Abstract

We report experimental and theoretical investigations of the third-order optical nonlinearities of aromatic amino acids (Phenylalanine, Histidine, Tryptophan, and Tyrosine) in aqueous solutions. The Z-scan technique with femtosecond laser pulses at 800nm was explored for the determination of the nonlinear refractive index, nonlinear absorption coefficient, and the second-order hyperpolarizability of each amino acid. Experimental results were compared with theoretical analysis based on post-Hartree Fock MP2/6-311+G**.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. J. Rodrigues, C. H. T. P. Silva, S. C. Zilio, L. Misoguti, and C. R. Mendonça, “Femtosecond Z-scan measurements of nonlinear refraction in amino acid solutions,” Opt. Mater. 20, 153–157 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  2. P. R. Callis and J. T. Vivian, “Mechanisms of tryptophan fluorescence shifts in proteins,” J. Biophys. 80, 2093–2109 (2006).
  3. M. Ikeda, H. Tsuji, S. Nakamura, A. Ichiyama, Y. Nishizuka, and O. Hayaishi, “Studies on the biosynthesis of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide: a role of picolinic carboxylase in the biosynthesis of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide from tryptophan in mammals,” J. Biol. Chem. 240, 1395–1401 (1965).
    [PubMed]
  4. J. R. Albani, “New insights in the interpretation of tryptophan fluorescence: origin of the fluorescence lifetime and characterization of a new fluorescence parameter in proteins: the emission to excitation ratio,” J. Fluoresc. 17, 406–417 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. C. A. Mirkin, R. L. Letsinger, R. C. Mucic, and J. J. Storhoff, “A DNA-based method for rationally assembling nanoparticles in macroscopic materials,” Nature 382, 607–609 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. Lakowicz, “Radiative decay engineering: Biophysical and biomedical applications,” Anal. Biochem. 298, 1–24 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. D. Rativa, A. S. L. Gomes, S. Wachsmann-Hogiu, D. L. Farkas, and R. E. de Araujo, “Nonlinear excitation of tryptophan emission enhanced by silver nanoparticles,” J. Fluoresc. 18, 1151–1155 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, R. Christie, A. Yu. Nikitin, B. T. Hyman, and W. Webb, “Live tissue intrinsic emission microscopy using multiphoton-excited native fluorescence and second harmonic generation,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 3100, 7075–7080 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. Voet and J. G. Voet, Biochemistry (Wiley, 1995).
  11. R. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics, 3rd ed., Elsevier Science & Technology Books (Elsevier, 2008).
  12. K. C. Rustagi and J. Ducuing, “Third order optical polarizability of conjugated organic molecules,” Opt. Commun. 10, 258–261 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. Ferrero, M. Rérat, B. Kirtman, and R. Dovesi, “Calculation of the static electronic second hyperpolarizability or χ(3) tensor of three-dimensional periodic compounds with a local basis set,” J. Chem. Phys. 129, 244110 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  14. I. B. Bersuker and I. Ya. Ogurtsov, “The Jahn-Teller effect in dipole (multipole) moments and polarizabilities of molecules,” Adv. Quantum Chem. 18, 1 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  15. T. Andrade-Filho, T. C. S. Ribeiro, and J. Del Nero, “The UV-vis absorption spectrum of the flavonol quercetin in methanolic solution: A theoretical investigation,” EPJ. E 29, 253–259 (2009).
  16. T. Andrade-Filho, H. S. Martins, and J. Del Nero, “Theoretical investigation of the electronic absorption spectrum of Piceatannol in methanolic solution,” Theor. Chem. Acc. 121, 147–153 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  17. J. Hermann and J. Ducuing, “Third-order polarizabilities of long-chain molecules,” J. Appl. Phys. 45, 5100–5102 (1974).
    [CrossRef]

2009 (1)

T. Andrade-Filho, T. C. S. Ribeiro, and J. Del Nero, “The UV-vis absorption spectrum of the flavonol quercetin in methanolic solution: A theoretical investigation,” EPJ. E 29, 253–259 (2009).

2008 (4)

T. Andrade-Filho, H. S. Martins, and J. Del Nero, “Theoretical investigation of the electronic absorption spectrum of Piceatannol in methanolic solution,” Theor. Chem. Acc. 121, 147–153 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics, 3rd ed., Elsevier Science & Technology Books (Elsevier, 2008).

M. Ferrero, M. Rérat, B. Kirtman, and R. Dovesi, “Calculation of the static electronic second hyperpolarizability or χ(3) tensor of three-dimensional periodic compounds with a local basis set,” J. Chem. Phys. 129, 244110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Rativa, A. S. L. Gomes, S. Wachsmann-Hogiu, D. L. Farkas, and R. E. de Araujo, “Nonlinear excitation of tryptophan emission enhanced by silver nanoparticles,” J. Fluoresc. 18, 1151–1155 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

J. R. Albani, “New insights in the interpretation of tryptophan fluorescence: origin of the fluorescence lifetime and characterization of a new fluorescence parameter in proteins: the emission to excitation ratio,” J. Fluoresc. 17, 406–417 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

P. R. Callis and J. T. Vivian, “Mechanisms of tryptophan fluorescence shifts in proteins,” J. Biophys. 80, 2093–2109 (2006).

2003 (1)

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, R. Christie, A. Yu. Nikitin, B. T. Hyman, and W. Webb, “Live tissue intrinsic emission microscopy using multiphoton-excited native fluorescence and second harmonic generation,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 3100, 7075–7080 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

J. J. Rodrigues, C. H. T. P. Silva, S. C. Zilio, L. Misoguti, and C. R. Mendonça, “Femtosecond Z-scan measurements of nonlinear refraction in amino acid solutions,” Opt. Mater. 20, 153–157 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

J. Lakowicz, “Radiative decay engineering: Biophysical and biomedical applications,” Anal. Biochem. 298, 1–24 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

C. A. Mirkin, R. L. Letsinger, R. C. Mucic, and J. J. Storhoff, “A DNA-based method for rationally assembling nanoparticles in macroscopic materials,” Nature 382, 607–609 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

D. Voet and J. G. Voet, Biochemistry (Wiley, 1995).

1990 (1)

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

I. B. Bersuker and I. Ya. Ogurtsov, “The Jahn-Teller effect in dipole (multipole) moments and polarizabilities of molecules,” Adv. Quantum Chem. 18, 1 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1974 (2)

K. C. Rustagi and J. Ducuing, “Third order optical polarizability of conjugated organic molecules,” Opt. Commun. 10, 258–261 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. Hermann and J. Ducuing, “Third-order polarizabilities of long-chain molecules,” J. Appl. Phys. 45, 5100–5102 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1965 (1)

M. Ikeda, H. Tsuji, S. Nakamura, A. Ichiyama, Y. Nishizuka, and O. Hayaishi, “Studies on the biosynthesis of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide: a role of picolinic carboxylase in the biosynthesis of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide from tryptophan in mammals,” J. Biol. Chem. 240, 1395–1401 (1965).
[PubMed]

Albani, J. R.

J. R. Albani, “New insights in the interpretation of tryptophan fluorescence: origin of the fluorescence lifetime and characterization of a new fluorescence parameter in proteins: the emission to excitation ratio,” J. Fluoresc. 17, 406–417 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Andrade-Filho, T.

T. Andrade-Filho, T. C. S. Ribeiro, and J. Del Nero, “The UV-vis absorption spectrum of the flavonol quercetin in methanolic solution: A theoretical investigation,” EPJ. E 29, 253–259 (2009).

T. Andrade-Filho, H. S. Martins, and J. Del Nero, “Theoretical investigation of the electronic absorption spectrum of Piceatannol in methanolic solution,” Theor. Chem. Acc. 121, 147–153 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bersuker, I. B.

I. B. Bersuker and I. Ya. Ogurtsov, “The Jahn-Teller effect in dipole (multipole) moments and polarizabilities of molecules,” Adv. Quantum Chem. 18, 1 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, R.

R. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics, 3rd ed., Elsevier Science & Technology Books (Elsevier, 2008).

Callis, P. R.

P. R. Callis and J. T. Vivian, “Mechanisms of tryptophan fluorescence shifts in proteins,” J. Biophys. 80, 2093–2109 (2006).

Christie, R.

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, R. Christie, A. Yu. Nikitin, B. T. Hyman, and W. Webb, “Live tissue intrinsic emission microscopy using multiphoton-excited native fluorescence and second harmonic generation,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 3100, 7075–7080 (2003).
[CrossRef]

de Araujo, R. E.

D. Rativa, A. S. L. Gomes, S. Wachsmann-Hogiu, D. L. Farkas, and R. E. de Araujo, “Nonlinear excitation of tryptophan emission enhanced by silver nanoparticles,” J. Fluoresc. 18, 1151–1155 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Del Nero, J.

T. Andrade-Filho, T. C. S. Ribeiro, and J. Del Nero, “The UV-vis absorption spectrum of the flavonol quercetin in methanolic solution: A theoretical investigation,” EPJ. E 29, 253–259 (2009).

T. Andrade-Filho, H. S. Martins, and J. Del Nero, “Theoretical investigation of the electronic absorption spectrum of Piceatannol in methanolic solution,” Theor. Chem. Acc. 121, 147–153 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dovesi, R.

M. Ferrero, M. Rérat, B. Kirtman, and R. Dovesi, “Calculation of the static electronic second hyperpolarizability or χ(3) tensor of three-dimensional periodic compounds with a local basis set,” J. Chem. Phys. 129, 244110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ducuing, J.

K. C. Rustagi and J. Ducuing, “Third order optical polarizability of conjugated organic molecules,” Opt. Commun. 10, 258–261 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. Hermann and J. Ducuing, “Third-order polarizabilities of long-chain molecules,” J. Appl. Phys. 45, 5100–5102 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Farkas, D. L.

D. Rativa, A. S. L. Gomes, S. Wachsmann-Hogiu, D. L. Farkas, and R. E. de Araujo, “Nonlinear excitation of tryptophan emission enhanced by silver nanoparticles,” J. Fluoresc. 18, 1151–1155 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ferrero, M.

M. Ferrero, M. Rérat, B. Kirtman, and R. Dovesi, “Calculation of the static electronic second hyperpolarizability or χ(3) tensor of three-dimensional periodic compounds with a local basis set,” J. Chem. Phys. 129, 244110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gomes, A. S. L.

D. Rativa, A. S. L. Gomes, S. Wachsmann-Hogiu, D. L. Farkas, and R. E. de Araujo, “Nonlinear excitation of tryptophan emission enhanced by silver nanoparticles,” J. Fluoresc. 18, 1151–1155 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hagan, D. J.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hayaishi, O.

M. Ikeda, H. Tsuji, S. Nakamura, A. Ichiyama, Y. Nishizuka, and O. Hayaishi, “Studies on the biosynthesis of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide: a role of picolinic carboxylase in the biosynthesis of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide from tryptophan in mammals,” J. Biol. Chem. 240, 1395–1401 (1965).
[PubMed]

Hermann, J.

J. Hermann and J. Ducuing, “Third-order polarizabilities of long-chain molecules,” J. Appl. Phys. 45, 5100–5102 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Hyman, B. T.

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, R. Christie, A. Yu. Nikitin, B. T. Hyman, and W. Webb, “Live tissue intrinsic emission microscopy using multiphoton-excited native fluorescence and second harmonic generation,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 3100, 7075–7080 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ichiyama, A.

M. Ikeda, H. Tsuji, S. Nakamura, A. Ichiyama, Y. Nishizuka, and O. Hayaishi, “Studies on the biosynthesis of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide: a role of picolinic carboxylase in the biosynthesis of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide from tryptophan in mammals,” J. Biol. Chem. 240, 1395–1401 (1965).
[PubMed]

Ikeda, M.

M. Ikeda, H. Tsuji, S. Nakamura, A. Ichiyama, Y. Nishizuka, and O. Hayaishi, “Studies on the biosynthesis of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide: a role of picolinic carboxylase in the biosynthesis of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide from tryptophan in mammals,” J. Biol. Chem. 240, 1395–1401 (1965).
[PubMed]

Kirtman, B.

M. Ferrero, M. Rérat, B. Kirtman, and R. Dovesi, “Calculation of the static electronic second hyperpolarizability or χ(3) tensor of three-dimensional periodic compounds with a local basis set,” J. Chem. Phys. 129, 244110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lakowicz, J.

J. Lakowicz, “Radiative decay engineering: Biophysical and biomedical applications,” Anal. Biochem. 298, 1–24 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Letsinger, R. L.

C. A. Mirkin, R. L. Letsinger, R. C. Mucic, and J. J. Storhoff, “A DNA-based method for rationally assembling nanoparticles in macroscopic materials,” Nature 382, 607–609 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martins, H. S.

T. Andrade-Filho, H. S. Martins, and J. Del Nero, “Theoretical investigation of the electronic absorption spectrum of Piceatannol in methanolic solution,” Theor. Chem. Acc. 121, 147–153 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mendonça, C. R.

J. J. Rodrigues, C. H. T. P. Silva, S. C. Zilio, L. Misoguti, and C. R. Mendonça, “Femtosecond Z-scan measurements of nonlinear refraction in amino acid solutions,” Opt. Mater. 20, 153–157 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mirkin, C. A.

C. A. Mirkin, R. L. Letsinger, R. C. Mucic, and J. J. Storhoff, “A DNA-based method for rationally assembling nanoparticles in macroscopic materials,” Nature 382, 607–609 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Misoguti, L.

J. J. Rodrigues, C. H. T. P. Silva, S. C. Zilio, L. Misoguti, and C. R. Mendonça, “Femtosecond Z-scan measurements of nonlinear refraction in amino acid solutions,” Opt. Mater. 20, 153–157 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mucic, R. C.

C. A. Mirkin, R. L. Letsinger, R. C. Mucic, and J. J. Storhoff, “A DNA-based method for rationally assembling nanoparticles in macroscopic materials,” Nature 382, 607–609 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nakamura, S.

M. Ikeda, H. Tsuji, S. Nakamura, A. Ichiyama, Y. Nishizuka, and O. Hayaishi, “Studies on the biosynthesis of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide: a role of picolinic carboxylase in the biosynthesis of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide from tryptophan in mammals,” J. Biol. Chem. 240, 1395–1401 (1965).
[PubMed]

Nikitin, A. Yu.

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, R. Christie, A. Yu. Nikitin, B. T. Hyman, and W. Webb, “Live tissue intrinsic emission microscopy using multiphoton-excited native fluorescence and second harmonic generation,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 3100, 7075–7080 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nishizuka, Y.

M. Ikeda, H. Tsuji, S. Nakamura, A. Ichiyama, Y. Nishizuka, and O. Hayaishi, “Studies on the biosynthesis of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide: a role of picolinic carboxylase in the biosynthesis of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide from tryptophan in mammals,” J. Biol. Chem. 240, 1395–1401 (1965).
[PubMed]

Ogurtsov, I. Ya.

I. B. Bersuker and I. Ya. Ogurtsov, “The Jahn-Teller effect in dipole (multipole) moments and polarizabilities of molecules,” Adv. Quantum Chem. 18, 1 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Rativa, D.

D. Rativa, A. S. L. Gomes, S. Wachsmann-Hogiu, D. L. Farkas, and R. E. de Araujo, “Nonlinear excitation of tryptophan emission enhanced by silver nanoparticles,” J. Fluoresc. 18, 1151–1155 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rérat, M.

M. Ferrero, M. Rérat, B. Kirtman, and R. Dovesi, “Calculation of the static electronic second hyperpolarizability or χ(3) tensor of three-dimensional periodic compounds with a local basis set,” J. Chem. Phys. 129, 244110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ribeiro, T. C. S.

T. Andrade-Filho, T. C. S. Ribeiro, and J. Del Nero, “The UV-vis absorption spectrum of the flavonol quercetin in methanolic solution: A theoretical investigation,” EPJ. E 29, 253–259 (2009).

Rodrigues, J. J.

J. J. Rodrigues, C. H. T. P. Silva, S. C. Zilio, L. Misoguti, and C. R. Mendonça, “Femtosecond Z-scan measurements of nonlinear refraction in amino acid solutions,” Opt. Mater. 20, 153–157 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rustagi, K. C.

K. C. Rustagi and J. Ducuing, “Third order optical polarizability of conjugated organic molecules,” Opt. Commun. 10, 258–261 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Said, A. A.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Sheik-Bahae, M.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Silva, C. H. T. P.

J. J. Rodrigues, C. H. T. P. Silva, S. C. Zilio, L. Misoguti, and C. R. Mendonça, “Femtosecond Z-scan measurements of nonlinear refraction in amino acid solutions,” Opt. Mater. 20, 153–157 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Storhoff, J. J.

C. A. Mirkin, R. L. Letsinger, R. C. Mucic, and J. J. Storhoff, “A DNA-based method for rationally assembling nanoparticles in macroscopic materials,” Nature 382, 607–609 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsuji, H.

M. Ikeda, H. Tsuji, S. Nakamura, A. Ichiyama, Y. Nishizuka, and O. Hayaishi, “Studies on the biosynthesis of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide: a role of picolinic carboxylase in the biosynthesis of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide from tryptophan in mammals,” J. Biol. Chem. 240, 1395–1401 (1965).
[PubMed]

Van Stryland, E. W.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Vivian, J. T.

P. R. Callis and J. T. Vivian, “Mechanisms of tryptophan fluorescence shifts in proteins,” J. Biophys. 80, 2093–2109 (2006).

Voet, D.

D. Voet and J. G. Voet, Biochemistry (Wiley, 1995).

Voet, J. G.

D. Voet and J. G. Voet, Biochemistry (Wiley, 1995).

Wachsmann-Hogiu, S.

D. Rativa, A. S. L. Gomes, S. Wachsmann-Hogiu, D. L. Farkas, and R. E. de Araujo, “Nonlinear excitation of tryptophan emission enhanced by silver nanoparticles,” J. Fluoresc. 18, 1151–1155 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Webb, W.

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, R. Christie, A. Yu. Nikitin, B. T. Hyman, and W. Webb, “Live tissue intrinsic emission microscopy using multiphoton-excited native fluorescence and second harmonic generation,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 3100, 7075–7080 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wei, T. H.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Williams, R. M.

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, R. Christie, A. Yu. Nikitin, B. T. Hyman, and W. Webb, “Live tissue intrinsic emission microscopy using multiphoton-excited native fluorescence and second harmonic generation,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 3100, 7075–7080 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zilio, S. C.

J. J. Rodrigues, C. H. T. P. Silva, S. C. Zilio, L. Misoguti, and C. R. Mendonça, “Femtosecond Z-scan measurements of nonlinear refraction in amino acid solutions,” Opt. Mater. 20, 153–157 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zipfel, W. R.

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, R. Christie, A. Yu. Nikitin, B. T. Hyman, and W. Webb, “Live tissue intrinsic emission microscopy using multiphoton-excited native fluorescence and second harmonic generation,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 3100, 7075–7080 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Quantum Chem. (1)

I. B. Bersuker and I. Ya. Ogurtsov, “The Jahn-Teller effect in dipole (multipole) moments and polarizabilities of molecules,” Adv. Quantum Chem. 18, 1 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Biochem. (1)

J. Lakowicz, “Radiative decay engineering: Biophysical and biomedical applications,” Anal. Biochem. 298, 1–24 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

EPJ. E (1)

T. Andrade-Filho, T. C. S. Ribeiro, and J. Del Nero, “The UV-vis absorption spectrum of the flavonol quercetin in methanolic solution: A theoretical investigation,” EPJ. E 29, 253–259 (2009).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J. Hermann and J. Ducuing, “Third-order polarizabilities of long-chain molecules,” J. Appl. Phys. 45, 5100–5102 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. Biol. Chem. (1)

M. Ikeda, H. Tsuji, S. Nakamura, A. Ichiyama, Y. Nishizuka, and O. Hayaishi, “Studies on the biosynthesis of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide: a role of picolinic carboxylase in the biosynthesis of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide from tryptophan in mammals,” J. Biol. Chem. 240, 1395–1401 (1965).
[PubMed]

J. Biophys. (1)

P. R. Callis and J. T. Vivian, “Mechanisms of tryptophan fluorescence shifts in proteins,” J. Biophys. 80, 2093–2109 (2006).

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

M. Ferrero, M. Rérat, B. Kirtman, and R. Dovesi, “Calculation of the static electronic second hyperpolarizability or χ(3) tensor of three-dimensional periodic compounds with a local basis set,” J. Chem. Phys. 129, 244110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Fluoresc. (2)

J. R. Albani, “New insights in the interpretation of tryptophan fluorescence: origin of the fluorescence lifetime and characterization of a new fluorescence parameter in proteins: the emission to excitation ratio,” J. Fluoresc. 17, 406–417 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Rativa, A. S. L. Gomes, S. Wachsmann-Hogiu, D. L. Farkas, and R. E. de Araujo, “Nonlinear excitation of tryptophan emission enhanced by silver nanoparticles,” J. Fluoresc. 18, 1151–1155 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature (1)

C. A. Mirkin, R. L. Letsinger, R. C. Mucic, and J. J. Storhoff, “A DNA-based method for rationally assembling nanoparticles in macroscopic materials,” Nature 382, 607–609 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

K. C. Rustagi and J. Ducuing, “Third order optical polarizability of conjugated organic molecules,” Opt. Commun. 10, 258–261 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Mater. (1)

J. J. Rodrigues, C. H. T. P. Silva, S. C. Zilio, L. Misoguti, and C. R. Mendonça, “Femtosecond Z-scan measurements of nonlinear refraction in amino acid solutions,” Opt. Mater. 20, 153–157 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1)

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, R. Christie, A. Yu. Nikitin, B. T. Hyman, and W. Webb, “Live tissue intrinsic emission microscopy using multiphoton-excited native fluorescence and second harmonic generation,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 3100, 7075–7080 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Theor. Chem. Acc. (1)

T. Andrade-Filho, H. S. Martins, and J. Del Nero, “Theoretical investigation of the electronic absorption spectrum of Piceatannol in methanolic solution,” Theor. Chem. Acc. 121, 147–153 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

D. Voet and J. G. Voet, Biochemistry (Wiley, 1995).

R. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics, 3rd ed., Elsevier Science & Technology Books (Elsevier, 2008).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Closed aperture Z-scan signature obtained from the amino acid solutions. Symbols are the experimental data and the curves the theoretical fit by using Eq. (1). Label abbreviations are explained in Table 1.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Open aperture Z-scan signature obtained from the amino acid solutions. Label abbreviations are explained in Table 1.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Theoretical and experimental values of the aromatic amino acids’ hyperpolarizability.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Experimental and Theoretical Hyperpolarizability Values for the Studied Amino Acid Solutions

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

T ( z , Δ φ 0 ) 1 4 Δ φ 0 x ( x 2 + 9 ) ( x 2 + 1 ) ,
n 2 ( λ 2 π ) Δ φ 0 I o L eff ,
a 2 Δ T 2 ( 3 2 ) I o L eff .

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