceedings of IEEE/LEOS Summer Topical Meeting on Quantum Communications in Telecom Networks (IEEE, 2006), pp. 38–39.

Lütkenhaus, N.

R. Alléaume, J. Bouda, C. Branciard, T. Debuisschert, M. Dianati, N. Gisin, M. Godfrey, P. Grangier, T. Länger, A. Leverrier, N. Lütkenhaus, P. Painchault, M. Peev, A. Poppe, T. Pornin, J. Rarity, R. Renner, G. Ribordy, M. Riguidel, L. Salvail, A. Shields, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “SECOQC White Paper on Quantum Key Distribution and Cryptography,” http://arxiv.org/pdf/quant-ph/0701168v1.

Maurhart, O.

R. Alleaume, F. Roueff, O. Maurhart, and N. Lutkenhaus, “Architecture, security and topology of a global QKD network,” in Proceedings of IEEE/LEOS Summer Topical Meeting on Quantum Communications in Telecom Networks (IEEE, 2006), pp. 38–39.

Neerachand, R.

R. Neerachand, “Transforming the City of Durban into a Smart City,” http://smartcitydurban.wordpress.com/.

Painchault, P.

R. Alléaume, J. Bouda, C. Branciard, T. Debuisschert, M. Dianati, N. Gisin, M. Godfrey, P. Grangier, T. Länger, A. Leverrier, N. Lütkenhaus, P. Painchault, M. Peev, A. Poppe, T. Pornin, J. Rarity, R. Renner, G. Ribordy, M. Riguidel, L. Salvail, A. Shields, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “SECOQC White Paper on Quantum Key Distribution and Cryptography,” http://arxiv.org/pdf/quant-ph/0701168v1.

Pearson, D.

C. Elliott, A. Colvin, D. Pearson, O. Pikalo, J. Schlafer, and H. Yeh, “Current status of the DARPA quantum network,” http://arxiv.org/pdf/quant-ph/0503058.

Peev, M.

R. Alléaume, J. Bouda, C. Branciard, T. Debuisschert, M. Dianati, N. Gisin, M. Godfrey, P. Grangier, T. Länger, A. Leverrier, N. Lütkenhaus, P. Painchault, M. Peev, A. Poppe, T. Pornin, J. Rarity, R. Renner, G. Ribordy, M. Riguidel, L. Salvail, A. Shields, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “SECOQC White Paper on Quantum Key Distribution and Cryptography,” http://arxiv.org/pdf/quant-ph/0701168v1.

Pikalo, O.

C. Elliott, A. Colvin, D. Pearson, O. Pikalo, J. Schlafer, and H. Yeh, “Current status of the DARPA quantum network,” http://arxiv.org/pdf/quant-ph/0503058.

Poppe, A.

R. Alléaume, J. Bouda, C. Branciard, T. Debuisschert, M. Dianati, N. Gisin, M. Godfrey, P. Grangier, T. Länger, A. Leverrier, N. Lütkenhaus, P. Painchault, M. Peev, A. Poppe, T. Pornin, J. Rarity, R. Renner, G. Ribordy, M. Riguidel, L. Salvail, A. Shields, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “SECOQC White Paper on Quantum Key Distribution and Cryptography,” http://arxiv.org/pdf/quant-ph/0701168v1.

Pornin, T.

R. Alléaume, J. Bouda, C. Branciard, T. Debuisschert, M. Dianati, N. Gisin, M. Godfrey, P. Grangier, T. Länger, A. Leverrier, N. Lütkenhaus, P. Painchault, M. Peev, A. Poppe, T. Pornin, J. Rarity, R. Renner, G. Ribordy, M. Riguidel, L. Salvail, A. Shields, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “SECOQC White Paper on Quantum Key Distribution and Cryptography,” http://arxiv.org/pdf/quant-ph/0701168v1.

Rarity, J.

R. Alléaume, J. Bouda, C. Branciard, T. Debuisschert, M. Dianati, N. Gisin, M. Godfrey, P. Grangier, T. Länger, A. Leverrier, N. Lütkenhaus, P. Painchault, M. Peev, A. Poppe, T. Pornin, J. Rarity, R. Renner, G. Ribordy, M. Riguidel, L. Salvail, A. Shields, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “SECOQC White Paper on Quantum Key Distribution and Cryptography,” http://arxiv.org/pdf/quant-ph/0701168v1.

Renner, R.

R. Alléaume, J. Bouda, C. Branciard, T. Debuisschert, M. Dianati, N. Gisin, M. Godfrey, P. Grangier, T. Länger, A. Leverrier, N. Lütkenhaus, P. Painchault, M. Peev, A. Poppe, T. Pornin, J. Rarity, R. Renner, G. Ribordy, M. Riguidel, L. Salvail, A. Shields, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “SECOQC White Paper on Quantum Key Distribution and Cryptography,” http://arxiv.org/pdf/quant-ph/0701168v1.

Ribordy, G.

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum cryptography,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145–195 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Ribordy, J. Gautier, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, and H. Zbinden, “Fast and user friendly quantum key distribution,” J. Mod. Opt. 47, 517–531 (2000).

R. Alléaume, J. Bouda, C. Branciard, T. Debuisschert, M. Dianati, N. Gisin, M. Godfrey, P. Grangier, T. Länger, A. Leverrier, N. Lütkenhaus, P. Painchault, M. Peev, A. Poppe, T. Pornin, J. Rarity, R. Renner, G. Ribordy, M. Riguidel, L. Salvail, A. Shields, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “SECOQC White Paper on Quantum Key Distribution and Cryptography,” http://arxiv.org/pdf/quant-ph/0701168v1.

Riguidel, M.

R. Alléaume, J. Bouda, C. Branciard, T. Debuisschert, M. Dianati, N. Gisin, M. Godfrey, P. Grangier, T. Länger, A. Leverrier, N. Lütkenhaus, P. Painchault, M. Peev, A. Poppe, T. Pornin, J. Rarity, R. Renner, G. Ribordy, M. Riguidel, L. Salvail, A. Shields, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “SECOQC White Paper on Quantum Key Distribution and Cryptography,” http://arxiv.org/pdf/quant-ph/0701168v1.

Roueff, F.

R. Alleaume, F. Roueff, O. Maurhart, and N. Lutkenhaus, “Architecture, security and topology of a global QKD network,” in Proceedings of IEEE/LEOS Summer Topical Meeting on Quantum Communications in Telecom Networks (IEEE, 2006), pp. 38–39.

Salvail, L.

R. Alléaume, J. Bouda, C. Branciard, T. Debuisschert, M. Dianati, N. Gisin, M. Godfrey, P. Grangier, T. Länger, A. Leverrier, N. Lütkenhaus, P. Painchault, M. Peev, A. Poppe, T. Pornin, J. Rarity, R. Renner, G. Ribordy, M. Riguidel, L. Salvail, A. Shields, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “SECOQC White Paper on Quantum Key Distribution and Cryptography,” http://arxiv.org/pdf/quant-ph/0701168v1.

Schlafer, J.

C. Elliott, A. Colvin, D. Pearson, O. Pikalo, J. Schlafer, and H. Yeh, “Current status of the DARPA quantum network,” http://arxiv.org/pdf/quant-ph/0503058.

Schneier, B.

B. Schneier, “Applied cryptography,” (Academic, 2007).

Shields, A.

R. Alléaume, J. Bouda, C. Branciard, T. Debuisschert, M. Dianati, N. Gisin, M. Godfrey, P. Grangier, T. Länger, A. Leverrier, N. Lütkenhaus, P. Painchault, M. Peev, A. Poppe, T. Pornin, J. Rarity, R. Renner, G. Ribordy, M. Riguidel, L. Salvail, A. Shields, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “SECOQC White Paper on Quantum Key Distribution and Cryptography,” http://arxiv.org/pdf/quant-ph/0701168v1.

Tittel, W.

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum cryptography,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145–195 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Walenta, N.

P. Eraerds, N. Walenta, M. Legre, N. Gisin, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum key distribution and 1 Gbit∕s data encryption over a single fiber,” http://arxiv.org/pdf/quant-ph/0912.1798.

Wang, B. C.

Wang, S.

F. Xu, W. Chen, S. Wang, Z. Yin, Y. Zhang, Y. Liu, Z. Zhou, Y. Zhao, H. Li, D. Liu, Z. Han, and G. Guo, “Field experiment on a robust hierarchical metropolitan quantum cryptography network,” Chin. Sci. Bull. 54, 2991–2997 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Weinfurter, H.

R. Alléaume, J. Bouda, C. Branciard, T. Debuisschert, M. Dianati, N. Gisin, M. Godfrey, P. Grangier, T. Länger, A. Leverrier, N. Lütkenhaus, P. Painchault, M. Peev, A. Poppe, T. Pornin, J. Rarity, R. Renner, G. Ribordy, M. Riguidel, L. Salvail, A. Shields, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “SECOQC White Paper on Quantum Key Distribution and Cryptography,” http://arxiv.org/pdf/quant-ph/0701168v1.

Xu, F.

F. Xu, W. Chen, S. Wang, Z. Yin, Y. Zhang, Y. Liu, Z. Zhou, Y. Zhao, H. Li, D. Liu, Z. Han, and G. Guo, “Field experiment on a robust hierarchical metropolitan quantum cryptography network,” Chin. Sci. Bull. 54, 2991–2997 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, H.

C. Elliott, A. Colvin, D. Pearson, O. Pikalo, J. Schlafer, and H. Yeh, “Current status of the DARPA quantum network,” http://arxiv.org/pdf/quant-ph/0503058.

Yelin, S.

Yin, Z.

F. Xu, W. Chen, S. Wang, Z. Yin, Y. Zhang, Y. Liu, Z. Zhou, Y. Zhao, H. Li, D. Liu, Z. Han, and G. Guo, “Field experiment on a robust hierarchical metropolitan quantum cryptography network,” Chin. Sci. Bull. 54, 2991–2997 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zbinden, H.

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum cryptography,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145–195 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Ribordy, J. Gautier, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, and H. Zbinden, “Fast and user friendly quantum key distribution,” J. Mod. Opt. 47, 517–531 (2000).

P. Eraerds, N. Walenta, M. Legre, N. Gisin, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum key distribution and 1 Gbit∕s data encryption over a single fiber,” http://arxiv.org/pdf/quant-ph/0912.1798.

Zeilinger, A.

R. Alléaume, J. Bouda, C. Branciard, T. Debuisschert, M. Dianati, N. Gisin, M. Godfrey, P. Grangier, T. Länger, A. Leverrier, N. Lütkenhaus, P. Painchault, M. Peev, A. Poppe, T. Pornin, J. Rarity, R. Renner, G. Ribordy, M. Riguidel, L. Salvail, A. Shields, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “SECOQC White Paper on Quantum Key Distribution and Cryptography,” http://arxiv.org/pdf/quant-ph/0701168v1.

Zhang, Y.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The layout of the test-bed network for the QuantumCity project consists of a four-node star topology. All the links are connected via underground single-mode optical fiber. The lengths of the links vary between 2.6 km to 27 km .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

A schematic of the physical connection between links in the QuantumCity project. Two fiber pairs at utilized within each link. One pair of fibers is used for the quantum encryption process while the other remaining fibers serve as a redundant pair.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The quantum bit error rate (QBER) of the system maintained at an average value of 1.7% with a standard deviation of 8.57 × 10 4 during its operational period.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The average secret key rate (SKR) was calculated at 891 bits/s. The ratio of the SKR to the RKR was calculated at 7.1%. The secure key was then fed into conventional AES key expansion routines to provide high-speed encryption to the municipal network.

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