Abstract

We present an experimental and computational investigation of the dynamics in singly Er-doped and Er/Pr-codoped double-clad fluoride fiber lasers that are pulse-pumped with diode at 975 nm. Measurements that include time-dependent laser power and spectrum show multi-line operation with distinct initial line jumping in the Er fiber and spectral and power fluctuations in both fibers. Thermal effects are dismissed as the cause and the effects of homogeneous and inhomogeneous broadenings on the laser operation are studied by using a simulation that is based on the rate-equations. Simulation results show line jumping with accurate timing in both homogeneous and inhomogeneous models, and the best match with the experiment is achieved with the inhomogeneous model assuming independent lasing of two distinct ion classes.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  6. B. C. Dickinson, P. S. Golding, M. Pollnau, T. A. King, and S. D. Jackson, “Investigation of a 791-nm pulse-pumped 2.7 μm Er-doped ZBLAN fibre laser,” Opt. Commun. 191, 315–321 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2009

2007

2005

2004

L. Bigot, S. Choblet, A.-M. Jurdyc, and B. Jacquier, “Transient spectral hole burning in erbium-doped fluoride glasses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 307–312 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Guy, L. Bigot, I. Vasilief, B. Jacquier, B. Boulard, and Y. Gao, “Two crystallographic sites in erbium-doped fluoride glass by frequency-resolved and site-selective spectroscopies,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 336, 165–172 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Tafoya, J. Pierce, R. K. Jain, and B. Wong, “Efficient and compact high-power mid-IR (∼3 μm) lasers for surgical applications,” Proc. SPIE 5312, 218–222 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

2002

M. Pollnau and S. D. Jackson, “Energy recycling versus lifetime quenching in erbium-doped 3-μm fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 162–169 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Inoue, K. Soga, and A. Makishima, “Simulation of the optical properties of Er:ZBLAN glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 298, 270–286 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

Y. D. Huang, M. Mortimer, and F. Auzel, “Stark level analysis for Er3+-doped ZBLAN glass,” Opt. Mater. 17, 501–511 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Pollnau and S. D. Jackson, “Erbium 3-μm fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 30–40 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Dickinson, P. S. Golding, M. Pollnau, T. A. King, and S. D. Jackson, “Investigation of a 791-nm pulse-pumped 2.7 μm Er-doped ZBLAN fibre laser,” Opt. Commun. 191, 315–321 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

S. D. Jackson, T. A. King, and M. Pollnau, “Modelling of high-power diode-pumped erbium 3 μm fibre lasers,” J. Mod. Opt. 47, 1987–1994 (2000).

P. S. Golding, S. D. Jackson, T. A. King, and M. Pollnau, “Energy transfer processes in Er3+-doped and Er3+, Pr3+-codoped ZBLAN glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 856–864 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. Srinivasan, R. K. Jain, and G. Monnom, “Indirect measurement of the magnitude of ion clustering at high doping densities in Er:ZBLAN fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 178–181 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

S. D. Jackson and T. A. King, “Dynamics of the output of heavily Tm-doped double-clad silica fiber lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 2178–2188 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Philipsen, J. Broeng, A. Bjarklev, S. Helmfrid, D. Bremberg, B. Jaskorzynska, and B. Pálsdóttir, “Observation of strongly nonquadratic homogeneous upconversion in Er3+-doped silica fibers and reevaluation of the degree of clustering,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1741–1749 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

H. L. An, E. Y. B. Pun, H. D. Liu, and X. Z. Lin, “Effects of ion clusters on the performance of a heavily doped erbium-doped fiber laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23, 1197–1199 (1998).

J. Daniel, J.-M. Costa, P. LeBoudec, G. Stephan, and F. Sanchez, “Generalized bistability in an erbium-doped fiber laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 1291–1294 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996

S. Colin, E. Contesse, P. LeBoudec, G. Stephan, and F. Sanchez, “Evidence of a saturable-absorption effect in heavily erbium-doped fibers,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1987–1989 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. Sanchez and G. Stephan, “General analysis of instabilities in erbium-doped fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. E 55, 2110–2122 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994

Ch. Frerichs, “Efficient Er3+-doped cw fluorozirconate fiber laser operating at 2.7 μm pumped at 980 nm,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 15, 635–649 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Schneider, D. Hauschild, Ch. Frerichs, and L. Wetenkamp, “Highly efficient Er3+:Pr3+-codoped cw fluorozirconate fiber laser operating at 2.7 μm,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 15, 1907–1922 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

V. Lupei, S. Georgescu, and V. Florea, “On the dynamics of population inversion for 3 μmEr3+ lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 426–434 (1993).
[CrossRef]

F. Sanchez, P. LeBoudec, and P.-L. François, “Effects of ion pairs on the dynamics of erbium-doped fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 48, 2220–2229 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

L. Wetenkamp, G. F. West, and H. Többen, “Co-doping effects in erbium3+- and holmium3+-doped ZBLAN glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 140, 25–30 (1992).
[CrossRef]

An, H. L.

H. L. An, E. Y. B. Pun, H. D. Liu, and X. Z. Lin, “Effects of ion clusters on the performance of a heavily doped erbium-doped fiber laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23, 1197–1199 (1998).

Auzel, F.

Y. D. Huang, M. Mortimer, and F. Auzel, “Stark level analysis for Er3+-doped ZBLAN glass,” Opt. Mater. 17, 501–511 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Barmenkov, Y. O.

Bernier, M.

Bigot, L.

S. Guy, L. Bigot, I. Vasilief, B. Jacquier, B. Boulard, and Y. Gao, “Two crystallographic sites in erbium-doped fluoride glass by frequency-resolved and site-selective spectroscopies,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 336, 165–172 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Bigot, S. Choblet, A.-M. Jurdyc, and B. Jacquier, “Transient spectral hole burning in erbium-doped fluoride glasses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 307–312 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bjarklev, A.

J. L. Philipsen, J. Broeng, A. Bjarklev, S. Helmfrid, D. Bremberg, B. Jaskorzynska, and B. Pálsdóttir, “Observation of strongly nonquadratic homogeneous upconversion in Er3+-doped silica fibers and reevaluation of the degree of clustering,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1741–1749 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Boulard, B.

S. Guy, L. Bigot, I. Vasilief, B. Jacquier, B. Boulard, and Y. Gao, “Two crystallographic sites in erbium-doped fluoride glass by frequency-resolved and site-selective spectroscopies,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 336, 165–172 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bremberg, D.

J. L. Philipsen, J. Broeng, A. Bjarklev, S. Helmfrid, D. Bremberg, B. Jaskorzynska, and B. Pálsdóttir, “Observation of strongly nonquadratic homogeneous upconversion in Er3+-doped silica fibers and reevaluation of the degree of clustering,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1741–1749 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Broeng, J.

J. L. Philipsen, J. Broeng, A. Bjarklev, S. Helmfrid, D. Bremberg, B. Jaskorzynska, and B. Pálsdóttir, “Observation of strongly nonquadratic homogeneous upconversion in Er3+-doped silica fibers and reevaluation of the degree of clustering,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1741–1749 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Caron, N.

Chen, B.

B. Wang, L. Cheng, H. Zhong, J. Sun, Y. Tian, X. Zhang, and B. Chen, “Excited state absorption cross sections of I413/2 of Er3+ in ZBLAN,” Opt. Mater. 31, 1658–1662 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, L.

B. Wang, L. Cheng, H. Zhong, J. Sun, Y. Tian, X. Zhang, and B. Chen, “Excited state absorption cross sections of I413/2 of Er3+ in ZBLAN,” Opt. Mater. 31, 1658–1662 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Choblet, S.

Colin, S.

Contesse, E.

Copic, M.

M. Gorjan, M. Marinček, and M. Čopič, “Role of interionic processes in the efficiency and operation of erbium-doped fluoride fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 47 (to be published).

Costa, J. -M.

Daniel, J.

Dickinson, B. C.

B. C. Dickinson, P. S. Golding, M. Pollnau, T. A. King, and S. D. Jackson, “Investigation of a 791-nm pulse-pumped 2.7 μm Er-doped ZBLAN fibre laser,” Opt. Commun. 191, 315–321 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Faucher, D.

Florea, V.

V. Lupei, S. Georgescu, and V. Florea, “On the dynamics of population inversion for 3 μmEr3+ lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 426–434 (1993).
[CrossRef]

François, P. -L.

F. Sanchez, P. LeBoudec, and P.-L. François, “Effects of ion pairs on the dynamics of erbium-doped fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 48, 2220–2229 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Frerichs, Ch.

Ch. Frerichs, “Efficient Er3+-doped cw fluorozirconate fiber laser operating at 2.7 μm pumped at 980 nm,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 15, 635–649 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Schneider, D. Hauschild, Ch. Frerichs, and L. Wetenkamp, “Highly efficient Er3+:Pr3+-codoped cw fluorozirconate fiber laser operating at 2.7 μm,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 15, 1907–1922 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Gao, Y.

S. Guy, L. Bigot, I. Vasilief, B. Jacquier, B. Boulard, and Y. Gao, “Two crystallographic sites in erbium-doped fluoride glass by frequency-resolved and site-selective spectroscopies,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 336, 165–172 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Georgescu, S.

V. Lupei, S. Georgescu, and V. Florea, “On the dynamics of population inversion for 3 μmEr3+ lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 426–434 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Golding, P. S.

B. C. Dickinson, P. S. Golding, M. Pollnau, T. A. King, and S. D. Jackson, “Investigation of a 791-nm pulse-pumped 2.7 μm Er-doped ZBLAN fibre laser,” Opt. Commun. 191, 315–321 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. S. Golding, S. D. Jackson, T. A. King, and M. Pollnau, “Energy transfer processes in Er3+-doped and Er3+, Pr3+-codoped ZBLAN glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 856–864 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gorjan, M.

M. Gorjan, M. Marinček, and M. Čopič, “Role of interionic processes in the efficiency and operation of erbium-doped fluoride fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 47 (to be published).

Guy, S.

S. Guy, L. Bigot, I. Vasilief, B. Jacquier, B. Boulard, and Y. Gao, “Two crystallographic sites in erbium-doped fluoride glass by frequency-resolved and site-selective spectroscopies,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 336, 165–172 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hashida, M.

Hauschild, D.

J. Schneider, D. Hauschild, Ch. Frerichs, and L. Wetenkamp, “Highly efficient Er3+:Pr3+-codoped cw fluorozirconate fiber laser operating at 2.7 μm,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 15, 1907–1922 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Helmfrid, S.

J. L. Philipsen, J. Broeng, A. Bjarklev, S. Helmfrid, D. Bremberg, B. Jaskorzynska, and B. Pálsdóttir, “Observation of strongly nonquadratic homogeneous upconversion in Er3+-doped silica fibers and reevaluation of the degree of clustering,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1741–1749 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Y. D.

Y. D. Huang, M. Mortimer, and F. Auzel, “Stark level analysis for Er3+-doped ZBLAN glass,” Opt. Mater. 17, 501–511 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Inoue, H.

H. Inoue, K. Soga, and A. Makishima, “Simulation of the optical properties of Er:ZBLAN glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 298, 270–286 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, S. D.

M. Pollnau and S. D. Jackson, “Energy recycling versus lifetime quenching in erbium-doped 3-μm fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 162–169 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Pollnau and S. D. Jackson, “Erbium 3-μm fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 30–40 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Dickinson, P. S. Golding, M. Pollnau, T. A. King, and S. D. Jackson, “Investigation of a 791-nm pulse-pumped 2.7 μm Er-doped ZBLAN fibre laser,” Opt. Commun. 191, 315–321 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Jackson, T. A. King, and M. Pollnau, “Modelling of high-power diode-pumped erbium 3 μm fibre lasers,” J. Mod. Opt. 47, 1987–1994 (2000).

P. S. Golding, S. D. Jackson, T. A. King, and M. Pollnau, “Energy transfer processes in Er3+-doped and Er3+, Pr3+-codoped ZBLAN glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 856–864 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Jackson and T. A. King, “Dynamics of the output of heavily Tm-doped double-clad silica fiber lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 2178–2188 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jacquier, B.

S. Guy, L. Bigot, I. Vasilief, B. Jacquier, B. Boulard, and Y. Gao, “Two crystallographic sites in erbium-doped fluoride glass by frequency-resolved and site-selective spectroscopies,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 336, 165–172 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Bigot, S. Choblet, A.-M. Jurdyc, and B. Jacquier, “Transient spectral hole burning in erbium-doped fluoride glasses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 307–312 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jain, R.

Jain, R. K.

J. Tafoya, J. Pierce, R. K. Jain, and B. Wong, “Efficient and compact high-power mid-IR (∼3 μm) lasers for surgical applications,” Proc. SPIE 5312, 218–222 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. Srinivasan, R. K. Jain, and G. Monnom, “Indirect measurement of the magnitude of ion clustering at high doping densities in Er:ZBLAN fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 178–181 (2000).
[CrossRef]

James-Regàtegui, R.

Jarabo, S.

Jaskorzynska, B.

J. L. Philipsen, J. Broeng, A. Bjarklev, S. Helmfrid, D. Bremberg, B. Jaskorzynska, and B. Pálsdóttir, “Observation of strongly nonquadratic homogeneous upconversion in Er3+-doped silica fibers and reevaluation of the degree of clustering,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1741–1749 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jurdyc, A. -M.

King, T. A.

B. C. Dickinson, P. S. Golding, M. Pollnau, T. A. King, and S. D. Jackson, “Investigation of a 791-nm pulse-pumped 2.7 μm Er-doped ZBLAN fibre laser,” Opt. Commun. 191, 315–321 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Jackson, T. A. King, and M. Pollnau, “Modelling of high-power diode-pumped erbium 3 μm fibre lasers,” J. Mod. Opt. 47, 1987–1994 (2000).

P. S. Golding, S. D. Jackson, T. A. King, and M. Pollnau, “Energy transfer processes in Er3+-doped and Er3+, Pr3+-codoped ZBLAN glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 856–864 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Jackson and T. A. King, “Dynamics of the output of heavily Tm-doped double-clad silica fiber lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 2178–2188 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kir’yanov, A. V.

LeBoudec, P.

Lin, X. Z.

H. L. An, E. Y. B. Pun, H. D. Liu, and X. Z. Lin, “Effects of ion clusters on the performance of a heavily doped erbium-doped fiber laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23, 1197–1199 (1998).

Liu, H. D.

H. L. An, E. Y. B. Pun, H. D. Liu, and X. Z. Lin, “Effects of ion clusters on the performance of a heavily doped erbium-doped fiber laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23, 1197–1199 (1998).

Lupei, V.

V. Lupei, S. Georgescu, and V. Florea, “On the dynamics of population inversion for 3 μmEr3+ lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 426–434 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Makishima, A.

H. Inoue, K. Soga, and A. Makishima, “Simulation of the optical properties of Er:ZBLAN glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 298, 270–286 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Marincek, M.

M. Gorjan, M. Marinček, and M. Čopič, “Role of interionic processes in the efficiency and operation of erbium-doped fluoride fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 47 (to be published).

Monnom, G.

Mortimer, M.

Y. D. Huang, M. Mortimer, and F. Auzel, “Stark level analysis for Er3+-doped ZBLAN glass,” Opt. Mater. 17, 501–511 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Murakami, M.

Nikonorov, N. V.

A. K. Przhevuskii and N. V. Nikonorov, “Monte-Carlo simulation of upconversion processes in erbium-doped materials,” Opt. Mater. 21, 729–741 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pálsdóttir, B.

J. L. Philipsen, J. Broeng, A. Bjarklev, S. Helmfrid, D. Bremberg, B. Jaskorzynska, and B. Pálsdóttir, “Observation of strongly nonquadratic homogeneous upconversion in Er3+-doped silica fibers and reevaluation of the degree of clustering,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1741–1749 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Philipsen, J. L.

J. L. Philipsen, J. Broeng, A. Bjarklev, S. Helmfrid, D. Bremberg, B. Jaskorzynska, and B. Pálsdóttir, “Observation of strongly nonquadratic homogeneous upconversion in Er3+-doped silica fibers and reevaluation of the degree of clustering,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1741–1749 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pierce, J.

J. Tafoya, J. Pierce, R. K. Jain, and B. Wong, “Efficient and compact high-power mid-IR (∼3 μm) lasers for surgical applications,” Proc. SPIE 5312, 218–222 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pisarchik, A. N.

Pollnau, M.

M. Pollnau and S. D. Jackson, “Energy recycling versus lifetime quenching in erbium-doped 3-μm fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 162–169 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Pollnau and S. D. Jackson, “Erbium 3-μm fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 30–40 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Dickinson, P. S. Golding, M. Pollnau, T. A. King, and S. D. Jackson, “Investigation of a 791-nm pulse-pumped 2.7 μm Er-doped ZBLAN fibre laser,” Opt. Commun. 191, 315–321 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. S. Golding, S. D. Jackson, T. A. King, and M. Pollnau, “Energy transfer processes in Er3+-doped and Er3+, Pr3+-codoped ZBLAN glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 856–864 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Jackson, T. A. King, and M. Pollnau, “Modelling of high-power diode-pumped erbium 3 μm fibre lasers,” J. Mod. Opt. 47, 1987–1994 (2000).

Przhevuskii, A. K.

A. K. Przhevuskii and N. V. Nikonorov, “Monte-Carlo simulation of upconversion processes in erbium-doped materials,” Opt. Mater. 21, 729–741 (2003).
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Pun, E. Y. B.

H. L. An, E. Y. B. Pun, H. D. Liu, and X. Z. Lin, “Effects of ion clusters on the performance of a heavily doped erbium-doped fiber laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23, 1197–1199 (1998).

Sàez-Landete, J.

Sanchez, F.

J. Daniel, J.-M. Costa, P. LeBoudec, G. Stephan, and F. Sanchez, “Generalized bistability in an erbium-doped fiber laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 1291–1294 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. Sanchez and G. Stephan, “General analysis of instabilities in erbium-doped fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. E 55, 2110–2122 (1996).
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S. Colin, E. Contesse, P. LeBoudec, G. Stephan, and F. Sanchez, “Evidence of a saturable-absorption effect in heavily erbium-doped fibers,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1987–1989 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. Sanchez, P. LeBoudec, and P.-L. François, “Effects of ion pairs on the dynamics of erbium-doped fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 48, 2220–2229 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Schneider, J.

J. Schneider, D. Hauschild, Ch. Frerichs, and L. Wetenkamp, “Highly efficient Er3+:Pr3+-codoped cw fluorozirconate fiber laser operating at 2.7 μm,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 15, 1907–1922 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Shimizu, S.

Soga, K.

H. Inoue, K. Soga, and A. Makishima, “Simulation of the optical properties of Er:ZBLAN glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 298, 270–286 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sola, I. J.

Srinivasan, B.

Stephan, G.

Sukabe, S.

Sun, J.

B. Wang, L. Cheng, H. Zhong, J. Sun, Y. Tian, X. Zhang, and B. Chen, “Excited state absorption cross sections of I413/2 of Er3+ in ZBLAN,” Opt. Mater. 31, 1658–1662 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tafoya, J.

J. Tafoya, J. Pierce, R. K. Jain, and B. Wong, “Efficient and compact high-power mid-IR (∼3 μm) lasers for surgical applications,” Proc. SPIE 5312, 218–222 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tian, Y.

B. Wang, L. Cheng, H. Zhong, J. Sun, Y. Tian, X. Zhang, and B. Chen, “Excited state absorption cross sections of I413/2 of Er3+ in ZBLAN,” Opt. Mater. 31, 1658–1662 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Többen, H.

L. Wetenkamp, G. F. West, and H. Többen, “Co-doping effects in erbium3+- and holmium3+-doped ZBLAN glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 140, 25–30 (1992).
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Tokita, S.

Vallée, R.

Vasilief, I.

S. Guy, L. Bigot, I. Vasilief, B. Jacquier, B. Boulard, and Y. Gao, “Two crystallographic sites in erbium-doped fluoride glass by frequency-resolved and site-selective spectroscopies,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 336, 165–172 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wang, B.

B. Wang, L. Cheng, H. Zhong, J. Sun, Y. Tian, X. Zhang, and B. Chen, “Excited state absorption cross sections of I413/2 of Er3+ in ZBLAN,” Opt. Mater. 31, 1658–1662 (2009).
[CrossRef]

West, G. F.

L. Wetenkamp, G. F. West, and H. Többen, “Co-doping effects in erbium3+- and holmium3+-doped ZBLAN glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 140, 25–30 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Wetenkamp, L.

J. Schneider, D. Hauschild, Ch. Frerichs, and L. Wetenkamp, “Highly efficient Er3+:Pr3+-codoped cw fluorozirconate fiber laser operating at 2.7 μm,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 15, 1907–1922 (1994).
[CrossRef]

L. Wetenkamp, G. F. West, and H. Többen, “Co-doping effects in erbium3+- and holmium3+-doped ZBLAN glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 140, 25–30 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Wong, B.

J. Tafoya, J. Pierce, R. K. Jain, and B. Wong, “Efficient and compact high-power mid-IR (∼3 μm) lasers for surgical applications,” Proc. SPIE 5312, 218–222 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

B. Wang, L. Cheng, H. Zhong, J. Sun, Y. Tian, X. Zhang, and B. Chen, “Excited state absorption cross sections of I413/2 of Er3+ in ZBLAN,” Opt. Mater. 31, 1658–1662 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhong, H.

B. Wang, L. Cheng, H. Zhong, J. Sun, Y. Tian, X. Zhang, and B. Chen, “Excited state absorption cross sections of I413/2 of Er3+ in ZBLAN,” Opt. Mater. 31, 1658–1662 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, X.

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M. Pollnau and S. D. Jackson, “Energy recycling versus lifetime quenching in erbium-doped 3-μm fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 162–169 (2002).
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[CrossRef]

M. Gorjan, M. Marinček, and M. Čopič, “Role of interionic processes in the efficiency and operation of erbium-doped fluoride fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 47 (to be published).

J. L. Philipsen, J. Broeng, A. Bjarklev, S. Helmfrid, D. Bremberg, B. Jaskorzynska, and B. Pálsdóttir, “Observation of strongly nonquadratic homogeneous upconversion in Er3+-doped silica fibers and reevaluation of the degree of clustering,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1741–1749 (1999).
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IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

M. Pollnau and S. D. Jackson, “Erbium 3-μm fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 30–40 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves

Ch. Frerichs, “Efficient Er3+-doped cw fluorozirconate fiber laser operating at 2.7 μm pumped at 980 nm,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 15, 635–649 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Schneider, D. Hauschild, Ch. Frerichs, and L. Wetenkamp, “Highly efficient Er3+:Pr3+-codoped cw fluorozirconate fiber laser operating at 2.7 μm,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 15, 1907–1922 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt.

S. D. Jackson, T. A. King, and M. Pollnau, “Modelling of high-power diode-pumped erbium 3 μm fibre lasers,” J. Mod. Opt. 47, 1987–1994 (2000).

J. Non-Cryst. Solids

H. Inoue, K. Soga, and A. Makishima, “Simulation of the optical properties of Er:ZBLAN glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 298, 270–286 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Guy, L. Bigot, I. Vasilief, B. Jacquier, B. Boulard, and Y. Gao, “Two crystallographic sites in erbium-doped fluoride glass by frequency-resolved and site-selective spectroscopies,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 336, 165–172 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Wetenkamp, G. F. West, and H. Többen, “Co-doping effects in erbium3+- and holmium3+-doped ZBLAN glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 140, 25–30 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Opt. Commun.

B. C. Dickinson, P. S. Golding, M. Pollnau, T. A. King, and S. D. Jackson, “Investigation of a 791-nm pulse-pumped 2.7 μm Er-doped ZBLAN fibre laser,” Opt. Commun. 191, 315–321 (2001).
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Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Opt. Mater.

Y. D. Huang, M. Mortimer, and F. Auzel, “Stark level analysis for Er3+-doped ZBLAN glass,” Opt. Mater. 17, 501–511 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. Wang, L. Cheng, H. Zhong, J. Sun, Y. Tian, X. Zhang, and B. Chen, “Excited state absorption cross sections of I413/2 of Er3+ in ZBLAN,” Opt. Mater. 31, 1658–1662 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Przhevuskii and N. V. Nikonorov, “Monte-Carlo simulation of upconversion processes in erbium-doped materials,” Opt. Mater. 21, 729–741 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A

F. Sanchez, P. LeBoudec, and P.-L. François, “Effects of ion pairs on the dynamics of erbium-doped fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 48, 2220–2229 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B

P. S. Golding, S. D. Jackson, T. A. King, and M. Pollnau, “Energy transfer processes in Er3+-doped and Er3+, Pr3+-codoped ZBLAN glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 856–864 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E

F. Sanchez and G. Stephan, “General analysis of instabilities in erbium-doped fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. E 55, 2110–2122 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

J. Tafoya, J. Pierce, R. K. Jain, and B. Wong, “Efficient and compact high-power mid-IR (∼3 μm) lasers for surgical applications,” Proc. SPIE 5312, 218–222 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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