Abstract

Attosecond optics is a young branch of ultrafast laser science. In this short review, we introduce some of the important advancements and latest developments in generating and characterizing single isolated attosecond XUV/X-ray pulses.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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2010 (4)

H. Worner, J. Bertrand, D. Kartashov, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Attosecond homodyne interferometry of a chemical reaction,” Nature 466, 604–607 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Gilbertson, Y. Wu, S. D. Khan, M. Chini, K. Zhao, X. Feng, and Z. Chang, “Isolated attosecond pulse generation using multicycle pulses directly from a laser amplifier,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 043810 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Vozzi, F. Calegari, F. Frassetto, M. Negro, L. Poletto, G. Sansone, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Silvestri, and S. Stagira, “High order harmonics driven by a self-phase-stabilized IR parametric source,” Laser Phys. 5, 1019–1027 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Chini, S. Gilbertson, S. D. Khan, and Z. Chang, “Characterizing ultrabroadband attosecond lasers,” Opt. Express 18, 13006–13016 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (8)

C. Li, E. Moon, H. Mashiko, H. Wang, C. M. Nakamura, J. Tackett, and Z. Chang, “Mechanism of phase-energy coupling in f-to-2f interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 48, 1303–1307 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Xiong, H. Xu, Y. Fu, J. Yao, B. Zeng, W. Chu, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, E. J. Takahashi, K. Midorikawa, X. Liu, and J. Chen, “Generation of a coherent x ray in the water window region at 1 kHz repetition rate using a mid-infrared pump source,” Opt. Lett. 34, 1747–1749 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Yun, S. Chen, H. Wang, M. Chini, and Z. Chang, “Temperature feedback control for long-term carrier-envelope phase locking,” Appl. Opt. 48, 5127–5130 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Chen, M. Chini, H. Wang, C. Yun, H. Mashiko, Y. Wu, and Z. Chang, “Carrier-envelope phase stabilization and control of 1 KHz, 6 mJ, 30 fs laser pulses from a Ti:sapphire regenerative amplifier,” Appl. Opt. 48, 5692–5695 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Mashiko, S. Gilbertson, X. Feng, C. Yun, S. D. Khan, H. Wang, M. Chini, C. Shouyuan, and Z. Chang, “XUV supercontinua supporting pulse durations of less than one atomic unit of time,” Opt. Lett. 34, 3337–3339 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Staudte, S. Patchkovskii, D. Pavicic, H. Akagi, O. Smirnova, D. Zeidler, M. Meckel, D. M. Villeneuve, R. Dörner, M. Ivanov,and P. B. Corkum, “Angular tunneling ionization probability of H2,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 033004 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Feng, S. Gilbertson, H. Mashiko, H. Wang, S. D. Khan, M. Chini, Y. Wu, K. Zhao, and Z. Chang, “Generation of isolated attosecond pulses with 20to28 femtosecond lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 183901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Akagi, T. Otobe, A. Staudte, A. Shiner, F. Turner, R. Dorner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Direct observation of tunneling from HOMO-1 in HCl,” Science 325, 1364–1367 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (6)

M. Meckel, D. Comtois, D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, H. C. Bandulet, D. Pavicic, H. Pepin, J. C. Kieffer, R. Dörner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Laser induced electron tunneling and diffraction,” Science 320, 1478–1482 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. J. Takahashi, T. Kanai, K. L. Ishikawa, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, “Coherent water window X ray by phase-matched high-order harmonic generation in neutral media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 253901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Okunishi, T. Morishita, G. Prumper, K. Shimada, C. D. Lin, S. Watanabe, and K. Ueda, “Experimental retrieval of target structure information from laser-induced rescattered photoelectron momentum distributions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 143001 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Mashiko, S. Gilbertson, C. Li, S. D. Khan, M. M. Shakya, E. Moon, and Z. Chang, “Double optical gating of high-order harmonic generation with carrier-envelope phase stabilized lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 103906 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, O. Cohen, M. E. Grisham, J. J. Rocca, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Extended phase matching of high harmonics driven by mid-infrared light,” Opt. Lett. 33, 2128–2130 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (8)

C. Li, E. Moon, H. Wang, H. Mashiko, C. M. Nakamura, J. Tackett, and Z. Chang, “Determining the phase-energy coupling coefficient in carrier-envelope phase measurements,” Opt. Lett. 32, 796–798 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Vozzi, F. Calegari, E. Benedetti, S. Gasilov, G. Sansone, G. Cerullo, M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, and S. Stagira, “Millijoule-level phase-stabilized few-optical-cycle infrared parametric source,” Opt. Lett. 32, 2957–2959 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Lein, “Molecular imaging using re-collision electrons,” J. Phys. B 40, R135–R173 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Staudte, D. Pavicic, D. Zeidler, M. Meckel, H. Niikura, M. Schoffler, S. Schossler, B. Ulrich, P. P. Rajeev, Th. Weber, T. Jahnke, D. M. Villeneuve, S. Chelkowski, A. D. Bandrauk, C. L. Cocke, P. B. Corkum, and R. Dorner, “Attosecond strobing of 2-surface population dynamics in dissociating H2+,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 073003 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, Th. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuška, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449, 1029–1032 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Tzallas, E. Skantzakis, C. Kalpouzos, E. P. Benis, G. D. Tsakiris, and D. Charalambidis, “Generation of intense continuum extreme-ultraviolet radiation by many-cycle laser fields,” Nat. Phys. 3, 846–850 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Chang, “Controlling attosecond pulse generation with a double optical gating,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 051403(R) (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Wang, C. Li, J. Tackett, H. Mashiko, C. M. Nakamura, E. Moon, and Z. Chang, “Power locking of high-repetition-rate chirped pulse amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. B 89, 275–279 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (6)

Dan Oron, Y. Silberberg, N. Dudovich, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Efficient polarization gating of high-order harmonic generation by polarization-shaped ultrashort pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 063816 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Mauritsson, P. Johnsson, E. Gustafsson, A. L’Huillier, K. J. Schafer, and M. B. Gaarde, “Attosecond pulse trains generated using two color laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 013001 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Chang, “Carrier envelope phase shift caused by grating-based stretchers and compressors,” Appl. Opt. 45, 8350–8353 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Li, E. Moon, H. Mashiko, C. Nakamura, P. Ranitovic, C. L. Cocke, and Z. Chang, G. G. Paulus, “Precision control of carrier-envelope phase in grating based chirped pulse amplifiers,” Opt. Express 14, 11468–11476 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. L. Yudin, A. D. Bandrauk, and P. B. Corkum, “Chirped attosecond photoelectron spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 063002 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (4)

Z. Chang, “Chirp of the attosecond pulses generated by a polarization gating,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 023813 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. Shan, S. Ghimire, and Z. Chang, “Generation of attosecond XUV supercontinuum by polarization gating,” J. Mod. Opt. 52, 277–283 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. Strelkov, A. Zair, O. Tcherbakoff, R. López-Martens, E. Cormier, E. Mével and E. Constant, “Single attosecond pulse production with an ellipticity-modulated driving IR pulse,” J. Phys. B 38, L161–L167 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Mairesse and F. Quéré, “Frequency-resolved optical gating for complete reconstruction of attosecond bursts,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 011401(R) (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (4)

Z. Chang, “Single attosecond pulse and XUV supercontinuum in the high-order harmonic plateau,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 043802 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pepin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature 432, 867–871 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Milosevic, P. B. Corkum, and T. Brabec, “How to use lasers for imaging attosecond dynamics of nuclear processes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 013002 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Chelkowski, A. D. Bandrauk, and P. B. Corkum, “Control of nuclear processes with super-intense laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 083602 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (3)

G. G. Paulus, F. Lindner, H. Walther, A. Baltuška, E. Goulielmakis, M. Lezius, and F. Krausz, “Measurement of the phase of few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 253004 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Niikura, F. Légaré, R. Hasbani, M. Yu. Ivanov, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Using correlated pairs for sub-femtosecond-resolution wave packet measurements,” Nature 421, 826–829 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Baltuška, M. Uiberacker, E. Goulielmakis, R. Kienberger, V. S. Yakovlev, T. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Phase controlled amplification of few-cycle laser pulses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 9, 972–989 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (4)

J. Itatani, F. Quéré, G. L. Yudin, M. Yu. Ivanov, F. Krausz, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond streak camera,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173903 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kitzler, N. Milosevic, A. Scrinzi, F. Krausz, and T. Brabec, “Quantum theory of attosecond XUV pulse measurement by laser dressed photoionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173904 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Niikura, F. Légaré, R. Hasbani, A. D. Bandrauk, M. Yu. Ivanov, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Sub-laser-cycle electron pulses for probing molecular dynamics,” Nature 417, 917–922 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Baltuska, T. Fuji, and T. Kobayashi, “Controlling the carrier envelope phase of ultrashort light pulses with optical parametric amplifiers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 133901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (3)

M. Kakehata, H. Takada, Y. Kobayashi, K. Torizuka, Y. Fujihira, T. Homma, and H. Takahashi, “Single-shot measurement of carrier-envelope phase changes by spectral interferometry,” Opt. Lett. 26, 1436–1438 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414, 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Shan and Z. Chang, “Dramatic extension of the high-order harmonic cut-off by using a long-wavelength pump,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 011804(R) (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

A. Apolonski, A. Poppe, G. Tempea, Ch. Spielmann, Th. Udem, R. Holtzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Controlling the phase evolution of few-cycle light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 740–743 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288, 635–640 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Dietrich, F. Krausz, and P. B. Corkum, “Determining the absolute carrier phase of a few cycle pulses,” Opt. Lett. 25, 16–18 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1997 (3)

I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “High-harmonic generation of attosecond pulses in the “single-cycle” regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1251–1254 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Z. Chang, A. Rundquist, H. Wang, H. Kapteyn, and M. Murnane, “Generation of coherent soft X-rays at 2.7 nm using high harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 2967–2970 (1997).
[CrossRef]

E. Constant, V. Taranukhin, A. Stolow, and P. B. Corkum, “Methods for the measurement of the duration of high-harmonic pulses,” Phys. Rev. A56, 3870–3878 (1997).

1996 (1)

T. Zuo, A. D. Bandrauk, and P. B. Corkum, “Laser induced electron diffraction: a new tool for probing ultrafast molecular dynamics,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 259, 313–320 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

M. Lewenstein, P. Balcou, M. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117–2132 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. B. Corkum, N. H. Burnett, and M. Y. Ivanov, “Subfemtosecond pulses,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1870–1872 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (3)

R. Trebino and D. J. Kane, “Using phase retrieval to measure the intensity and phase of ultrashort pulses: frequency-resolved optical gating,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 1101–1111 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong-field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994–1997 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. R. Jones, D. You, and P. H. Bucksbaum, “Ionization of Rydberg atoms by subpicosecond half-cycle electromagnetic pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1236–1239 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone, and V. P. Krainov, “Tunnel ionization of complex atoms and atomic ions in an alternating electromagnetic field,” Sov. Phys. JETP 64, 1191–1194 (1986).

Akagi, H.

A. Staudte, S. Patchkovskii, D. Pavicic, H. Akagi, O. Smirnova, D. Zeidler, M. Meckel, D. M. Villeneuve, R. Dörner, M. Ivanov,and P. B. Corkum, “Angular tunneling ionization probability of H2,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 033004 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Akagi, T. Otobe, A. Staudte, A. Shiner, F. Turner, R. Dorner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Direct observation of tunneling from HOMO-1 in HCl,” Science 325, 1364–1367 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Altucci, C.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ammosov, M. V.

M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone, and V. P. Krainov, “Tunnel ionization of complex atoms and atomic ions in an alternating electromagnetic field,” Sov. Phys. JETP 64, 1191–1194 (1986).

Apolonski, A.

A. Apolonski, A. Poppe, G. Tempea, Ch. Spielmann, Th. Udem, R. Holtzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Controlling the phase evolution of few-cycle light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 740–743 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aquila, A. L.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Attwood, D. T.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Avaldi, L.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Balcou, P.

M. Lewenstein, P. Balcou, M. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117–2132 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baltuska, A.

A. Baltuska, T. Fuji, and T. Kobayashi, “Controlling the carrier envelope phase of ultrashort light pulses with optical parametric amplifiers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 133901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baltuška, A.

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, Th. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuška, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449, 1029–1032 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Baltuška, M. Uiberacker, E. Goulielmakis, R. Kienberger, V. S. Yakovlev, T. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Phase controlled amplification of few-cycle laser pulses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 9, 972–989 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Paulus, F. Lindner, H. Walther, A. Baltuška, E. Goulielmakis, M. Lezius, and F. Krausz, “Measurement of the phase of few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 253004 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bandrauk, A. D.

A. Staudte, D. Pavicic, D. Zeidler, M. Meckel, H. Niikura, M. Schoffler, S. Schossler, B. Ulrich, P. P. Rajeev, Th. Weber, T. Jahnke, D. M. Villeneuve, S. Chelkowski, A. D. Bandrauk, C. L. Cocke, P. B. Corkum, and R. Dorner, “Attosecond strobing of 2-surface population dynamics in dissociating H2+,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 073003 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. L. Yudin, A. D. Bandrauk, and P. B. Corkum, “Chirped attosecond photoelectron spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 063002 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Chelkowski, A. D. Bandrauk, and P. B. Corkum, “Control of nuclear processes with super-intense laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 083602 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Niikura, F. Légaré, R. Hasbani, A. D. Bandrauk, M. Yu. Ivanov, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Sub-laser-cycle electron pulses for probing molecular dynamics,” Nature 417, 917–922 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Zuo, A. D. Bandrauk, and P. B. Corkum, “Laser induced electron diffraction: a new tool for probing ultrafast molecular dynamics,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 259, 313–320 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bandulet, H. C.

M. Meckel, D. Comtois, D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, H. C. Bandulet, D. Pavicic, H. Pepin, J. C. Kieffer, R. Dörner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Laser induced electron tunneling and diffraction,” Science 320, 1478–1482 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Benedetti, E.

C. Vozzi, F. Calegari, E. Benedetti, S. Gasilov, G. Sansone, G. Cerullo, M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, and S. Stagira, “Millijoule-level phase-stabilized few-optical-cycle infrared parametric source,” Opt. Lett. 32, 2957–2959 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Benis, E. P.

P. Tzallas, E. Skantzakis, C. Kalpouzos, E. P. Benis, G. D. Tsakiris, and D. Charalambidis, “Generation of intense continuum extreme-ultraviolet radiation by many-cycle laser fields,” Nat. Phys. 3, 846–850 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bertrand, J.

H. Worner, J. Bertrand, D. Kartashov, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Attosecond homodyne interferometry of a chemical reaction,” Nature 466, 604–607 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blümel, L.

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, Th. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuška, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449, 1029–1032 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brabec, T.

N. Milosevic, P. B. Corkum, and T. Brabec, “How to use lasers for imaging attosecond dynamics of nuclear processes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 013002 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kitzler, N. Milosevic, A. Scrinzi, F. Krausz, and T. Brabec, “Quantum theory of attosecond XUV pulse measurement by laser dressed photoionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173904 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414, 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bucksbaum, P. H.

R. R. Jones, D. You, and P. H. Bucksbaum, “Ionization of Rydberg atoms by subpicosecond half-cycle electromagnetic pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1236–1239 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burnett, N. H.

Calegari, F.

C. Vozzi, F. Calegari, F. Frassetto, M. Negro, L. Poletto, G. Sansone, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Silvestri, and S. Stagira, “High order harmonics driven by a self-phase-stabilized IR parametric source,” Laser Phys. 5, 1019–1027 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Vozzi, F. Calegari, E. Benedetti, S. Gasilov, G. Sansone, G. Cerullo, M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, and S. Stagira, “Millijoule-level phase-stabilized few-optical-cycle infrared parametric source,” Opt. Lett. 32, 2957–2959 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cavalieri, A. L.

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, Th. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuška, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449, 1029–1032 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cerullo, G.

Chang, Z.

S. Gilbertson, Y. Wu, S. D. Khan, M. Chini, K. Zhao, X. Feng, and Z. Chang, “Isolated attosecond pulse generation using multicycle pulses directly from a laser amplifier,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 043810 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Chini, S. Gilbertson, S. D. Khan, and Z. Chang, “Characterizing ultrabroadband attosecond lasers,” Opt. Express 18, 13006–13016 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Mashiko, S. Gilbertson, X. Feng, C. Yun, S. D. Khan, H. Wang, M. Chini, C. Shouyuan, and Z. Chang, “XUV supercontinua supporting pulse durations of less than one atomic unit of time,” Opt. Lett. 34, 3337–3339 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Li, E. Moon, H. Mashiko, H. Wang, C. M. Nakamura, J. Tackett, and Z. Chang, “Mechanism of phase-energy coupling in f-to-2f interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 48, 1303–1307 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Chen, M. Chini, H. Wang, C. Yun, H. Mashiko, Y. Wu, and Z. Chang, “Carrier-envelope phase stabilization and control of 1 KHz, 6 mJ, 30 fs laser pulses from a Ti:sapphire regenerative amplifier,” Appl. Opt. 48, 5692–5695 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Yun, S. Chen, H. Wang, M. Chini, and Z. Chang, “Temperature feedback control for long-term carrier-envelope phase locking,” Appl. Opt. 48, 5127–5130 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Feng, S. Gilbertson, H. Mashiko, H. Wang, S. D. Khan, M. Chini, Y. Wu, K. Zhao, and Z. Chang, “Generation of isolated attosecond pulses with 20to28 femtosecond lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 183901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Mashiko, S. Gilbertson, C. Li, S. D. Khan, M. M. Shakya, E. Moon, and Z. Chang, “Double optical gating of high-order harmonic generation with carrier-envelope phase stabilized lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 103906 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Li, E. Moon, H. Wang, H. Mashiko, C. M. Nakamura, J. Tackett, and Z. Chang, “Determining the phase-energy coupling coefficient in carrier-envelope phase measurements,” Opt. Lett. 32, 796–798 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Wang, C. Li, J. Tackett, H. Mashiko, C. M. Nakamura, E. Moon, and Z. Chang, “Power locking of high-repetition-rate chirped pulse amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. B 89, 275–279 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Chang, “Controlling attosecond pulse generation with a double optical gating,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 051403(R) (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Chang, “Carrier envelope phase shift caused by grating-based stretchers and compressors,” Appl. Opt. 45, 8350–8353 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Li, E. Moon, H. Mashiko, C. Nakamura, P. Ranitovic, C. L. Cocke, and Z. Chang, G. G. Paulus, “Precision control of carrier-envelope phase in grating based chirped pulse amplifiers,” Opt. Express 14, 11468–11476 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Shan, S. Ghimire, and Z. Chang, “Generation of attosecond XUV supercontinuum by polarization gating,” J. Mod. Opt. 52, 277–283 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Z. Chang, “Chirp of the attosecond pulses generated by a polarization gating,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 023813 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Z. Chang, “Single attosecond pulse and XUV supercontinuum in the high-order harmonic plateau,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 043802 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. Shan and Z. Chang, “Dramatic extension of the high-order harmonic cut-off by using a long-wavelength pump,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 011804(R) (2001).
[CrossRef]

Z. Chang, A. Rundquist, H. Wang, H. Kapteyn, and M. Murnane, “Generation of coherent soft X-rays at 2.7 nm using high harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 2967–2970 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Charalambidis, D.

P. Tzallas, E. Skantzakis, C. Kalpouzos, E. P. Benis, G. D. Tsakiris, and D. Charalambidis, “Generation of intense continuum extreme-ultraviolet radiation by many-cycle laser fields,” Nat. Phys. 3, 846–850 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chelkowski, S.

A. Staudte, D. Pavicic, D. Zeidler, M. Meckel, H. Niikura, M. Schoffler, S. Schossler, B. Ulrich, P. P. Rajeev, Th. Weber, T. Jahnke, D. M. Villeneuve, S. Chelkowski, A. D. Bandrauk, C. L. Cocke, P. B. Corkum, and R. Dorner, “Attosecond strobing of 2-surface population dynamics in dissociating H2+,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 073003 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Chelkowski, A. D. Bandrauk, and P. B. Corkum, “Control of nuclear processes with super-intense laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 083602 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, J.

Chen, M.-C.

Chen, S.

Cheng, Y.

Chini, M.

Christov, I. P.

I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “High-harmonic generation of attosecond pulses in the “single-cycle” regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1251–1254 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chu, W.

Cocke, C. L.

A. Staudte, D. Pavicic, D. Zeidler, M. Meckel, H. Niikura, M. Schoffler, S. Schossler, B. Ulrich, P. P. Rajeev, Th. Weber, T. Jahnke, D. M. Villeneuve, S. Chelkowski, A. D. Bandrauk, C. L. Cocke, P. B. Corkum, and R. Dorner, “Attosecond strobing of 2-surface population dynamics in dissociating H2+,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 073003 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Li, E. Moon, H. Mashiko, C. Nakamura, P. Ranitovic, C. L. Cocke, and Z. Chang, G. G. Paulus, “Precision control of carrier-envelope phase in grating based chirped pulse amplifiers,” Opt. Express 14, 11468–11476 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cohen, O.

Comtois, D.

M. Meckel, D. Comtois, D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, H. C. Bandulet, D. Pavicic, H. Pepin, J. C. Kieffer, R. Dörner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Laser induced electron tunneling and diffraction,” Science 320, 1478–1482 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Constant, E.

V. Strelkov, A. Zair, O. Tcherbakoff, R. López-Martens, E. Cormier, E. Mével and E. Constant, “Single attosecond pulse production with an ellipticity-modulated driving IR pulse,” J. Phys. B 38, L161–L167 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. Constant, V. Taranukhin, A. Stolow, and P. B. Corkum, “Methods for the measurement of the duration of high-harmonic pulses,” Phys. Rev. A56, 3870–3878 (1997).

Corkum, P.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414, 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Corkum, P. B.

H. Worner, J. Bertrand, D. Kartashov, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Attosecond homodyne interferometry of a chemical reaction,” Nature 466, 604–607 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Staudte, S. Patchkovskii, D. Pavicic, H. Akagi, O. Smirnova, D. Zeidler, M. Meckel, D. M. Villeneuve, R. Dörner, M. Ivanov,and P. B. Corkum, “Angular tunneling ionization probability of H2,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 033004 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Akagi, T. Otobe, A. Staudte, A. Shiner, F. Turner, R. Dorner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Direct observation of tunneling from HOMO-1 in HCl,” Science 325, 1364–1367 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Meckel, D. Comtois, D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, H. C. Bandulet, D. Pavicic, H. Pepin, J. C. Kieffer, R. Dörner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Laser induced electron tunneling and diffraction,” Science 320, 1478–1482 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Staudte, D. Pavicic, D. Zeidler, M. Meckel, H. Niikura, M. Schoffler, S. Schossler, B. Ulrich, P. P. Rajeev, Th. Weber, T. Jahnke, D. M. Villeneuve, S. Chelkowski, A. D. Bandrauk, C. L. Cocke, P. B. Corkum, and R. Dorner, “Attosecond strobing of 2-surface population dynamics in dissociating H2+,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 073003 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. L. Yudin, A. D. Bandrauk, and P. B. Corkum, “Chirped attosecond photoelectron spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 063002 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Milosevic, P. B. Corkum, and T. Brabec, “How to use lasers for imaging attosecond dynamics of nuclear processes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 013002 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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H. Worner, J. Bertrand, D. Kartashov, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Attosecond homodyne interferometry of a chemical reaction,” Nature 466, 604–607 (2010).
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M. Meckel, D. Comtois, D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, H. C. Bandulet, D. Pavicic, H. Pepin, J. C. Kieffer, R. Dörner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Laser induced electron tunneling and diffraction,” Science 320, 1478–1482 (2008).
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A. Staudte, D. Pavicic, D. Zeidler, M. Meckel, H. Niikura, M. Schoffler, S. Schossler, B. Ulrich, P. P. Rajeev, Th. Weber, T. Jahnke, D. M. Villeneuve, S. Chelkowski, A. D. Bandrauk, C. L. Cocke, P. B. Corkum, and R. Dorner, “Attosecond strobing of 2-surface population dynamics in dissociating H2+,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 073003 (2007).
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J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pepin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature 432, 867–871 (2004).
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Zeng, B.

Zhao, K.

S. Gilbertson, Y. Wu, S. D. Khan, M. Chini, K. Zhao, X. Feng, and Z. Chang, “Isolated attosecond pulse generation using multicycle pulses directly from a laser amplifier,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 043810 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Feng, S. Gilbertson, H. Mashiko, H. Wang, S. D. Khan, M. Chini, Y. Wu, K. Zhao, and Z. Chang, “Generation of isolated attosecond pulses with 20to28 femtosecond lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 183901 (2009).
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H. Mashiko, S. Gilbertson, C. Li, S. D. Khan, M. M. Shakya, E. Moon, and Z. Chang, “Double optical gating of high-order harmonic generation with carrier-envelope phase stabilized lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 103906 (2008).
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A. Baltuška, M. Uiberacker, E. Goulielmakis, R. Kienberger, V. S. Yakovlev, T. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Phase controlled amplification of few-cycle laser pulses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 9, 972–989 (2003).
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B. Shan, S. Ghimire, and Z. Chang, “Generation of attosecond XUV supercontinuum by polarization gating,” J. Mod. Opt. 52, 277–283 (2005).
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J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

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V. Strelkov, A. Zair, O. Tcherbakoff, R. López-Martens, E. Cormier, E. Mével and E. Constant, “Single attosecond pulse production with an ellipticity-modulated driving IR pulse,” J. Phys. B 38, L161–L167 (2005).
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Laser Phys. (1)

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Nat. Phys. (1)

P. Tzallas, E. Skantzakis, C. Kalpouzos, E. P. Benis, G. D. Tsakiris, and D. Charalambidis, “Generation of intense continuum extreme-ultraviolet radiation by many-cycle laser fields,” Nat. Phys. 3, 846–850 (2007).
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Nature (6)

H. Niikura, F. Légaré, R. Hasbani, M. Yu. Ivanov, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Using correlated pairs for sub-femtosecond-resolution wave packet measurements,” Nature 421, 826–829 (2003).
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H. Niikura, F. Légaré, R. Hasbani, A. D. Bandrauk, M. Yu. Ivanov, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Sub-laser-cycle electron pulses for probing molecular dynamics,” Nature 417, 917–922 (2002).
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J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pepin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature 432, 867–871 (2004).
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A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, Th. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuška, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449, 1029–1032 (2007).
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H. Worner, J. Bertrand, D. Kartashov, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Attosecond homodyne interferometry of a chemical reaction,” Nature 466, 604–607 (2010).
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M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414, 509–513 (2001).
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Opt. Express (2)

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C. Vozzi, F. Calegari, E. Benedetti, S. Gasilov, G. Sansone, G. Cerullo, M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, and S. Stagira, “Millijoule-level phase-stabilized few-optical-cycle infrared parametric source,” Opt. Lett. 32, 2957–2959 (2007).
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H. Mashiko, S. Gilbertson, X. Feng, C. Yun, S. D. Khan, H. Wang, M. Chini, C. Shouyuan, and Z. Chang, “XUV supercontinua supporting pulse durations of less than one atomic unit of time,” Opt. Lett. 34, 3337–3339 (2009).
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H. Xiong, H. Xu, Y. Fu, J. Yao, B. Zeng, W. Chu, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, E. J. Takahashi, K. Midorikawa, X. Liu, and J. Chen, “Generation of a coherent x ray in the water window region at 1 kHz repetition rate using a mid-infrared pump source,” Opt. Lett. 34, 1747–1749 (2009).
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Phys. Rev. A (8)

B. Shan and Z. Chang, “Dramatic extension of the high-order harmonic cut-off by using a long-wavelength pump,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 011804(R) (2001).
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M. Lewenstein, P. Balcou, M. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117–2132 (1994).
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S. Gilbertson, Y. Wu, S. D. Khan, M. Chini, K. Zhao, X. Feng, and Z. Chang, “Isolated attosecond pulse generation using multicycle pulses directly from a laser amplifier,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 043810 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Chang, “Chirp of the attosecond pulses generated by a polarization gating,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 023813 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Z. Chang, “Controlling attosecond pulse generation with a double optical gating,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 051403(R) (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dan Oron, Y. Silberberg, N. Dudovich, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Efficient polarization gating of high-order harmonic generation by polarization-shaped ultrashort pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 063816 (2006).
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Z. Chang, “Single attosecond pulse and XUV supercontinuum in the high-order harmonic plateau,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 043802 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Mairesse and F. Quéré, “Frequency-resolved optical gating for complete reconstruction of attosecond bursts,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 011401(R) (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (18)

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[CrossRef]

X. Feng, S. Gilbertson, H. Mashiko, H. Wang, S. D. Khan, M. Chini, Y. Wu, K. Zhao, and Z. Chang, “Generation of isolated attosecond pulses with 20to28 femtosecond lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 183901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Mauritsson, P. Johnsson, E. Gustafsson, A. L’Huillier, K. J. Schafer, and M. B. Gaarde, “Attosecond pulse trains generated using two color laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 013001 (2006).
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J. Itatani, F. Quéré, G. L. Yudin, M. Yu. Ivanov, F. Krausz, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond streak camera,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173903 (2002).
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M. Kitzler, N. Milosevic, A. Scrinzi, F. Krausz, and T. Brabec, “Quantum theory of attosecond XUV pulse measurement by laser dressed photoionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173904 (2002).
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E. J. Takahashi, T. Kanai, K. L. Ishikawa, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, “Coherent water window X ray by phase-matched high-order harmonic generation in neutral media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 253901 (2008).
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P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong-field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994–1997 (1993).
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A. Staudte, D. Pavicic, D. Zeidler, M. Meckel, H. Niikura, M. Schoffler, S. Schossler, B. Ulrich, P. P. Rajeev, Th. Weber, T. Jahnke, D. M. Villeneuve, S. Chelkowski, A. D. Bandrauk, C. L. Cocke, P. B. Corkum, and R. Dorner, “Attosecond strobing of 2-surface population dynamics in dissociating H2+,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 073003 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “High-harmonic generation of attosecond pulses in the “single-cycle” regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1251–1254 (1997).
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R. R. Jones, D. You, and P. H. Bucksbaum, “Ionization of Rydberg atoms by subpicosecond half-cycle electromagnetic pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1236–1239 (1993).
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G. L. Yudin, A. D. Bandrauk, and P. B. Corkum, “Chirped attosecond photoelectron spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 063002 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Staudte, S. Patchkovskii, D. Pavicic, H. Akagi, O. Smirnova, D. Zeidler, M. Meckel, D. M. Villeneuve, R. Dörner, M. Ivanov,and P. B. Corkum, “Angular tunneling ionization probability of H2,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 033004 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Okunishi, T. Morishita, G. Prumper, K. Shimada, C. D. Lin, S. Watanabe, and K. Ueda, “Experimental retrieval of target structure information from laser-induced rescattered photoelectron momentum distributions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 143001 (2008).
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N. Milosevic, P. B. Corkum, and T. Brabec, “How to use lasers for imaging attosecond dynamics of nuclear processes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 013002 (2004).
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S. Chelkowski, A. D. Bandrauk, and P. B. Corkum, “Control of nuclear processes with super-intense laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 083602 (2004).
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Science (5)

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
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M. Meckel, D. Comtois, D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, H. C. Bandulet, D. Pavicic, H. Pepin, J. C. Kieffer, R. Dörner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Laser induced electron tunneling and diffraction,” Science 320, 1478–1482 (2008).
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H. Akagi, T. Otobe, A. Staudte, A. Shiner, F. Turner, R. Dorner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Direct observation of tunneling from HOMO-1 in HCl,” Science 325, 1364–1367 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Semiclassical model of attosecond pulse generation. Adapted from P. B. Corkum and F. Krausz, Nat. Phys. 3, 381 (2007).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental demonstration of cut-off extension by increasing the driving laser wavelength. Adapted from B. Shan and Z. Chang, Phys. Rev. A 65, 011804(R) (2001).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Locking the CE offset frequency by feedback-controlling the pump power and the crystal temperature. Reprinted from C. Yun, S. Chen, H. Wang, M. Chini, and Z. Chang, Appl. Opt. 48, 5127 (2009).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Stabilization of the CE phase a grating-based CPA. Reprinted from S. Chen, M. Chini, H. Wang, C. Yun, H. Mashiko, Y. Wu, and Z. Chang, Appl. Opt. 48, 5692 (2009).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Experimental setup for implementing double optical gating to generate isolated attosecond pulses with 25 fs lasers directly from CPA amplifiers. Reprinted from S. Gilbertson, Y. Wu, S. D. Khan, M. Chini, K. Zhao, X. Feng, and Z. Chang, Phys. Rev. A 81, 043810 (2010).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Characterization of the isolated attosecond pulses generated with 25 fs lasers with CRAB. Reprinted from S. Gilbertson, Y. Wu, S. D. Khan, M. Chini, K. Zhao, X. Feng, and Z. Chang, Phys. Rev. A 81, 043810 (2010).

Equations (9)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

r ( t ) = Ψ g ( r , t ) | r | Ψ c ( r , t ) ,
ω c = I P + 0.5 I P 3.5 λ 2 [ ln ( 0.86 I P 3 2 n * 1 G l m C n * l * 2 ln ( 1 p S ) τ p ) ] 2 ,
r ( t ) = i 0 d τ ( π ϵ + i τ 2 ) 3 2 a * ( t ) d * [ p S ( t , τ ) A L ( t ) ] e i S ( p S , t , τ ) E L ( t τ ) d [ p S ( t , τ ) A L ( t τ ) ] a ( t τ ) + c.c.
b ( v , τ d ) = i d t E X ( t τ d ) d [ v + A L ( t ) ] e i t [ ( v + A L ( t ) ) 2 2 + I P ] d t ,
E ( t ) = E A ( t ) cos ( ω 0 t + φ CE ) ,
Δ φ CE = 4 π Δ G d tan [ β ( ω 0 ) ] ,
I ( ω ) = I SH ( ω ) + I 500 ( ω ) + ( 2 I SH ( ω ) I 500 ( ω ) ) cos ( ω τ d + φ CE ) ,
φ CE , i = φ CE , p φ CE , s
δ t G ξ th ( η , q ) ln ( 2 ) ϵ τ p 2 T d ,

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