Abstract

The half Kapitza–Dirac effect following photoionization of molecules in intense standing-wave laser fields is studied. Photoelectron angular distributions (PADs) of molecules split towards the laser propagation and exhibit multiple splitting, which manifests the integer property of the ponderomotive parameter, as the laser intensity increases. The PADs are asymmetric about the laser polarization plane and vary with the molecular alignment as well as the kinetic energy of photoelectrons.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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  1. P. H. Bucksbaum, D. W. Schumacher, and M. Bashkansky, “High-intensity Kapitza-Dirac effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 1182-1185 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. P. L. Kapitza and P. A. M. Dirac, “The reflection of electrons from standing light waves,” Proc. Cambridge Philos. Soc. 29, 297-300 (1933).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D.-S. Guo and G. W. F. Drake, “Multiphoton ionization in circularly polarized standing waves,” Phys. Rev. A 45, 6622-6635 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. D. L. Freimund, K. Aflatoon, and H. Batelaan, “Observation of the Kapitza-Dirac effect,” Nature 413, 142-143 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. S. Altshuler, L. M. Frantz and R. Braunstein, “Reflection of atoms from standing light waves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 17, 231-232 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  6. P. J. Martin, B. G. Oldaker, A. H. Miklich, and D. E. Pritchard, “Bragg scattering of atoms from a standing light wave,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 515-518 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  7. P. L. Gould, G. A. Ruff, and D. E. Pritchard, “Diffraction of atoms by light: the near-resonant Kapitza-Dirac effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 827-830 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. H. Batelaan, “The Kapitza-Dirac effect,” Contemp. Phys. 41, 369-381 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  9. C. Guo, M. Li, J. P. Nibarger, and G. N. Gibson, “Single and double ionization of diatomic molecules in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 58, R4271-R4274 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  10. C. Guo, “Multielectron effects on single-electron strong field ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2276-2279 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. J. Muth-Bőhm, A. Becker, and F. H. M. Faisal, “Suppressed molecular ionization for a class of diatomics in intense femtosecond laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2280-2283 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. X. Ren, J. Zhang, P. Liu, Y. Wang, and Z. Xu, “Ionization suppression of diatomic molecules in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 043411 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  13. O. Nairz, B. Brezger, M. Arndt, and A. Zeilinger, “Diffraction of complex molecules by structures made of light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 160401 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. H. Stapelfeldt and T. Seideman, “Colloquium: aligning molecules with strong laser pulses,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 75, 543-557 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  15. P. Dooley, I. V. Litvinyuk, K. F. Lee, D. M. Rayner, M. Spanner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Direct imaging of rotational wave-packet dynamics of diatomic molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 68, 023406 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  16. D. Pavičić, K. F. Lee, D. M. Rayner, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Direct measurement of the angular dependence of ionization for N2, O2, and CO2 in intense laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 243001 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. M. Okunishi, R. Itaya, K. Shimada, G. Prümper, K. Ueda, M. Busuladžić, A. Gazibegović-Busuladžić, D. B. Milošević, and W. Becker, “Two-source double-slit interference in angle-resolved high-energy above-threshold ionization spectra of diatoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 043001 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. R. Gush and H. P. Gush, “Electron scattering from a standing light wave,” Phys. Rev. D 3, 1712-1721 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  19. E. A. Coutsias and J. K. McIver, “Nonrelativistic Kapitza-Dirac scattering,” Phys. Rev. A 31, 3155-3168 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. R. Z. Olshan, A. Gover, S. Ruschin, and H. Kleinman, “Observation of electron trapping and phase-area displacement in the interaction between an electron beam and two counter-propagating laser beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 483-486 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. L. Rosenberg, “Effect of virtual Compton scattering on electron propagation in a laser field,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 1122-1130 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. D.-S. Guo, T. Åberg, and B. Crasemann, “Scattering theory of multiphoton ionization in strong fields,” Phys. Rev. A 40, 4997-5005 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. D.-S. Guo, “Theory of the Kapitza-Dirac effect in strong radiation fields,” Phys. Rev. A 53, 4311-4319 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. X. Li, J. Zhang, Z. Xu, P. Fu, D.-S. Guo, and R. R. Freeman, “Theory of the Kapitza-Dirac diffraction effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 233603 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. X. Hu, H. X. Wang, and D.-S. Guo, “Phased Bessel functions,” Can. J. Phys. 86, 863-870 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  26. H. D. Cohen and U. Fano, “Interference in the photo-ionization of molecules,” Phys. Rev. 150, 30-33 (1966).
    [CrossRef]

2009

M. Okunishi, R. Itaya, K. Shimada, G. Prümper, K. Ueda, M. Busuladžić, A. Gazibegović-Busuladžić, D. B. Milošević, and W. Becker, “Two-source double-slit interference in angle-resolved high-energy above-threshold ionization spectra of diatoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 043001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

X. Hu, H. X. Wang, and D.-S. Guo, “Phased Bessel functions,” Can. J. Phys. 86, 863-870 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. Ren, J. Zhang, P. Liu, Y. Wang, and Z. Xu, “Ionization suppression of diatomic molecules in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 043411 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

D. Pavičić, K. F. Lee, D. M. Rayner, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Direct measurement of the angular dependence of ionization for N2, O2, and CO2 in intense laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 243001 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

X. Li, J. Zhang, Z. Xu, P. Fu, D.-S. Guo, and R. R. Freeman, “Theory of the Kapitza-Dirac diffraction effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 233603 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

H. Stapelfeldt and T. Seideman, “Colloquium: aligning molecules with strong laser pulses,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 75, 543-557 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Dooley, I. V. Litvinyuk, K. F. Lee, D. M. Rayner, M. Spanner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Direct imaging of rotational wave-packet dynamics of diatomic molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 68, 023406 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001

O. Nairz, B. Brezger, M. Arndt, and A. Zeilinger, “Diffraction of complex molecules by structures made of light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 160401 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. L. Freimund, K. Aflatoon, and H. Batelaan, “Observation of the Kapitza-Dirac effect,” Nature 413, 142-143 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

H. Batelaan, “The Kapitza-Dirac effect,” Contemp. Phys. 41, 369-381 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Guo, “Multielectron effects on single-electron strong field ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2276-2279 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Muth-Bőhm, A. Becker, and F. H. M. Faisal, “Suppressed molecular ionization for a class of diatomics in intense femtosecond laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2280-2283 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998

C. Guo, M. Li, J. P. Nibarger, and G. N. Gibson, “Single and double ionization of diatomic molecules in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 58, R4271-R4274 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996

D.-S. Guo, “Theory of the Kapitza-Dirac effect in strong radiation fields,” Phys. Rev. A 53, 4311-4319 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994

L. Rosenberg, “Effect of virtual Compton scattering on electron propagation in a laser field,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 1122-1130 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992

D.-S. Guo and G. W. F. Drake, “Multiphoton ionization in circularly polarized standing waves,” Phys. Rev. A 45, 6622-6635 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989

D.-S. Guo, T. Åberg, and B. Crasemann, “Scattering theory of multiphoton ionization in strong fields,” Phys. Rev. A 40, 4997-5005 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988

P. J. Martin, B. G. Oldaker, A. H. Miklich, and D. E. Pritchard, “Bragg scattering of atoms from a standing light wave,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 515-518 (1988).
[CrossRef]

P. H. Bucksbaum, D. W. Schumacher, and M. Bashkansky, “High-intensity Kapitza-Dirac effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 1182-1185 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987

R. Z. Olshan, A. Gover, S. Ruschin, and H. Kleinman, “Observation of electron trapping and phase-area displacement in the interaction between an electron beam and two counter-propagating laser beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 483-486 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986

P. L. Gould, G. A. Ruff, and D. E. Pritchard, “Diffraction of atoms by light: the near-resonant Kapitza-Dirac effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 827-830 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985

E. A. Coutsias and J. K. McIver, “Nonrelativistic Kapitza-Dirac scattering,” Phys. Rev. A 31, 3155-3168 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1971

R. Gush and H. P. Gush, “Electron scattering from a standing light wave,” Phys. Rev. D 3, 1712-1721 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1966

H. D. Cohen and U. Fano, “Interference in the photo-ionization of molecules,” Phys. Rev. 150, 30-33 (1966).
[CrossRef]

S. Altshuler, L. M. Frantz and R. Braunstein, “Reflection of atoms from standing light waves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 17, 231-232 (1966).
[CrossRef]

1933

P. L. Kapitza and P. A. M. Dirac, “The reflection of electrons from standing light waves,” Proc. Cambridge Philos. Soc. 29, 297-300 (1933).
[CrossRef]

Åberg, T.

D.-S. Guo, T. Åberg, and B. Crasemann, “Scattering theory of multiphoton ionization in strong fields,” Phys. Rev. A 40, 4997-5005 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aflatoon, K.

D. L. Freimund, K. Aflatoon, and H. Batelaan, “Observation of the Kapitza-Dirac effect,” Nature 413, 142-143 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Altshuler, S.

S. Altshuler, L. M. Frantz and R. Braunstein, “Reflection of atoms from standing light waves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 17, 231-232 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Arndt, M.

O. Nairz, B. Brezger, M. Arndt, and A. Zeilinger, “Diffraction of complex molecules by structures made of light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 160401 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bashkansky, M.

P. H. Bucksbaum, D. W. Schumacher, and M. Bashkansky, “High-intensity Kapitza-Dirac effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 1182-1185 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Batelaan, H.

D. L. Freimund, K. Aflatoon, and H. Batelaan, “Observation of the Kapitza-Dirac effect,” Nature 413, 142-143 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Batelaan, “The Kapitza-Dirac effect,” Contemp. Phys. 41, 369-381 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Becker, A.

J. Muth-Bőhm, A. Becker, and F. H. M. Faisal, “Suppressed molecular ionization for a class of diatomics in intense femtosecond laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2280-2283 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Becker, W.

M. Okunishi, R. Itaya, K. Shimada, G. Prümper, K. Ueda, M. Busuladžić, A. Gazibegović-Busuladžić, D. B. Milošević, and W. Becker, “Two-source double-slit interference in angle-resolved high-energy above-threshold ionization spectra of diatoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 043001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Braunstein, R.

S. Altshuler, L. M. Frantz and R. Braunstein, “Reflection of atoms from standing light waves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 17, 231-232 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Brezger, B.

O. Nairz, B. Brezger, M. Arndt, and A. Zeilinger, “Diffraction of complex molecules by structures made of light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 160401 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bucksbaum, P. H.

P. H. Bucksbaum, D. W. Schumacher, and M. Bashkansky, “High-intensity Kapitza-Dirac effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 1182-1185 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Busuladžic, M.

M. Okunishi, R. Itaya, K. Shimada, G. Prümper, K. Ueda, M. Busuladžić, A. Gazibegović-Busuladžić, D. B. Milošević, and W. Becker, “Two-source double-slit interference in angle-resolved high-energy above-threshold ionization spectra of diatoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 043001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cohen, H. D.

H. D. Cohen and U. Fano, “Interference in the photo-ionization of molecules,” Phys. Rev. 150, 30-33 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Corkum, P. B.

D. Pavičić, K. F. Lee, D. M. Rayner, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Direct measurement of the angular dependence of ionization for N2, O2, and CO2 in intense laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 243001 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Dooley, I. V. Litvinyuk, K. F. Lee, D. M. Rayner, M. Spanner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Direct imaging of rotational wave-packet dynamics of diatomic molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 68, 023406 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Coutsias, E. A.

E. A. Coutsias and J. K. McIver, “Nonrelativistic Kapitza-Dirac scattering,” Phys. Rev. A 31, 3155-3168 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crasemann, B.

D.-S. Guo, T. Åberg, and B. Crasemann, “Scattering theory of multiphoton ionization in strong fields,” Phys. Rev. A 40, 4997-5005 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dirac, P. A. M.

P. L. Kapitza and P. A. M. Dirac, “The reflection of electrons from standing light waves,” Proc. Cambridge Philos. Soc. 29, 297-300 (1933).
[CrossRef]

Dooley, P.

P. Dooley, I. V. Litvinyuk, K. F. Lee, D. M. Rayner, M. Spanner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Direct imaging of rotational wave-packet dynamics of diatomic molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 68, 023406 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Drake, G. W. F.

D.-S. Guo and G. W. F. Drake, “Multiphoton ionization in circularly polarized standing waves,” Phys. Rev. A 45, 6622-6635 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Faisal, F. H. M.

J. Muth-Bőhm, A. Becker, and F. H. M. Faisal, “Suppressed molecular ionization for a class of diatomics in intense femtosecond laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2280-2283 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fano, U.

H. D. Cohen and U. Fano, “Interference in the photo-ionization of molecules,” Phys. Rev. 150, 30-33 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Frantz, L. M.

S. Altshuler, L. M. Frantz and R. Braunstein, “Reflection of atoms from standing light waves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 17, 231-232 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Freeman, R. R.

X. Li, J. Zhang, Z. Xu, P. Fu, D.-S. Guo, and R. R. Freeman, “Theory of the Kapitza-Dirac diffraction effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 233603 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Freimund, D. L.

D. L. Freimund, K. Aflatoon, and H. Batelaan, “Observation of the Kapitza-Dirac effect,” Nature 413, 142-143 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fu, P.

X. Li, J. Zhang, Z. Xu, P. Fu, D.-S. Guo, and R. R. Freeman, “Theory of the Kapitza-Dirac diffraction effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 233603 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gazibegovic-Busuladžic, A.

M. Okunishi, R. Itaya, K. Shimada, G. Prümper, K. Ueda, M. Busuladžić, A. Gazibegović-Busuladžić, D. B. Milošević, and W. Becker, “Two-source double-slit interference in angle-resolved high-energy above-threshold ionization spectra of diatoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 043001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gibson, G. N.

C. Guo, M. Li, J. P. Nibarger, and G. N. Gibson, “Single and double ionization of diatomic molecules in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 58, R4271-R4274 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gould, P. L.

P. L. Gould, G. A. Ruff, and D. E. Pritchard, “Diffraction of atoms by light: the near-resonant Kapitza-Dirac effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 827-830 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gover, A.

R. Z. Olshan, A. Gover, S. Ruschin, and H. Kleinman, “Observation of electron trapping and phase-area displacement in the interaction between an electron beam and two counter-propagating laser beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 483-486 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guo, C.

C. Guo, “Multielectron effects on single-electron strong field ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2276-2279 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Guo, M. Li, J. P. Nibarger, and G. N. Gibson, “Single and double ionization of diatomic molecules in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 58, R4271-R4274 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Guo, D.-S.

X. Hu, H. X. Wang, and D.-S. Guo, “Phased Bessel functions,” Can. J. Phys. 86, 863-870 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. Li, J. Zhang, Z. Xu, P. Fu, D.-S. Guo, and R. R. Freeman, “Theory of the Kapitza-Dirac diffraction effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 233603 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D.-S. Guo, “Theory of the Kapitza-Dirac effect in strong radiation fields,” Phys. Rev. A 53, 4311-4319 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D.-S. Guo and G. W. F. Drake, “Multiphoton ionization in circularly polarized standing waves,” Phys. Rev. A 45, 6622-6635 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D.-S. Guo, T. Åberg, and B. Crasemann, “Scattering theory of multiphoton ionization in strong fields,” Phys. Rev. A 40, 4997-5005 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gush, H. P.

R. Gush and H. P. Gush, “Electron scattering from a standing light wave,” Phys. Rev. D 3, 1712-1721 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Gush, R.

R. Gush and H. P. Gush, “Electron scattering from a standing light wave,” Phys. Rev. D 3, 1712-1721 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Hu, X.

X. Hu, H. X. Wang, and D.-S. Guo, “Phased Bessel functions,” Can. J. Phys. 86, 863-870 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Itaya, R.

M. Okunishi, R. Itaya, K. Shimada, G. Prümper, K. Ueda, M. Busuladžić, A. Gazibegović-Busuladžić, D. B. Milošević, and W. Becker, “Two-source double-slit interference in angle-resolved high-energy above-threshold ionization spectra of diatoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 043001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kapitza, P. L.

P. L. Kapitza and P. A. M. Dirac, “The reflection of electrons from standing light waves,” Proc. Cambridge Philos. Soc. 29, 297-300 (1933).
[CrossRef]

Kleinman, H.

R. Z. Olshan, A. Gover, S. Ruschin, and H. Kleinman, “Observation of electron trapping and phase-area displacement in the interaction between an electron beam and two counter-propagating laser beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 483-486 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, K. F.

D. Pavičić, K. F. Lee, D. M. Rayner, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Direct measurement of the angular dependence of ionization for N2, O2, and CO2 in intense laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 243001 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Dooley, I. V. Litvinyuk, K. F. Lee, D. M. Rayner, M. Spanner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Direct imaging of rotational wave-packet dynamics of diatomic molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 68, 023406 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Li, M.

C. Guo, M. Li, J. P. Nibarger, and G. N. Gibson, “Single and double ionization of diatomic molecules in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 58, R4271-R4274 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Li, X.

X. Li, J. Zhang, Z. Xu, P. Fu, D.-S. Guo, and R. R. Freeman, “Theory of the Kapitza-Dirac diffraction effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 233603 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Litvinyuk, I. V.

P. Dooley, I. V. Litvinyuk, K. F. Lee, D. M. Rayner, M. Spanner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Direct imaging of rotational wave-packet dynamics of diatomic molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 68, 023406 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Liu, P.

X. Ren, J. Zhang, P. Liu, Y. Wang, and Z. Xu, “Ionization suppression of diatomic molecules in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 043411 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Martin, P. J.

P. J. Martin, B. G. Oldaker, A. H. Miklich, and D. E. Pritchard, “Bragg scattering of atoms from a standing light wave,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 515-518 (1988).
[CrossRef]

McIver, J. K.

E. A. Coutsias and J. K. McIver, “Nonrelativistic Kapitza-Dirac scattering,” Phys. Rev. A 31, 3155-3168 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miklich, A. H.

P. J. Martin, B. G. Oldaker, A. H. Miklich, and D. E. Pritchard, “Bragg scattering of atoms from a standing light wave,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 515-518 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Miloševic, D. B.

M. Okunishi, R. Itaya, K. Shimada, G. Prümper, K. Ueda, M. Busuladžić, A. Gazibegović-Busuladžić, D. B. Milošević, and W. Becker, “Two-source double-slit interference in angle-resolved high-energy above-threshold ionization spectra of diatoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 043001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Muth-Bohm, J.

J. Muth-Bőhm, A. Becker, and F. H. M. Faisal, “Suppressed molecular ionization for a class of diatomics in intense femtosecond laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2280-2283 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nairz, O.

O. Nairz, B. Brezger, M. Arndt, and A. Zeilinger, “Diffraction of complex molecules by structures made of light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 160401 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nibarger, J. P.

C. Guo, M. Li, J. P. Nibarger, and G. N. Gibson, “Single and double ionization of diatomic molecules in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 58, R4271-R4274 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Okunishi, M.

M. Okunishi, R. Itaya, K. Shimada, G. Prümper, K. Ueda, M. Busuladžić, A. Gazibegović-Busuladžić, D. B. Milošević, and W. Becker, “Two-source double-slit interference in angle-resolved high-energy above-threshold ionization spectra of diatoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 043001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oldaker, B. G.

P. J. Martin, B. G. Oldaker, A. H. Miklich, and D. E. Pritchard, “Bragg scattering of atoms from a standing light wave,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 515-518 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Olshan, R. Z.

R. Z. Olshan, A. Gover, S. Ruschin, and H. Kleinman, “Observation of electron trapping and phase-area displacement in the interaction between an electron beam and two counter-propagating laser beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 483-486 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pavicic, D.

D. Pavičić, K. F. Lee, D. M. Rayner, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Direct measurement of the angular dependence of ionization for N2, O2, and CO2 in intense laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 243001 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pritchard, D. E.

P. J. Martin, B. G. Oldaker, A. H. Miklich, and D. E. Pritchard, “Bragg scattering of atoms from a standing light wave,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 515-518 (1988).
[CrossRef]

P. L. Gould, G. A. Ruff, and D. E. Pritchard, “Diffraction of atoms by light: the near-resonant Kapitza-Dirac effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 827-830 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prümper, G.

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Okunishi, R. Itaya, K. Shimada, G. Prümper, K. Ueda, M. Busuladžić, A. Gazibegović-Busuladžić, D. B. Milošević, and W. Becker, “Two-source double-slit interference in angle-resolved high-energy above-threshold ionization spectra of diatoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 043001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

PADs for the 5th ATI peak at different laser intensities: (a) 2 u p = 0.90 ; (b) 2 u p = 1.10 ; (c) 2 u p = 1.90 ; and (d) 2 u p = 2.20 . Other parameters: λ = 400 nm , R = ( 2 , 0 , 0 ) , and E b = 30.0 eV .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

PADs of the 10th ATI peak for different molecular alignments: (a) θ R = 0 ; (b) θ R = π 6 ; (c) θ R = π 4 ; and (d) θ R = 2 π 5 . Other parameters: R = 2.0 a.u. , ϕ R = 0 , and 2 u p = 1.70 .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

PADs for the 10th ATI peak for different molecular alignments. Other parameters: θ R = π 6 and 2 u p = 2.36 . Each PAD is normalized by its maximum, respectively.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

PADs of the (a) 5th; (b) 10th; and (c) 20th ATI peaks for the molecules aligned away from the laser beam with θ R = π 4 , ϕ R = 0 . Other parameters: 2 u p = 1.90 , λ = 400 nm , and E b = 30.0 eV .

Equations (8)

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d w d Ω P f = ( 2 m 3 ω 5 ) 1 2 ( 2 π ) 2 ( n E b ω ) 1 2 × | c h ( j s = n ) ( 2 u p j ) W X s ( ζ f ) X j * ( ζ f ) | 2 ,
ζ f = 2 2 u p m e ω P f ϵ ,
W = Φ ( P + , R ) F + + Φ ( P , R ) F ,
F ± = 2 π Δ ± , Δ = m 2 m 1 ,
Δ ± = P f cos θ f ω ± [ ( P f cos θ f ω ) 2 2 m e ( 2 u p s ) ω ] 1 2 .
Φ ( R , r ) = Φ i ( r + R 2 ) + Φ i ( r R 2 ) 2 [ 1 + S ( R ) ] ,
Φ σ g ( P , R ) = 2 3 ( π a 0 3 ) 1 2 ( 1 + P 2 a 0 2 ) 2 2 cos ( P R 2 ) 2 [ 1 + S ( R ) ] ,
α max = arcsin ( 2 u p s n E b ω ) 1 2 .

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