Abstract

We present a description of the operation of a multi-pixel detector in the presence of non-negligible dark-count and cross-talk effects. We apply the model to devise self-consistent calibration strategies to be performed on the very light under investigation.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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  21. K. Laiho, M. Avenhaus, K. N. Cassemiro, and Ch. Silberhorn, “Direct probing of the Wigner function by time-multiplexed detection of photon statistics,” New J. Phys. 11, 043012 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  22. M. Mičuda, O. Haderka, and M. Ježek, “High-efficiency photon-number-resolving multichannel detector,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 025804 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  23. M. Bondani, A. Allevi, A. Agliati, and A. Andreoni, “Self-consistent characterization of light statistics,” J. Mod. Opt. 56, 226-231 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  24. M. Bondani, A. Allevi, and A. Andreoni, “Light statistics by non-calibrated linear photodetectors,” Adv. Sci. Lett. 2, 463-468 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  25. A. V. Akindinov, A. N. Martemianov, P. A. Polozov, V. M. Golovin, and E. A. Grigoriev, “New results on MRS APDs,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 387, 231-234 (1997).
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    [CrossRef]
  33. G. Zambra, M. Bondani, A. S. Spinelli, and A. Andreoni, “Counting photoelectrons in the response of a photomultiplier tube to single picosecond light pulses,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 2762-2765 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  36. A. Andreoni and M. Bondani, “Photon statistics in the macroscopic realm measured without photon counters,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 013819 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  37. R. P. Van Der Marel and M. Franx, “A new method for the identification of non-Gaussian line profiles in elliptical galaxies,” Astrophys. J. 407, 525-539 (1993).
    [CrossRef]

2009 (12)

S. Takeshita, M. Hiraishi, M. Miyazaki, A. Koda, R. Kadono, S. Y. Suzuki, Y. Yasu, M. Tanaka, Y. Matsuda, K. Ishida, and T. Matsuzaki, “Development of positron detector for μSR based on multi-pixel photon counter,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 600, 139-142 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Fukuda, G. Fujii, T. Numata, A. Yoshizawa, H. Tsuchida, H. Fujino, H. Ishii, T. Itatani, S. Inoue, and T. Zama, “Photon number resolving detection with high speed and high quantum efficiency,” Metrologia 46, S288-S292 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Risigo, A. Bulgheroni, M. Caccia, C. Cappellini, V. Chmill, N. Fedyushkina, A. Golubev, M. Jastrzab, A. Kantsyrev, N. Markov, A. Martemianov, C. Pychlau, and J. Würfel, “SiPM technology applied to radiation sensor development,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 607, 75-77 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Kedar and S. Arnon, “Subsea ultraviolet solar-blind broadband free-space optics communication,” Opt. Eng. 48, 046001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Arnon and D. Kedar, “Non-line-of-sight underwater optical wireless communication network,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A Opt. Image Sci. Vis. 26, 530-539 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

For a review, see A. I. Lvovsky and M. G. Raymer, “Continuous-variable optical quantum state tomography,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 299-332 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. Afek, A. Natan, O. Ambar, and Y. Silberberg, “Quantum state measurements using multipixel photon detectors,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 043830 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Andreoni and M. Bondani, “Photon statistics in the macroscopic realm measured without photon counters,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 013819 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Laiho, M. Avenhaus, K. N. Cassemiro, and Ch. Silberhorn, “Direct probing of the Wigner function by time-multiplexed detection of photon statistics,” New J. Phys. 11, 043012 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Bondani, A. Allevi, A. Agliati, and A. Andreoni, “Self-consistent characterization of light statistics,” J. Mod. Opt. 56, 226-231 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Bondani, A. Allevi, and A. Andreoni, “Light statistics by non-calibrated linear photodetectors,” Adv. Sci. Lett. 2, 463-468 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Bondani, A. Allevi, and A. Andreoni, “Wigner function of pulsed fields by direct detection,” Opt. Lett. 34, 1444-1446 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (4)

A. E. Lita, A. J. Miller, and S. W. Nam, “Counting near-infrared single photons with 95% efficiency,” Opt. Express 16, 3032-3040 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Mičuda, O. Haderka, and M. Ježek, “High-efficiency photon-number-resolving multichannel detector,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 025804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Haba, “Status and perspectives of pixelated photon detector (PPD),” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 595, 154-160 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Korpar, S. Korpara, R. Dolenec, K. Hara, T. Iijima, P. Križan, Y. Mazuka, R. Pestotnik, A. Stanovnik, and M. Yamaoka, “Silicon photomultiplier as a detector of Cherenkov photons,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 595, 161-164 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

E. Grigoriev, A. Akindinov, M. Breitenmoser, S. Buono, E. Charbon, C. Niclass, I. Desforges, and R. Rocca, “Silicon photomultipliers and their bio-medical applications,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 571, 130-133 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Gomi, H. Hano, T. Iijima, S. Itoh, K. Kawago, S. H. Kim, T. Kubota, T. Maeda, T. Matsumura, Y. Mazuka, K. Miyabayashi, H. Miyata, T. Murakami, T. Nakadaira, T. Nakaya, H. Otono, E. Sano, T. Shinkawa, Y. Sudo, T. Takeshita, M. Taguchi, T. Tsubokawa, S. Uozumi, M. Yamaoka, H. Yamazaki, M. Yokoyama, K. Yoshimura, and T. Yoshioka, “Development and study of the multipixel photon counter,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 581, 427-432 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

S. Moehrs, A. Del Guerra, D. J. Herbert, and M. A. Mandelkern, “A detector head design for small-animal PET with silicon photomultipliers (SiPM),” Phys. Med. Biol. 51, 1113-1127 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Dolgoshein, V. Balagura, P. Buzhan, M. Danilov, L. Filatov, E. Garutti, M. Groll, A. Ilyin, V. Kantserov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, F. Kayumov, S. Klemin, V. Korbel, H. Meyer, R. Mizuk, V. Morgunov, E. Novikov, P. Pakhlov, E. Popova, V. Rusinov, F. Sefkow, E. Tarkovsky, and I. Tikhomirov, “Status report on silicon photomultiplier development and its applications,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 563, 368-376 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

A. Agliati, M. Bondani, A. Andreoni, G. De Cillis, and M. G. A. Paris, “Quantum and classical correlations of intense beams of light via joint photodetection,” J. Opt. B Quantum Semiclassical Opt. 7, S652-S663 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

G. Zambra, M. Bondani, A. S. Spinelli, and A. Andreoni, “Counting photoelectrons in the response of a photomultiplier tube to single picosecond light pulses,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 2762-2765 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Achilles, C. Silberhorn, C. Sliwa, K. Banaszek, I. A. Walmsley, M. J. Fitch, B. C. Jacobs, T. B. Pittman, and J. D. Franson, “Photon-number-resolving detection using time-multiplexing,” J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1499-1515 (2004).

2003 (1)

P. Buzhan, B. Dolgoshein, L. Filatov, A. Ilyin, V. Kantzerov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, F. Kayumov, S. Klemin, E. Popova, and S. Smirnov, “Silicon photomultiplier and its possible applications,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 504, 48-52 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

N. Kanaya, “HPD for linear colliders for the JLC calorimeter group,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 442, 295-299 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

J. Kim, S. Takeuchi, Y. Yamamoto, and H. H. Hogue, “Multiphoton detection using visible light photon counter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 902-904 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

A. V. Akindinov, A. N. Martemianov, P. A. Polozov, V. M. Golovin, and E. A. Grigoriev, “New results on MRS APDs,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 387, 231-234 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1993 (1)

R. P. Van Der Marel and M. Franx, “A new method for the identification of non-Gaussian line profiles in elliptical galaxies,” Astrophys. J. 407, 525-539 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

W. G. Oldham, R. R. Samuelson, and P. Antognetti, “Triggering phenomena in avalanche diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-19, 1056-1060 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1965 (1)

F. T. Arecchi, “Measurement of the statistical distribution of Gaussian and laser sources,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 15, 912-916 (1965).
[CrossRef]

1954 (1)

K. G. McKay, “Avalanche breakdown in silicon,” Phys. Rev. 94, 877-884 (1954).
[CrossRef]

Achilles, D.

D. Achilles, C. Silberhorn, C. Sliwa, K. Banaszek, I. A. Walmsley, M. J. Fitch, B. C. Jacobs, T. B. Pittman, and J. D. Franson, “Photon-number-resolving detection using time-multiplexing,” J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1499-1515 (2004).

Afek, I.

I. Afek, A. Natan, O. Ambar, and Y. Silberberg, “Quantum state measurements using multipixel photon detectors,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 043830 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Agliati, A.

M. Bondani, A. Allevi, A. Agliati, and A. Andreoni, “Self-consistent characterization of light statistics,” J. Mod. Opt. 56, 226-231 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Agliati, M. Bondani, A. Andreoni, G. De Cillis, and M. G. A. Paris, “Quantum and classical correlations of intense beams of light via joint photodetection,” J. Opt. B Quantum Semiclassical Opt. 7, S652-S663 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Akindinov, A.

E. Grigoriev, A. Akindinov, M. Breitenmoser, S. Buono, E. Charbon, C. Niclass, I. Desforges, and R. Rocca, “Silicon photomultipliers and their bio-medical applications,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 571, 130-133 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Akindinov, A. V.

A. V. Akindinov, A. N. Martemianov, P. A. Polozov, V. M. Golovin, and E. A. Grigoriev, “New results on MRS APDs,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 387, 231-234 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Allevi, A.

M. Bondani, A. Allevi, A. Agliati, and A. Andreoni, “Self-consistent characterization of light statistics,” J. Mod. Opt. 56, 226-231 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Bondani, A. Allevi, and A. Andreoni, “Wigner function of pulsed fields by direct detection,” Opt. Lett. 34, 1444-1446 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Bondani, A. Allevi, and A. Andreoni, “Light statistics by non-calibrated linear photodetectors,” Adv. Sci. Lett. 2, 463-468 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ambar, O.

I. Afek, A. Natan, O. Ambar, and Y. Silberberg, “Quantum state measurements using multipixel photon detectors,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 043830 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Andreoni, A.

M. Bondani, A. Allevi, and A. Andreoni, “Wigner function of pulsed fields by direct detection,” Opt. Lett. 34, 1444-1446 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Bondani, A. Allevi, and A. Andreoni, “Light statistics by non-calibrated linear photodetectors,” Adv. Sci. Lett. 2, 463-468 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Bondani, A. Allevi, A. Agliati, and A. Andreoni, “Self-consistent characterization of light statistics,” J. Mod. Opt. 56, 226-231 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Andreoni and M. Bondani, “Photon statistics in the macroscopic realm measured without photon counters,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 013819 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Agliati, M. Bondani, A. Andreoni, G. De Cillis, and M. G. A. Paris, “Quantum and classical correlations of intense beams of light via joint photodetection,” J. Opt. B Quantum Semiclassical Opt. 7, S652-S663 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Zambra, M. Bondani, A. S. Spinelli, and A. Andreoni, “Counting photoelectrons in the response of a photomultiplier tube to single picosecond light pulses,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 2762-2765 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Antognetti, P.

W. G. Oldham, R. R. Samuelson, and P. Antognetti, “Triggering phenomena in avalanche diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-19, 1056-1060 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Arecchi, F. T.

F. T. Arecchi, “Measurement of the statistical distribution of Gaussian and laser sources,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 15, 912-916 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Arnon, S.

D. Kedar and S. Arnon, “Subsea ultraviolet solar-blind broadband free-space optics communication,” Opt. Eng. 48, 046001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Arnon and D. Kedar, “Non-line-of-sight underwater optical wireless communication network,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A Opt. Image Sci. Vis. 26, 530-539 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Avenhaus, M.

K. Laiho, M. Avenhaus, K. N. Cassemiro, and Ch. Silberhorn, “Direct probing of the Wigner function by time-multiplexed detection of photon statistics,” New J. Phys. 11, 043012 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Balagura, V.

B. Dolgoshein, V. Balagura, P. Buzhan, M. Danilov, L. Filatov, E. Garutti, M. Groll, A. Ilyin, V. Kantserov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, F. Kayumov, S. Klemin, V. Korbel, H. Meyer, R. Mizuk, V. Morgunov, E. Novikov, P. Pakhlov, E. Popova, V. Rusinov, F. Sefkow, E. Tarkovsky, and I. Tikhomirov, “Status report on silicon photomultiplier development and its applications,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 563, 368-376 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Banaszek, K.

D. Achilles, C. Silberhorn, C. Sliwa, K. Banaszek, I. A. Walmsley, M. J. Fitch, B. C. Jacobs, T. B. Pittman, and J. D. Franson, “Photon-number-resolving detection using time-multiplexing,” J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1499-1515 (2004).

Bondani, M.

M. Bondani, A. Allevi, and A. Andreoni, “Light statistics by non-calibrated linear photodetectors,” Adv. Sci. Lett. 2, 463-468 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Bondani, A. Allevi, and A. Andreoni, “Wigner function of pulsed fields by direct detection,” Opt. Lett. 34, 1444-1446 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Andreoni and M. Bondani, “Photon statistics in the macroscopic realm measured without photon counters,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 013819 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Bondani, A. Allevi, A. Agliati, and A. Andreoni, “Self-consistent characterization of light statistics,” J. Mod. Opt. 56, 226-231 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Agliati, M. Bondani, A. Andreoni, G. De Cillis, and M. G. A. Paris, “Quantum and classical correlations of intense beams of light via joint photodetection,” J. Opt. B Quantum Semiclassical Opt. 7, S652-S663 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Zambra, M. Bondani, A. S. Spinelli, and A. Andreoni, “Counting photoelectrons in the response of a photomultiplier tube to single picosecond light pulses,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 2762-2765 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Breitenmoser, M.

E. Grigoriev, A. Akindinov, M. Breitenmoser, S. Buono, E. Charbon, C. Niclass, I. Desforges, and R. Rocca, “Silicon photomultipliers and their bio-medical applications,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 571, 130-133 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bulgheroni, A.

F. Risigo, A. Bulgheroni, M. Caccia, C. Cappellini, V. Chmill, N. Fedyushkina, A. Golubev, M. Jastrzab, A. Kantsyrev, N. Markov, A. Martemianov, C. Pychlau, and J. Würfel, “SiPM technology applied to radiation sensor development,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 607, 75-77 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Cappellini, M. Caccia, V. Chmill, A. Bulgheroni, C. Pychlau, J. U. Wuerfel, A. Martemiyanov, A. Golubev, A. Kantsyrev, N. Markov, and N. Fedyushkina, “The RAPSODI project: SiPM development for applied research in radiation protection,” Nuclear Science Symposium Conference Record, NSS '08 (IEEE, 2009), pp. 1069-1072.

Buono, S.

E. Grigoriev, A. Akindinov, M. Breitenmoser, S. Buono, E. Charbon, C. Niclass, I. Desforges, and R. Rocca, “Silicon photomultipliers and their bio-medical applications,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 571, 130-133 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Buzhan, P.

B. Dolgoshein, V. Balagura, P. Buzhan, M. Danilov, L. Filatov, E. Garutti, M. Groll, A. Ilyin, V. Kantserov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, F. Kayumov, S. Klemin, V. Korbel, H. Meyer, R. Mizuk, V. Morgunov, E. Novikov, P. Pakhlov, E. Popova, V. Rusinov, F. Sefkow, E. Tarkovsky, and I. Tikhomirov, “Status report on silicon photomultiplier development and its applications,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 563, 368-376 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Buzhan, B. Dolgoshein, L. Filatov, A. Ilyin, V. Kantzerov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, F. Kayumov, S. Klemin, E. Popova, and S. Smirnov, “Silicon photomultiplier and its possible applications,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 504, 48-52 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Caccia, M.

F. Risigo, A. Bulgheroni, M. Caccia, C. Cappellini, V. Chmill, N. Fedyushkina, A. Golubev, M. Jastrzab, A. Kantsyrev, N. Markov, A. Martemianov, C. Pychlau, and J. Würfel, “SiPM technology applied to radiation sensor development,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 607, 75-77 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Cappellini, M. Caccia, V. Chmill, A. Bulgheroni, C. Pychlau, J. U. Wuerfel, A. Martemiyanov, A. Golubev, A. Kantsyrev, N. Markov, and N. Fedyushkina, “The RAPSODI project: SiPM development for applied research in radiation protection,” Nuclear Science Symposium Conference Record, NSS '08 (IEEE, 2009), pp. 1069-1072.

Cappellini, C.

F. Risigo, A. Bulgheroni, M. Caccia, C. Cappellini, V. Chmill, N. Fedyushkina, A. Golubev, M. Jastrzab, A. Kantsyrev, N. Markov, A. Martemianov, C. Pychlau, and J. Würfel, “SiPM technology applied to radiation sensor development,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 607, 75-77 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Cappellini, M. Caccia, V. Chmill, A. Bulgheroni, C. Pychlau, J. U. Wuerfel, A. Martemiyanov, A. Golubev, A. Kantsyrev, N. Markov, and N. Fedyushkina, “The RAPSODI project: SiPM development for applied research in radiation protection,” Nuclear Science Symposium Conference Record, NSS '08 (IEEE, 2009), pp. 1069-1072.

Casini, E.

E. Casini and A. Martinelli are preparing a paper to be called “A family of distributions stable with respect to random sums.”

Cassemiro, K. N.

K. Laiho, M. Avenhaus, K. N. Cassemiro, and Ch. Silberhorn, “Direct probing of the Wigner function by time-multiplexed detection of photon statistics,” New J. Phys. 11, 043012 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Charbon, E.

E. Grigoriev, A. Akindinov, M. Breitenmoser, S. Buono, E. Charbon, C. Niclass, I. Desforges, and R. Rocca, “Silicon photomultipliers and their bio-medical applications,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 571, 130-133 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chmill, V.

F. Risigo, A. Bulgheroni, M. Caccia, C. Cappellini, V. Chmill, N. Fedyushkina, A. Golubev, M. Jastrzab, A. Kantsyrev, N. Markov, A. Martemianov, C. Pychlau, and J. Würfel, “SiPM technology applied to radiation sensor development,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 607, 75-77 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Cappellini, M. Caccia, V. Chmill, A. Bulgheroni, C. Pychlau, J. U. Wuerfel, A. Martemiyanov, A. Golubev, A. Kantsyrev, N. Markov, and N. Fedyushkina, “The RAPSODI project: SiPM development for applied research in radiation protection,” Nuclear Science Symposium Conference Record, NSS '08 (IEEE, 2009), pp. 1069-1072.

Cova, S.

Danilov, M.

B. Dolgoshein, V. Balagura, P. Buzhan, M. Danilov, L. Filatov, E. Garutti, M. Groll, A. Ilyin, V. Kantserov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, F. Kayumov, S. Klemin, V. Korbel, H. Meyer, R. Mizuk, V. Morgunov, E. Novikov, P. Pakhlov, E. Popova, V. Rusinov, F. Sefkow, E. Tarkovsky, and I. Tikhomirov, “Status report on silicon photomultiplier development and its applications,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 563, 368-376 (2006).
[CrossRef]

De Cillis, G.

A. Agliati, M. Bondani, A. Andreoni, G. De Cillis, and M. G. A. Paris, “Quantum and classical correlations of intense beams of light via joint photodetection,” J. Opt. B Quantum Semiclassical Opt. 7, S652-S663 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Del Guerra, A.

S. Moehrs, A. Del Guerra, D. J. Herbert, and M. A. Mandelkern, “A detector head design for small-animal PET with silicon photomultipliers (SiPM),” Phys. Med. Biol. 51, 1113-1127 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Desforges, I.

E. Grigoriev, A. Akindinov, M. Breitenmoser, S. Buono, E. Charbon, C. Niclass, I. Desforges, and R. Rocca, “Silicon photomultipliers and their bio-medical applications,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 571, 130-133 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dolenec, R.

S. Korpar, S. Korpara, R. Dolenec, K. Hara, T. Iijima, P. Križan, Y. Mazuka, R. Pestotnik, A. Stanovnik, and M. Yamaoka, “Silicon photomultiplier as a detector of Cherenkov photons,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 595, 161-164 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dolgoshein, B.

B. Dolgoshein, V. Balagura, P. Buzhan, M. Danilov, L. Filatov, E. Garutti, M. Groll, A. Ilyin, V. Kantserov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, F. Kayumov, S. Klemin, V. Korbel, H. Meyer, R. Mizuk, V. Morgunov, E. Novikov, P. Pakhlov, E. Popova, V. Rusinov, F. Sefkow, E. Tarkovsky, and I. Tikhomirov, “Status report on silicon photomultiplier development and its applications,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 563, 368-376 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Buzhan, B. Dolgoshein, L. Filatov, A. Ilyin, V. Kantzerov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, F. Kayumov, S. Klemin, E. Popova, and S. Smirnov, “Silicon photomultiplier and its possible applications,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 504, 48-52 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fedyushkina, N.

F. Risigo, A. Bulgheroni, M. Caccia, C. Cappellini, V. Chmill, N. Fedyushkina, A. Golubev, M. Jastrzab, A. Kantsyrev, N. Markov, A. Martemianov, C. Pychlau, and J. Würfel, “SiPM technology applied to radiation sensor development,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 607, 75-77 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Cappellini, M. Caccia, V. Chmill, A. Bulgheroni, C. Pychlau, J. U. Wuerfel, A. Martemiyanov, A. Golubev, A. Kantsyrev, N. Markov, and N. Fedyushkina, “The RAPSODI project: SiPM development for applied research in radiation protection,” Nuclear Science Symposium Conference Record, NSS '08 (IEEE, 2009), pp. 1069-1072.

Filatov, L.

B. Dolgoshein, V. Balagura, P. Buzhan, M. Danilov, L. Filatov, E. Garutti, M. Groll, A. Ilyin, V. Kantserov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, F. Kayumov, S. Klemin, V. Korbel, H. Meyer, R. Mizuk, V. Morgunov, E. Novikov, P. Pakhlov, E. Popova, V. Rusinov, F. Sefkow, E. Tarkovsky, and I. Tikhomirov, “Status report on silicon photomultiplier development and its applications,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 563, 368-376 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Buzhan, B. Dolgoshein, L. Filatov, A. Ilyin, V. Kantzerov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, F. Kayumov, S. Klemin, E. Popova, and S. Smirnov, “Silicon photomultiplier and its possible applications,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 504, 48-52 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fitch, M. J.

D. Achilles, C. Silberhorn, C. Sliwa, K. Banaszek, I. A. Walmsley, M. J. Fitch, B. C. Jacobs, T. B. Pittman, and J. D. Franson, “Photon-number-resolving detection using time-multiplexing,” J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1499-1515 (2004).

Franson, J. D.

D. Achilles, C. Silberhorn, C. Sliwa, K. Banaszek, I. A. Walmsley, M. J. Fitch, B. C. Jacobs, T. B. Pittman, and J. D. Franson, “Photon-number-resolving detection using time-multiplexing,” J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1499-1515 (2004).

Franx, M.

R. P. Van Der Marel and M. Franx, “A new method for the identification of non-Gaussian line profiles in elliptical galaxies,” Astrophys. J. 407, 525-539 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Fujii, G.

D. Fukuda, G. Fujii, T. Numata, A. Yoshizawa, H. Tsuchida, H. Fujino, H. Ishii, T. Itatani, S. Inoue, and T. Zama, “Photon number resolving detection with high speed and high quantum efficiency,” Metrologia 46, S288-S292 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fujino, H.

D. Fukuda, G. Fujii, T. Numata, A. Yoshizawa, H. Tsuchida, H. Fujino, H. Ishii, T. Itatani, S. Inoue, and T. Zama, “Photon number resolving detection with high speed and high quantum efficiency,” Metrologia 46, S288-S292 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fukuda, D.

D. Fukuda, G. Fujii, T. Numata, A. Yoshizawa, H. Tsuchida, H. Fujino, H. Ishii, T. Itatani, S. Inoue, and T. Zama, “Photon number resolving detection with high speed and high quantum efficiency,” Metrologia 46, S288-S292 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Garutti, E.

B. Dolgoshein, V. Balagura, P. Buzhan, M. Danilov, L. Filatov, E. Garutti, M. Groll, A. Ilyin, V. Kantserov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, F. Kayumov, S. Klemin, V. Korbel, H. Meyer, R. Mizuk, V. Morgunov, E. Novikov, P. Pakhlov, E. Popova, V. Rusinov, F. Sefkow, E. Tarkovsky, and I. Tikhomirov, “Status report on silicon photomultiplier development and its applications,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 563, 368-376 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ghioni, M.

Golovin, V. M.

A. V. Akindinov, A. N. Martemianov, P. A. Polozov, V. M. Golovin, and E. A. Grigoriev, “New results on MRS APDs,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 387, 231-234 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Golubev, A.

F. Risigo, A. Bulgheroni, M. Caccia, C. Cappellini, V. Chmill, N. Fedyushkina, A. Golubev, M. Jastrzab, A. Kantsyrev, N. Markov, A. Martemianov, C. Pychlau, and J. Würfel, “SiPM technology applied to radiation sensor development,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 607, 75-77 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Cappellini, M. Caccia, V. Chmill, A. Bulgheroni, C. Pychlau, J. U. Wuerfel, A. Martemiyanov, A. Golubev, A. Kantsyrev, N. Markov, and N. Fedyushkina, “The RAPSODI project: SiPM development for applied research in radiation protection,” Nuclear Science Symposium Conference Record, NSS '08 (IEEE, 2009), pp. 1069-1072.

Gomi, S.

S. Gomi, H. Hano, T. Iijima, S. Itoh, K. Kawago, S. H. Kim, T. Kubota, T. Maeda, T. Matsumura, Y. Mazuka, K. Miyabayashi, H. Miyata, T. Murakami, T. Nakadaira, T. Nakaya, H. Otono, E. Sano, T. Shinkawa, Y. Sudo, T. Takeshita, M. Taguchi, T. Tsubokawa, S. Uozumi, M. Yamaoka, H. Yamazaki, M. Yokoyama, K. Yoshimura, and T. Yoshioka, “Development and study of the multipixel photon counter,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 581, 427-432 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Grigoriev, E.

E. Grigoriev, A. Akindinov, M. Breitenmoser, S. Buono, E. Charbon, C. Niclass, I. Desforges, and R. Rocca, “Silicon photomultipliers and their bio-medical applications,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 571, 130-133 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Grigoriev, E. A.

A. V. Akindinov, A. N. Martemianov, P. A. Polozov, V. M. Golovin, and E. A. Grigoriev, “New results on MRS APDs,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 387, 231-234 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Groll, M.

B. Dolgoshein, V. Balagura, P. Buzhan, M. Danilov, L. Filatov, E. Garutti, M. Groll, A. Ilyin, V. Kantserov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, F. Kayumov, S. Klemin, V. Korbel, H. Meyer, R. Mizuk, V. Morgunov, E. Novikov, P. Pakhlov, E. Popova, V. Rusinov, F. Sefkow, E. Tarkovsky, and I. Tikhomirov, “Status report on silicon photomultiplier development and its applications,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 563, 368-376 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Haba, J.

J. Haba, “Status and perspectives of pixelated photon detector (PPD),” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 595, 154-160 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Haderka, O.

M. Mičuda, O. Haderka, and M. Ježek, “High-efficiency photon-number-resolving multichannel detector,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 025804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hano, H.

S. Gomi, H. Hano, T. Iijima, S. Itoh, K. Kawago, S. H. Kim, T. Kubota, T. Maeda, T. Matsumura, Y. Mazuka, K. Miyabayashi, H. Miyata, T. Murakami, T. Nakadaira, T. Nakaya, H. Otono, E. Sano, T. Shinkawa, Y. Sudo, T. Takeshita, M. Taguchi, T. Tsubokawa, S. Uozumi, M. Yamaoka, H. Yamazaki, M. Yokoyama, K. Yoshimura, and T. Yoshioka, “Development and study of the multipixel photon counter,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 581, 427-432 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hara, K.

S. Korpar, S. Korpara, R. Dolenec, K. Hara, T. Iijima, P. Križan, Y. Mazuka, R. Pestotnik, A. Stanovnik, and M. Yamaoka, “Silicon photomultiplier as a detector of Cherenkov photons,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 595, 161-164 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Herbert, D. J.

S. Moehrs, A. Del Guerra, D. J. Herbert, and M. A. Mandelkern, “A detector head design for small-animal PET with silicon photomultipliers (SiPM),” Phys. Med. Biol. 51, 1113-1127 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hiraishi, M.

S. Takeshita, M. Hiraishi, M. Miyazaki, A. Koda, R. Kadono, S. Y. Suzuki, Y. Yasu, M. Tanaka, Y. Matsuda, K. Ishida, and T. Matsuzaki, “Development of positron detector for μSR based on multi-pixel photon counter,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 600, 139-142 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hogue, H. H.

J. Kim, S. Takeuchi, Y. Yamamoto, and H. H. Hogue, “Multiphoton detection using visible light photon counter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 902-904 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Iijima, T.

S. Korpar, S. Korpara, R. Dolenec, K. Hara, T. Iijima, P. Križan, Y. Mazuka, R. Pestotnik, A. Stanovnik, and M. Yamaoka, “Silicon photomultiplier as a detector of Cherenkov photons,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 595, 161-164 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Gomi, H. Hano, T. Iijima, S. Itoh, K. Kawago, S. H. Kim, T. Kubota, T. Maeda, T. Matsumura, Y. Mazuka, K. Miyabayashi, H. Miyata, T. Murakami, T. Nakadaira, T. Nakaya, H. Otono, E. Sano, T. Shinkawa, Y. Sudo, T. Takeshita, M. Taguchi, T. Tsubokawa, S. Uozumi, M. Yamaoka, H. Yamazaki, M. Yokoyama, K. Yoshimura, and T. Yoshioka, “Development and study of the multipixel photon counter,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 581, 427-432 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ilyin, A.

B. Dolgoshein, V. Balagura, P. Buzhan, M. Danilov, L. Filatov, E. Garutti, M. Groll, A. Ilyin, V. Kantserov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, F. Kayumov, S. Klemin, V. Korbel, H. Meyer, R. Mizuk, V. Morgunov, E. Novikov, P. Pakhlov, E. Popova, V. Rusinov, F. Sefkow, E. Tarkovsky, and I. Tikhomirov, “Status report on silicon photomultiplier development and its applications,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 563, 368-376 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Buzhan, B. Dolgoshein, L. Filatov, A. Ilyin, V. Kantzerov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, F. Kayumov, S. Klemin, E. Popova, and S. Smirnov, “Silicon photomultiplier and its possible applications,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 504, 48-52 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Inoue, S.

D. Fukuda, G. Fujii, T. Numata, A. Yoshizawa, H. Tsuchida, H. Fujino, H. Ishii, T. Itatani, S. Inoue, and T. Zama, “Photon number resolving detection with high speed and high quantum efficiency,” Metrologia 46, S288-S292 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ishida, K.

S. Takeshita, M. Hiraishi, M. Miyazaki, A. Koda, R. Kadono, S. Y. Suzuki, Y. Yasu, M. Tanaka, Y. Matsuda, K. Ishida, and T. Matsuzaki, “Development of positron detector for μSR based on multi-pixel photon counter,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 600, 139-142 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ishii, H.

D. Fukuda, G. Fujii, T. Numata, A. Yoshizawa, H. Tsuchida, H. Fujino, H. Ishii, T. Itatani, S. Inoue, and T. Zama, “Photon number resolving detection with high speed and high quantum efficiency,” Metrologia 46, S288-S292 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Itatani, T.

D. Fukuda, G. Fujii, T. Numata, A. Yoshizawa, H. Tsuchida, H. Fujino, H. Ishii, T. Itatani, S. Inoue, and T. Zama, “Photon number resolving detection with high speed and high quantum efficiency,” Metrologia 46, S288-S292 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Itoh, S.

S. Gomi, H. Hano, T. Iijima, S. Itoh, K. Kawago, S. H. Kim, T. Kubota, T. Maeda, T. Matsumura, Y. Mazuka, K. Miyabayashi, H. Miyata, T. Murakami, T. Nakadaira, T. Nakaya, H. Otono, E. Sano, T. Shinkawa, Y. Sudo, T. Takeshita, M. Taguchi, T. Tsubokawa, S. Uozumi, M. Yamaoka, H. Yamazaki, M. Yokoyama, K. Yoshimura, and T. Yoshioka, “Development and study of the multipixel photon counter,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 581, 427-432 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jacobs, B. C.

D. Achilles, C. Silberhorn, C. Sliwa, K. Banaszek, I. A. Walmsley, M. J. Fitch, B. C. Jacobs, T. B. Pittman, and J. D. Franson, “Photon-number-resolving detection using time-multiplexing,” J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1499-1515 (2004).

Jastrzab, M.

F. Risigo, A. Bulgheroni, M. Caccia, C. Cappellini, V. Chmill, N. Fedyushkina, A. Golubev, M. Jastrzab, A. Kantsyrev, N. Markov, A. Martemianov, C. Pychlau, and J. Würfel, “SiPM technology applied to radiation sensor development,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 607, 75-77 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ježek, M.

M. Mičuda, O. Haderka, and M. Ježek, “High-efficiency photon-number-resolving multichannel detector,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 025804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kadono, R.

S. Takeshita, M. Hiraishi, M. Miyazaki, A. Koda, R. Kadono, S. Y. Suzuki, Y. Yasu, M. Tanaka, Y. Matsuda, K. Ishida, and T. Matsuzaki, “Development of positron detector for μSR based on multi-pixel photon counter,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 600, 139-142 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kanaya, N.

N. Kanaya, “HPD for linear colliders for the JLC calorimeter group,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 442, 295-299 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kantserov, V.

B. Dolgoshein, V. Balagura, P. Buzhan, M. Danilov, L. Filatov, E. Garutti, M. Groll, A. Ilyin, V. Kantserov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, F. Kayumov, S. Klemin, V. Korbel, H. Meyer, R. Mizuk, V. Morgunov, E. Novikov, P. Pakhlov, E. Popova, V. Rusinov, F. Sefkow, E. Tarkovsky, and I. Tikhomirov, “Status report on silicon photomultiplier development and its applications,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 563, 368-376 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kantsyrev, A.

F. Risigo, A. Bulgheroni, M. Caccia, C. Cappellini, V. Chmill, N. Fedyushkina, A. Golubev, M. Jastrzab, A. Kantsyrev, N. Markov, A. Martemianov, C. Pychlau, and J. Würfel, “SiPM technology applied to radiation sensor development,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 607, 75-77 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Cappellini, M. Caccia, V. Chmill, A. Bulgheroni, C. Pychlau, J. U. Wuerfel, A. Martemiyanov, A. Golubev, A. Kantsyrev, N. Markov, and N. Fedyushkina, “The RAPSODI project: SiPM development for applied research in radiation protection,” Nuclear Science Symposium Conference Record, NSS '08 (IEEE, 2009), pp. 1069-1072.

Kantzerov, V.

P. Buzhan, B. Dolgoshein, L. Filatov, A. Ilyin, V. Kantzerov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, F. Kayumov, S. Klemin, E. Popova, and S. Smirnov, “Silicon photomultiplier and its possible applications,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 504, 48-52 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kaplin, V.

B. Dolgoshein, V. Balagura, P. Buzhan, M. Danilov, L. Filatov, E. Garutti, M. Groll, A. Ilyin, V. Kantserov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, F. Kayumov, S. Klemin, V. Korbel, H. Meyer, R. Mizuk, V. Morgunov, E. Novikov, P. Pakhlov, E. Popova, V. Rusinov, F. Sefkow, E. Tarkovsky, and I. Tikhomirov, “Status report on silicon photomultiplier development and its applications,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 563, 368-376 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Buzhan, B. Dolgoshein, L. Filatov, A. Ilyin, V. Kantzerov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, F. Kayumov, S. Klemin, E. Popova, and S. Smirnov, “Silicon photomultiplier and its possible applications,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 504, 48-52 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Karakash, A.

B. Dolgoshein, V. Balagura, P. Buzhan, M. Danilov, L. Filatov, E. Garutti, M. Groll, A. Ilyin, V. Kantserov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, F. Kayumov, S. Klemin, V. Korbel, H. Meyer, R. Mizuk, V. Morgunov, E. Novikov, P. Pakhlov, E. Popova, V. Rusinov, F. Sefkow, E. Tarkovsky, and I. Tikhomirov, “Status report on silicon photomultiplier development and its applications,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 563, 368-376 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Buzhan, B. Dolgoshein, L. Filatov, A. Ilyin, V. Kantzerov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, F. Kayumov, S. Klemin, E. Popova, and S. Smirnov, “Silicon photomultiplier and its possible applications,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 504, 48-52 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kawago, K.

S. Gomi, H. Hano, T. Iijima, S. Itoh, K. Kawago, S. H. Kim, T. Kubota, T. Maeda, T. Matsumura, Y. Mazuka, K. Miyabayashi, H. Miyata, T. Murakami, T. Nakadaira, T. Nakaya, H. Otono, E. Sano, T. Shinkawa, Y. Sudo, T. Takeshita, M. Taguchi, T. Tsubokawa, S. Uozumi, M. Yamaoka, H. Yamazaki, M. Yokoyama, K. Yoshimura, and T. Yoshioka, “Development and study of the multipixel photon counter,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 581, 427-432 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kayumov, F.

B. Dolgoshein, V. Balagura, P. Buzhan, M. Danilov, L. Filatov, E. Garutti, M. Groll, A. Ilyin, V. Kantserov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, F. Kayumov, S. Klemin, V. Korbel, H. Meyer, R. Mizuk, V. Morgunov, E. Novikov, P. Pakhlov, E. Popova, V. Rusinov, F. Sefkow, E. Tarkovsky, and I. Tikhomirov, “Status report on silicon photomultiplier development and its applications,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 563, 368-376 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Buzhan, B. Dolgoshein, L. Filatov, A. Ilyin, V. Kantzerov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, F. Kayumov, S. Klemin, E. Popova, and S. Smirnov, “Silicon photomultiplier and its possible applications,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 504, 48-52 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kedar, D.

S. Arnon and D. Kedar, “Non-line-of-sight underwater optical wireless communication network,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A Opt. Image Sci. Vis. 26, 530-539 (2009).
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B. Dolgoshein, V. Balagura, P. Buzhan, M. Danilov, L. Filatov, E. Garutti, M. Groll, A. Ilyin, V. Kantserov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, F. Kayumov, S. Klemin, V. Korbel, H. Meyer, R. Mizuk, V. Morgunov, E. Novikov, P. Pakhlov, E. Popova, V. Rusinov, F. Sefkow, E. Tarkovsky, and I. Tikhomirov, “Status report on silicon photomultiplier development and its applications,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 563, 368-376 (2006).
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S. Korpar, S. Korpara, R. Dolenec, K. Hara, T. Iijima, P. Križan, Y. Mazuka, R. Pestotnik, A. Stanovnik, and M. Yamaoka, “Silicon photomultiplier as a detector of Cherenkov photons,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 595, 161-164 (2008).
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S. Gomi, H. Hano, T. Iijima, S. Itoh, K. Kawago, S. H. Kim, T. Kubota, T. Maeda, T. Matsumura, Y. Mazuka, K. Miyabayashi, H. Miyata, T. Murakami, T. Nakadaira, T. Nakaya, H. Otono, E. Sano, T. Shinkawa, Y. Sudo, T. Takeshita, M. Taguchi, T. Tsubokawa, S. Uozumi, M. Yamaoka, H. Yamazaki, M. Yokoyama, K. Yoshimura, and T. Yoshioka, “Development and study of the multipixel photon counter,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 581, 427-432 (2007).
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Lvovsky, A. I.

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[CrossRef]

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S. Gomi, H. Hano, T. Iijima, S. Itoh, K. Kawago, S. H. Kim, T. Kubota, T. Maeda, T. Matsumura, Y. Mazuka, K. Miyabayashi, H. Miyata, T. Murakami, T. Nakadaira, T. Nakaya, H. Otono, E. Sano, T. Shinkawa, Y. Sudo, T. Takeshita, M. Taguchi, T. Tsubokawa, S. Uozumi, M. Yamaoka, H. Yamazaki, M. Yokoyama, K. Yoshimura, and T. Yoshioka, “Development and study of the multipixel photon counter,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 581, 427-432 (2007).
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F. Risigo, A. Bulgheroni, M. Caccia, C. Cappellini, V. Chmill, N. Fedyushkina, A. Golubev, M. Jastrzab, A. Kantsyrev, N. Markov, A. Martemianov, C. Pychlau, and J. Würfel, “SiPM technology applied to radiation sensor development,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 607, 75-77 (2009).
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C. Cappellini, M. Caccia, V. Chmill, A. Bulgheroni, C. Pychlau, J. U. Wuerfel, A. Martemiyanov, A. Golubev, A. Kantsyrev, N. Markov, and N. Fedyushkina, “The RAPSODI project: SiPM development for applied research in radiation protection,” Nuclear Science Symposium Conference Record, NSS '08 (IEEE, 2009), pp. 1069-1072.

Martemianov, A.

F. Risigo, A. Bulgheroni, M. Caccia, C. Cappellini, V. Chmill, N. Fedyushkina, A. Golubev, M. Jastrzab, A. Kantsyrev, N. Markov, A. Martemianov, C. Pychlau, and J. Würfel, “SiPM technology applied to radiation sensor development,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 607, 75-77 (2009).
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A. V. Akindinov, A. N. Martemianov, P. A. Polozov, V. M. Golovin, and E. A. Grigoriev, “New results on MRS APDs,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 387, 231-234 (1997).
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C. Cappellini, M. Caccia, V. Chmill, A. Bulgheroni, C. Pychlau, J. U. Wuerfel, A. Martemiyanov, A. Golubev, A. Kantsyrev, N. Markov, and N. Fedyushkina, “The RAPSODI project: SiPM development for applied research in radiation protection,” Nuclear Science Symposium Conference Record, NSS '08 (IEEE, 2009), pp. 1069-1072.

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Matsuda, Y.

S. Takeshita, M. Hiraishi, M. Miyazaki, A. Koda, R. Kadono, S. Y. Suzuki, Y. Yasu, M. Tanaka, Y. Matsuda, K. Ishida, and T. Matsuzaki, “Development of positron detector for μSR based on multi-pixel photon counter,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 600, 139-142 (2009).
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Matsumura, T.

S. Gomi, H. Hano, T. Iijima, S. Itoh, K. Kawago, S. H. Kim, T. Kubota, T. Maeda, T. Matsumura, Y. Mazuka, K. Miyabayashi, H. Miyata, T. Murakami, T. Nakadaira, T. Nakaya, H. Otono, E. Sano, T. Shinkawa, Y. Sudo, T. Takeshita, M. Taguchi, T. Tsubokawa, S. Uozumi, M. Yamaoka, H. Yamazaki, M. Yokoyama, K. Yoshimura, and T. Yoshioka, “Development and study of the multipixel photon counter,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 581, 427-432 (2007).
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S. Takeshita, M. Hiraishi, M. Miyazaki, A. Koda, R. Kadono, S. Y. Suzuki, Y. Yasu, M. Tanaka, Y. Matsuda, K. Ishida, and T. Matsuzaki, “Development of positron detector for μSR based on multi-pixel photon counter,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 600, 139-142 (2009).
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S. Korpar, S. Korpara, R. Dolenec, K. Hara, T. Iijima, P. Križan, Y. Mazuka, R. Pestotnik, A. Stanovnik, and M. Yamaoka, “Silicon photomultiplier as a detector of Cherenkov photons,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 595, 161-164 (2008).
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S. Gomi, H. Hano, T. Iijima, S. Itoh, K. Kawago, S. H. Kim, T. Kubota, T. Maeda, T. Matsumura, Y. Mazuka, K. Miyabayashi, H. Miyata, T. Murakami, T. Nakadaira, T. Nakaya, H. Otono, E. Sano, T. Shinkawa, Y. Sudo, T. Takeshita, M. Taguchi, T. Tsubokawa, S. Uozumi, M. Yamaoka, H. Yamazaki, M. Yokoyama, K. Yoshimura, and T. Yoshioka, “Development and study of the multipixel photon counter,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 581, 427-432 (2007).
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B. Dolgoshein, V. Balagura, P. Buzhan, M. Danilov, L. Filatov, E. Garutti, M. Groll, A. Ilyin, V. Kantserov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, F. Kayumov, S. Klemin, V. Korbel, H. Meyer, R. Mizuk, V. Morgunov, E. Novikov, P. Pakhlov, E. Popova, V. Rusinov, F. Sefkow, E. Tarkovsky, and I. Tikhomirov, “Status report on silicon photomultiplier development and its applications,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 563, 368-376 (2006).
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S. Gomi, H. Hano, T. Iijima, S. Itoh, K. Kawago, S. H. Kim, T. Kubota, T. Maeda, T. Matsumura, Y. Mazuka, K. Miyabayashi, H. Miyata, T. Murakami, T. Nakadaira, T. Nakaya, H. Otono, E. Sano, T. Shinkawa, Y. Sudo, T. Takeshita, M. Taguchi, T. Tsubokawa, S. Uozumi, M. Yamaoka, H. Yamazaki, M. Yokoyama, K. Yoshimura, and T. Yoshioka, “Development and study of the multipixel photon counter,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 581, 427-432 (2007).
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S. Takeshita, M. Hiraishi, M. Miyazaki, A. Koda, R. Kadono, S. Y. Suzuki, Y. Yasu, M. Tanaka, Y. Matsuda, K. Ishida, and T. Matsuzaki, “Development of positron detector for μSR based on multi-pixel photon counter,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 600, 139-142 (2009).
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Mizuk, R.

B. Dolgoshein, V. Balagura, P. Buzhan, M. Danilov, L. Filatov, E. Garutti, M. Groll, A. Ilyin, V. Kantserov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, F. Kayumov, S. Klemin, V. Korbel, H. Meyer, R. Mizuk, V. Morgunov, E. Novikov, P. Pakhlov, E. Popova, V. Rusinov, F. Sefkow, E. Tarkovsky, and I. Tikhomirov, “Status report on silicon photomultiplier development and its applications,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 563, 368-376 (2006).
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S. Moehrs, A. Del Guerra, D. J. Herbert, and M. A. Mandelkern, “A detector head design for small-animal PET with silicon photomultipliers (SiPM),” Phys. Med. Biol. 51, 1113-1127 (2006).
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Morgunov, V.

B. Dolgoshein, V. Balagura, P. Buzhan, M. Danilov, L. Filatov, E. Garutti, M. Groll, A. Ilyin, V. Kantserov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, F. Kayumov, S. Klemin, V. Korbel, H. Meyer, R. Mizuk, V. Morgunov, E. Novikov, P. Pakhlov, E. Popova, V. Rusinov, F. Sefkow, E. Tarkovsky, and I. Tikhomirov, “Status report on silicon photomultiplier development and its applications,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 563, 368-376 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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S. Gomi, H. Hano, T. Iijima, S. Itoh, K. Kawago, S. H. Kim, T. Kubota, T. Maeda, T. Matsumura, Y. Mazuka, K. Miyabayashi, H. Miyata, T. Murakami, T. Nakadaira, T. Nakaya, H. Otono, E. Sano, T. Shinkawa, Y. Sudo, T. Takeshita, M. Taguchi, T. Tsubokawa, S. Uozumi, M. Yamaoka, H. Yamazaki, M. Yokoyama, K. Yoshimura, and T. Yoshioka, “Development and study of the multipixel photon counter,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 581, 427-432 (2007).
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Nakadaira, T.

S. Gomi, H. Hano, T. Iijima, S. Itoh, K. Kawago, S. H. Kim, T. Kubota, T. Maeda, T. Matsumura, Y. Mazuka, K. Miyabayashi, H. Miyata, T. Murakami, T. Nakadaira, T. Nakaya, H. Otono, E. Sano, T. Shinkawa, Y. Sudo, T. Takeshita, M. Taguchi, T. Tsubokawa, S. Uozumi, M. Yamaoka, H. Yamazaki, M. Yokoyama, K. Yoshimura, and T. Yoshioka, “Development and study of the multipixel photon counter,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 581, 427-432 (2007).
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S. Gomi, H. Hano, T. Iijima, S. Itoh, K. Kawago, S. H. Kim, T. Kubota, T. Maeda, T. Matsumura, Y. Mazuka, K. Miyabayashi, H. Miyata, T. Murakami, T. Nakadaira, T. Nakaya, H. Otono, E. Sano, T. Shinkawa, Y. Sudo, T. Takeshita, M. Taguchi, T. Tsubokawa, S. Uozumi, M. Yamaoka, H. Yamazaki, M. Yokoyama, K. Yoshimura, and T. Yoshioka, “Development and study of the multipixel photon counter,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 581, 427-432 (2007).
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Natan, A.

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E. Grigoriev, A. Akindinov, M. Breitenmoser, S. Buono, E. Charbon, C. Niclass, I. Desforges, and R. Rocca, “Silicon photomultipliers and their bio-medical applications,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 571, 130-133 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Novikov, E.

B. Dolgoshein, V. Balagura, P. Buzhan, M. Danilov, L. Filatov, E. Garutti, M. Groll, A. Ilyin, V. Kantserov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, F. Kayumov, S. Klemin, V. Korbel, H. Meyer, R. Mizuk, V. Morgunov, E. Novikov, P. Pakhlov, E. Popova, V. Rusinov, F. Sefkow, E. Tarkovsky, and I. Tikhomirov, “Status report on silicon photomultiplier development and its applications,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 563, 368-376 (2006).
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D. Fukuda, G. Fujii, T. Numata, A. Yoshizawa, H. Tsuchida, H. Fujino, H. Ishii, T. Itatani, S. Inoue, and T. Zama, “Photon number resolving detection with high speed and high quantum efficiency,” Metrologia 46, S288-S292 (2009).
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W. G. Oldham, R. R. Samuelson, and P. Antognetti, “Triggering phenomena in avalanche diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-19, 1056-1060 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Otono, H.

S. Gomi, H. Hano, T. Iijima, S. Itoh, K. Kawago, S. H. Kim, T. Kubota, T. Maeda, T. Matsumura, Y. Mazuka, K. Miyabayashi, H. Miyata, T. Murakami, T. Nakadaira, T. Nakaya, H. Otono, E. Sano, T. Shinkawa, Y. Sudo, T. Takeshita, M. Taguchi, T. Tsubokawa, S. Uozumi, M. Yamaoka, H. Yamazaki, M. Yokoyama, K. Yoshimura, and T. Yoshioka, “Development and study of the multipixel photon counter,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 581, 427-432 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pakhlov, P.

B. Dolgoshein, V. Balagura, P. Buzhan, M. Danilov, L. Filatov, E. Garutti, M. Groll, A. Ilyin, V. Kantserov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, F. Kayumov, S. Klemin, V. Korbel, H. Meyer, R. Mizuk, V. Morgunov, E. Novikov, P. Pakhlov, E. Popova, V. Rusinov, F. Sefkow, E. Tarkovsky, and I. Tikhomirov, “Status report on silicon photomultiplier development and its applications,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 563, 368-376 (2006).
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A. Agliati, M. Bondani, A. Andreoni, G. De Cillis, and M. G. A. Paris, “Quantum and classical correlations of intense beams of light via joint photodetection,” J. Opt. B Quantum Semiclassical Opt. 7, S652-S663 (2005).
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S. Korpar, S. Korpara, R. Dolenec, K. Hara, T. Iijima, P. Križan, Y. Mazuka, R. Pestotnik, A. Stanovnik, and M. Yamaoka, “Silicon photomultiplier as a detector of Cherenkov photons,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 595, 161-164 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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D. Achilles, C. Silberhorn, C. Sliwa, K. Banaszek, I. A. Walmsley, M. J. Fitch, B. C. Jacobs, T. B. Pittman, and J. D. Franson, “Photon-number-resolving detection using time-multiplexing,” J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1499-1515 (2004).

Polozov, P. A.

A. V. Akindinov, A. N. Martemianov, P. A. Polozov, V. M. Golovin, and E. A. Grigoriev, “New results on MRS APDs,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 387, 231-234 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Popova, E.

B. Dolgoshein, V. Balagura, P. Buzhan, M. Danilov, L. Filatov, E. Garutti, M. Groll, A. Ilyin, V. Kantserov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, F. Kayumov, S. Klemin, V. Korbel, H. Meyer, R. Mizuk, V. Morgunov, E. Novikov, P. Pakhlov, E. Popova, V. Rusinov, F. Sefkow, E. Tarkovsky, and I. Tikhomirov, “Status report on silicon photomultiplier development and its applications,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 563, 368-376 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Buzhan, B. Dolgoshein, L. Filatov, A. Ilyin, V. Kantzerov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, F. Kayumov, S. Klemin, E. Popova, and S. Smirnov, “Silicon photomultiplier and its possible applications,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 504, 48-52 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pychlau, C.

F. Risigo, A. Bulgheroni, M. Caccia, C. Cappellini, V. Chmill, N. Fedyushkina, A. Golubev, M. Jastrzab, A. Kantsyrev, N. Markov, A. Martemianov, C. Pychlau, and J. Würfel, “SiPM technology applied to radiation sensor development,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 607, 75-77 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Cappellini, M. Caccia, V. Chmill, A. Bulgheroni, C. Pychlau, J. U. Wuerfel, A. Martemiyanov, A. Golubev, A. Kantsyrev, N. Markov, and N. Fedyushkina, “The RAPSODI project: SiPM development for applied research in radiation protection,” Nuclear Science Symposium Conference Record, NSS '08 (IEEE, 2009), pp. 1069-1072.

Raymer, M. G.

For a review, see A. I. Lvovsky and M. G. Raymer, “Continuous-variable optical quantum state tomography,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 299-332 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Risigo, F.

F. Risigo, A. Bulgheroni, M. Caccia, C. Cappellini, V. Chmill, N. Fedyushkina, A. Golubev, M. Jastrzab, A. Kantsyrev, N. Markov, A. Martemianov, C. Pychlau, and J. Würfel, “SiPM technology applied to radiation sensor development,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 607, 75-77 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rocca, R.

E. Grigoriev, A. Akindinov, M. Breitenmoser, S. Buono, E. Charbon, C. Niclass, I. Desforges, and R. Rocca, “Silicon photomultipliers and their bio-medical applications,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 571, 130-133 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rusinov, V.

B. Dolgoshein, V. Balagura, P. Buzhan, M. Danilov, L. Filatov, E. Garutti, M. Groll, A. Ilyin, V. Kantserov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, F. Kayumov, S. Klemin, V. Korbel, H. Meyer, R. Mizuk, V. Morgunov, E. Novikov, P. Pakhlov, E. Popova, V. Rusinov, F. Sefkow, E. Tarkovsky, and I. Tikhomirov, “Status report on silicon photomultiplier development and its applications,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 563, 368-376 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Samori, C.

Samuelson, R. R.

W. G. Oldham, R. R. Samuelson, and P. Antognetti, “Triggering phenomena in avalanche diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-19, 1056-1060 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Sano, E.

S. Gomi, H. Hano, T. Iijima, S. Itoh, K. Kawago, S. H. Kim, T. Kubota, T. Maeda, T. Matsumura, Y. Mazuka, K. Miyabayashi, H. Miyata, T. Murakami, T. Nakadaira, T. Nakaya, H. Otono, E. Sano, T. Shinkawa, Y. Sudo, T. Takeshita, M. Taguchi, T. Tsubokawa, S. Uozumi, M. Yamaoka, H. Yamazaki, M. Yokoyama, K. Yoshimura, and T. Yoshioka, “Development and study of the multipixel photon counter,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 581, 427-432 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sefkow, F.

B. Dolgoshein, V. Balagura, P. Buzhan, M. Danilov, L. Filatov, E. Garutti, M. Groll, A. Ilyin, V. Kantserov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, F. Kayumov, S. Klemin, V. Korbel, H. Meyer, R. Mizuk, V. Morgunov, E. Novikov, P. Pakhlov, E. Popova, V. Rusinov, F. Sefkow, E. Tarkovsky, and I. Tikhomirov, “Status report on silicon photomultiplier development and its applications,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 563, 368-376 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shinkawa, T.

S. Gomi, H. Hano, T. Iijima, S. Itoh, K. Kawago, S. H. Kim, T. Kubota, T. Maeda, T. Matsumura, Y. Mazuka, K. Miyabayashi, H. Miyata, T. Murakami, T. Nakadaira, T. Nakaya, H. Otono, E. Sano, T. Shinkawa, Y. Sudo, T. Takeshita, M. Taguchi, T. Tsubokawa, S. Uozumi, M. Yamaoka, H. Yamazaki, M. Yokoyama, K. Yoshimura, and T. Yoshioka, “Development and study of the multipixel photon counter,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 581, 427-432 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Silberberg, Y.

I. Afek, A. Natan, O. Ambar, and Y. Silberberg, “Quantum state measurements using multipixel photon detectors,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 043830 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Silberhorn, C.

D. Achilles, C. Silberhorn, C. Sliwa, K. Banaszek, I. A. Walmsley, M. J. Fitch, B. C. Jacobs, T. B. Pittman, and J. D. Franson, “Photon-number-resolving detection using time-multiplexing,” J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1499-1515 (2004).

Silberhorn, Ch.

K. Laiho, M. Avenhaus, K. N. Cassemiro, and Ch. Silberhorn, “Direct probing of the Wigner function by time-multiplexed detection of photon statistics,” New J. Phys. 11, 043012 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sliwa, C.

D. Achilles, C. Silberhorn, C. Sliwa, K. Banaszek, I. A. Walmsley, M. J. Fitch, B. C. Jacobs, T. B. Pittman, and J. D. Franson, “Photon-number-resolving detection using time-multiplexing,” J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1499-1515 (2004).

Smirnov, S.

P. Buzhan, B. Dolgoshein, L. Filatov, A. Ilyin, V. Kantzerov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, F. Kayumov, S. Klemin, E. Popova, and S. Smirnov, “Silicon photomultiplier and its possible applications,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 504, 48-52 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Spinelli, A. S.

G. Zambra, M. Bondani, A. S. Spinelli, and A. Andreoni, “Counting photoelectrons in the response of a photomultiplier tube to single picosecond light pulses,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 2762-2765 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Stanovnik, A.

S. Korpar, S. Korpara, R. Dolenec, K. Hara, T. Iijima, P. Križan, Y. Mazuka, R. Pestotnik, A. Stanovnik, and M. Yamaoka, “Silicon photomultiplier as a detector of Cherenkov photons,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 595, 161-164 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sudo, Y.

S. Gomi, H. Hano, T. Iijima, S. Itoh, K. Kawago, S. H. Kim, T. Kubota, T. Maeda, T. Matsumura, Y. Mazuka, K. Miyabayashi, H. Miyata, T. Murakami, T. Nakadaira, T. Nakaya, H. Otono, E. Sano, T. Shinkawa, Y. Sudo, T. Takeshita, M. Taguchi, T. Tsubokawa, S. Uozumi, M. Yamaoka, H. Yamazaki, M. Yokoyama, K. Yoshimura, and T. Yoshioka, “Development and study of the multipixel photon counter,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 581, 427-432 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, S. Y.

S. Takeshita, M. Hiraishi, M. Miyazaki, A. Koda, R. Kadono, S. Y. Suzuki, Y. Yasu, M. Tanaka, Y. Matsuda, K. Ishida, and T. Matsuzaki, “Development of positron detector for μSR based on multi-pixel photon counter,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 600, 139-142 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Taguchi, M.

S. Gomi, H. Hano, T. Iijima, S. Itoh, K. Kawago, S. H. Kim, T. Kubota, T. Maeda, T. Matsumura, Y. Mazuka, K. Miyabayashi, H. Miyata, T. Murakami, T. Nakadaira, T. Nakaya, H. Otono, E. Sano, T. Shinkawa, Y. Sudo, T. Takeshita, M. Taguchi, T. Tsubokawa, S. Uozumi, M. Yamaoka, H. Yamazaki, M. Yokoyama, K. Yoshimura, and T. Yoshioka, “Development and study of the multipixel photon counter,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 581, 427-432 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Takeshita, S.

S. Takeshita, M. Hiraishi, M. Miyazaki, A. Koda, R. Kadono, S. Y. Suzuki, Y. Yasu, M. Tanaka, Y. Matsuda, K. Ishida, and T. Matsuzaki, “Development of positron detector for μSR based on multi-pixel photon counter,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 600, 139-142 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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S. Gomi, H. Hano, T. Iijima, S. Itoh, K. Kawago, S. H. Kim, T. Kubota, T. Maeda, T. Matsumura, Y. Mazuka, K. Miyabayashi, H. Miyata, T. Murakami, T. Nakadaira, T. Nakaya, H. Otono, E. Sano, T. Shinkawa, Y. Sudo, T. Takeshita, M. Taguchi, T. Tsubokawa, S. Uozumi, M. Yamaoka, H. Yamazaki, M. Yokoyama, K. Yoshimura, and T. Yoshioka, “Development and study of the multipixel photon counter,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 581, 427-432 (2007).
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[CrossRef]

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B. Dolgoshein, V. Balagura, P. Buzhan, M. Danilov, L. Filatov, E. Garutti, M. Groll, A. Ilyin, V. Kantserov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, F. Kayumov, S. Klemin, V. Korbel, H. Meyer, R. Mizuk, V. Morgunov, E. Novikov, P. Pakhlov, E. Popova, V. Rusinov, F. Sefkow, E. Tarkovsky, and I. Tikhomirov, “Status report on silicon photomultiplier development and its applications,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 563, 368-376 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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S. Gomi, H. Hano, T. Iijima, S. Itoh, K. Kawago, S. H. Kim, T. Kubota, T. Maeda, T. Matsumura, Y. Mazuka, K. Miyabayashi, H. Miyata, T. Murakami, T. Nakadaira, T. Nakaya, H. Otono, E. Sano, T. Shinkawa, Y. Sudo, T. Takeshita, M. Taguchi, T. Tsubokawa, S. Uozumi, M. Yamaoka, H. Yamazaki, M. Yokoyama, K. Yoshimura, and T. Yoshioka, “Development and study of the multipixel photon counter,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 581, 427-432 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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D. Fukuda, G. Fujii, T. Numata, A. Yoshizawa, H. Tsuchida, H. Fujino, H. Ishii, T. Itatani, S. Inoue, and T. Zama, “Photon number resolving detection with high speed and high quantum efficiency,” Metrologia 46, S288-S292 (2009).
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Other (5)

E. Casini and A. Martinelli are preparing a paper to be called “A family of distributions stable with respect to random sums.”

http://www.caen.it.

http://www.hamamatsu.com.

L. Mandel and E. Wolf, Optical Coherence and Quantum Optics (Cambridge U. Press, 1995).

C. Cappellini, M. Caccia, V. Chmill, A. Bulgheroni, C. Pychlau, J. U. Wuerfel, A. Martemiyanov, A. Golubev, A. Kantsyrev, N. Markov, and N. Fedyushkina, “The RAPSODI project: SiPM development for applied research in radiation protection,” Nuclear Science Symposium Conference Record, NSS '08 (IEEE, 2009), pp. 1069-1072.

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Left panel: output of a SiPM Hamamatsu MPPC S10362-11-100C detecting a weak light field as displayed by a 100 MHz oscilloscope. Right panel: histogram of the corresponding spectrum.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Threshold scan of the SiPM performed at room temperature with no impinging light.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental setup. Nd:YLF: laser source; P: polaroid; ND: variable neutral density filter; SiPM: detector. The components in the dashed boxes are inserted to produce the pseudo-thermal field; L: converging lens; D: rotating ground-glass diffuser.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Plot of F x , out and S x , out as a function of x ¯ out for coherent light.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Experimental P k , cross distributions at different mean values (bars) and theoretical curves evaluated according to Model I: Poissonian (white circles); Poissonian modified by cross-talk effect (full circles). The corresponding fidelity values of the reconstruction are also shown.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Experimental results for Model II applied on two of the histograms acquired with coherent light. Upper row: result of the multi-peak fit procedure; lower row: fitted theoretical distributions. The corresponding fidelity values of the reconstruction are also shown.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Plot of F x , out and S x , out as a function of x ¯ out for pseudo-thermal light.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Experimental P k , cross distributions at different mean values (bars) and theoretical distributions evaluated according to Model I: thermal modified by dark-count distribution (white circles); thermal modified by dark-counts and cross-talk effect (full circles). The corresponding fidelity values of the reconstruction are also shown.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Experimental results for Model II applied on two of the histograms acquired with thermal light. Upper row: result of the multi-peak fit procedure; lower row: fitted theoretical function. The corresponding fidelity values of the reconstruction are also shown.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Left panel: values of ϵ obtained by applying Model II to coherent light (full circles) and their weighted average (full line). Dashed line: value of ϵ obtained by Model I. Right panel: values of mean photon numbers evaluated by applying Model II (full circles) and by applying Model I (white circles).

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Left panel: values of ϵ obtained by applying Model II to thermal light (full circles) and their weighted average (full line). Dashed line: value of ϵ obtained by Model I. Central panel: values of DCR evaluated for the same data as in the left panel by applying Model II (full circles) and their weighted average (full line). Dashed line: value of DCR obtained by Model I. Right panel: values of mean photon numbers evaluated by applying Model II (full circles) and by applying Model I (white circles).

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Main Characteristics of the SiPM (Hamamatsu, Model MPPC S10362-11-100C). The Data Refer to Room Temperature

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Table 2 Comparison between the Global DCR and Cross-Talk Values Obtained with Model I and Weighted Average of the Values Obtained with Model II

Equations (31)

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X talk = ν 2 ν 1 ,
B m , n ( η ) = ( n m ) η m ( 1 η ) n m ,
P m , el = n = m B m , n ( η ) P n , ph .
P m , dc = m ¯ dc m / m !   exp ( m ¯ dc ) ,
P m , el + dc = i = 0 m P i , dc P m i , el ,
C k , l ( ϵ ) = ( l k l ) ϵ k l ( 1 ϵ ) 2 l k ,
P k , cross = m = 0 k C k , m ( ϵ ) P m , el + dc ,
P x , out = γ P γ k , cross ,
F x , out = σ x , out ( 2 ) x ¯ out = γ σ k , cross ( 2 ) k ¯ cross = γ ( 1 + ϵ ) σ m , el + dc ( 2 ) m ¯ el + dc + γ ϵ ( 1 ϵ ) 1 + ϵ = Q el + dc m ¯ el + dc x ¯ out + γ 1 + 3 ϵ 1 + ϵ ,
S x , out = σ x , out ( 3 ) x ¯ out = γ 2 σ k , cross ( 3 ) k ¯ cross = γ 2 ( 1 + ϵ ) 2 σ m , el + dc ( 3 ) m ¯ el + dc + 3 γ 2 ϵ ( 1 ϵ ) σ m , el + dc ( 2 ) m ¯ el + dc + γ 2 ϵ ( 1 3 ϵ + 2 ϵ 2 ) 1 + ϵ = Q s , el + dc 3 Q el + dc m ¯ el + dc 2 x ¯ out 2 + γ 1 + 3 ϵ 1 + ϵ Q el + dc m ¯ el + dc x ¯ out + γ 2 1 + 7 ϵ 1 + ϵ ,
P n , ph = | α | 2 n n ! e | α | 2 ,
Q el + dc m ¯ el + dc = 1 m ¯ el + dc [ σ m , el + dc ( 2 ) m ¯ el + dc 1 ] = σ m , el ( 2 ) + σ m , dc ( 2 ) ( m ¯ el + m ¯ dc ) ( m ¯ el + m ¯ dc ) 2 = 0 ,
Q s , el + dc 3 Q el + dc m ¯ el + dc 2 = 1 m ¯ el + dc 2 [ σ m , el + dc ( 3 ) m ¯ el + dc 1 ] = σ m , el ( 3 ) + σ m , dc ( 3 ) ( m ¯ el + m ¯ dc ) ( m ¯ el + m ¯ dc ) 3 = 0.
F x , out = γ 1 + 3 ϵ 1 + ϵ ,
S x , out = γ 2 1 + 7 ϵ 1 + ϵ
P n , ph = ( n + μ 1 ) ! n ! ( μ 1 ) ! ( N th / μ + 1 ) μ ( μ / N th + 1 ) n ,
Q el + dc m ¯ el + dc = 1 m ¯ el + dc [ σ m , el + dc ( 2 ) m ¯ el + dc 1 ] = σ m , el ( 2 ) + σ m , dc ( 2 ) ( m ¯ el + m ¯ dc ) ( m ¯ el + m ¯ dc ) 2 = m ¯ el ( m ¯ el / μ + 1 ) + m ¯ dc ( m ¯ el + m ¯ dc ) ( m ¯ el + m ¯ dc ) 2 = 1 μ m ¯ el 2 ( m ¯ el + m ¯ dc ) 2 ,
Q s , el + dc 3 Q el + dc m ¯ el + dc 2 = 1 m ¯ el + dc 2 [ σ m , el + dc ( 3 ) m ¯ el + dc 1 3 σ m , el + dc ( 2 ) m ¯ el + dc + 3 ] = σ m , el ( 3 ) + σ m , dc ( 3 ) 3 σ m , el ( 2 ) 3 σ m , dc ( 2 ) + 2 ( m ¯ el + m ¯ dc ) ( m ¯ el + m ¯ dc ) 3 = m ¯ el ( m ¯ el / μ + 1 ) ( 2 m ¯ el / μ + 1 ) + m ¯ dc 3 m ¯ el ( m ¯ el / μ + 1 ) 3 m ¯ dc + 2 ( m ¯ el + m ¯ dc ) ( m ¯ el + m ¯ dc ) 3 = 2 μ 2 m ¯ el 3 ( m ¯ el + m ¯ dc ) 3 .
F x , out = 1 μ ( 1 x ¯ dc x ¯ out ) 2 x ¯ out + γ 1 + 3 ϵ 1 + ϵ ,
S x , out = 2 μ 2 ( 1 x ¯ dc x ¯ out ) 3 x ¯ out 2 + 3 μ γ 1 + 3 ϵ 1 + ϵ ( 1 x ¯ dc x ¯ out ) 2 x ¯ out + γ 2 1 + 7 ϵ 1 + ϵ .
GH = N e w 2 / 2 [ 1 + h 3 H 3 ( w ) + h 4 H 4 ( w ) ] ,
w = x x ¯ σ
A n = N n σ n ( 2 π + h 4 n ) .
Δ n , n + 1 = x ¯ n + 1 x ¯ n .
P k , cross = m = 0 k n = 0 m j = 0 n P k m n j , el + dc B m , k m n j ( ϵ ) B n , m ( ϵ ) B j , n ( ϵ ) ,
B j , n ( ϵ ) = ( n j ) ϵ j ( 1 ϵ ) n j .
P k , cross = e m ¯ el + dc 1 ϵ k ϵ k sin k π k π p F q ( 1 , k ; 1 2 k 2 ; 1 m 2 ; 1 ϵ 2 m ¯ el + dc 4 ϵ ) ,
f = k = 0 m P k , exp P k , theo .
F x , out = ( 1 x ¯ dc x ¯ out ) 2 x ¯ out + B ,
S x , out = A ( 1 x ¯ dc x ¯ out ) 3 x ¯ out 2 + 3 B ( 1 x ¯ dc x ¯ out ) 2 x ¯ out + C ,
P m , el + dc = k = 0 m P k , dc P m k , el = e m ¯ dc ( μ 1 ) ! ( 1 + μ m ¯ el ) m ( 1 + m ¯ el μ ) μ U [ m , 1 m μ , m ¯ dc ( 1 + μ m ¯ el ) ] ,

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