Abstract

We revisit the problem of intrachannel interactions between solitons in dispersion-managed nonlinear fiber links, which is a major limiting factor for the use of solitons in fiber-optic networks. By means of systematic simulations, we demonstrate the existence of a well-defined maximum of the interaction length, zint, as a function of the ratio of peak powers of interacting solitons, while in the case of identical solitons the interaction length always attains a minimum. An explanation to these features is proposed. Interaction effects in three-soliton sets are studied too. The results suggest that the transmission characteristics of soliton streams in the dispersion-managed system may be improved by using alternating values of the peak powers whose ratio corresponds to the maximum of zint.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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2008 (1)

R. Ganapathy, K. Porsezian, A. Hasegawa, and V. N. Serkin, “Soliton interaction under soliton dispersion management,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 383-390 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

2005 (3)

2004 (1)

2003 (3)

2002 (5)

2001 (3)

2000 (7)

H. B. Nijhof, W. Forysiak, and N. J. Doran, “The averaging method for finding exactly periodic dispersion-managed solitons,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 330-336 (2000).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Gromov and V. I. Talanov, “Short optical solitons in fibers,” Chaos 10, 551-558 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. I. Lakoba and G. P. Agrawal, “Optimization of the average-dispersion range for long-haul dispersion-managed soliton systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 1504-1512 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Tonello, A. D. Capobianco, S. Wabnitz, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Tuning of in-line filter position for dispersion-managed soliton transmission,” Opt. Commun. 175, 103-108 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Hirooka and S. Wabnitz, “Nonlinear gain control of dispersion-managed soliton amplitude and collisions,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 6, 109-121 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Inoue, H. Sugahara, A. Maruta, and Y. Kodama, “Interactions between dispersion managed solitons in optical-time-division-multiplexed system,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12, 299-301 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Wabnitz and F. Neddam, “Pulse interactions and collisions in asymmetric higher-order dispersion managed fiber link,” Opt. Commun. 183, 395-405 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (7)

1998 (13)

T. Lakoba, J. Yang, D. J. Kaup, and B. A. Malomed, “Conditions for stationary pulse propagation in the strong dispersion management regime,” Opt. Commun. 149, 366-375 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Niculae, W. Forysiak, A. J. Gloag, J. H. B. Nijhof, and N. J. Doran, “Soliton collisions with wavelength-division multiplexed systems with strong dispersion management,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1354-1356 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Hirooka and A. Hasegawa, “Chirped soliton interaction in strongly dispersion-managed wavelength-division-multiplexing systems,” Opt. Lett. 23, 768-770 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Kaup, B. A. Malomed, and J. Yang, “Interchannel pulse collision in a wavelength-division-multiplexed system with strong dispersion management,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1600-1602 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Okamawari, A. Maruta, and Y. Kodama, “Analysis of Gordon-Haus jitter in a dispersion-compensated optical transmission system,” Opt. Lett. 23, 694-696 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Malomed, “Jitter suppression by guiding filters in combination with dispersion management,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1250-1252 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Berntson, N. J. Doran, W. Forysiak, and J. H. B. Nijhof, “Power dependence of dispersion-managed solitons for anomalous, zero, and normal path-average dispersion,” Opt. Lett. 23, 900-902 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. H. B. Nijhof, N. J. Doran, W. Forysiak, and A. Berntson, “Energy enhancement of dispersion-managed solitons and WDM,” Electron. Lett. 34, 481-482 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Georges, “Soliton interaction in dispersion-managed links,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 1553-1560 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Kumar, M. Wald, F. Lederer, and A. Hasegawa, “Soliton interaction in strongly dispersion-managed optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1019-1021 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Matsumoto, “Analysis of interaction between stretched pulses propagating in dispersion-managed fibers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10, 373-375 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Wald, I. M. Uzunov, F. Lederer, and S. Wabnitz, “Optimization of soliton transmissions in dispersion-managed fiber links,” Opt. Commun. 145, 48-52 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Malomed, “Suppression of soliton jitter and interactions by means of dispersion management,” Opt. Commun. 147, 157-162 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (5)

T. Yu, E. A. Golovchenko, A. N. Pilipetskii, and C. R. Menyuk, “Dispersion-managed soliton interactions in optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 22, 793-795 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. J. Smith, N. J. Doran, W. Forysiak, and F. M. Knox, “Soliton transmission using periodic dispersion compensation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1808-1822 (1997).
[CrossRef]

E. A. Golovchenko, A. N. Pilipetskii, and C. R. Menyuk, “Collision-induced timing jitter reduction by periodic dispersion management in soliton WDM transmission,” Electron. Lett. 33, 735-737 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Kumar and F. Lederer, “Gordon-Haus effect in dispersion-managed soliton systems,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1870-1872 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Mostofi and P. L. Chu, “Reversal of soliton interactions in optically phase-conjugated systems with unequal-amplitude and alternating-phase solitons,” Opt. Commun. 141, 259-264 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

V. S. Dimitrov, D. Y. Dakova, and I. M. Uzunov, “On the description of interaction in sequences of unequal soliton-like pulses,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 28, 1765-1771 (1996).
[CrossRef]

N. J. Smith, F. M. Knox, N. J. Doran, K. J. Blow, and I. Bennion, “Enhanced power solitons in optical fibres with periodic dispersion management,” Electron. Lett. 32, 54-55 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

A. D. Boardman, H. M. Mehta, A. K. Sangarpaul, R. Putman, and K. Xie, “Interactions in bright N-soliton trains propagating in birefringent optical fibers,” Opt. Commun. 116, 208-218 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Berntson, D. Anderson, and M. Lisak, “Analysis of coherent and incoherent interactions of amplitude shifted solitons in optical fibers,” Phys. Scr. 52, 544-553 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

1993 (1)

I. M. Uzunov, V. D. Stoev, and T. I. Tzoleva, “Influence of the initial phase difference between pulses in the N-soliton interaction in trains of unequal solitons in optical fibers,” Opt. Commun. 97, 307-311 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

1985 (1)

P. L. Chu and C. Desem, “Mutual interaction between solitons of unequal amplitudes in optical fiber,” Electron. Lett. 21, 1133-1134 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Ablowitz, M. J.

Adali, T.

Afanasjev, V. V.

Agrawal, G. P.

Anderson, D.

A. Berntson, D. Anderson, and M. Lisak, “Analysis of coherent and incoherent interactions of amplitude shifted solitons in optical fibers,” Phys. Scr. 52, 544-553 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Atai, J.

H. E. Nistazakis, D. J. Frantzeskakis, J. Atai, B. A. Malomed, N. Efremidis, and K. Hizanidis, “Multichannel pulse dynamics in a stabilized Ginzburg-Landau system,” Phys. Rev. E 65, 036605 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bayvel, P.

Bennion, I.

N. J. Smith, F. M. Knox, N. J. Doran, K. J. Blow, and I. Bennion, “Enhanced power solitons in optical fibres with periodic dispersion management,” Electron. Lett. 32, 54-55 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Berntson, A.

J. H. B. Nijhof, N. J. Doran, W. Forysiak, and A. Berntson, “Energy enhancement of dispersion-managed solitons and WDM,” Electron. Lett. 34, 481-482 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Berntson, N. J. Doran, W. Forysiak, and J. H. B. Nijhof, “Power dependence of dispersion-managed solitons for anomalous, zero, and normal path-average dispersion,” Opt. Lett. 23, 900-902 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Berntson, D. Anderson, and M. Lisak, “Analysis of coherent and incoherent interactions of amplitude shifted solitons in optical fibers,” Phys. Scr. 52, 544-553 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Biondini, G.

Blow, K. J.

N. J. Smith, F. M. Knox, N. J. Doran, K. J. Blow, and I. Bennion, “Enhanced power solitons in optical fibres with periodic dispersion management,” Electron. Lett. 32, 54-55 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Boardman, A. D.

A. D. Boardman, H. M. Mehta, A. K. Sangarpaul, R. Putman, and K. Xie, “Interactions in bright N-soliton trains propagating in birefringent optical fibers,” Opt. Commun. 116, 208-218 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Cai, Y.

Capobianco, A. D.

A. Tonello, A. D. Capobianco, S. Wabnitz, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Tuning of in-line filter position for dispersion-managed soliton transmission,” Opt. Commun. 175, 103-108 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Carter, G. M.

Chen, P. Y. P.

P. Y. P. Chen, P. L. Chu, and B. A. Malomed, “An iterative numerical method for dispersion managed solitons,” Opt. Commun. 245, 425-435 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

Chu, P. L.

P. Y. P. Chen, P. L. Chu, and B. A. Malomed, “An iterative numerical method for dispersion managed solitons,” Opt. Commun. 245, 425-435 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Mostofi and P. L. Chu, “Reversal of soliton interactions in optically phase-conjugated systems with unequal-amplitude and alternating-phase solitons,” Opt. Commun. 141, 259-264 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. L. Chu and C. Desem, “Mutual interaction between solitons of unequal amplitudes in optical fiber,” Electron. Lett. 21, 1133-1134 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Dakova, D. Y.

V. S. Dimitrov, D. Y. Dakova, and I. M. Uzunov, “On the description of interaction in sequences of unequal soliton-like pulses,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 28, 1765-1771 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Del Duce, A.

Desem, C.

P. L. Chu and C. Desem, “Mutual interaction between solitons of unequal amplitudes in optical fiber,” Electron. Lett. 21, 1133-1134 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Dimitrov, V. S.

V. S. Dimitrov, D. Y. Dakova, and I. M. Uzunov, “On the description of interaction in sequences of unequal soliton-like pulses,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 28, 1765-1771 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Docherty, A.

Doran, N. J.

H. B. Nijhof, W. Forysiak, and N. J. Doran, “The averaging method for finding exactly periodic dispersion-managed solitons,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 330-336 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Berntson, N. J. Doran, W. Forysiak, and J. H. B. Nijhof, “Power dependence of dispersion-managed solitons for anomalous, zero, and normal path-average dispersion,” Opt. Lett. 23, 900-902 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Niculae, W. Forysiak, A. J. Gloag, J. H. B. Nijhof, and N. J. Doran, “Soliton collisions with wavelength-division multiplexed systems with strong dispersion management,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1354-1356 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. H. B. Nijhof, N. J. Doran, W. Forysiak, and A. Berntson, “Energy enhancement of dispersion-managed solitons and WDM,” Electron. Lett. 34, 481-482 (1998).
[CrossRef]

N. J. Smith, N. J. Doran, W. Forysiak, and F. M. Knox, “Soliton transmission using periodic dispersion compensation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1808-1822 (1997).
[CrossRef]

N. J. Smith, F. M. Knox, N. J. Doran, K. J. Blow, and I. Bennion, “Enhanced power solitons in optical fibres with periodic dispersion management,” Electron. Lett. 32, 54-55 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Edagawa, N.

Efremidis, N.

H. E. Nistazakis, D. J. Frantzeskakis, J. Atai, B. A. Malomed, N. Efremidis, and K. Hizanidis, “Multichannel pulse dynamics in a stabilized Ginzburg-Landau system,” Phys. Rev. E 65, 036605 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ereifej, H. N.

Fedoruk, M. P.

S. K. Turitsyn, E. G. Shapiro, S. B. Medvedev, M. P. Fedoruk, and V. K. Mezentsev, “Physics and mathematics of dispersion-managed optical solitons,” Comptes Rendue Physique 4, 145-161 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Forysiak, W.

H. B. Nijhof, W. Forysiak, and N. J. Doran, “The averaging method for finding exactly periodic dispersion-managed solitons,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 330-336 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Berntson, N. J. Doran, W. Forysiak, and J. H. B. Nijhof, “Power dependence of dispersion-managed solitons for anomalous, zero, and normal path-average dispersion,” Opt. Lett. 23, 900-902 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Niculae, W. Forysiak, A. J. Gloag, J. H. B. Nijhof, and N. J. Doran, “Soliton collisions with wavelength-division multiplexed systems with strong dispersion management,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1354-1356 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. H. B. Nijhof, N. J. Doran, W. Forysiak, and A. Berntson, “Energy enhancement of dispersion-managed solitons and WDM,” Electron. Lett. 34, 481-482 (1998).
[CrossRef]

N. J. Smith, N. J. Doran, W. Forysiak, and F. M. Knox, “Soliton transmission using periodic dispersion compensation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1808-1822 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Frantzeskakis, D. J.

H. E. Nistazakis, D. J. Frantzeskakis, J. Atai, B. A. Malomed, N. Efremidis, and K. Hizanidis, “Multichannel pulse dynamics in a stabilized Ginzburg-Landau system,” Phys. Rev. E 65, 036605 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fujii, K.

H. Murai, H. T. Yamada, and K. Fujii, “Analysis and experiment on soliton-based WDM transmission employing initial phase alternation with OTDM techniques,” IEICE Trans. Communications E 85B, 438-445 (2002).

Ganapathy, R.

R. Ganapathy, K. Porsezian, A. Hasegawa, and V. N. Serkin, “Soliton interaction under soliton dispersion management,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 383-390 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Georges, T.

Gloag, A. J.

Golovchenko, E. A.

T. Yu, E. A. Golovchenko, A. N. Pilipetskii, and C. R. Menyuk, “Dispersion-managed soliton interactions in optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 22, 793-795 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. A. Golovchenko, A. N. Pilipetskii, and C. R. Menyuk, “Collision-induced timing jitter reduction by periodic dispersion management in soliton WDM transmission,” Electron. Lett. 33, 735-737 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Grigoryan, V. S.

Gromov, E. M.

E. M. Gromov and V. I. Talanov, “Short optical solitons in fibers,” Chaos 10, 551-558 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hasegawa, A.

Haus, H. A.

Hirooka, T.

T. Hirooka and S. Wabnitz, “Nonlinear gain control of dispersion-managed soliton amplitude and collisions,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 6, 109-121 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Hirooka and A. Hasegawa, “Chirped soliton interaction in strongly dispersion-managed wavelength-division-multiplexing systems,” Opt. Lett. 23, 768-770 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hizanidis, K.

H. E. Nistazakis, D. J. Frantzeskakis, J. Atai, B. A. Malomed, N. Efremidis, and K. Hizanidis, “Multichannel pulse dynamics in a stabilized Ginzburg-Landau system,” Phys. Rev. E 65, 036605 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Holzlohner, R.

Inoue, T.

T. Inoue, H. Sugahara, A. Maruta, and Y. Kodama, “Interactions between dispersion managed solitons in optical-time-division-multiplexed system,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12, 299-301 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Sugahara, H. Kato, T. Inoue, A. Maruta, and Y. Kodama, “Optimal dispersion management for a wavelength division multiplexed optical soliton transmission system,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 1547-1559 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kato, H.

Kaup, D. J.

D. J. Kaup, B. A. Malomed, and J. Yang, “Interchannel pulse collision in a wavelength-division-multiplexed system with strong dispersion management,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1600-1602 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Lakoba, J. Yang, D. J. Kaup, and B. A. Malomed, “Conditions for stationary pulse propagation in the strong dispersion management regime,” Opt. Commun. 149, 366-375 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Killey, R. I.

Knox, F. M.

N. J. Smith, N. J. Doran, W. Forysiak, and F. M. Knox, “Soliton transmission using periodic dispersion compensation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1808-1822 (1997).
[CrossRef]

N. J. Smith, F. M. Knox, N. J. Doran, K. J. Blow, and I. Bennion, “Enhanced power solitons in optical fibres with periodic dispersion management,” Electron. Lett. 32, 54-55 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kodama, Y.

Kschischang, F. R.

Kumar, S.

Lakoba, T.

T. Lakoba, J. Yang, D. J. Kaup, and B. A. Malomed, “Conditions for stationary pulse propagation in the strong dispersion management regime,” Opt. Commun. 149, 366-375 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lakoba, T. I.

Lederer, F.

Lisak, M.

A. Berntson, D. Anderson, and M. Lisak, “Analysis of coherent and incoherent interactions of amplitude shifted solitons in optical fibers,” Phys. Scr. 52, 544-553 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

Malomed, B.

M. Wald, B. Malomed, and F. Lederer, “Interaction of moderately dispersion managed solitons,” Opt. Commun. 172, 31-36 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Malomed, B. A.

P. Y. P. Chen, P. L. Chu, and B. A. Malomed, “An iterative numerical method for dispersion managed solitons,” Opt. Commun. 245, 425-435 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. E. Nistazakis, D. J. Frantzeskakis, J. Atai, B. A. Malomed, N. Efremidis, and K. Hizanidis, “Multichannel pulse dynamics in a stabilized Ginzburg-Landau system,” Phys. Rev. E 65, 036605 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Wald, B. A. Malomed, and F. Lederer, “Interaction of dispersion-managed solitons in wavelength-division-multiplexed optical transmission lines,” Opt. Lett. 26, 965-967 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Kaup, B. A. Malomed, and J. Yang, “Interchannel pulse collision in a wavelength-division-multiplexed system with strong dispersion management,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1600-1602 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Malomed, “Jitter suppression by guiding filters in combination with dispersion management,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1250-1252 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Lakoba, J. Yang, D. J. Kaup, and B. A. Malomed, “Conditions for stationary pulse propagation in the strong dispersion management regime,” Opt. Commun. 149, 366-375 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Malomed, “Suppression of soliton jitter and interactions by means of dispersion management,” Opt. Commun. 147, 157-162 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Malomed, Soliton Management in Periodic Systems (Springer, 2006).

Mamyshev, P. V.

Mamysheva, N. A.

Maruta, A.

Matera, F.

Matsumoto, M.

M. Matsumoto, “Analysis of interaction between stretched pulses propagating in dispersion-managed fibers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10, 373-375 (1998).
[CrossRef]

McKinstrie, C. J.

Medvedev, S. B.

S. K. Turitsyn, E. G. Shapiro, S. B. Medvedev, M. P. Fedoruk, and V. K. Mezentsev, “Physics and mathematics of dispersion-managed optical solitons,” Comptes Rendue Physique 4, 145-161 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mehta, H. M.

A. D. Boardman, H. M. Mehta, A. K. Sangarpaul, R. Putman, and K. Xie, “Interactions in bright N-soliton trains propagating in birefringent optical fibers,” Opt. Commun. 116, 208-218 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Menyuk, C. R.

O. V. Sinkin, V. S. Grigoryan, J. Zweck, C. R. Menyuk, A. Docherty, and M. J. Ablowitz, “Calculation, characterization, and application of the time shift function in wavelength-division-multiplexed return-to-zero systems,” Opt. Lett. 30, 2056-2058 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. V. Sinkin, R. Holzlohner, J. Zweck, and C. R. Menyuk, “Optimization of the split-step Fourier method in modeling optical-fiber communications systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 61-68 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Holzlohner, H. N. Ereifej, V. S. Grigoryan, G. M. Carter, and C. R. Menyuk, “Experimental and theoretical characterization of a 40-Gb/s long-haul single-channel transmission system,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 1124-1131 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Mu and C. R. Menyuk, “Convergence of the chirped return-to-zero and dispersion managed soliton modulation formats in WDM systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 608-617 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. Cai, T. Adali, C. R. Menyuk, and J. M. Morris, “Sliding window criterion codes and concatenation scheme for mitigating timing-jitter-induced errors in WDM fiber transmissions,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 201-212 (2002).
[CrossRef]

O. V. Sinkin, J. Zweck, and C. R. Menyuk, “Comparative study of pulse interactions in optical fiber transmission systems with different modulation formats,” Opt. Express 9, 339-352 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Yu, E. A. Golovchenko, A. N. Pilipetskii, and C. R. Menyuk, “Dispersion-managed soliton interactions in optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 22, 793-795 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. A. Golovchenko, A. N. Pilipetskii, and C. R. Menyuk, “Collision-induced timing jitter reduction by periodic dispersion management in soliton WDM transmission,” Electron. Lett. 33, 735-737 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mezentsev, V. K.

S. K. Turitsyn, E. G. Shapiro, S. B. Medvedev, M. P. Fedoruk, and V. K. Mezentsev, “Physics and mathematics of dispersion-managed optical solitons,” Comptes Rendue Physique 4, 145-161 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mollenauer, L. F.

Morita, I.

Morris, J. M.

Mostofi, A.

A. Mostofi and P. L. Chu, “Reversal of soliton interactions in optically phase-conjugated systems with unequal-amplitude and alternating-phase solitons,” Opt. Commun. 141, 259-264 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mu, R. M.

Murai, H.

H. Murai, H. T. Yamada, and K. Fujii, “Analysis and experiment on soliton-based WDM transmission employing initial phase alternation with OTDM techniques,” IEICE Trans. Communications E 85B, 438-445 (2002).

Neddam, F.

S. Wabnitz and F. Neddam, “Pulse interactions and collisions in asymmetric higher-order dispersion managed fiber link,” Opt. Commun. 183, 395-405 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Niculae, A. M.

Nijhof, H. B.

H. B. Nijhof, W. Forysiak, and N. J. Doran, “The averaging method for finding exactly periodic dispersion-managed solitons,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 330-336 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nijhof, J. H. B.

Nistazakis, H. E.

H. E. Nistazakis, D. J. Frantzeskakis, J. Atai, B. A. Malomed, N. Efremidis, and K. Hizanidis, “Multichannel pulse dynamics in a stabilized Ginzburg-Landau system,” Phys. Rev. E 65, 036605 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Okamawari, T.

Olson, E. S.

Orenstein, M.

Pechenkin, V.

Pilipetskii, A. N.

T. Yu, E. A. Golovchenko, A. N. Pilipetskii, and C. R. Menyuk, “Dispersion-managed soliton interactions in optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 22, 793-795 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. A. Golovchenko, A. N. Pilipetskii, and C. R. Menyuk, “Collision-induced timing jitter reduction by periodic dispersion management in soliton WDM transmission,” Electron. Lett. 33, 735-737 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Porsezian, K.

R. Ganapathy, K. Porsezian, A. Hasegawa, and V. N. Serkin, “Soliton interaction under soliton dispersion management,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 383-390 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Putman, R.

A. D. Boardman, H. M. Mehta, A. K. Sangarpaul, R. Putman, and K. Xie, “Interactions in bright N-soliton trains propagating in birefringent optical fibers,” Opt. Commun. 116, 208-218 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sangarpaul, A. K.

A. D. Boardman, H. M. Mehta, A. K. Sangarpaul, R. Putman, and K. Xie, “Interactions in bright N-soliton trains propagating in birefringent optical fibers,” Opt. Commun. 116, 208-218 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Scheuer, J.

Serkin, V. N.

R. Ganapathy, K. Porsezian, A. Hasegawa, and V. N. Serkin, “Soliton interaction under soliton dispersion management,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 383-390 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Settembre, M.

Shapiro, E. G.

S. K. Turitsyn, E. G. Shapiro, S. B. Medvedev, M. P. Fedoruk, and V. K. Mezentsev, “Physics and mathematics of dispersion-managed optical solitons,” Comptes Rendue Physique 4, 145-161 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sinkin, O. V.

Smith, N. J.

N. J. Smith, N. J. Doran, W. Forysiak, and F. M. Knox, “Soliton transmission using periodic dispersion compensation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1808-1822 (1997).
[CrossRef]

N. J. Smith, F. M. Knox, N. J. Doran, K. J. Blow, and I. Bennion, “Enhanced power solitons in optical fibres with periodic dispersion management,” Electron. Lett. 32, 54-55 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Stoev, V. D.

I. M. Uzunov, V. D. Stoev, and T. I. Tzoleva, “Influence of the initial phase difference between pulses in the N-soliton interaction in trains of unequal solitons in optical fibers,” Opt. Commun. 97, 307-311 (1993).
[CrossRef]

I. M. Uzunov, V. D. Stoev, and T. I. Tzoleva, “N-soliton interaction in trains of unequal pulses in optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 17, 1417-1419 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sugahara, H.

T. Inoue, H. Sugahara, A. Maruta, and Y. Kodama, “Interactions between dispersion managed solitons in optical-time-division-multiplexed system,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12, 299-301 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Sugahara, H. Kato, T. Inoue, A. Maruta, and Y. Kodama, “Optimal dispersion management for a wavelength division multiplexed optical soliton transmission system,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 1547-1559 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, M.

Talanov, V. I.

E. M. Gromov and V. I. Talanov, “Short optical solitons in fibers,” Chaos 10, 551-558 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, K.

Tonello, A.

A. Tonello, A. D. Capobianco, S. Wabnitz, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Tuning of in-line filter position for dispersion-managed soliton transmission,” Opt. Commun. 175, 103-108 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Turitsyn, S. K.

S. K. Turitsyn, E. G. Shapiro, S. B. Medvedev, M. P. Fedoruk, and V. K. Mezentsev, “Physics and mathematics of dispersion-managed optical solitons,” Comptes Rendue Physique 4, 145-161 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Tonello, A. D. Capobianco, S. Wabnitz, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Tuning of in-line filter position for dispersion-managed soliton transmission,” Opt. Commun. 175, 103-108 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tzoleva, T. I.

I. M. Uzunov, V. D. Stoev, and T. I. Tzoleva, “Influence of the initial phase difference between pulses in the N-soliton interaction in trains of unequal solitons in optical fibers,” Opt. Commun. 97, 307-311 (1993).
[CrossRef]

I. M. Uzunov, V. D. Stoev, and T. I. Tzoleva, “N-soliton interaction in trains of unequal pulses in optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 17, 1417-1419 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Uzunov, I. M.

M. Wald, I. M. Uzunov, F. Lederer, and S. Wabnitz, “Optimization of soliton transmissions in dispersion-managed fiber links,” Opt. Commun. 145, 48-52 (1998).
[CrossRef]

V. S. Dimitrov, D. Y. Dakova, and I. M. Uzunov, “On the description of interaction in sequences of unequal soliton-like pulses,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 28, 1765-1771 (1996).
[CrossRef]

I. M. Uzunov, V. D. Stoev, and T. I. Tzoleva, “Influence of the initial phase difference between pulses in the N-soliton interaction in trains of unequal solitons in optical fibers,” Opt. Commun. 97, 307-311 (1993).
[CrossRef]

I. M. Uzunov, V. D. Stoev, and T. I. Tzoleva, “N-soliton interaction in trains of unequal pulses in optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 17, 1417-1419 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vysloukh, V. A.

Wabnitz, S.

A. Tonello, A. D. Capobianco, S. Wabnitz, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Tuning of in-line filter position for dispersion-managed soliton transmission,” Opt. Commun. 175, 103-108 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Hirooka and S. Wabnitz, “Nonlinear gain control of dispersion-managed soliton amplitude and collisions,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 6, 109-121 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Wabnitz and F. Neddam, “Pulse interactions and collisions in asymmetric higher-order dispersion managed fiber link,” Opt. Commun. 183, 395-405 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Wald, I. M. Uzunov, F. Lederer, and S. Wabnitz, “Optimization of soliton transmissions in dispersion-managed fiber links,” Opt. Commun. 145, 48-52 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wald, M.

M. Wald, B. A. Malomed, and F. Lederer, “Interaction of dispersion-managed solitons in wavelength-division-multiplexed optical transmission lines,” Opt. Lett. 26, 965-967 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Wald, B. Malomed, and F. Lederer, “Interaction of moderately dispersion managed solitons,” Opt. Commun. 172, 31-36 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Wald, I. M. Uzunov, F. Lederer, and S. Wabnitz, “Optimization of soliton transmissions in dispersion-managed fiber links,” Opt. Commun. 145, 48-52 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Kumar, M. Wald, F. Lederer, and A. Hasegawa, “Soliton interaction in strongly dispersion-managed optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1019-1021 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wei, X.

Xie, C. J.

Xie, K.

A. D. Boardman, H. M. Mehta, A. K. Sangarpaul, R. Putman, and K. Xie, “Interactions in bright N-soliton trains propagating in birefringent optical fibers,” Opt. Commun. 116, 208-218 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, H. T.

H. Murai, H. T. Yamada, and K. Fujii, “Analysis and experiment on soliton-based WDM transmission employing initial phase alternation with OTDM techniques,” IEICE Trans. Communications E 85B, 438-445 (2002).

Yang, J.

T. Lakoba, J. Yang, D. J. Kaup, and B. A. Malomed, “Conditions for stationary pulse propagation in the strong dispersion management regime,” Opt. Commun. 149, 366-375 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Kaup, B. A. Malomed, and J. Yang, “Interchannel pulse collision in a wavelength-division-multiplexed system with strong dispersion management,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1600-1602 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yu, T.

Zitelli, M.

Zweck, J.

Chaos (1)

E. M. Gromov and V. I. Talanov, “Short optical solitons in fibers,” Chaos 10, 551-558 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Comptes Rendue Physique (1)

S. K. Turitsyn, E. G. Shapiro, S. B. Medvedev, M. P. Fedoruk, and V. K. Mezentsev, “Physics and mathematics of dispersion-managed optical solitons,” Comptes Rendue Physique 4, 145-161 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (4)

N. J. Smith, F. M. Knox, N. J. Doran, K. J. Blow, and I. Bennion, “Enhanced power solitons in optical fibres with periodic dispersion management,” Electron. Lett. 32, 54-55 (1996).
[CrossRef]

E. A. Golovchenko, A. N. Pilipetskii, and C. R. Menyuk, “Collision-induced timing jitter reduction by periodic dispersion management in soliton WDM transmission,” Electron. Lett. 33, 735-737 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. H. B. Nijhof, N. J. Doran, W. Forysiak, and A. Berntson, “Energy enhancement of dispersion-managed solitons and WDM,” Electron. Lett. 34, 481-482 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. L. Chu and C. Desem, “Mutual interaction between solitons of unequal amplitudes in optical fiber,” Electron. Lett. 21, 1133-1134 (1985).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. Ganapathy, K. Porsezian, A. Hasegawa, and V. N. Serkin, “Soliton interaction under soliton dispersion management,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 383-390 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

H. B. Nijhof, W. Forysiak, and N. J. Doran, “The averaging method for finding exactly periodic dispersion-managed solitons,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 330-336 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (2)

T. Inoue, H. Sugahara, A. Maruta, and Y. Kodama, “Interactions between dispersion managed solitons in optical-time-division-multiplexed system,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12, 299-301 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Matsumoto, “Analysis of interaction between stretched pulses propagating in dispersion-managed fibers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10, 373-375 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IEICE Trans. Communications E (1)

H. Murai, H. T. Yamada, and K. Fujii, “Analysis and experiment on soliton-based WDM transmission employing initial phase alternation with OTDM techniques,” IEICE Trans. Communications E 85B, 438-445 (2002).

J. Lightwave Technol. (11)

V. Pechenkin and F. R. Kschischang, “Higher bit rates for dispersion-managed soliton communication systems via constrained coding,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 1149-1158 (2006).
[CrossRef]

I. Morita, K. Tanaka, N. Edagawa, and M. Suzuki, “40 Gb/s single-channel soliton transmission over transoceanic distances by reducing Gordon-Haus timing jitter and soliton-soliton interaction,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 2506-2511 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. I. Lakoba and G. P. Agrawal, “Optimization of the average-dispersion range for long-haul dispersion-managed soliton systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 1504-1512 (2000).
[CrossRef]

O. V. Sinkin, R. Holzlohner, J. Zweck, and C. R. Menyuk, “Optimization of the split-step Fourier method in modeling optical-fiber communications systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 61-68 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Zitelli, F. Matera, and M. Settembre, “Single-channel transmission in dispersion management links in conditions of very strong pulse broadening: application to 40 Gb/s signals on step-index fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 2498-2505 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Holzlohner, H. N. Ereifej, V. S. Grigoryan, G. M. Carter, and C. R. Menyuk, “Experimental and theoretical characterization of a 40-Gb/s long-haul single-channel transmission system,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 1124-1131 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Mu and C. R. Menyuk, “Convergence of the chirped return-to-zero and dispersion managed soliton modulation formats in WDM systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 608-617 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Del Duce, R. I. Killey, and P. Bayvel, “Comparison of nonlinear pulse interactions in 160-Gb/s quasi-linear and dispersion managed soliton systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 1263-1271 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Cai, T. Adali, C. R. Menyuk, and J. M. Morris, “Sliding window criterion codes and concatenation scheme for mitigating timing-jitter-induced errors in WDM fiber transmissions,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 201-212 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Sugahara, H. Kato, T. Inoue, A. Maruta, and Y. Kodama, “Optimal dispersion management for a wavelength division multiplexed optical soliton transmission system,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 1547-1559 (1999).
[CrossRef]

N. J. Smith, N. J. Doran, W. Forysiak, and F. M. Knox, “Soliton transmission using periodic dispersion compensation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1808-1822 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (4)

Opt. Commun. (10)

A. Tonello, A. D. Capobianco, S. Wabnitz, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Tuning of in-line filter position for dispersion-managed soliton transmission,” Opt. Commun. 175, 103-108 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Lakoba, J. Yang, D. J. Kaup, and B. A. Malomed, “Conditions for stationary pulse propagation in the strong dispersion management regime,” Opt. Commun. 149, 366-375 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. Y. P. Chen, P. L. Chu, and B. A. Malomed, “An iterative numerical method for dispersion managed solitons,” Opt. Commun. 245, 425-435 (2005).
[CrossRef]

I. M. Uzunov, V. D. Stoev, and T. I. Tzoleva, “Influence of the initial phase difference between pulses in the N-soliton interaction in trains of unequal solitons in optical fibers,” Opt. Commun. 97, 307-311 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Boardman, H. M. Mehta, A. K. Sangarpaul, R. Putman, and K. Xie, “Interactions in bright N-soliton trains propagating in birefringent optical fibers,” Opt. Commun. 116, 208-218 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Mostofi and P. L. Chu, “Reversal of soliton interactions in optically phase-conjugated systems with unequal-amplitude and alternating-phase solitons,” Opt. Commun. 141, 259-264 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Wald, I. M. Uzunov, F. Lederer, and S. Wabnitz, “Optimization of soliton transmissions in dispersion-managed fiber links,” Opt. Commun. 145, 48-52 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Malomed, “Suppression of soliton jitter and interactions by means of dispersion management,” Opt. Commun. 147, 157-162 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Wald, B. Malomed, and F. Lederer, “Interaction of moderately dispersion managed solitons,” Opt. Commun. 172, 31-36 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Wabnitz and F. Neddam, “Pulse interactions and collisions in asymmetric higher-order dispersion managed fiber link,” Opt. Commun. 183, 395-405 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Fiber Technol. (1)

T. Hirooka and S. Wabnitz, “Nonlinear gain control of dispersion-managed soliton amplitude and collisions,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 6, 109-121 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (16)

I. M. Uzunov, V. D. Stoev, and T. I. Tzoleva, “N-soliton interaction in trains of unequal pulses in optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 17, 1417-1419 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kumar, M. Wald, F. Lederer, and A. Hasegawa, “Soliton interaction in strongly dispersion-managed optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1019-1021 (1998).
[CrossRef]

X. Liu, X. Wei, L. F. Mollenauer, C. J. McKinstrie, and C. J. Xie, “Collision-induced time shift of a dispersion-managed soliton and its minimization in wavelength-division-multiplexed transmission,” Opt. Lett. 28, 1412-1414 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. V. Sinkin, V. S. Grigoryan, J. Zweck, C. R. Menyuk, A. Docherty, and M. J. Ablowitz, “Calculation, characterization, and application of the time shift function in wavelength-division-multiplexed return-to-zero systems,” Opt. Lett. 30, 2056-2058 (2005).
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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The standard periodic dispersion-management (DM) scheme. The distribution of the local GVD coefficient is shown, and the DM cell is defined.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The evolution of a stable DM soliton is shown over two DM cells. It was created by launching Gaussian pulse (4), with A 0 = 1.16 and a 0 = 3.41 , into the system with PAD β ¯ = 0.1 . In the established state, this soliton has peak power P = 1.30 , minimum width T FWHM = 1.32 , and DM strength S = 1.14 . The same soliton appears as a narrower one in the example of the interaction displayed in Fig. 3.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

An example of the intrachannel interaction between two solitons, with initial separation Δ T 0 = 5 , ending by the collision. Here and below, the transmission distance is shown in units of the DM period. The two solitons are generated by inputs (4) with ( A 0 ) 1 = 0.78 , ( a 0 ) 1 = 2.25 and ( A 0 ) 2 = 1.16 , ( a 0 ) 2 = 3.41 . Peak powers, widths, and DM strengths of the respective stable DM solitons are, severally, P 1 = 0.61 , ( T FWHM ) 1 = 1.58 , S 1 = 0.80 , and P 2 = 1.30 , ( T FWHM ) 2 = 1.32 , S 2 = 1.14 (the latter soliton is the same one as in Fig. 2). PAD is β ¯ = 0.1 .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The dependence of the interaction distance, Z z int , as defined in the text, on the ratio of the peak powers of two solitons, in the system with PAD β ¯ = 0.1 . Minimum and maximum points are marked by arrows. The inset in panel (a) is a zoom of the plot around the deep minimum. The initial temporal separation between the solitons is (a) Δ T 0 = 5 and (b) Δ T 0 = 6 . In both panels, P 2 varies, while parameters of the first soliton (for the definiteness’ sake, it is chosen as the one in the delayed position, in the temporal domain, cf. Fig. 3), are fixed: P 1 = 0.68 , ( T FWHM ) 1 = 1.53 , S 1 = 0.85 in (a), and P 1 = 0.65 , ( T FWHM ) 1 = 1.55 , S 1 = 0.83 in (b). Recall S is the DM strength defined as per Eq. (5).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The same as in Fig. 4a, but for different values of PAD: (a) β ¯ = 0.2 and (b) β ¯ = 0.05 . The fixed parameters of the first soliton are P 1 = 1.51 , ( T FWHM ) 1 = 1.44 , S 1 = 0.96 in (a), and P 1 = 0.35 , ( T FWHM ) 1 = 1.56 , S 1 = 0.83 in (b).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The interaction length versus power P 2 for fixed parameters of the other soliton and initial separation between the solitons Δ T 0 = 5 . In (a), β ¯ = 0.2 , and the thin continuous curve corresponds to P 1 = 1.23 , ( T FWHM ) 1 = 1.53 , S 1 = 0.86 ; the thin dashed curve corresponds to P 1 = 1.45 , ( T FWHM ) 1 = 1.46 , S 1 = 0.94 ; the dotted curve corresponds to P 1 = 1.59 , ( T FWHM ) 1 = 1.42 , S 1 = 0.99 [this curve is close to the one in Fig. 5a]; and the bold continuous curve corresponds to P 1 = 2.23 , ( T FWHM ) 1 = 1.30 , S 1 = 1.18 . In (b), β ¯ = 0.1 , with the thin continuous curve corresponding to P 1 = 0.50 , ( T FWHM ) 1 = 1.66 , S 1 = 0.73 ; the thin dashed curve corresponding to P 1 = 0.59 , ( T FWHM ) 1 = 1.59 , S 1 = 0.79 ; the dotted curve corresponding to P 1 = 0.68 , ( T FWHM ) 1 = 1.53 , S 1 = 0.85 [this curve is actually tantamount to the one in Fig. 4a]; the bold continuous curve corresponding to P 1 = 0.81 , ( T FWHM ) 1 = 1.47 , S 1 = 0.93 ; and the bold dashed curve corresponding to P 1 = 0.98 , ( T FWHM ) 1 = 1.41 , S 1 = 1.01 . In (c), β ¯ = 0.05 , with the thin continuous curve corresponding to P 1 = 0.28 , ( T FWHM ) 1 = 1.63 , S 1 = 0.75 ; the thin dashed curve—to P 1 = 0.30 , ( T FWHM ) 1 = 1.61 , S 1 = 0.77 ; the dotted curve—to P 1 = 0.32 , ( T FWHM ) 1 = 1.58 , S 1 = 0.79 ; the bold continuous curve—to P 1 = 0.35 , ( T FWHM ) 1 = 1.56 , S 1 = 0.82 [this curve is very close to one shown in Fig. 5b]; the bold dashed curve—to P 1 = 0.38 , ( T FWHM ) 1 = 1.53 , S 1 = 0.86 ; and the curve composed of short rods (it looks like the lower dotted curve) corresponds to P 1 = 0.42 , ( T FWHM ) 1 = 1.49 , S 1 = 0.90 .

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

The interaction length versus power P for pairs of identical solitons, in the system with β ¯ = 0.2 (a), β ¯ = 0.1 (b), and β ¯ = 0.05 (c). In all the cases, the initial separation between the solitons is Δ T 0 = 5 .

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

The same as in Fig. 3, but for the set of three DM solitons, with β ¯ = 0.2 and peak powers { P 1 P 2 P 1 } . Here is shown an example with P 1 = 1.51 and P 2 = 0.91 , the widths and values of the DM strength of the respective DM solitons being ( T FWHM ) 1 = 1.44 , S 1 = 0.96 , and ( T FWHM ) 2 = 1.66 , S 2 = 0.73 . Actually, the soliton with peak power P 1 is the same as the soliton with the fixed power in Fig. 5.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

The same as in Fig. 5a, but for the soliton triplets, { P 1 P 2 P 1 } , with fixed P 1 and varying P 2 . The soliton with the fixed parameters is the same as its counterpart in Fig. 8.

Equations (8)

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i u z 1 2 β ( z ) 2 u τ 2 + | u | 2 u = 0 ,
β ( z ) = β ¯ + { β , 0 < z < L , β + , L < z < L + L + . }
L = 1 , | β | L = β + L + = 1 .
u 0 ( τ ) = A 0 exp ( a 0 τ 2 2 ) ,
S = [ | β ¯ + β | L + ( β ¯ + β + ) L + ] T FWHM 2 2 T FWHM 2 ,
( T FWHM ) max ( T FWHM ) min = 1 + ( 2 ln 2 ) 2 S 2 ,
E = π ( 2 ln 2 S ) P .
4.5 < Δ T < 5.5 or 5.5 < Δ T < 6.5 ,

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