Abstract

The ultraviolet (UV) laser irradiation (248 nm) of monocrystalline wurtzite ZnO with 450 fs pulses results in surface modification. A formation of two orthogonal ripple structures with a period of 400–500 nm was observed oriented parallel and perpendicular to the laser beam polarization. The UV exciton emission obtained on the irradiated domains is found greatly enhanced locally up to 103 times. The photoluminescence band is redshifted by 2–3 nm and 40% narrower (full width at half-maximum), while at the same time the E2 (439cm1) Raman band intensity increases up to 50 times. The process is found irreversible with the threshold fluence of 11  mJ/cm2, which is considerably lower than the ablation threshold 115  mJ/cm2. Fine surface nanostructuring on the scale of 10  nm may be responsible for the observed effect. © 2008 Optical Society of America

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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2009

2008

P. Cheng, D. Li, Z. Yuan, P. Chen, and D. Yang, “Enhancement of ZnO light emission via coupling with localized surface plasmon of Ag island film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 041119 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M.-K. Lee, T. G. Kim, W. Kim, and Y.-M. Sung, “Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) electron and energy transfer in noble metal-zinc oxide composite nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112, 10079-10082 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Jia, M. Baba, M. Suzuki, R. A. Ganeev, H. Kuroda, J. Qiu, X. Wang, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Fabrication of two-dimensional periodic nanostructures by two-beam interference of femtosecond pulses,” Opt. Express 16, 1874-1878 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

X. D. Guo, R. X. Li, Y. Hang, Z. Z. Xu, B. K. Yu, H. L. Ma, and X. W. Sun, “Raman spectroscopy and luminescent properties of ZnO nanostructures fabricated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Mater. Lett. 61, 4583-4586 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Wagner and J. Gottmann, “Sub-wavelength ripple formation on various materials induced by tightly focused femtosecond laser radiation,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 59, 333-337 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Q. Z. Zhao, S. Malzer, and L. J. Wang, “Self-organized tungsten nanospikes grown on subwavelength ripples induced by femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 15, 15741-15746 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Tomita, K. Kinoshita, S. Matsuo, and S. Hashimoto, “Effect of surface roughening on femtosecond laser-induced ripple structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 153115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Ashrafi and C. Jagadish, “Review of zincblende ZnO: stability of metastable ZnO phases,” J. Appl. Phys. 102, 071101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Cao and W. Du, “Strong exciton emission from ZnO microcrystal formed by continuous 532 nm laser irradiation,” J. Lumin. 124, 260-264 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sun and M. N. R. Ashfold, “Photoluminescence from diameter-selected ZnO nanorod arrays,” Nanotechnology 18, 245701 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, T. Q. Jia, Y. Cheng, N. S. Xu, and Z. Z. Xu, “A uniform 290 nm periodic square structure on ZnO fabricated by two-beam femtosecond laser ablation,” Nanotechnology 18, 505301 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

A. B. Djurisic and H. Y. Leung, “Optical properties of ZnO nanostructures,” Small 2, 944-961 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

C. Jin, A. Tiwari, and R. J. Narayan, “Ultraviolet-illumination-enhanced photoluminescence effect in zinc oxide thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 083707 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ü. Özgür, Ya. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Dogan, V. Avrutin, S.-J. Cho, and H. Morkoç, “A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 041301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

A. Z. L. Wang, “Zinc oxide nanostructures: growth, properties and applications,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 16, R829-R858 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Costache, S. Kouteva-Arguirova, and J. Reif, “Sub-damage-threshold femtosecond laser ablation from crystalline Si: surface nanostructures and phase transformation,” Appl. Phys. A 79, 1429-1432 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Serrano, A. H. Romero, F. J. Manjón, R. Lauck, M. Cardona, and A. Rubio, “Pressure dependence of the lattice dynamics of ZnO: an ab initio approach,” Phys. Rev. B 69, 094306 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Lakowicz, C. D. Geddes, I. Gryczynski, J. Malicka, Z. Gryczynski, K. Aslan, J. Lukomska, E. Matveeva, J. Zhang, R. Badugu, and J. Huang, “Advances in surface-enhanced fluorescence,” J. Fluoresc. 14, 425-441 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

F. Costache, M. Henyk, and J. Reif, “Surface patterning on insulators upon femtosecond laser ablation,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 208-209, 486-491 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. Ashkenov, B. N. Mbenkum, C. Bundesmann, V. Riede, M. Lorenz, D. Spemann, E. M. Kaidashev, A. Kasic, M. Schubert, and M. Grundmann, “Infrared dielectric functions and phonon modes of high-quality ZnO films,” J. Appl. Phys. 93, 126-133 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

J. Reif, F. Costache, M. Henyk, and S. V. Pandelov, “Ripples revisited: non-classical morphology at the bottom of femtosecond laser ablation craters in transparent dielectrics,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 197-198, 891-895 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1998

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, H. C. Ong, S. T. Ho, J. Y. Dai, J. Y. Wu, and R. P. H. Chang, “Ultraviolet lasing in resonators formed by scattering in semiconductor polycrystalline films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3656-3658 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Monticone, R. Tufeu, and A. V. Kanaev, “Complex nature of the UV and visible fluorescence of colloidal ZnO nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. B 102, 2854-2862 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1994

M. Raff, M. Schütze, C. Trappe, R. Hannot, and H. Kurz, “Laser-stimulated nonthermal particle emission from InP and GaAs surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 11031-11036 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Alivov, Ya. I.

Ü. Özgür, Ya. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Dogan, V. Avrutin, S.-J. Cho, and H. Morkoç, “A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 041301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ashfold, M. N. R.

Y. Sun and M. N. R. Ashfold, “Photoluminescence from diameter-selected ZnO nanorod arrays,” Nanotechnology 18, 245701 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ashkenov, N.

N. Ashkenov, B. N. Mbenkum, C. Bundesmann, V. Riede, M. Lorenz, D. Spemann, E. M. Kaidashev, A. Kasic, M. Schubert, and M. Grundmann, “Infrared dielectric functions and phonon modes of high-quality ZnO films,” J. Appl. Phys. 93, 126-133 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ashrafi, A.

A. Ashrafi and C. Jagadish, “Review of zincblende ZnO: stability of metastable ZnO phases,” J. Appl. Phys. 102, 071101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Aslan, K.

J. R. Lakowicz, C. D. Geddes, I. Gryczynski, J. Malicka, Z. Gryczynski, K. Aslan, J. Lukomska, E. Matveeva, J. Zhang, R. Badugu, and J. Huang, “Advances in surface-enhanced fluorescence,” J. Fluoresc. 14, 425-441 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Avrutin, V.

Ü. Özgür, Ya. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Dogan, V. Avrutin, S.-J. Cho, and H. Morkoç, “A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 041301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Baba, M.

Badugu, R.

J. R. Lakowicz, C. D. Geddes, I. Gryczynski, J. Malicka, Z. Gryczynski, K. Aslan, J. Lukomska, E. Matveeva, J. Zhang, R. Badugu, and J. Huang, “Advances in surface-enhanced fluorescence,” J. Fluoresc. 14, 425-441 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bundesmann, C.

N. Ashkenov, B. N. Mbenkum, C. Bundesmann, V. Riede, M. Lorenz, D. Spemann, E. M. Kaidashev, A. Kasic, M. Schubert, and M. Grundmann, “Infrared dielectric functions and phonon modes of high-quality ZnO films,” J. Appl. Phys. 93, 126-133 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cao, H.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, H. C. Ong, S. T. Ho, J. Y. Dai, J. Y. Wu, and R. P. H. Chang, “Ultraviolet lasing in resonators formed by scattering in semiconductor polycrystalline films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3656-3658 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cao, W.

W. Cao and W. Du, “Strong exciton emission from ZnO microcrystal formed by continuous 532 nm laser irradiation,” J. Lumin. 124, 260-264 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cardona, M.

J. Serrano, A. H. Romero, F. J. Manjón, R. Lauck, M. Cardona, and A. Rubio, “Pressure dependence of the lattice dynamics of ZnO: an ab initio approach,” Phys. Rev. B 69, 094306 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chang, R. P. H.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, H. C. Ong, S. T. Ho, J. Y. Dai, J. Y. Wu, and R. P. H. Chang, “Ultraviolet lasing in resonators formed by scattering in semiconductor polycrystalline films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3656-3658 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chen, P.

P. Cheng, D. Li, Z. Yuan, P. Chen, and D. Yang, “Enhancement of ZnO light emission via coupling with localized surface plasmon of Ag island film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 041119 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, P.

P. Cheng, D. Li, Z. Yuan, P. Chen, and D. Yang, “Enhancement of ZnO light emission via coupling with localized surface plasmon of Ag island film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 041119 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, Y.

M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, T. Q. Jia, Y. Cheng, N. S. Xu, and Z. Z. Xu, “A uniform 290 nm periodic square structure on ZnO fabricated by two-beam femtosecond laser ablation,” Nanotechnology 18, 505301 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cho, S. -J.

Ü. Özgür, Ya. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Dogan, V. Avrutin, S.-J. Cho, and H. Morkoç, “A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 041301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Costache, F.

F. Costache, S. Kouteva-Arguirova, and J. Reif, “Sub-damage-threshold femtosecond laser ablation from crystalline Si: surface nanostructures and phase transformation,” Appl. Phys. A 79, 1429-1432 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Costache, M. Henyk, and J. Reif, “Surface patterning on insulators upon femtosecond laser ablation,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 208-209, 486-491 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Reif, F. Costache, M. Henyk, and S. V. Pandelov, “Ripples revisited: non-classical morphology at the bottom of femtosecond laser ablation craters in transparent dielectrics,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 197-198, 891-895 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dai, J. Y.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, H. C. Ong, S. T. Ho, J. Y. Dai, J. Y. Wu, and R. P. H. Chang, “Ultraviolet lasing in resonators formed by scattering in semiconductor polycrystalline films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3656-3658 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Djurisic, A. B.

A. B. Djurisic and H. Y. Leung, “Optical properties of ZnO nanostructures,” Small 2, 944-961 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dogan, S.

Ü. Özgür, Ya. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Dogan, V. Avrutin, S.-J. Cho, and H. Morkoç, “A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 041301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Du, W.

W. Cao and W. Du, “Strong exciton emission from ZnO microcrystal formed by continuous 532 nm laser irradiation,” J. Lumin. 124, 260-264 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ganeev, R. A.

Geddes, C. D.

J. R. Lakowicz, C. D. Geddes, I. Gryczynski, J. Malicka, Z. Gryczynski, K. Aslan, J. Lukomska, E. Matveeva, J. Zhang, R. Badugu, and J. Huang, “Advances in surface-enhanced fluorescence,” J. Fluoresc. 14, 425-441 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gottmann, J.

R. Wagner and J. Gottmann, “Sub-wavelength ripple formation on various materials induced by tightly focused femtosecond laser radiation,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 59, 333-337 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Grundmann, M.

N. Ashkenov, B. N. Mbenkum, C. Bundesmann, V. Riede, M. Lorenz, D. Spemann, E. M. Kaidashev, A. Kasic, M. Schubert, and M. Grundmann, “Infrared dielectric functions and phonon modes of high-quality ZnO films,” J. Appl. Phys. 93, 126-133 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gryczynski, I.

J. R. Lakowicz, C. D. Geddes, I. Gryczynski, J. Malicka, Z. Gryczynski, K. Aslan, J. Lukomska, E. Matveeva, J. Zhang, R. Badugu, and J. Huang, “Advances in surface-enhanced fluorescence,” J. Fluoresc. 14, 425-441 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gryczynski, Z.

J. R. Lakowicz, C. D. Geddes, I. Gryczynski, J. Malicka, Z. Gryczynski, K. Aslan, J. Lukomska, E. Matveeva, J. Zhang, R. Badugu, and J. Huang, “Advances in surface-enhanced fluorescence,” J. Fluoresc. 14, 425-441 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guo, X. D.

X. D. Guo, R. X. Li, Y. Hang, Z. Z. Xu, B. K. Yu, H. L. Ma, and X. W. Sun, “Raman spectroscopy and luminescent properties of ZnO nanostructures fabricated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Mater. Lett. 61, 4583-4586 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Haglund, R. F.

Hang, Y.

X. D. Guo, R. X. Li, Y. Hang, Z. Z. Xu, B. K. Yu, H. L. Ma, and X. W. Sun, “Raman spectroscopy and luminescent properties of ZnO nanostructures fabricated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Mater. Lett. 61, 4583-4586 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hannot, R.

M. Raff, M. Schütze, C. Trappe, R. Hannot, and H. Kurz, “Laser-stimulated nonthermal particle emission from InP and GaAs surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 11031-11036 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hashimoto, S.

T. Tomita, K. Kinoshita, S. Matsuo, and S. Hashimoto, “Effect of surface roughening on femtosecond laser-induced ripple structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 153115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Henyk, M.

F. Costache, M. Henyk, and J. Reif, “Surface patterning on insulators upon femtosecond laser ablation,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 208-209, 486-491 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Reif, F. Costache, M. Henyk, and S. V. Pandelov, “Ripples revisited: non-classical morphology at the bottom of femtosecond laser ablation craters in transparent dielectrics,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 197-198, 891-895 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ho, S. T.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, H. C. Ong, S. T. Ho, J. Y. Dai, J. Y. Wu, and R. P. H. Chang, “Ultraviolet lasing in resonators formed by scattering in semiconductor polycrystalline films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3656-3658 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Huang, J.

J. R. Lakowicz, C. D. Geddes, I. Gryczynski, J. Malicka, Z. Gryczynski, K. Aslan, J. Lukomska, E. Matveeva, J. Zhang, R. Badugu, and J. Huang, “Advances in surface-enhanced fluorescence,” J. Fluoresc. 14, 425-441 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, M.

M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, T. Q. Jia, Y. Cheng, N. S. Xu, and Z. Z. Xu, “A uniform 290 nm periodic square structure on ZnO fabricated by two-beam femtosecond laser ablation,” Nanotechnology 18, 505301 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jagadish, C.

A. Ashrafi and C. Jagadish, “Review of zincblende ZnO: stability of metastable ZnO phases,” J. Appl. Phys. 102, 071101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jia, T.

Jia, T. Q.

M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, T. Q. Jia, Y. Cheng, N. S. Xu, and Z. Z. Xu, “A uniform 290 nm periodic square structure on ZnO fabricated by two-beam femtosecond laser ablation,” Nanotechnology 18, 505301 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jin, C.

C. Jin, A. Tiwari, and R. J. Narayan, “Ultraviolet-illumination-enhanced photoluminescence effect in zinc oxide thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 083707 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kaidashev, E. M.

N. Ashkenov, B. N. Mbenkum, C. Bundesmann, V. Riede, M. Lorenz, D. Spemann, E. M. Kaidashev, A. Kasic, M. Schubert, and M. Grundmann, “Infrared dielectric functions and phonon modes of high-quality ZnO films,” J. Appl. Phys. 93, 126-133 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kanaev, A. V.

S. Monticone, R. Tufeu, and A. V. Kanaev, “Complex nature of the UV and visible fluorescence of colloidal ZnO nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. B 102, 2854-2862 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kasic, A.

N. Ashkenov, B. N. Mbenkum, C. Bundesmann, V. Riede, M. Lorenz, D. Spemann, E. M. Kaidashev, A. Kasic, M. Schubert, and M. Grundmann, “Infrared dielectric functions and phonon modes of high-quality ZnO films,” J. Appl. Phys. 93, 126-133 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kim, T. G.

M.-K. Lee, T. G. Kim, W. Kim, and Y.-M. Sung, “Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) electron and energy transfer in noble metal-zinc oxide composite nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112, 10079-10082 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, W.

M.-K. Lee, T. G. Kim, W. Kim, and Y.-M. Sung, “Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) electron and energy transfer in noble metal-zinc oxide composite nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112, 10079-10082 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kinoshita, K.

T. Tomita, K. Kinoshita, S. Matsuo, and S. Hashimoto, “Effect of surface roughening on femtosecond laser-induced ripple structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 153115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kouteva-Arguirova, S.

F. Costache, S. Kouteva-Arguirova, and J. Reif, “Sub-damage-threshold femtosecond laser ablation from crystalline Si: surface nanostructures and phase transformation,” Appl. Phys. A 79, 1429-1432 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kreibig, U.

U. Kreibig and M. Vollmer, Optical Properties of Metal Clusters, Vol. 25 of Springer Series in Materials Science (Springer, 1995).

Kuroda, H.

Kurz, H.

M. Raff, M. Schütze, C. Trappe, R. Hannot, and H. Kurz, “Laser-stimulated nonthermal particle emission from InP and GaAs surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 11031-11036 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lakowicz, J. R.

J. R. Lakowicz, C. D. Geddes, I. Gryczynski, J. Malicka, Z. Gryczynski, K. Aslan, J. Lukomska, E. Matveeva, J. Zhang, R. Badugu, and J. Huang, “Advances in surface-enhanced fluorescence,” J. Fluoresc. 14, 425-441 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lauck, R.

J. Serrano, A. H. Romero, F. J. Manjón, R. Lauck, M. Cardona, and A. Rubio, “Pressure dependence of the lattice dynamics of ZnO: an ab initio approach,” Phys. Rev. B 69, 094306 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lawrie, B. J.

Lee, M. -K.

M.-K. Lee, T. G. Kim, W. Kim, and Y.-M. Sung, “Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) electron and energy transfer in noble metal-zinc oxide composite nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112, 10079-10082 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Leung, H. Y.

A. B. Djurisic and H. Y. Leung, “Optical properties of ZnO nanostructures,” Small 2, 944-961 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, D.

P. Cheng, D. Li, Z. Yuan, P. Chen, and D. Yang, “Enhancement of ZnO light emission via coupling with localized surface plasmon of Ag island film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 041119 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Li, R.

Li, R. X.

X. D. Guo, R. X. Li, Y. Hang, Z. Z. Xu, B. K. Yu, H. L. Ma, and X. W. Sun, “Raman spectroscopy and luminescent properties of ZnO nanostructures fabricated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Mater. Lett. 61, 4583-4586 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liu, C.

Ü. Özgür, Ya. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Dogan, V. Avrutin, S.-J. Cho, and H. Morkoç, “A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 041301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lorenz, M.

N. Ashkenov, B. N. Mbenkum, C. Bundesmann, V. Riede, M. Lorenz, D. Spemann, E. M. Kaidashev, A. Kasic, M. Schubert, and M. Grundmann, “Infrared dielectric functions and phonon modes of high-quality ZnO films,” J. Appl. Phys. 93, 126-133 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lukomska, J.

J. R. Lakowicz, C. D. Geddes, I. Gryczynski, J. Malicka, Z. Gryczynski, K. Aslan, J. Lukomska, E. Matveeva, J. Zhang, R. Badugu, and J. Huang, “Advances in surface-enhanced fluorescence,” J. Fluoresc. 14, 425-441 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ma, H. L.

X. D. Guo, R. X. Li, Y. Hang, Z. Z. Xu, B. K. Yu, H. L. Ma, and X. W. Sun, “Raman spectroscopy and luminescent properties of ZnO nanostructures fabricated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Mater. Lett. 61, 4583-4586 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Malicka, J.

J. R. Lakowicz, C. D. Geddes, I. Gryczynski, J. Malicka, Z. Gryczynski, K. Aslan, J. Lukomska, E. Matveeva, J. Zhang, R. Badugu, and J. Huang, “Advances in surface-enhanced fluorescence,” J. Fluoresc. 14, 425-441 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Malzer, S.

Manjón, F. J.

J. Serrano, A. H. Romero, F. J. Manjón, R. Lauck, M. Cardona, and A. Rubio, “Pressure dependence of the lattice dynamics of ZnO: an ab initio approach,” Phys. Rev. B 69, 094306 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Matsuo, S.

T. Tomita, K. Kinoshita, S. Matsuo, and S. Hashimoto, “Effect of surface roughening on femtosecond laser-induced ripple structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 153115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Matveeva, E.

J. R. Lakowicz, C. D. Geddes, I. Gryczynski, J. Malicka, Z. Gryczynski, K. Aslan, J. Lukomska, E. Matveeva, J. Zhang, R. Badugu, and J. Huang, “Advances in surface-enhanced fluorescence,” J. Fluoresc. 14, 425-441 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mbenkum, B. N.

N. Ashkenov, B. N. Mbenkum, C. Bundesmann, V. Riede, M. Lorenz, D. Spemann, E. M. Kaidashev, A. Kasic, M. Schubert, and M. Grundmann, “Infrared dielectric functions and phonon modes of high-quality ZnO films,” J. Appl. Phys. 93, 126-133 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Monticone, S.

S. Monticone, R. Tufeu, and A. V. Kanaev, “Complex nature of the UV and visible fluorescence of colloidal ZnO nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. B 102, 2854-2862 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Morkoç, H.

Ü. Özgür, Ya. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Dogan, V. Avrutin, S.-J. Cho, and H. Morkoç, “A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 041301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mu, R.

Narayan, R. J.

C. Jin, A. Tiwari, and R. J. Narayan, “Ultraviolet-illumination-enhanced photoluminescence effect in zinc oxide thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 083707 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ong, H. C.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, H. C. Ong, S. T. Ho, J. Y. Dai, J. Y. Wu, and R. P. H. Chang, “Ultraviolet lasing in resonators formed by scattering in semiconductor polycrystalline films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3656-3658 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Özgür, Ü.

Ü. Özgür, Ya. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Dogan, V. Avrutin, S.-J. Cho, and H. Morkoç, “A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 041301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pandelov, S. V.

J. Reif, F. Costache, M. Henyk, and S. V. Pandelov, “Ripples revisited: non-classical morphology at the bottom of femtosecond laser ablation craters in transparent dielectrics,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 197-198, 891-895 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, J.

Raff, M.

M. Raff, M. Schütze, C. Trappe, R. Hannot, and H. Kurz, “Laser-stimulated nonthermal particle emission from InP and GaAs surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 11031-11036 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Reif, J.

F. Costache, S. Kouteva-Arguirova, and J. Reif, “Sub-damage-threshold femtosecond laser ablation from crystalline Si: surface nanostructures and phase transformation,” Appl. Phys. A 79, 1429-1432 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Costache, M. Henyk, and J. Reif, “Surface patterning on insulators upon femtosecond laser ablation,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 208-209, 486-491 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Reif, F. Costache, M. Henyk, and S. V. Pandelov, “Ripples revisited: non-classical morphology at the bottom of femtosecond laser ablation craters in transparent dielectrics,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 197-198, 891-895 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Reshchikov, M. A.

Ü. Özgür, Ya. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Dogan, V. Avrutin, S.-J. Cho, and H. Morkoç, “A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 041301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Riede, V.

N. Ashkenov, B. N. Mbenkum, C. Bundesmann, V. Riede, M. Lorenz, D. Spemann, E. M. Kaidashev, A. Kasic, M. Schubert, and M. Grundmann, “Infrared dielectric functions and phonon modes of high-quality ZnO films,” J. Appl. Phys. 93, 126-133 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Romero, A. H.

J. Serrano, A. H. Romero, F. J. Manjón, R. Lauck, M. Cardona, and A. Rubio, “Pressure dependence of the lattice dynamics of ZnO: an ab initio approach,” Phys. Rev. B 69, 094306 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rubio, A.

J. Serrano, A. H. Romero, F. J. Manjón, R. Lauck, M. Cardona, and A. Rubio, “Pressure dependence of the lattice dynamics of ZnO: an ab initio approach,” Phys. Rev. B 69, 094306 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, M.

N. Ashkenov, B. N. Mbenkum, C. Bundesmann, V. Riede, M. Lorenz, D. Spemann, E. M. Kaidashev, A. Kasic, M. Schubert, and M. Grundmann, “Infrared dielectric functions and phonon modes of high-quality ZnO films,” J. Appl. Phys. 93, 126-133 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schütze, M.

M. Raff, M. Schütze, C. Trappe, R. Hannot, and H. Kurz, “Laser-stimulated nonthermal particle emission from InP and GaAs surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 11031-11036 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Serrano, J.

J. Serrano, A. H. Romero, F. J. Manjón, R. Lauck, M. Cardona, and A. Rubio, “Pressure dependence of the lattice dynamics of ZnO: an ab initio approach,” Phys. Rev. B 69, 094306 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Spemann, D.

N. Ashkenov, B. N. Mbenkum, C. Bundesmann, V. Riede, M. Lorenz, D. Spemann, E. M. Kaidashev, A. Kasic, M. Schubert, and M. Grundmann, “Infrared dielectric functions and phonon modes of high-quality ZnO films,” J. Appl. Phys. 93, 126-133 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sun, X. W.

X. D. Guo, R. X. Li, Y. Hang, Z. Z. Xu, B. K. Yu, H. L. Ma, and X. W. Sun, “Raman spectroscopy and luminescent properties of ZnO nanostructures fabricated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Mater. Lett. 61, 4583-4586 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Y.

Y. Sun and M. N. R. Ashfold, “Photoluminescence from diameter-selected ZnO nanorod arrays,” Nanotechnology 18, 245701 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sung, Y. -M.

M.-K. Lee, T. G. Kim, W. Kim, and Y.-M. Sung, “Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) electron and energy transfer in noble metal-zinc oxide composite nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112, 10079-10082 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, M.

Teke, A.

Ü. Özgür, Ya. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Dogan, V. Avrutin, S.-J. Cho, and H. Morkoç, “A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 041301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tiwari, A.

C. Jin, A. Tiwari, and R. J. Narayan, “Ultraviolet-illumination-enhanced photoluminescence effect in zinc oxide thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 083707 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tomita, T.

T. Tomita, K. Kinoshita, S. Matsuo, and S. Hashimoto, “Effect of surface roughening on femtosecond laser-induced ripple structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 153115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Trappe, C.

M. Raff, M. Schütze, C. Trappe, R. Hannot, and H. Kurz, “Laser-stimulated nonthermal particle emission from InP and GaAs surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 11031-11036 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Tufeu, R.

S. Monticone, R. Tufeu, and A. V. Kanaev, “Complex nature of the UV and visible fluorescence of colloidal ZnO nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. B 102, 2854-2862 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Vollmer, M.

U. Kreibig and M. Vollmer, Optical Properties of Metal Clusters, Vol. 25 of Springer Series in Materials Science (Springer, 1995).

Wagner, R.

R. Wagner and J. Gottmann, “Sub-wavelength ripple formation on various materials induced by tightly focused femtosecond laser radiation,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 59, 333-337 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, A. Z. L.

A. Z. L. Wang, “Zinc oxide nanostructures: growth, properties and applications,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 16, R829-R858 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L. J.

Wang, X.

Wu, J. Y.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, H. C. Ong, S. T. Ho, J. Y. Dai, J. Y. Wu, and R. P. H. Chang, “Ultraviolet lasing in resonators formed by scattering in semiconductor polycrystalline films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3656-3658 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Xu, N. S.

M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, T. Q. Jia, Y. Cheng, N. S. Xu, and Z. Z. Xu, “A uniform 290 nm periodic square structure on ZnO fabricated by two-beam femtosecond laser ablation,” Nanotechnology 18, 505301 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Z.

Xu, Z. Z.

X. D. Guo, R. X. Li, Y. Hang, Z. Z. Xu, B. K. Yu, H. L. Ma, and X. W. Sun, “Raman spectroscopy and luminescent properties of ZnO nanostructures fabricated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Mater. Lett. 61, 4583-4586 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, T. Q. Jia, Y. Cheng, N. S. Xu, and Z. Z. Xu, “A uniform 290 nm periodic square structure on ZnO fabricated by two-beam femtosecond laser ablation,” Nanotechnology 18, 505301 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yang, D.

P. Cheng, D. Li, Z. Yuan, P. Chen, and D. Yang, “Enhancement of ZnO light emission via coupling with localized surface plasmon of Ag island film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 041119 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yu, B. K.

X. D. Guo, R. X. Li, Y. Hang, Z. Z. Xu, B. K. Yu, H. L. Ma, and X. W. Sun, “Raman spectroscopy and luminescent properties of ZnO nanostructures fabricated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Mater. Lett. 61, 4583-4586 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, Z.

P. Cheng, D. Li, Z. Yuan, P. Chen, and D. Yang, “Enhancement of ZnO light emission via coupling with localized surface plasmon of Ag island film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 041119 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

J. R. Lakowicz, C. D. Geddes, I. Gryczynski, J. Malicka, Z. Gryczynski, K. Aslan, J. Lukomska, E. Matveeva, J. Zhang, R. Badugu, and J. Huang, “Advances in surface-enhanced fluorescence,” J. Fluoresc. 14, 425-441 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, F. L.

M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, T. Q. Jia, Y. Cheng, N. S. Xu, and Z. Z. Xu, “A uniform 290 nm periodic square structure on ZnO fabricated by two-beam femtosecond laser ablation,” Nanotechnology 18, 505301 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Q. Z.

Zhao, Y. G.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, H. C. Ong, S. T. Ho, J. Y. Dai, J. Y. Wu, and R. P. H. Chang, “Ultraviolet lasing in resonators formed by scattering in semiconductor polycrystalline films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3656-3658 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. A

F. Costache, S. Kouteva-Arguirova, and J. Reif, “Sub-damage-threshold femtosecond laser ablation from crystalline Si: surface nanostructures and phase transformation,” Appl. Phys. A 79, 1429-1432 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, H. C. Ong, S. T. Ho, J. Y. Dai, J. Y. Wu, and R. P. H. Chang, “Ultraviolet lasing in resonators formed by scattering in semiconductor polycrystalline films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3656-3658 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Tomita, K. Kinoshita, S. Matsuo, and S. Hashimoto, “Effect of surface roughening on femtosecond laser-induced ripple structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 153115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Cheng, D. Li, Z. Yuan, P. Chen, and D. Yang, “Enhancement of ZnO light emission via coupling with localized surface plasmon of Ag island film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 041119 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Surf. Sci.

J. Reif, F. Costache, M. Henyk, and S. V. Pandelov, “Ripples revisited: non-classical morphology at the bottom of femtosecond laser ablation craters in transparent dielectrics,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 197-198, 891-895 (2002).
[CrossRef]

F. Costache, M. Henyk, and J. Reif, “Surface patterning on insulators upon femtosecond laser ablation,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 208-209, 486-491 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

N. Ashkenov, B. N. Mbenkum, C. Bundesmann, V. Riede, M. Lorenz, D. Spemann, E. M. Kaidashev, A. Kasic, M. Schubert, and M. Grundmann, “Infrared dielectric functions and phonon modes of high-quality ZnO films,” J. Appl. Phys. 93, 126-133 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ü. Özgür, Ya. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Dogan, V. Avrutin, S.-J. Cho, and H. Morkoç, “A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 041301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Ashrafi and C. Jagadish, “Review of zincblende ZnO: stability of metastable ZnO phases,” J. Appl. Phys. 102, 071101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Jin, A. Tiwari, and R. J. Narayan, “Ultraviolet-illumination-enhanced photoluminescence effect in zinc oxide thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 083707 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Fluoresc.

J. R. Lakowicz, C. D. Geddes, I. Gryczynski, J. Malicka, Z. Gryczynski, K. Aslan, J. Lukomska, E. Matveeva, J. Zhang, R. Badugu, and J. Huang, “Advances in surface-enhanced fluorescence,” J. Fluoresc. 14, 425-441 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Lumin.

W. Cao and W. Du, “Strong exciton emission from ZnO microcrystal formed by continuous 532 nm laser irradiation,” J. Lumin. 124, 260-264 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. B

S. Monticone, R. Tufeu, and A. V. Kanaev, “Complex nature of the UV and visible fluorescence of colloidal ZnO nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. B 102, 2854-2862 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. C

M.-K. Lee, T. G. Kim, W. Kim, and Y.-M. Sung, “Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) electron and energy transfer in noble metal-zinc oxide composite nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112, 10079-10082 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Condens. Matter

A. Z. L. Wang, “Zinc oxide nanostructures: growth, properties and applications,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 16, R829-R858 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys.: Conf. Ser.

R. Wagner and J. Gottmann, “Sub-wavelength ripple formation on various materials induced by tightly focused femtosecond laser radiation,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 59, 333-337 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Lett.

X. D. Guo, R. X. Li, Y. Hang, Z. Z. Xu, B. K. Yu, H. L. Ma, and X. W. Sun, “Raman spectroscopy and luminescent properties of ZnO nanostructures fabricated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Mater. Lett. 61, 4583-4586 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nanotechnology

Y. Sun and M. N. R. Ashfold, “Photoluminescence from diameter-selected ZnO nanorod arrays,” Nanotechnology 18, 245701 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, T. Q. Jia, Y. Cheng, N. S. Xu, and Z. Z. Xu, “A uniform 290 nm periodic square structure on ZnO fabricated by two-beam femtosecond laser ablation,” Nanotechnology 18, 505301 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Phys. Rev. B

M. Raff, M. Schütze, C. Trappe, R. Hannot, and H. Kurz, “Laser-stimulated nonthermal particle emission from InP and GaAs surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 11031-11036 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Serrano, A. H. Romero, F. J. Manjón, R. Lauck, M. Cardona, and A. Rubio, “Pressure dependence of the lattice dynamics of ZnO: an ab initio approach,” Phys. Rev. B 69, 094306 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Small

A. B. Djurisic and H. Y. Leung, “Optical properties of ZnO nanostructures,” Small 2, 944-961 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

U. Kreibig and M. Vollmer, Optical Properties of Metal Clusters, Vol. 25 of Springer Series in Materials Science (Springer, 1995).

http://www.mt-berlin.com/frames_cryst/descriptions/substrates.htm.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical image of the ZnO crystal: (a) fresh and irradiated by 450 fs KrF laser pulses ( N 10 4 ) pulses at fluence values (b) 10, (c) 14, (d) 26, (e) 37, and (f) 55   mJ / cm 2 . SEM image of one structured domain is shown in the top right part: it includes two kinds of structures found in zones labeled 1 and 2, which are shown in larger magnification below (double arrow indicates laser polarization).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

PL spectra of (a) fresh and (b) irradiated ZnO monocrystals recorded at low laser fluence 0.30   mJ / cm 2 . The irradiation conditions are as follows: 248 nm, 450 fs, E = 55   mJ / cm 2 , total dose = 270   J / cm 2 .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Local variations of the (a) UV-exciton PL enhancement and (b) spectral maximum across the irradiated spot of Fig. 1f (spatial resolution 5 μ m ) measured with excitation by a 3-mW cw-Ar + laser at 363.9 nm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

PL intensity (left) versus applied laser fluence and PL enhancement from the irradiated spot (right) measured at low excitation fluence ( E = 0.30   mJ / cm 2 ) .

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Raman spectra ( λ = 633   nm ) recorded in fresh (1) and ablated (2) monocrystalline ZnO sample and (b) from different points of the structure (zone 1 in Fig. 1) produced at 55   mJ / cm 2 . Raman bands labeled by stars are due to second-order processes.

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