Abstract

The complex permittivity for Pt, Pd, Ni, and Ti-silicide films as well as heavily doped p- and n-type silicon were determined by ellipsometry over the energy range 0.031eVto4.0eV. Fits to the Drude model gave bulk plasma and relaxation frequencies. Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, secondary ion mass spectrometry, and four-point probe measurements complemented the optical characterization. Calculations from measured permittivities of waveguide loss and mode confinement suggest that the considered materials are better suited for long-wavelength surface-plasmon-polariton waveguide applications than metal films.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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2009

2008

2005

1995

C. Sirtori, J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser with plasmon-enhanced waveguide operating at 8.4 μm wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3242-3244 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1992

A. Sellai, P. G. Mc Cafferty, P. Dawson, S. H. Raza, and H. S. Gamble, “Surface plasmons on PtSi for visible and infrared Schottky barrier enhanced detection,” Proc. SPIE 1735, 240-249 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Sellai, P. Dawson, W. R. Hendren, S. H. S. Magill, and H. S. Gamble, “Infra-red surface plasmons on platinum silicide,” Electron. Lett. 28, 164-165 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Amiotti, G. Guizzetti, F. Marabelli, A. Piaggi, V. N. Antonov, Vl. N. Antonov, O. Jepsen, O. K. Andersen, A. Borghesi, F. Nava, V. V. Nemonshkalendo, R. Madar, and A. Rouault, “Optical properties of Pd2Si,” Phys. Rev. B 45, 13285-13292 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

M. Tanaka, S. Kurita, M. Fujisawa, and F. Levy, “Dielectric properties of single-crystal TiSi2 from 0.6to20 eV,” Phys. Rev. B 43, 9133-9137 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990

M. Amiotti, A. Borghesi, G. Guizzetti, and F. Nava, “Optical properties of polycrystalline nickel silicides,” Phys. Rev. B 42, 8939-8946 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989

W. Henrion and H. Lange, “Optical properties of high-refractory disilicide thin films,” Phys. Status Solidi B 151, 375-382 (1989).
[CrossRef]

A. Borghesi, A. Piaggi, G. Guizzetti, F. Levy, M. Tanaka, and H. Fukutani, “Optical properties of single-crystal titanium disilicide,” Phys. Rev. B 40, 1611-1615 (1989).
[CrossRef]

R. Marani, R. Nava, A. Rouault, R. Madar, and J. P. Senateur, “Crystal growth, charaterisation and resistivity measurements of Pd2Si single crystals,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 1, 5887-5893 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Jimenez, Z. Wu, L. J. Schowaiter, B. D. Hunt, R. W. Fathauer, P. J. Grunthaner, and T. L. Lin, “Optical properties of epitaxial CoSi2 and NiSi2 films on silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 66, 2738-2741 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988

J. M. Mooney, “Infrared optical absorption of thin PtSi films between 1 and 6 μm,” J. Appl. Phys. 64, 4664-4667 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987

J. Lue and S. Mu, “Ellipsometry and structural studies of chromium, molybdenum, and platinum silicides,” Phys. Rev. B 36, 1657-1661 (1987).
[CrossRef]

K. Lee and J. T. Lue, “Formation of titanium silicides and their refractive index measurements,” Phys. Lett. A 125, 271-275 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986

H. Chen and J. Lue, “Ellipsometry measurements of nickel silicides,” J. Appl. Phys. 59, 2165-2167 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Lue, H. Chen, and S. Lew, “Optical constants of palladium silicides measured by a multiple-wavelength ellipsometer,” Phys. Rev. B 34, 5438-5442 (1986).
[CrossRef]

L. R. Doolittle, “A semiautomatic algorithm for Rutherford backscattering analysis,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 15, 227-231 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985

1983

J. M. Pimbley and W. Katz, “Infrared optical constants of PtSi,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 984-986 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1972

P. B. Johnson, R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370-4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Alexander, R. W.

Amiotti, M.

M. Amiotti, G. Guizzetti, F. Marabelli, A. Piaggi, V. N. Antonov, Vl. N. Antonov, O. Jepsen, O. K. Andersen, A. Borghesi, F. Nava, V. V. Nemonshkalendo, R. Madar, and A. Rouault, “Optical properties of Pd2Si,” Phys. Rev. B 45, 13285-13292 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Amiotti, A. Borghesi, G. Guizzetti, and F. Nava, “Optical properties of polycrystalline nickel silicides,” Phys. Rev. B 42, 8939-8946 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Andersen, O. K.

M. Amiotti, G. Guizzetti, F. Marabelli, A. Piaggi, V. N. Antonov, Vl. N. Antonov, O. Jepsen, O. K. Andersen, A. Borghesi, F. Nava, V. V. Nemonshkalendo, R. Madar, and A. Rouault, “Optical properties of Pd2Si,” Phys. Rev. B 45, 13285-13292 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Antonov, V. N.

M. Amiotti, G. Guizzetti, F. Marabelli, A. Piaggi, V. N. Antonov, Vl. N. Antonov, O. Jepsen, O. K. Andersen, A. Borghesi, F. Nava, V. V. Nemonshkalendo, R. Madar, and A. Rouault, “Optical properties of Pd2Si,” Phys. Rev. B 45, 13285-13292 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Antonov, Vl. N.

M. Amiotti, G. Guizzetti, F. Marabelli, A. Piaggi, V. N. Antonov, Vl. N. Antonov, O. Jepsen, O. K. Andersen, A. Borghesi, F. Nava, V. V. Nemonshkalendo, R. Madar, and A. Rouault, “Optical properties of Pd2Si,” Phys. Rev. B 45, 13285-13292 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Bell, R. J.

Bentmann, H.

H. Bentmann, A. Demkov, R. Gregory, and S. Zollner, “Electronic, optical and surface properties of PtSi thin film,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 205302 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Boltasseva, A.

Boreman, G.

J. Cleary, R. E. Peale, D. Shelton, G. Boreman, R. Soref, and W. Buchwald, “Silicides for infrared surface plasmon resonance biosensors,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc.1133-AA10-03 (2008).

Borghesi, A.

M. Amiotti, G. Guizzetti, F. Marabelli, A. Piaggi, V. N. Antonov, Vl. N. Antonov, O. Jepsen, O. K. Andersen, A. Borghesi, F. Nava, V. V. Nemonshkalendo, R. Madar, and A. Rouault, “Optical properties of Pd2Si,” Phys. Rev. B 45, 13285-13292 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Amiotti, A. Borghesi, G. Guizzetti, and F. Nava, “Optical properties of polycrystalline nickel silicides,” Phys. Rev. B 42, 8939-8946 (1990).
[CrossRef]

A. Borghesi, A. Piaggi, G. Guizzetti, F. Levy, M. Tanaka, and H. Fukutani, “Optical properties of single-crystal titanium disilicide,” Phys. Rev. B 40, 1611-1615 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

Brongersma, M. L.

M. L. Brongersma and P. G. Kik, Surface Plasmon Nanophotonics (Springer, 2007).
[CrossRef]

Buchwald, W.

R. Soref, R. E. Peale, and W. Buchwald, “Longwave plasmonics on doped silicon and silicides,” Opt. Express 16, 6507-6514 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Cleary, R. E. Peale, D. Shelton, G. Boreman, R. Soref, and W. Buchwald, “Silicides for infrared surface plasmon resonance biosensors,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc.1133-AA10-03 (2008).

R. Soref, S.-Y. Cho, W. Buchwald, R. E. Peale, and J. Cleary, “Silicon plasmonic waveguides,” Chapter 1 in An Introduction to Silicon Photonics, S.Fathpour and B.Jalali, eds. (Taylor and Francis, 2010).

Capasso, F.

C. Sirtori, J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser with plasmon-enhanced waveguide operating at 8.4 μm wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3242-3244 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Cardona, M.

P. Y. Yu and M. Cardona, Fundamentals of Semiconductors (Springer, 1996).

Chai, L.

Chen, H.

H. Chen and J. Lue, “Ellipsometry measurements of nickel silicides,” J. Appl. Phys. 59, 2165-2167 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Lue, H. Chen, and S. Lew, “Optical constants of palladium silicides measured by a multiple-wavelength ellipsometer,” Phys. Rev. B 34, 5438-5442 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

Cho, A. Y.

C. Sirtori, J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser with plasmon-enhanced waveguide operating at 8.4 μm wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3242-3244 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Cho, S.-Y.

R. Soref, S.-Y. Cho, W. Buchwald, R. E. Peale, and J. Cleary, “Silicon plasmonic waveguides,” Chapter 1 in An Introduction to Silicon Photonics, S.Fathpour and B.Jalali, eds. (Taylor and Francis, 2010).

Christy, R. W.

P. B. Johnson, R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370-4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Cleary, J.

J. Cleary, R. E. Peale, D. Shelton, G. Boreman, R. Soref, and W. Buchwald, “Silicides for infrared surface plasmon resonance biosensors,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc.1133-AA10-03 (2008).

R. Soref, S.-Y. Cho, W. Buchwald, R. E. Peale, and J. Cleary, “Silicon plasmonic waveguides,” Chapter 1 in An Introduction to Silicon Photonics, S.Fathpour and B.Jalali, eds. (Taylor and Francis, 2010).

Dawson, P.

A. Sellai, P. G. Mc Cafferty, P. Dawson, S. H. Raza, and H. S. Gamble, “Surface plasmons on PtSi for visible and infrared Schottky barrier enhanced detection,” Proc. SPIE 1735, 240-249 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Sellai, P. Dawson, W. R. Hendren, S. H. S. Magill, and H. S. Gamble, “Infra-red surface plasmons on platinum silicide,” Electron. Lett. 28, 164-165 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Demkov, A.

H. Bentmann, A. Demkov, R. Gregory, and S. Zollner, “Electronic, optical and surface properties of PtSi thin film,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 205302 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Doolittle, L. R.

L. R. Doolittle, “A semiautomatic algorithm for Rutherford backscattering analysis,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 15, 227-231 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Faist, J.

C. Sirtori, J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser with plasmon-enhanced waveguide operating at 8.4 μm wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3242-3244 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Fathauer, R. W.

J. R. Jimenez, Z. Wu, L. J. Schowaiter, B. D. Hunt, R. W. Fathauer, P. J. Grunthaner, and T. L. Lin, “Optical properties of epitaxial CoSi2 and NiSi2 films on silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 66, 2738-2741 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Fujisawa, M.

M. Tanaka, S. Kurita, M. Fujisawa, and F. Levy, “Dielectric properties of single-crystal TiSi2 from 0.6to20 eV,” Phys. Rev. B 43, 9133-9137 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Fukutani, H.

A. Borghesi, A. Piaggi, G. Guizzetti, F. Levy, M. Tanaka, and H. Fukutani, “Optical properties of single-crystal titanium disilicide,” Phys. Rev. B 40, 1611-1615 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Gamble, H. S.

A. Sellai, P. G. Mc Cafferty, P. Dawson, S. H. Raza, and H. S. Gamble, “Surface plasmons on PtSi for visible and infrared Schottky barrier enhanced detection,” Proc. SPIE 1735, 240-249 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Sellai, P. Dawson, W. R. Hendren, S. H. S. Magill, and H. S. Gamble, “Infra-red surface plasmons on platinum silicide,” Electron. Lett. 28, 164-165 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Gregory, R.

H. Bentmann, A. Demkov, R. Gregory, and S. Zollner, “Electronic, optical and surface properties of PtSi thin film,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 205302 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Grunthaner, P. J.

J. R. Jimenez, Z. Wu, L. J. Schowaiter, B. D. Hunt, R. W. Fathauer, P. J. Grunthaner, and T. L. Lin, “Optical properties of epitaxial CoSi2 and NiSi2 films on silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 66, 2738-2741 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Guizzetti, G.

M. Amiotti, G. Guizzetti, F. Marabelli, A. Piaggi, V. N. Antonov, Vl. N. Antonov, O. Jepsen, O. K. Andersen, A. Borghesi, F. Nava, V. V. Nemonshkalendo, R. Madar, and A. Rouault, “Optical properties of Pd2Si,” Phys. Rev. B 45, 13285-13292 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Amiotti, A. Borghesi, G. Guizzetti, and F. Nava, “Optical properties of polycrystalline nickel silicides,” Phys. Rev. B 42, 8939-8946 (1990).
[CrossRef]

A. Borghesi, A. Piaggi, G. Guizzetti, F. Levy, M. Tanaka, and H. Fukutani, “Optical properties of single-crystal titanium disilicide,” Phys. Rev. B 40, 1611-1615 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Hendren, W. R.

A. Sellai, P. Dawson, W. R. Hendren, S. H. S. Magill, and H. S. Gamble, “Infra-red surface plasmons on platinum silicide,” Electron. Lett. 28, 164-165 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Henrion, W.

W. Henrion and H. Lange, “Optical properties of high-refractory disilicide thin films,” Phys. Status Solidi B 151, 375-382 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Hu, M.

Hunt, B. D.

J. R. Jimenez, Z. Wu, L. J. Schowaiter, B. D. Hunt, R. W. Fathauer, P. J. Grunthaner, and T. L. Lin, “Optical properties of epitaxial CoSi2 and NiSi2 films on silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 66, 2738-2741 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Hutchinson, A. L.

C. Sirtori, J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser with plasmon-enhanced waveguide operating at 8.4 μm wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3242-3244 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Irene, E. A.

H. G. Tompkins and E. A. Irene, Handbook of Ellipsometry (William Andrew, 2005).
[CrossRef]

Jepsen, O.

M. Amiotti, G. Guizzetti, F. Marabelli, A. Piaggi, V. N. Antonov, Vl. N. Antonov, O. Jepsen, O. K. Andersen, A. Borghesi, F. Nava, V. V. Nemonshkalendo, R. Madar, and A. Rouault, “Optical properties of Pd2Si,” Phys. Rev. B 45, 13285-13292 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Jimenez, J. R.

J. R. Jimenez, Z. Wu, L. J. Schowaiter, B. D. Hunt, R. W. Fathauer, P. J. Grunthaner, and T. L. Lin, “Optical properties of epitaxial CoSi2 and NiSi2 films on silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 66, 2738-2741 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, P. B.

P. B. Johnson, R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370-4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Katz, W.

J. M. Pimbley and W. Katz, “Infrared optical constants of PtSi,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 984-986 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Kik, P. G.

M. L. Brongersma and P. G. Kik, Surface Plasmon Nanophotonics (Springer, 2007).
[CrossRef]

Kjaer, K.

Kurita, S.

M. Tanaka, S. Kurita, M. Fujisawa, and F. Levy, “Dielectric properties of single-crystal TiSi2 from 0.6to20 eV,” Phys. Rev. B 43, 9133-9137 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Lange, H.

W. Henrion and H. Lange, “Optical properties of high-refractory disilicide thin films,” Phys. Status Solidi B 151, 375-382 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Larsen, M. S.

Lee, K.

K. Lee and J. T. Lue, “Formation of titanium silicides and their refractive index measurements,” Phys. Lett. A 125, 271-275 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Leosson, K.

Levy, F.

M. Tanaka, S. Kurita, M. Fujisawa, and F. Levy, “Dielectric properties of single-crystal TiSi2 from 0.6to20 eV,” Phys. Rev. B 43, 9133-9137 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. Borghesi, A. Piaggi, G. Guizzetti, F. Levy, M. Tanaka, and H. Fukutani, “Optical properties of single-crystal titanium disilicide,” Phys. Rev. B 40, 1611-1615 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Lew, S.

J. H. Lue, H. Chen, and S. Lew, “Optical constants of palladium silicides measured by a multiple-wavelength ellipsometer,” Phys. Rev. B 34, 5438-5442 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

Lin, T. L.

J. R. Jimenez, Z. Wu, L. J. Schowaiter, B. D. Hunt, R. W. Fathauer, P. J. Grunthaner, and T. L. Lin, “Optical properties of epitaxial CoSi2 and NiSi2 films on silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 66, 2738-2741 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Long, L. L.

Lue, J.

J. Lue and S. Mu, “Ellipsometry and structural studies of chromium, molybdenum, and platinum silicides,” Phys. Rev. B 36, 1657-1661 (1987).
[CrossRef]

H. Chen and J. Lue, “Ellipsometry measurements of nickel silicides,” J. Appl. Phys. 59, 2165-2167 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Lue, J. H.

J. H. Lue, H. Chen, and S. Lew, “Optical constants of palladium silicides measured by a multiple-wavelength ellipsometer,” Phys. Rev. B 34, 5438-5442 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Lue, J. T.

K. Lee and J. T. Lue, “Formation of titanium silicides and their refractive index measurements,” Phys. Lett. A 125, 271-275 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Madar, R.

M. Amiotti, G. Guizzetti, F. Marabelli, A. Piaggi, V. N. Antonov, Vl. N. Antonov, O. Jepsen, O. K. Andersen, A. Borghesi, F. Nava, V. V. Nemonshkalendo, R. Madar, and A. Rouault, “Optical properties of Pd2Si,” Phys. Rev. B 45, 13285-13292 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. Marani, R. Nava, A. Rouault, R. Madar, and J. P. Senateur, “Crystal growth, charaterisation and resistivity measurements of Pd2Si single crystals,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 1, 5887-5893 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Maex, K.

K. Maex and M. Van Rossum, Properties of Metal Silicides (Short Run Press, 1995).

Magill, S. H. S.

A. Sellai, P. Dawson, W. R. Hendren, S. H. S. Magill, and H. S. Gamble, “Infra-red surface plasmons on platinum silicide,” Electron. Lett. 28, 164-165 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Maier, S. A.

S. A. Maier, Plasmonics: Fundamentals and Applications (Springer, 2007).

Marabelli, F.

M. Amiotti, G. Guizzetti, F. Marabelli, A. Piaggi, V. N. Antonov, Vl. N. Antonov, O. Jepsen, O. K. Andersen, A. Borghesi, F. Nava, V. V. Nemonshkalendo, R. Madar, and A. Rouault, “Optical properties of Pd2Si,” Phys. Rev. B 45, 13285-13292 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Marani, R.

R. Marani, R. Nava, A. Rouault, R. Madar, and J. P. Senateur, “Crystal growth, charaterisation and resistivity measurements of Pd2Si single crystals,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 1, 5887-5893 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Mararka, S. P.

S. P. Mararka, Silicides for VSLI Applications (Academic, 1983).

Mc Cafferty, P. G.

A. Sellai, P. G. Mc Cafferty, P. Dawson, S. H. Raza, and H. S. Gamble, “Surface plasmons on PtSi for visible and infrared Schottky barrier enhanced detection,” Proc. SPIE 1735, 240-249 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Mikhailova, Y. M.

Mooney, J. M.

J. M. Mooney, “Infrared optical absorption of thin PtSi films between 1 and 6 μm,” J. Appl. Phys. 64, 4664-4667 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Mu, S.

J. Lue and S. Mu, “Ellipsometry and structural studies of chromium, molybdenum, and platinum silicides,” Phys. Rev. B 36, 1657-1661 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Musin, R. R.

Nava, F.

M. Amiotti, G. Guizzetti, F. Marabelli, A. Piaggi, V. N. Antonov, Vl. N. Antonov, O. Jepsen, O. K. Andersen, A. Borghesi, F. Nava, V. V. Nemonshkalendo, R. Madar, and A. Rouault, “Optical properties of Pd2Si,” Phys. Rev. B 45, 13285-13292 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Amiotti, A. Borghesi, G. Guizzetti, and F. Nava, “Optical properties of polycrystalline nickel silicides,” Phys. Rev. B 42, 8939-8946 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Nava, R.

R. Marani, R. Nava, A. Rouault, R. Madar, and J. P. Senateur, “Crystal growth, charaterisation and resistivity measurements of Pd2Si single crystals,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 1, 5887-5893 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Nazarov, M. M.

Nemonshkalendo, V. V.

M. Amiotti, G. Guizzetti, F. Marabelli, A. Piaggi, V. N. Antonov, Vl. N. Antonov, O. Jepsen, O. K. Andersen, A. Borghesi, F. Nava, V. V. Nemonshkalendo, R. Madar, and A. Rouault, “Optical properties of Pd2Si,” Phys. Rev. B 45, 13285-13292 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ng, K. K.

K. K. Ng, Complete Guide to Semiconductor Devices, 2nd ed. (Wiley, 2002).

Nikolajsen, T.

Ordal, M. A.

Peale, R. E.

R. Soref, R. E. Peale, and W. Buchwald, “Longwave plasmonics on doped silicon and silicides,” Opt. Express 16, 6507-6514 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Cleary, R. E. Peale, D. Shelton, G. Boreman, R. Soref, and W. Buchwald, “Silicides for infrared surface plasmon resonance biosensors,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc.1133-AA10-03 (2008).

R. Soref, S.-Y. Cho, W. Buchwald, R. E. Peale, and J. Cleary, “Silicon plasmonic waveguides,” Chapter 1 in An Introduction to Silicon Photonics, S.Fathpour and B.Jalali, eds. (Taylor and Francis, 2010).

Piaggi, A.

M. Amiotti, G. Guizzetti, F. Marabelli, A. Piaggi, V. N. Antonov, Vl. N. Antonov, O. Jepsen, O. K. Andersen, A. Borghesi, F. Nava, V. V. Nemonshkalendo, R. Madar, and A. Rouault, “Optical properties of Pd2Si,” Phys. Rev. B 45, 13285-13292 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Borghesi, A. Piaggi, G. Guizzetti, F. Levy, M. Tanaka, and H. Fukutani, “Optical properties of single-crystal titanium disilicide,” Phys. Rev. B 40, 1611-1615 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Pimbley, J. M.

J. M. Pimbley and W. Katz, “Infrared optical constants of PtSi,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 984-986 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Querry, M. R.

Raether, H.

H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Springer, 1988).

Raza, S. H.

A. Sellai, P. G. Mc Cafferty, P. Dawson, S. H. Raza, and H. S. Gamble, “Surface plasmons on PtSi for visible and infrared Schottky barrier enhanced detection,” Proc. SPIE 1735, 240-249 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Rouault, A.

M. Amiotti, G. Guizzetti, F. Marabelli, A. Piaggi, V. N. Antonov, Vl. N. Antonov, O. Jepsen, O. K. Andersen, A. Borghesi, F. Nava, V. V. Nemonshkalendo, R. Madar, and A. Rouault, “Optical properties of Pd2Si,” Phys. Rev. B 45, 13285-13292 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. Marani, R. Nava, A. Rouault, R. Madar, and J. P. Senateur, “Crystal growth, charaterisation and resistivity measurements of Pd2Si single crystals,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 1, 5887-5893 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Schowaiter, L. J.

J. R. Jimenez, Z. Wu, L. J. Schowaiter, B. D. Hunt, R. W. Fathauer, P. J. Grunthaner, and T. L. Lin, “Optical properties of epitaxial CoSi2 and NiSi2 films on silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 66, 2738-2741 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Sellai, A.

A. Sellai, P. Dawson, W. R. Hendren, S. H. S. Magill, and H. S. Gamble, “Infra-red surface plasmons on platinum silicide,” Electron. Lett. 28, 164-165 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Sellai, P. G. Mc Cafferty, P. Dawson, S. H. Raza, and H. S. Gamble, “Surface plasmons on PtSi for visible and infrared Schottky barrier enhanced detection,” Proc. SPIE 1735, 240-249 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Senateur, J. P.

R. Marani, R. Nava, A. Rouault, R. Madar, and J. P. Senateur, “Crystal growth, charaterisation and resistivity measurements of Pd2Si single crystals,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 1, 5887-5893 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Shelton, D.

J. Cleary, R. E. Peale, D. Shelton, G. Boreman, R. Soref, and W. Buchwald, “Silicides for infrared surface plasmon resonance biosensors,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc.1133-AA10-03 (2008).

Shkurinov, A. P.

Sirtori, C.

C. Sirtori, J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser with plasmon-enhanced waveguide operating at 8.4 μm wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3242-3244 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sivco, D. L.

C. Sirtori, J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser with plasmon-enhanced waveguide operating at 8.4 μm wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3242-3244 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Soref, R.

R. Soref, R. E. Peale, and W. Buchwald, “Longwave plasmonics on doped silicon and silicides,” Opt. Express 16, 6507-6514 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Cleary, R. E. Peale, D. Shelton, G. Boreman, R. Soref, and W. Buchwald, “Silicides for infrared surface plasmon resonance biosensors,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc.1133-AA10-03 (2008).

R. Soref, S.-Y. Cho, W. Buchwald, R. E. Peale, and J. Cleary, “Silicon plasmonic waveguides,” Chapter 1 in An Introduction to Silicon Photonics, S.Fathpour and B.Jalali, eds. (Taylor and Francis, 2010).

Sze, S. M.

S. M. Sze, Physics of Semiconductor Devices (John Wiley & Sons, 1981).

Tanaka, M.

M. Tanaka, S. Kurita, M. Fujisawa, and F. Levy, “Dielectric properties of single-crystal TiSi2 from 0.6to20 eV,” Phys. Rev. B 43, 9133-9137 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. Borghesi, A. Piaggi, G. Guizzetti, F. Levy, M. Tanaka, and H. Fukutani, “Optical properties of single-crystal titanium disilicide,” Phys. Rev. B 40, 1611-1615 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Tompkins, H. G.

H. G. Tompkins and E. A. Irene, Handbook of Ellipsometry (William Andrew, 2005).
[CrossRef]

Van Rossum, M.

K. Maex and M. Van Rossum, Properties of Metal Silicides (Short Run Press, 1995).

Wang, Q.

Wu, Z.

J. R. Jimenez, Z. Wu, L. J. Schowaiter, B. D. Hunt, R. W. Fathauer, P. J. Grunthaner, and T. L. Lin, “Optical properties of epitaxial CoSi2 and NiSi2 films on silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 66, 2738-2741 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Xing, Q.

Yu, P. Y.

P. Y. Yu and M. Cardona, Fundamentals of Semiconductors (Springer, 1996).

Zheltikov, A. M.

Zollner, S.

H. Bentmann, A. Demkov, R. Gregory, and S. Zollner, “Electronic, optical and surface properties of PtSi thin film,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 205302 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

C. Sirtori, J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser with plasmon-enhanced waveguide operating at 8.4 μm wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3242-3244 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Pimbley and W. Katz, “Infrared optical constants of PtSi,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 984-986 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

A. Sellai, P. Dawson, W. R. Hendren, S. H. S. Magill, and H. S. Gamble, “Infra-red surface plasmons on platinum silicide,” Electron. Lett. 28, 164-165 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

J. R. Jimenez, Z. Wu, L. J. Schowaiter, B. D. Hunt, R. W. Fathauer, P. J. Grunthaner, and T. L. Lin, “Optical properties of epitaxial CoSi2 and NiSi2 films on silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 66, 2738-2741 (1989).
[CrossRef]

H. Chen and J. Lue, “Ellipsometry measurements of nickel silicides,” J. Appl. Phys. 59, 2165-2167 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Mooney, “Infrared optical absorption of thin PtSi films between 1 and 6 μm,” J. Appl. Phys. 64, 4664-4667 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

J. Phys.: Condens. Matter

R. Marani, R. Nava, A. Rouault, R. Madar, and J. P. Senateur, “Crystal growth, charaterisation and resistivity measurements of Pd2Si single crystals,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 1, 5887-5893 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B

L. R. Doolittle, “A semiautomatic algorithm for Rutherford backscattering analysis,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 15, 227-231 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Phys. Lett. A

K. Lee and J. T. Lue, “Formation of titanium silicides and their refractive index measurements,” Phys. Lett. A 125, 271-275 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B

P. B. Johnson, R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370-4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

M. Amiotti, G. Guizzetti, F. Marabelli, A. Piaggi, V. N. Antonov, Vl. N. Antonov, O. Jepsen, O. K. Andersen, A. Borghesi, F. Nava, V. V. Nemonshkalendo, R. Madar, and A. Rouault, “Optical properties of Pd2Si,” Phys. Rev. B 45, 13285-13292 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Borghesi, A. Piaggi, G. Guizzetti, F. Levy, M. Tanaka, and H. Fukutani, “Optical properties of single-crystal titanium disilicide,” Phys. Rev. B 40, 1611-1615 (1989).
[CrossRef]

M. Tanaka, S. Kurita, M. Fujisawa, and F. Levy, “Dielectric properties of single-crystal TiSi2 from 0.6to20 eV,” Phys. Rev. B 43, 9133-9137 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Lue, H. Chen, and S. Lew, “Optical constants of palladium silicides measured by a multiple-wavelength ellipsometer,” Phys. Rev. B 34, 5438-5442 (1986).
[CrossRef]

H. Bentmann, A. Demkov, R. Gregory, and S. Zollner, “Electronic, optical and surface properties of PtSi thin film,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 205302 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Lue and S. Mu, “Ellipsometry and structural studies of chromium, molybdenum, and platinum silicides,” Phys. Rev. B 36, 1657-1661 (1987).
[CrossRef]

M. Amiotti, A. Borghesi, G. Guizzetti, and F. Nava, “Optical properties of polycrystalline nickel silicides,” Phys. Rev. B 42, 8939-8946 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi B

W. Henrion and H. Lange, “Optical properties of high-refractory disilicide thin films,” Phys. Status Solidi B 151, 375-382 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

A. Sellai, P. G. Mc Cafferty, P. Dawson, S. H. Raza, and H. S. Gamble, “Surface plasmons on PtSi for visible and infrared Schottky barrier enhanced detection,” Proc. SPIE 1735, 240-249 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Other

M. L. Brongersma and P. G. Kik, Surface Plasmon Nanophotonics (Springer, 2007).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Maier, Plasmonics: Fundamentals and Applications (Springer, 2007).

K. K. Ng, Complete Guide to Semiconductor Devices, 2nd ed. (Wiley, 2002).

K. Maex and M. Van Rossum, Properties of Metal Silicides (Short Run Press, 1995).

J. Cleary, R. E. Peale, D. Shelton, G. Boreman, R. Soref, and W. Buchwald, “Silicides for infrared surface plasmon resonance biosensors,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc.1133-AA10-03 (2008).

S. P. Mararka, Silicides for VSLI Applications (Academic, 1983).

S. M. Sze, Physics of Semiconductor Devices (John Wiley & Sons, 1981).

H. G. Tompkins and E. A. Irene, Handbook of Ellipsometry (William Andrew, 2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Y. Yu and M. Cardona, Fundamentals of Semiconductors (Springer, 1996).

R. Soref, S.-Y. Cho, W. Buchwald, R. E. Peale, and J. Cleary, “Silicon plasmonic waveguides,” Chapter 1 in An Introduction to Silicon Photonics, S.Fathpour and B.Jalali, eds. (Taylor and Francis, 2010).

H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Springer, 1988).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Real and imaginary part of permittivity for Ag from ellipsometry data and data from [30]. Dashed curves show Drude fits.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Real and imaginary part of permittivity for doped Si from ellipsometry data. Dashed curves show Drude fits.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Real and imaginary part of permittivity for metal silicides from ellipsometry data. Only negative values of real part are plotted in this figure. Dotted curves show Drude fits.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Propagation length as a function of free-space wavelength. Symbols are calculated from experimental permittivity and curves are extrapolations based on Drude fits. The average of Pd, Ti, Ni, and Pt-silicides is plotted with error bars indicating the spread in their values. Results for Ag, included for comparison purposes, are calculated from experimental data (ours and [30]).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Penetration depths versus free-space wavelength. Symbols are calculated from experimental permittivity and curves are extrapolations based on Drude fits. The average of Pd, Ti, Ni, and Pt-silicides is plotted with error bars indicating the spread in their values. Upper four curves (triangles) show penetration depth into air while the lower four curves (circles) show penetration depth into the conductor. Results for Ag, included for comparison purposes, are calculated from experimental data (ours and [30]).

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Metal and Si Thicknesses Used to Obtain Silicides of this Study, Silicide Characterization Results, and Extracted Drude Theory Parameters

Tables Icon

Table 2 Published Silicide Drude Parameters and Reported Resistivity Values

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ϵ = ϵ [ 1 ω p 2 ω τ 2 ( 1 + ω 2 ω τ 2 ) ]
ϵ = ϵ ω p 2 ω τ ω ( 1 + ω 2 ω τ 2 ) ,
L z = 1 2 Im ( k ( ω ) ) ,
k ( ω ) = ω c ϵ d ϵ c ϵ d + ϵ c ,
L d , c = [ ω c Re ϵ d , c 2 ϵ d + ϵ c ] 1 .
ρ = ω τ ϵ ϵ o ω p 2 ,

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