Abstract

We report experimentally determined oscillator strength distribution in the bound region of zinc corresponding to the 4s4pP1o34sndD23 (23n55) transitions. The absolute photoionization cross section from the 4s4pP1o3 excited state at the 4sS122 ionization threshold has been determined as 54±8Mbarns by using the saturated absorption technique. The measured value of the photoionization cross section at threshold is used to calibrate the oscillator strengths of the above-mentioned Rydberg transitions.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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  38. B. Willke and M. Kock, “Measurement of photoionization cross sections from the laser-excited Ba I(6s6p)P1o1 state,” J. Phys. B 26, 1129-1140 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  39. W. Mende, K. Bartschat, and M. Kock, “Near-threshold photoionization from the Sr I(5s5p)P1o1 state,” J. Phys. B 28, 2385-2393 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  40. S. Hussain, M. Saleem, M. Rafiq, and M. A. Baig, “Photoionization cross section measurements of the 3pPo1,3 excited states of helium in the near-threshold region,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 022715 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  41. W. Demtröder, Laser Spectroscopy (Springer, 2008).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  44. H. Harrison, R. I. Schoen, R. B. Cairns, and K. E. Schubert, “Photoionization with atomic beams. I. Zinc atoms between 247 and 1242 Å,” J. Chem. Phys. 50, 3930-3936 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  45. V. Svedas, “Ionization of excited caesium atoms (9.4⩽n*⩽ or ≈29) in collisions with Cs (6S),” J. Phys. B 21, 301-314 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  46. K. J. Berkowitz, Photoabsorption, Photoionization and Photoelectron Spectroscopy (Academic, 1979).

2008 (3)

S. U. Haq, R. Ali, M. A. Kalyar, M. Rafiq, A. Nadeem, and M. A. Baig, “Oscillator strengths of the 4s4pP1o1,3-->4sndD21,3 transitions of neutral calcium,” Eur. Phys. J. D 50, 1-8 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Liang and C. Zhou, “Radiative lifetimes of Zn I highly excited states,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 109, 1995-1999 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Baig, S. Mahmood, R. Mumtaz, M. Rafiq, M. A. Kalyar, S. Hussain, and R. Ali, “Oscillator strength measurements of the 3p5(P1/22)nd′[3/2]2 and [5/2]2,3 autoionizing resonances in argon,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 32524-32532 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (5)

M. Rafiq, S. Hussain, M. Saleem, M. A. Kalyar, and M. A. Baig, “Measurement of photoionization cross section from the 3s3pP1o1 excited state of magnesium,” J. Phys. B 40, 2291-2305 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Hussain, M. Saleem, and M. A. Baig, “Measurement of oscillator strength distribution in the discrete and continuous spectrum of lithium,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 022710 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Hussain, M. Saleem, and M. A. Baig, “Measurement of the oscillator strength distribution in helium,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 012701 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Kalyar, M. Rafiq, Sami-ul-Haq, and M. A. Baig, “Absolute photoionization cross section from the 6s6pP1o1,3 excited states of barium,” J. Phys. B 40, 2307-2319 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. F. Fischer and O. Zatsarinny, “4p2 resonances in photoionization from 4s4p levels in neutral zinc,” Theor. Chem. Acc. 118, 623-630 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (5)

L. Glowacki and J. Migdalek, “Relativistic configuration-interaction oscillator strengths calculations with ab initio screened model-potential wave functions,” J. Phys. B 39, 1721-1729 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Nawaz, A. Nadeem, S. A. Bhatti, and M. A. Baig, “Two-step laser excitation of 4sndD1,2,33 and 4snsS13 states from the 4s4pPo3 levels in zinc,” J. Phys. B 39, 871-881 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Nadeem, M. Nawaz, S. A. Bhatti, and M. A. Baig, “Multi-step laser excitation of the highly excited states of zinc,” Opt. Commun. 259, 834-839 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Mahmood, N. Amin, Sami-ul-Haq, N. M. Shaikh, S. Hussain, and M. A. Baig, “Measurements of oscillator strengths of the 2p5(P1/22)ndJ=2,3 autoionizing resonances in neon,” J. Phys. B 39, 2299-2313 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Hussain, M. Saleem, M. Rafiq, and M. A. Baig, “Photoionization cross section measurements of the 3pPo1,3 excited states of helium in the near-threshold region,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 022715 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

A. Nadeem, M. Nawaz, S. Hussain, S. A. Bhatti, and M. A. Baig, “Two-step laser spectroscopy of the highly excited even-parity levels of cadmium,” J. Phys. B 38, 867-875 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

L. Glowacki and J. Migdalek, “Relativistic configuration-interaction oscillator strength calculations with ab initio model potential wave functions,” J. Phys. B 36, 3629-3636 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

D. Gullberg and U. Litzen, “Accurately measured wavelengths of Zn I and Zn II lines of astrophysical interest,” Phys. Scr. 61, 652-656 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

J. M. Song, T. Inoue, H. Kawazumi, and T. Ogawa, “Determination of two photon absorption cross section of fluorescein using a mode locked titanium sapphire laser,” Anal. Sci. 15, 601-603 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

W. Mende and M. Kock, “Oscillator strengths of Ba I and Sr I Rydberg transitions,” J. Phys. B 29, 655-663 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

W. Mende, K. Bartschat, and M. Kock, “Near-threshold photoionization from the Sr I(5s5p)P1o1 state,” J. Phys. B 28, 2385-2393 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

1993 (2)

B. Willke and M. Kock, “Measurement of photoionization cross sections from the laser-excited Ba I(6s6p)P1o1 state,” J. Phys. B 26, 1129-1140 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Xu, X. Y. Xu, H. Ma, L. Q. Li, W. Huang, D. Y. Chen, and F. R. Zhu, “The study of autoionizing states of lutetium atoms by resonance ionization spectroscopy,” J. Phys. B 26, 2827-2835 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

T. Brage and C. F. Fischer, “Core polarization effects on oscillator strengths in neutral zinc,” Phys. Scr. 45, 43-48 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

L.-W. He, C. E. Burkhardt, M. Ciocca, J. J. Leventhal, and S. T. Manson, “Absolute cross sections for the photoionization of the 6s6pP1 excited state of barium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 2131-2134 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988 (3)

C. E. Burkhardt, J. L. Libbert, J. Xu, J. J. Leventhal, and J. D. Kelley, “Absolute measurement of photoionization cross sections of excited atoms: application to determination of atomic beam densities,” Phys. Rev. A 38, 5949-5952 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Kallenbach, M. Kock, and G. Zierer, “Absolute cross sections for photoionization of laser-excited Ba I states measured on a thermionic diode,” Phys. Rev. A 38, 2356-2360 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Svedas, “Ionization of excited caesium atoms (9.4⩽n*⩽ or ≈29) in collisions with Cs (6S),” J. Phys. B 21, 301-314 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

M. C. E. Huber and R. J. Sandeman, “The measurement of oscillator strengths,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 49, 397-490 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

N. V. Afanaseva, “Oscillator strengths of atomic Zn 4pP1o1-->4sndD21 transitions,” Opt. Spektrosk. 59, 475-476 (1985).

1984 (1)

J. Richter, “Measurements of lifetimes and oscillator strengths of neutral and singly ionized atoms. Experimental results of the last five years,” Phys. Scr. T8, 70-76 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1982 (2)

N. V. Afanaseva, “Calculation of oscillator strengths of the principal series of zinc by the two-channel quantum defect method,” Opt. Spektrosk. 52, 776-780 (1982).

K. Ueda, M. Karasawa, and K. Fukuda, “Absorption and dispersion studies of the 4s4pPo3-4p2P3 multiplet of Zn I,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 51, 1941-1947 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

K. Ueda, H. Iimura, M. Karasawa, and K. Fukuda, “Measurement of oscillator strengths for three lines among the 4s4pPo3-4p2P3 multiplet of Zn I,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 50, 3545-3546 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

H. Kerkhoff, M. Schmidt, and P. Zimmermann, “Lifetimes and oscillator strengths in the triplet system of Zn I,” Z. Phys. A 298, 249-252 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

P. F. Gruzdev and A. I. Sherstyuk, “Use of Coulomb functions with the effective orbital quantum number for the calculation of oscillator strengths in many-electron atoms,” Opt. Spektrosk. 40, 617-621 (1976).

1975 (2)

D. Hanna, P. A. Kärkkäinen, and R. Wyatt, “A simple beam expander for frequency narrowing of dye lasers,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 7, 115-119 (1975).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Brown, S. G. Tilford, and M. L. Ginter, “Absorption spectra of Zn I and Cd I in the 1300-1750 Å region,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 1404-1409 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1974 (2)

V. A. Zilitis, “Oscillator strengths for resonance lines of atoms of the group II elements,” Opt. Spektrosk. 36, 630-634 (1974).

E. Luc-Koenig, “Relativistic effects on transition probabilities P1o3-->S01 for group II elements,” J. Phys. B 7, 1052-1058 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1969 (2)

G. V. Marr and J. M. Austin, “Absorption cross section measurements on the vacuum ultra-violet spectrum of zinc vapour,” J. Phys. B 2, 107-114 (1969).
[CrossRef]

H. Harrison, R. I. Schoen, R. B. Cairns, and K. E. Schubert, “Photoionization with atomic beams. I. Zinc atoms between 247 and 1242 Å,” J. Chem. Phys. 50, 3930-3936 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Afanaseva, N. V.

N. V. Afanaseva, “Oscillator strengths of atomic Zn 4pP1o1-->4sndD21 transitions,” Opt. Spektrosk. 59, 475-476 (1985).

N. V. Afanaseva, “Calculation of oscillator strengths of the principal series of zinc by the two-channel quantum defect method,” Opt. Spektrosk. 52, 776-780 (1982).

Ali, R.

M. A. Baig, S. Mahmood, R. Mumtaz, M. Rafiq, M. A. Kalyar, S. Hussain, and R. Ali, “Oscillator strength measurements of the 3p5(P1/22)nd′[3/2]2 and [5/2]2,3 autoionizing resonances in argon,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 32524-32532 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. U. Haq, R. Ali, M. A. Kalyar, M. Rafiq, A. Nadeem, and M. A. Baig, “Oscillator strengths of the 4s4pP1o1,3-->4sndD21,3 transitions of neutral calcium,” Eur. Phys. J. D 50, 1-8 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Amin, N.

S. Mahmood, N. Amin, Sami-ul-Haq, N. M. Shaikh, S. Hussain, and M. A. Baig, “Measurements of oscillator strengths of the 2p5(P1/22)ndJ=2,3 autoionizing resonances in neon,” J. Phys. B 39, 2299-2313 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Austin, J. M.

G. V. Marr and J. M. Austin, “Absorption cross section measurements on the vacuum ultra-violet spectrum of zinc vapour,” J. Phys. B 2, 107-114 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Baharis, C.

Baig, M. A.

M. A. Baig, S. Mahmood, R. Mumtaz, M. Rafiq, M. A. Kalyar, S. Hussain, and R. Ali, “Oscillator strength measurements of the 3p5(P1/22)nd′[3/2]2 and [5/2]2,3 autoionizing resonances in argon,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 32524-32532 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. U. Haq, R. Ali, M. A. Kalyar, M. Rafiq, A. Nadeem, and M. A. Baig, “Oscillator strengths of the 4s4pP1o1,3-->4sndD21,3 transitions of neutral calcium,” Eur. Phys. J. D 50, 1-8 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Rafiq, S. Hussain, M. Saleem, M. A. Kalyar, and M. A. Baig, “Measurement of photoionization cross section from the 3s3pP1o1 excited state of magnesium,” J. Phys. B 40, 2291-2305 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Hussain, M. Saleem, and M. A. Baig, “Measurement of the oscillator strength distribution in helium,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 012701 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Kalyar, M. Rafiq, Sami-ul-Haq, and M. A. Baig, “Absolute photoionization cross section from the 6s6pP1o1,3 excited states of barium,” J. Phys. B 40, 2307-2319 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Hussain, M. Saleem, and M. A. Baig, “Measurement of oscillator strength distribution in the discrete and continuous spectrum of lithium,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 022710 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Nadeem, M. Nawaz, S. A. Bhatti, and M. A. Baig, “Multi-step laser excitation of the highly excited states of zinc,” Opt. Commun. 259, 834-839 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Hussain, M. Saleem, M. Rafiq, and M. A. Baig, “Photoionization cross section measurements of the 3pPo1,3 excited states of helium in the near-threshold region,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 022715 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Nawaz, A. Nadeem, S. A. Bhatti, and M. A. Baig, “Two-step laser excitation of 4sndD1,2,33 and 4snsS13 states from the 4s4pPo3 levels in zinc,” J. Phys. B 39, 871-881 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Mahmood, N. Amin, Sami-ul-Haq, N. M. Shaikh, S. Hussain, and M. A. Baig, “Measurements of oscillator strengths of the 2p5(P1/22)ndJ=2,3 autoionizing resonances in neon,” J. Phys. B 39, 2299-2313 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Nadeem, M. Nawaz, S. Hussain, S. A. Bhatti, and M. A. Baig, “Two-step laser spectroscopy of the highly excited even-parity levels of cadmium,” J. Phys. B 38, 867-875 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bartschat, K.

W. Mende, K. Bartschat, and M. Kock, “Near-threshold photoionization from the Sr I(5s5p)P1o1 state,” J. Phys. B 28, 2385-2393 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Berkowitz, K. J.

K. J. Berkowitz, Photoabsorption, Photoionization and Photoelectron Spectroscopy (Academic, 1979).

Bhatti, S. A.

M. Nawaz, A. Nadeem, S. A. Bhatti, and M. A. Baig, “Two-step laser excitation of 4sndD1,2,33 and 4snsS13 states from the 4s4pPo3 levels in zinc,” J. Phys. B 39, 871-881 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Nadeem, M. Nawaz, S. A. Bhatti, and M. A. Baig, “Multi-step laser excitation of the highly excited states of zinc,” Opt. Commun. 259, 834-839 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Nadeem, M. Nawaz, S. Hussain, S. A. Bhatti, and M. A. Baig, “Two-step laser spectroscopy of the highly excited even-parity levels of cadmium,” J. Phys. B 38, 867-875 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Brage, T.

T. Brage and C. F. Fischer, “Core polarization effects on oscillator strengths in neutral zinc,” Phys. Scr. 45, 43-48 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Brown, C. M.

Burkhardt, C. E.

L.-W. He, C. E. Burkhardt, M. Ciocca, J. J. Leventhal, and S. T. Manson, “Absolute cross sections for the photoionization of the 6s6pP1 excited state of barium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 2131-2134 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. E. Burkhardt, J. L. Libbert, J. Xu, J. J. Leventhal, and J. D. Kelley, “Absolute measurement of photoionization cross sections of excited atoms: application to determination of atomic beam densities,” Phys. Rev. A 38, 5949-5952 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cairns, R. B.

H. Harrison, R. I. Schoen, R. B. Cairns, and K. E. Schubert, “Photoionization with atomic beams. I. Zinc atoms between 247 and 1242 Å,” J. Chem. Phys. 50, 3930-3936 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Chen, D. Y.

C. B. Xu, X. Y. Xu, H. Ma, L. Q. Li, W. Huang, D. Y. Chen, and F. R. Zhu, “The study of autoionizing states of lutetium atoms by resonance ionization spectroscopy,” J. Phys. B 26, 2827-2835 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ciocca, M.

L.-W. He, C. E. Burkhardt, M. Ciocca, J. J. Leventhal, and S. T. Manson, “Absolute cross sections for the photoionization of the 6s6pP1 excited state of barium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 2131-2134 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Curtis, L. J.

L. J. Curtis, “Precision oscillator strength and lifetime measurements,” in Atomic, Molecular, & Optical Physics Handbook, G.W. F.Drake, ed. (AIP Press, 1996), pp. 206-212.

Demtröder, W.

W. Demtröder, Laser Spectroscopy (Springer, 2008).

Fischer, C. F.

C. F. Fischer and O. Zatsarinny, “4p2 resonances in photoionization from 4s4p levels in neutral zinc,” Theor. Chem. Acc. 118, 623-630 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Brage and C. F. Fischer, “Core polarization effects on oscillator strengths in neutral zinc,” Phys. Scr. 45, 43-48 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Fukuda, K.

K. Ueda, M. Karasawa, and K. Fukuda, “Absorption and dispersion studies of the 4s4pPo3-4p2P3 multiplet of Zn I,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 51, 1941-1947 (1982).
[CrossRef]

K. Ueda, H. Iimura, M. Karasawa, and K. Fukuda, “Measurement of oscillator strengths for three lines among the 4s4pPo3-4p2P3 multiplet of Zn I,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 50, 3545-3546 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Ginter, M. L.

Glowacki, L.

L. Glowacki and J. Migdalek, “Relativistic configuration-interaction oscillator strengths calculations with ab initio screened model-potential wave functions,” J. Phys. B 39, 1721-1729 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Glowacki and J. Migdalek, “Relativistic configuration-interaction oscillator strength calculations with ab initio model potential wave functions,” J. Phys. B 36, 3629-3636 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gruzdev, P. F.

P. F. Gruzdev and A. I. Sherstyuk, “Use of Coulomb functions with the effective orbital quantum number for the calculation of oscillator strengths in many-electron atoms,” Opt. Spektrosk. 40, 617-621 (1976).

Gullberg, D.

D. Gullberg and U. Litzen, “Accurately measured wavelengths of Zn I and Zn II lines of astrophysical interest,” Phys. Scr. 61, 652-656 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hanna, D.

D. Hanna, P. A. Kärkkäinen, and R. Wyatt, “A simple beam expander for frequency narrowing of dye lasers,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 7, 115-119 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Haq, S. U.

S. U. Haq, R. Ali, M. A. Kalyar, M. Rafiq, A. Nadeem, and M. A. Baig, “Oscillator strengths of the 4s4pP1o1,3-->4sndD21,3 transitions of neutral calcium,” Eur. Phys. J. D 50, 1-8 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Harrison, H.

H. Harrison, R. I. Schoen, R. B. Cairns, and K. E. Schubert, “Photoionization with atomic beams. I. Zinc atoms between 247 and 1242 Å,” J. Chem. Phys. 50, 3930-3936 (1969).
[CrossRef]

He, L.-W.

L.-W. He, C. E. Burkhardt, M. Ciocca, J. J. Leventhal, and S. T. Manson, “Absolute cross sections for the photoionization of the 6s6pP1 excited state of barium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 2131-2134 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, W.

C. B. Xu, X. Y. Xu, H. Ma, L. Q. Li, W. Huang, D. Y. Chen, and F. R. Zhu, “The study of autoionizing states of lutetium atoms by resonance ionization spectroscopy,” J. Phys. B 26, 2827-2835 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Huber, M. C. E.

M. C. E. Huber and R. J. Sandeman, “The measurement of oscillator strengths,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 49, 397-490 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Hussain, S.

M. A. Baig, S. Mahmood, R. Mumtaz, M. Rafiq, M. A. Kalyar, S. Hussain, and R. Ali, “Oscillator strength measurements of the 3p5(P1/22)nd′[3/2]2 and [5/2]2,3 autoionizing resonances in argon,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 32524-32532 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Hussain, M. Saleem, and M. A. Baig, “Measurement of the oscillator strength distribution in helium,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 012701 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Hussain, M. Saleem, and M. A. Baig, “Measurement of oscillator strength distribution in the discrete and continuous spectrum of lithium,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 022710 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Rafiq, S. Hussain, M. Saleem, M. A. Kalyar, and M. A. Baig, “Measurement of photoionization cross section from the 3s3pP1o1 excited state of magnesium,” J. Phys. B 40, 2291-2305 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Mahmood, N. Amin, Sami-ul-Haq, N. M. Shaikh, S. Hussain, and M. A. Baig, “Measurements of oscillator strengths of the 2p5(P1/22)ndJ=2,3 autoionizing resonances in neon,” J. Phys. B 39, 2299-2313 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Hussain, M. Saleem, M. Rafiq, and M. A. Baig, “Photoionization cross section measurements of the 3pPo1,3 excited states of helium in the near-threshold region,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 022715 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Nadeem, M. Nawaz, S. Hussain, S. A. Bhatti, and M. A. Baig, “Two-step laser spectroscopy of the highly excited even-parity levels of cadmium,” J. Phys. B 38, 867-875 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Iimura, H.

K. Ueda, H. Iimura, M. Karasawa, and K. Fukuda, “Measurement of oscillator strengths for three lines among the 4s4pPo3-4p2P3 multiplet of Zn I,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 50, 3545-3546 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Inoue, T.

J. M. Song, T. Inoue, H. Kawazumi, and T. Ogawa, “Determination of two photon absorption cross section of fluorescein using a mode locked titanium sapphire laser,” Anal. Sci. 15, 601-603 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kallenbach, A.

A. Kallenbach, M. Kock, and G. Zierer, “Absolute cross sections for photoionization of laser-excited Ba I states measured on a thermionic diode,” Phys. Rev. A 38, 2356-2360 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kalyar, M. A.

M. A. Baig, S. Mahmood, R. Mumtaz, M. Rafiq, M. A. Kalyar, S. Hussain, and R. Ali, “Oscillator strength measurements of the 3p5(P1/22)nd′[3/2]2 and [5/2]2,3 autoionizing resonances in argon,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 32524-32532 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. U. Haq, R. Ali, M. A. Kalyar, M. Rafiq, A. Nadeem, and M. A. Baig, “Oscillator strengths of the 4s4pP1o1,3-->4sndD21,3 transitions of neutral calcium,” Eur. Phys. J. D 50, 1-8 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Rafiq, S. Hussain, M. Saleem, M. A. Kalyar, and M. A. Baig, “Measurement of photoionization cross section from the 3s3pP1o1 excited state of magnesium,” J. Phys. B 40, 2291-2305 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Kalyar, M. Rafiq, Sami-ul-Haq, and M. A. Baig, “Absolute photoionization cross section from the 6s6pP1o1,3 excited states of barium,” J. Phys. B 40, 2307-2319 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Karasawa, M.

K. Ueda, M. Karasawa, and K. Fukuda, “Absorption and dispersion studies of the 4s4pPo3-4p2P3 multiplet of Zn I,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 51, 1941-1947 (1982).
[CrossRef]

K. Ueda, H. Iimura, M. Karasawa, and K. Fukuda, “Measurement of oscillator strengths for three lines among the 4s4pPo3-4p2P3 multiplet of Zn I,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 50, 3545-3546 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Kärkkäinen, P. A.

D. Hanna, P. A. Kärkkäinen, and R. Wyatt, “A simple beam expander for frequency narrowing of dye lasers,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 7, 115-119 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Kawazumi, H.

J. M. Song, T. Inoue, H. Kawazumi, and T. Ogawa, “Determination of two photon absorption cross section of fluorescein using a mode locked titanium sapphire laser,” Anal. Sci. 15, 601-603 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kelley, J. D.

C. E. Burkhardt, J. L. Libbert, J. Xu, J. J. Leventhal, and J. D. Kelley, “Absolute measurement of photoionization cross sections of excited atoms: application to determination of atomic beam densities,” Phys. Rev. A 38, 5949-5952 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kerkhoff, H.

H. Kerkhoff, M. Schmidt, and P. Zimmermann, “Lifetimes and oscillator strengths in the triplet system of Zn I,” Z. Phys. A 298, 249-252 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Kock, M.

W. Mende and M. Kock, “Oscillator strengths of Ba I and Sr I Rydberg transitions,” J. Phys. B 29, 655-663 (1996).
[CrossRef]

W. Mende, K. Bartschat, and M. Kock, “Near-threshold photoionization from the Sr I(5s5p)P1o1 state,” J. Phys. B 28, 2385-2393 (1995).
[CrossRef]

B. Willke and M. Kock, “Measurement of photoionization cross sections from the laser-excited Ba I(6s6p)P1o1 state,” J. Phys. B 26, 1129-1140 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. Kallenbach, M. Kock, and G. Zierer, “Absolute cross sections for photoionization of laser-excited Ba I states measured on a thermionic diode,” Phys. Rev. A 38, 2356-2360 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kompitsas, M.

Leventhal, J. J.

L.-W. He, C. E. Burkhardt, M. Ciocca, J. J. Leventhal, and S. T. Manson, “Absolute cross sections for the photoionization of the 6s6pP1 excited state of barium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 2131-2134 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. E. Burkhardt, J. L. Libbert, J. Xu, J. J. Leventhal, and J. D. Kelley, “Absolute measurement of photoionization cross sections of excited atoms: application to determination of atomic beam densities,” Phys. Rev. A 38, 5949-5952 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, L. Q.

C. B. Xu, X. Y. Xu, H. Ma, L. Q. Li, W. Huang, D. Y. Chen, and F. R. Zhu, “The study of autoionizing states of lutetium atoms by resonance ionization spectroscopy,” J. Phys. B 26, 2827-2835 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Liang, L.

L. Liang and C. Zhou, “Radiative lifetimes of Zn I highly excited states,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 109, 1995-1999 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Libbert, J. L.

C. E. Burkhardt, J. L. Libbert, J. Xu, J. J. Leventhal, and J. D. Kelley, “Absolute measurement of photoionization cross sections of excited atoms: application to determination of atomic beam densities,” Phys. Rev. A 38, 5949-5952 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Litzen, U.

D. Gullberg and U. Litzen, “Accurately measured wavelengths of Zn I and Zn II lines of astrophysical interest,” Phys. Scr. 61, 652-656 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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E. Luc-Koenig, “Relativistic effects on transition probabilities P1o3-->S01 for group II elements,” J. Phys. B 7, 1052-1058 (1974).
[CrossRef]

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C. B. Xu, X. Y. Xu, H. Ma, L. Q. Li, W. Huang, D. Y. Chen, and F. R. Zhu, “The study of autoionizing states of lutetium atoms by resonance ionization spectroscopy,” J. Phys. B 26, 2827-2835 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Mahmood, S.

M. A. Baig, S. Mahmood, R. Mumtaz, M. Rafiq, M. A. Kalyar, S. Hussain, and R. Ali, “Oscillator strength measurements of the 3p5(P1/22)nd′[3/2]2 and [5/2]2,3 autoionizing resonances in argon,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 32524-32532 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Mahmood, N. Amin, Sami-ul-Haq, N. M. Shaikh, S. Hussain, and M. A. Baig, “Measurements of oscillator strengths of the 2p5(P1/22)ndJ=2,3 autoionizing resonances in neon,” J. Phys. B 39, 2299-2313 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Manson, S. T.

L.-W. He, C. E. Burkhardt, M. Ciocca, J. J. Leventhal, and S. T. Manson, “Absolute cross sections for the photoionization of the 6s6pP1 excited state of barium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 2131-2134 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marr, G. V.

G. V. Marr and J. M. Austin, “Absorption cross section measurements on the vacuum ultra-violet spectrum of zinc vapour,” J. Phys. B 2, 107-114 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Mende, W.

W. Mende and M. Kock, “Oscillator strengths of Ba I and Sr I Rydberg transitions,” J. Phys. B 29, 655-663 (1996).
[CrossRef]

W. Mende, K. Bartschat, and M. Kock, “Near-threshold photoionization from the Sr I(5s5p)P1o1 state,” J. Phys. B 28, 2385-2393 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Migdalek, J.

L. Glowacki and J. Migdalek, “Relativistic configuration-interaction oscillator strengths calculations with ab initio screened model-potential wave functions,” J. Phys. B 39, 1721-1729 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Glowacki and J. Migdalek, “Relativistic configuration-interaction oscillator strength calculations with ab initio model potential wave functions,” J. Phys. B 36, 3629-3636 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mumtaz, R.

M. A. Baig, S. Mahmood, R. Mumtaz, M. Rafiq, M. A. Kalyar, S. Hussain, and R. Ali, “Oscillator strength measurements of the 3p5(P1/22)nd′[3/2]2 and [5/2]2,3 autoionizing resonances in argon,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 32524-32532 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nadeem, A.

S. U. Haq, R. Ali, M. A. Kalyar, M. Rafiq, A. Nadeem, and M. A. Baig, “Oscillator strengths of the 4s4pP1o1,3-->4sndD21,3 transitions of neutral calcium,” Eur. Phys. J. D 50, 1-8 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Nawaz, A. Nadeem, S. A. Bhatti, and M. A. Baig, “Two-step laser excitation of 4sndD1,2,33 and 4snsS13 states from the 4s4pPo3 levels in zinc,” J. Phys. B 39, 871-881 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Nadeem, M. Nawaz, S. A. Bhatti, and M. A. Baig, “Multi-step laser excitation of the highly excited states of zinc,” Opt. Commun. 259, 834-839 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Nadeem, M. Nawaz, S. Hussain, S. A. Bhatti, and M. A. Baig, “Two-step laser spectroscopy of the highly excited even-parity levels of cadmium,” J. Phys. B 38, 867-875 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nawaz, M.

A. Nadeem, M. Nawaz, S. A. Bhatti, and M. A. Baig, “Multi-step laser excitation of the highly excited states of zinc,” Opt. Commun. 259, 834-839 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Nawaz, A. Nadeem, S. A. Bhatti, and M. A. Baig, “Two-step laser excitation of 4sndD1,2,33 and 4snsS13 states from the 4s4pPo3 levels in zinc,” J. Phys. B 39, 871-881 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Nadeem, M. Nawaz, S. Hussain, S. A. Bhatti, and M. A. Baig, “Two-step laser spectroscopy of the highly excited even-parity levels of cadmium,” J. Phys. B 38, 867-875 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ogawa, T.

J. M. Song, T. Inoue, H. Kawazumi, and T. Ogawa, “Determination of two photon absorption cross section of fluorescein using a mode locked titanium sapphire laser,” Anal. Sci. 15, 601-603 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pan, Z.

Rafiq, M.

M. A. Baig, S. Mahmood, R. Mumtaz, M. Rafiq, M. A. Kalyar, S. Hussain, and R. Ali, “Oscillator strength measurements of the 3p5(P1/22)nd′[3/2]2 and [5/2]2,3 autoionizing resonances in argon,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 32524-32532 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. U. Haq, R. Ali, M. A. Kalyar, M. Rafiq, A. Nadeem, and M. A. Baig, “Oscillator strengths of the 4s4pP1o1,3-->4sndD21,3 transitions of neutral calcium,” Eur. Phys. J. D 50, 1-8 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Rafiq, S. Hussain, M. Saleem, M. A. Kalyar, and M. A. Baig, “Measurement of photoionization cross section from the 3s3pP1o1 excited state of magnesium,” J. Phys. B 40, 2291-2305 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Kalyar, M. Rafiq, Sami-ul-Haq, and M. A. Baig, “Absolute photoionization cross section from the 6s6pP1o1,3 excited states of barium,” J. Phys. B 40, 2307-2319 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Hussain, M. Saleem, M. Rafiq, and M. A. Baig, “Photoionization cross section measurements of the 3pPo1,3 excited states of helium in the near-threshold region,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 022715 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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J. Richter, “Measurements of lifetimes and oscillator strengths of neutral and singly ionized atoms. Experimental results of the last five years,” Phys. Scr. T8, 70-76 (1984).
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M. Rafiq, S. Hussain, M. Saleem, M. A. Kalyar, and M. A. Baig, “Measurement of photoionization cross section from the 3s3pP1o1 excited state of magnesium,” J. Phys. B 40, 2291-2305 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Hussain, M. Saleem, and M. A. Baig, “Measurement of oscillator strength distribution in the discrete and continuous spectrum of lithium,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 022710 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Hussain, M. Saleem, and M. A. Baig, “Measurement of the oscillator strength distribution in helium,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 012701 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Hussain, M. Saleem, M. Rafiq, and M. A. Baig, “Photoionization cross section measurements of the 3pPo1,3 excited states of helium in the near-threshold region,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 022715 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sami-ul-Haq,

M. A. Kalyar, M. Rafiq, Sami-ul-Haq, and M. A. Baig, “Absolute photoionization cross section from the 6s6pP1o1,3 excited states of barium,” J. Phys. B 40, 2307-2319 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Mahmood, N. Amin, Sami-ul-Haq, N. M. Shaikh, S. Hussain, and M. A. Baig, “Measurements of oscillator strengths of the 2p5(P1/22)ndJ=2,3 autoionizing resonances in neon,” J. Phys. B 39, 2299-2313 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sandeman, R. J.

M. C. E. Huber and R. J. Sandeman, “The measurement of oscillator strengths,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 49, 397-490 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, M.

H. Kerkhoff, M. Schmidt, and P. Zimmermann, “Lifetimes and oscillator strengths in the triplet system of Zn I,” Z. Phys. A 298, 249-252 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Schoen, R. I.

H. Harrison, R. I. Schoen, R. B. Cairns, and K. E. Schubert, “Photoionization with atomic beams. I. Zinc atoms between 247 and 1242 Å,” J. Chem. Phys. 50, 3930-3936 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, K. E.

H. Harrison, R. I. Schoen, R. B. Cairns, and K. E. Schubert, “Photoionization with atomic beams. I. Zinc atoms between 247 and 1242 Å,” J. Chem. Phys. 50, 3930-3936 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Shaikh, N. M.

S. Mahmood, N. Amin, Sami-ul-Haq, N. M. Shaikh, S. Hussain, and M. A. Baig, “Measurements of oscillator strengths of the 2p5(P1/22)ndJ=2,3 autoionizing resonances in neon,” J. Phys. B 39, 2299-2313 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sherstyuk, A. I.

P. F. Gruzdev and A. I. Sherstyuk, “Use of Coulomb functions with the effective orbital quantum number for the calculation of oscillator strengths in many-electron atoms,” Opt. Spektrosk. 40, 617-621 (1976).

Song, J. M.

J. M. Song, T. Inoue, H. Kawazumi, and T. Ogawa, “Determination of two photon absorption cross section of fluorescein using a mode locked titanium sapphire laser,” Anal. Sci. 15, 601-603 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Svedas, V.

V. Svedas, “Ionization of excited caesium atoms (9.4⩽n*⩽ or ≈29) in collisions with Cs (6S),” J. Phys. B 21, 301-314 (1988).
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Tilford, S. G.

Ueda, K.

K. Ueda, M. Karasawa, and K. Fukuda, “Absorption and dispersion studies of the 4s4pPo3-4p2P3 multiplet of Zn I,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 51, 1941-1947 (1982).
[CrossRef]

K. Ueda, H. Iimura, M. Karasawa, and K. Fukuda, “Measurement of oscillator strengths for three lines among the 4s4pPo3-4p2P3 multiplet of Zn I,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 50, 3545-3546 (1981).
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W. L. Wiese, Progress in Atomic Spectroscopy, W.Hanle and H.Kleinpoppen, eds. (Plenum, 1979), Part B, p. 1101.

Willke, B.

B. Willke and M. Kock, “Measurement of photoionization cross sections from the laser-excited Ba I(6s6p)P1o1 state,” J. Phys. B 26, 1129-1140 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wyatt, R.

D. Hanna, P. A. Kärkkäinen, and R. Wyatt, “A simple beam expander for frequency narrowing of dye lasers,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 7, 115-119 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Xu, C. B.

C. B. Xu, X. Y. Xu, H. Ma, L. Q. Li, W. Huang, D. Y. Chen, and F. R. Zhu, “The study of autoionizing states of lutetium atoms by resonance ionization spectroscopy,” J. Phys. B 26, 2827-2835 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Xu, J.

C. E. Burkhardt, J. L. Libbert, J. Xu, J. J. Leventhal, and J. D. Kelley, “Absolute measurement of photoionization cross sections of excited atoms: application to determination of atomic beam densities,” Phys. Rev. A 38, 5949-5952 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, X. Y.

C. B. Xu, X. Y. Xu, H. Ma, L. Q. Li, W. Huang, D. Y. Chen, and F. R. Zhu, “The study of autoionizing states of lutetium atoms by resonance ionization spectroscopy,” J. Phys. B 26, 2827-2835 (1993).
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C. F. Fischer and O. Zatsarinny, “4p2 resonances in photoionization from 4s4p levels in neutral zinc,” Theor. Chem. Acc. 118, 623-630 (2007).
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L. Liang and C. Zhou, “Radiative lifetimes of Zn I highly excited states,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 109, 1995-1999 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, F. R.

C. B. Xu, X. Y. Xu, H. Ma, L. Q. Li, W. Huang, D. Y. Chen, and F. R. Zhu, “The study of autoionizing states of lutetium atoms by resonance ionization spectroscopy,” J. Phys. B 26, 2827-2835 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Zierer, G.

A. Kallenbach, M. Kock, and G. Zierer, “Absolute cross sections for photoionization of laser-excited Ba I states measured on a thermionic diode,” Phys. Rev. A 38, 2356-2360 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zilitis, V. A.

V. A. Zilitis, “Oscillator strengths for resonance lines of atoms of the group II elements,” Opt. Spektrosk. 36, 630-634 (1974).

Zimmermann, P.

H. Kerkhoff, M. Schmidt, and P. Zimmermann, “Lifetimes and oscillator strengths in the triplet system of Zn I,” Z. Phys. A 298, 249-252 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Sci. (1)

J. M. Song, T. Inoue, H. Kawazumi, and T. Ogawa, “Determination of two photon absorption cross section of fluorescein using a mode locked titanium sapphire laser,” Anal. Sci. 15, 601-603 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Eur. Phys. J. D (1)

S. U. Haq, R. Ali, M. A. Kalyar, M. Rafiq, A. Nadeem, and M. A. Baig, “Oscillator strengths of the 4s4pP1o1,3-->4sndD21,3 transitions of neutral calcium,” Eur. Phys. J. D 50, 1-8 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

H. Harrison, R. I. Schoen, R. B. Cairns, and K. E. Schubert, “Photoionization with atomic beams. I. Zinc atoms between 247 and 1242 Å,” J. Chem. Phys. 50, 3930-3936 (1969).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. B (14)

V. Svedas, “Ionization of excited caesium atoms (9.4⩽n*⩽ or ≈29) in collisions with Cs (6S),” J. Phys. B 21, 301-314 (1988).
[CrossRef]

G. V. Marr and J. M. Austin, “Absorption cross section measurements on the vacuum ultra-violet spectrum of zinc vapour,” J. Phys. B 2, 107-114 (1969).
[CrossRef]

B. Willke and M. Kock, “Measurement of photoionization cross sections from the laser-excited Ba I(6s6p)P1o1 state,” J. Phys. B 26, 1129-1140 (1993).
[CrossRef]

W. Mende, K. Bartschat, and M. Kock, “Near-threshold photoionization from the Sr I(5s5p)P1o1 state,” J. Phys. B 28, 2385-2393 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Kalyar, M. Rafiq, Sami-ul-Haq, and M. A. Baig, “Absolute photoionization cross section from the 6s6pP1o1,3 excited states of barium,” J. Phys. B 40, 2307-2319 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Nadeem, M. Nawaz, S. Hussain, S. A. Bhatti, and M. A. Baig, “Two-step laser spectroscopy of the highly excited even-parity levels of cadmium,” J. Phys. B 38, 867-875 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Nawaz, A. Nadeem, S. A. Bhatti, and M. A. Baig, “Two-step laser excitation of 4sndD1,2,33 and 4snsS13 states from the 4s4pPo3 levels in zinc,” J. Phys. B 39, 871-881 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Rafiq, S. Hussain, M. Saleem, M. A. Kalyar, and M. A. Baig, “Measurement of photoionization cross section from the 3s3pP1o1 excited state of magnesium,” J. Phys. B 40, 2291-2305 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Mahmood, N. Amin, Sami-ul-Haq, N. M. Shaikh, S. Hussain, and M. A. Baig, “Measurements of oscillator strengths of the 2p5(P1/22)ndJ=2,3 autoionizing resonances in neon,” J. Phys. B 39, 2299-2313 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Partial energy level diagram of Zn transitions. The level energies are taken from the NIST database [18].

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Portion of the spectrum showing the dominant 4 s 4 p P 1 o 3 4 s n d D 2 3 ( 26 n 55 ) Rydberg transitions of Zn. The upper trace is the reference lines of Ne, and the intermediate trace is the interference fringes from a 1 mm thick solid etalon.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Photoionization signals from the 4 s 4 p P 1 o 3 excited state plotted against the ionization laser energy. The solid line is the least squares fit of Eq. (2) to the experimental data points, used to extract the photoionization cross section σ (Mbarns) at the 4 s S 1 2 2 ionization threshold.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Plot of ( n * 3 × f ) 2 R versus the principal quantum number ( n ) corresponding to the 4 s 4 p P 1 o 3 4 s n d D 2 3 ( 23 n 55 ) Rydberg transitions of Zn.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Oscillator Strengths and Corresponding Wavelengths for 4 s 4 p P 1 o 3 4 s n d D 2 3 Rydberg Series of Zinc

Equations (4)

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f n = 4 ϵ o m c S n λ 1 + e 2 S 1 + λ n σ 1 + .
N = N ex [ 1 exp ( σ U 2 ω A ) ] .
( n * ) 3 f n 2 R = d f d E ,
d f d E = 9.11 × 10 15 σ ( E ) cm 2 ( eV ) 1 .

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