Abstract

The rise in output power from rare-earth-doped fiber sources over the past decade, via the use of cladding-pumped fiber architectures, has been dramatic, leading to a range of fiber-based devices with outstanding performance in terms of output power, beam quality, overall efficiency, and flexibility with regard to operating wavelength and radiation format. This success in the high-power arena is largely due to the fiber’s geometry, which provides considerable resilience to the effects of heat generation in the core, and facilitates efficient conversion from relatively low-brightness diode pump radiation to high-brightness laser output. In this paper we review the current state of the art in terms of continuous-wave and pulsed performance of ytterbium-doped fiber lasers, the current fiber gain medium of choice, and by far the most developed in terms of high-power performance. We then review the current status and challenges of extending the technology to other rare-earth dopants and associated wavelengths of operation. Throughout we identify the key factors currently limiting fiber laser performance in different operating regimes—in particular thermal management, optical nonlinearity, and damage. Finally, we speculate as to the likely developments in pump laser technology, fiber design and fabrication, architectural approaches, and functionality that lie ahead in the coming decade and the implications they have on fiber laser performance and industrial/scientific adoption.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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2010

K. K. Chen, S. U. Alam, J. R. Hayes, H. J. Baker, D. Hall, R. McBride, J. H. V. Price, D. J. Lin, A. Malinowski, and D. J. Richardson, “56-W frequency-doubled source at 530 nm pumped by a single-mode, single-polarization, picosecond, Yb3+-doped fiber MOPA,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 893–895 (2010).
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G. Krauss, S. Lohss, T. Hanke, A. Sell, S. Eggert, R. Huber, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Synthesis of a single cycle of light with compact erbium-doped fibre technology,” Nat. Photonics 4, 33–36 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Codemard, J. Ji, J. K. Sahu, and J. Nilsson, “100 W CW cladding-pumped Raman fiber laser at 1120 nm,” Proc. SPIE 7580, 75801N (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Khajavikhan, K. John, and J. R. Leger, “Experimental measurements of supermodes in superposition architectures for coherent laser beam combining,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46, 1221–1231 (2010).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Dvoyrin, A. V. Kir’yanov, V. M. Mashinsky, O. I. Medvedkov, A. A. Umnikov, A. N. Guryanov, and E. M. Dianov, “Absorption, gain, and laser action in bismuth-doped aluminosilicate optical fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46, 182–190 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Yoo, M. P. Kalita, A. J. Boyland, A. S. Webb, R. J. Standish, J. K. Sahu, M. C. Paul, S. Das, S. K. Bhadra, and M. Pal, “Ytterbium-doped Y2O3 nanoparticle silica optical fibers for high power fiber lasers with suppressed photodarkening,” Opt. Commun. 283, 3423–3427 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. K. Chen, S. U. Alam, J. H. V. Price, J. R. Hayes, D. J. Lin, A. Malinowski, and D. J. Richardson, “Picosecond fiber MOPA pumped supercontinuum source with 39 W output power,” Opt. Express 18, 5426–5432 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Yoo, C. A. Codemard, Y. Jeong, J. K. Sahu, and J. Nilsson, “Analysis and optimization of acoustic speed profiles with large transverse variations for mitigation of stimulated Brillouin scattering in optical fibers,” Appl. Opt. 49, 1388–1399 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Kienle, K. K. Chen, S.-U. Alam, C. B. E. Gawith, J. I. McKenzie, D. C. Hanna, D. J. Richardson, and D. P. Shepherd, “High-power, variable repetition rate, picosecond optical parametric oscillator pumped by an amplified gain-switched diode,” Opt. Express 18, 7602–7610 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Chang, H. G. Winful, and A. Galvanauskas, “Array size scalability of passively coherently phased fiber laser arrays,” Opt. Express 18, 9634–9642 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Marciante, R. G. Roides, V. V. Shkunov, and D. A. Rockwell, “Near-diffraction-limited operation of step-index large-mode-area fiber lasers via gain filtering,” Opt. Lett. 35, 1828–1830 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Uberna, A. Bratcher, T. G. Alley, A. D. Sanchez, A. S. Flores, and B. Pulford, “Coherent combination of high power fiber amplifiers in a two-dimensional re-imaging waveguide,” Opt. Express 18, 13547–13553 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. H. FangM. L. Hu, B. W., Liu, L. Chai, C. Y. Wang, and A. M. Zheltikov, “Generation of 150 MW, 110 fs pulses by phase-locked amplification in multicore photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 35, 2326–2328 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. K. Chen, S. Alam, P. Horak, C. Codemard, A. Malinowski, and D. J. Richardson, “Excitation of individual Raman orders in the visible using rectangular pulses,” Opt. Lett. 35, 2433–2435 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Eidam, S. Hanf, E. Seise, T. V. Andersen, T. Gabler, C. Wirth, T. Schreiber, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond fiber CPA system emitting 830 W average output power,” Opt. Lett. 35, 94–96 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Pearson, J. W. Kim, Z. Zhang, M. Ibsen, J. K. Sahu, and W. A. Clarkson, “High-power linearly-polarized single-frequency thulium-doped fiber master-oscillator power amplifier,” Opt. Express 18, 1607–1612 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

Y. Jeong, A. J. Boyland, J. K. Sahu, S. Chung, J. Nilsson, and D. N. Payne, “Multi-kilowatt single-mode ytterbium-doped large-core fiber laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Korea 13, 416–422 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Shirakawa, H. Maruyama, K. Ueda, C. B. Olausson, J. K. Lyngsø, and J. Broeng, “High-power Yb-doped photonic bandgap fiber amplifier at 1150–1200 nm,” Opt. Express 17, 447–454 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. S. Moskalev, V. V. Fedorov, and S. B. Mirov, “10-Watt, pure continuous-wave, polycrystalline Cr2+:ZnSe laser,” Opt. Express 17, 2048–2056 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. D. Goodno, L. D. Book, and J. E. Rothenberg, “Low-phase-noise, single-frequency, single-mode 608 W thulium fiber amplifier,” Opt. Lett. 34, 1204–1206 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Dubinskii, J. Zhang, and V. Ter-Mikirtychev, “Highly scalable, resonantly cladding-pumped, Er-doped fiber laser with record efficiency,” Opt. Lett. 34, 1507–1509 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Schmidt, C. Wirth, I. Tsybin, T. Schreiber, R. Eberhardt, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Average power of 1.1 kW from spectrally combined, fiber-amplified, nanosecond-pulsed sources,” Opt. Lett. 34, 1567–1569 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Dong, H. A. McKay, L. B. Fu, M. Ohta, A. Marcinkevicius, S. Suzuki, and M. E. Fermann, “Ytterbium-doped all glass leakage channel fibers with highly fluorine-doped silica pump cladding,” Opt. Express 17, 8962–8969 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Dong, H. A. McKay, A. Marcinkevicius, L. B. Fu, J. Li, B. K. Thomas, and M. E. Fermann, “Extending effective area of fundamental mode in optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27, 1565–1570 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Paurisse, M. Hanna, F. Druon, P. Georges, C. Bellanger, A. Brignon, and J. P. Huignard, “Phase and amplitude control of a multimode LMA fiber beam by use of digital holography,” Opt. Express 17, 13000–13008 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. D. Jackson, “High-power and highly-efficient diode-cladding-pumped holmium-doped fluoride fiber laser at 2.94 μm,” Opt. Lett. 34, 2327–2329 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Tokita, M. Murakami, S. Shimizu, M. Hashida, and S. Sakabe, “Liquid-cooled 24 W mid-infrared Er:ZBLAN fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 34, 3062–3064 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Malinowski, K. T. Vu, K. K. Chen, J. Nilsson, Y. Jeong, S. Alam, D. J. Lin, and D. J. Richardson, “High power pulsed fiber MOPA system incorporating electro-optic modulator based adaptive pulse shaping,” Opt. Express 17, 20927–20937 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Nodop, C. Jauregui, D. Schimpf, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Efficient high-power generation of visible and mid-infrared light by degenerate four-wave-mixing in a large-mode-area photonic-crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 34, 3499–3501 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Feng, L. R. Taylor, and D. Bonaccini Calia, “150 W highly-efficient Raman fiber laser,” Opt. Express 17, 23678–23683 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Dianov, “Bi-doped glass optical fibers: Is it a new breakthrough in laser materials?” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 355, 1861–1864 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Dianov, M. E. Likhachev, and S. Fevrier, “Solid-core photonic bandgap fibers for high-power fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 20–29 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Sprangle, A. Ting, J. Penano, R. Fischer, and B. Hafizi, “Incoherent combining and atmospheric propagation of high-power fiber lasers for directed-energy applications,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45, 138–148 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Chalcogenide glass-fiber-based mid-IR sources and applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 114–119 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shen, S. U. Alam, K. K. Chen, D. J. Lin, S. Cai, B. Wu, P. Jiang, A. Malinowski, and D. J. Richardson, “PPMgLN based high power optical parametric oscillator pumped by Yb3+-doped fiber amplifier incorporating active pulse shaping,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 385–392 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Jasapara, M. J. Andrejco, A. DeSantolo, A. D. Yablon, Z. Varallyay, J. W. Nicholson, J. M. Fini, D. J. DiGiovanni, C. Headley, E. Monberg, and F. V. DiMarcello, “Diffraction-limited fundamental mode operation of core-pumped very-large-mode-area Er fiber amplifiers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 3–11 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. F. Moulton, G. A. Rines, E. V. Slobodtchikov, K. F. Wall, G. Firth, B. Samson, and A. L. G. Carter, “Tm-doped fiber lasers: Fundamentals and power scaling,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 85–92 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Jackson, “The spectroscopic and energy transfer characteristics of rare earth ions used for silicate glass fibre lasers operating in the shortwave infrared,” Laser Photonics Rev. 3, 466–482 (2009).
[CrossRef]

O. Andrusyak, V. Smirnov, G. Venus, V. Rotar, and L. Glebov, “Spectral combining and coherent coupling of lasers by volume Bragg gratings,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 344–353 (2009).
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J. Limpert, F. Röser, D. N. Schimpf, E. Seisse, T. Eidam, S. Hädrich, L. Rothhardt, C. Jauregui Misas, and A. Tünnermann, “High repetition rate gigawatt peak power fiber laser-systems: Challenges, design, and experiment,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 159–169 (2009).
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M. A. Lapointe, S. Chatigny, M. Piché, M. Cain-Skaff, and J.-N. Maran, “Thermal effects in high-power CW fiber lasers,” Proc. SPIE 7195, 71951U (2009).
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J. W. Kim, D. Y. Shen, J. K. Sahu, and W. A. Clarkson, “Fiber-laser-pumped Er:YAG lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 361–371 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Nilsson, S. Ramachandran, T. M. Shay, and A. Shirakawa, “High-power fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 1–2 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Leger, J. Nilsson, J. P. Huignard, A. P. Napartovich, T. M. Shay, and A. Shirakawa, “Laser beam combining and fiber laser systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 237–239 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

M. L. Osowski, W. Hu, R. M. Lammert, S. W. Oh, P. T. Rudy, T. Stakelon, and J. E. Ungar, “Advances in high-brightness semiconductor lasers,” Proc. SPIE 6876, 68761E (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Mermelstein, M. J. Andrejco, J. Fini, A. Yablon, C. Headley, D. J. DiGiovanni, and A. H. McCurdy, “11.2 dB SBS gain suppression in a large mode area Yb-doped optical fiber,” Proc. SPIE 6873, U63–U69 (2008).

F. W. Wise, A. Chong, and W. H. Renninger, “High-energy femtosecond fiber lasers based on pulse propagation at normal dispersion,” Laser Photonics Rev. 2, 58–73 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Ramachandran, J. M. Fini, M. Mermelstein, J. W. Nicholson, S. Ghalmi, and M. F. Yan, “Ultra-large effective-area, higher-order mode fibers: a new strategy for high-power lasers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 2, 429–448 (2008).
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K. P. Hansen, C. B. Olausson, J. Broeng, K. Mattsson, M. D. T. Nikolajsena, P. M. W. Skovgaard, M. H. Sorensen, M. Denninger, C. Jakobsen, and H. R. Simonsen, “Airclad fiber laser technology,” Proc. SPIE 6873, U3–U14 (2008).

V. Sudesh, T. McComb, Y. Chen, M. Bass, M. Richardson, J. Ballato, and A. E. Siegman, “Diode-pumped 200 μm diameter core, gain-guided, index-antiguided single mode fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. B 90, 369–372 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Corcoran, F. Durville, and K. A. Pasch, “Coherent array of nonlinear regenerative fiber amplifiers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 275–282 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Rothenberg, “Passive coherent phasing of fiber laser arrays,” Proc. SPIE 6873, 687315 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Slavik, Y. Park, and J. Azana, “Long-period fiber-grating-based filter for generation of picosecond and subpicosecond transform-limited flat-top pulses,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 806–808 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. C. Cheung, J. G. Ho, G. D. Goodno, R. R. Rice, J. Rothenberg, P. Thielen, M. Weber, and M. Wickham, “Diffractive-optics-based beam combination of a phase-locked fiber laser array,” Opt. Lett. 33, 354–356 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Schmidt, J. Rothhardt, T. Eidam, F. Röser, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, K. P. Hansen, C. Jakobsen, and J. Broeng, “Single-polarization ultra-large-mode-area Yb-doped photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Express 16, 3918–3923 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Zhu, A. Schülzgen, H. Li, L. Li, Q. Wang, S. Suzuki, V. L. Temyanko, J. V. Moloney, and N. Peyghambarian, “Single-transverse-mode output from a fiber laser based on multimode interference,” Opt. Lett. 33, 908–910 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Dawson, M. J. Messerly, R. J. Beach, M. Y. Shverdin, E. A. Stappaerts, A. K. Sridharan, P. H. Pax, J. E. Heebner, C. W. Siders, and C. P. J. Barty, “Analysis of the scalability of diffraction-limited fiber lasers and amplifiers to high average power,” Opt. Express 16, 13240–13266 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Smith and B. T. Do, “Bulk and surface laser damage of silica by picosecond and nanosecond pulses at 1064 nm,” Appl. Opt. 47, 4812–4832 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Roeser, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “94 W 980 nm high brightness Yb-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Express 16, 17310–17318 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Schimpf, C. Ruchert, D. Nodop, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, and F. Salin, “Compensation of pulse–distortion in saturated laser amplifiers,” Opt. Express 16, 17637–17646 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Boullet, Y. Zaouter, R. Desmarchelier, M. Cazaux, F. Salin, J. Saby, R. Bello-Doua, and E. Cormier, “High power ytterbium-doped rod-type three-level photonic crystal fiber laser,” Opt. Express 16, 17891–17902 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

S. D. Jackson, A. Sabella, A. Hemming, S. Bennetts, and D. G. Lancaster, “High-power 83 W holmium-doped silica fiber laser operating with high beam quality,” Opt. Lett. 32, 241–243 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Steinhausser, A. Brignon, E. Lallier, J. P. Huignard, and P. Georges, “High energy, single-mode, narrow-linewidth fiber laser source using stimulated Brillouin scattering beam cleanup,” Opt. Express 15, 6464–6469 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Schmidt, J. Rothhardt, F. Röser, S. Linke, T. Schreiber, K. Rademaker, J. Limpert, S. Ermeneux, P. Yvernault, F. Salin, and A. Tünnermann, “Millijoule pulse energy Q-switched short-length fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 32, 1551–1553 (2007).
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M. Li, X. Chen, J. Wang, S. Gray, A. Liu, J. A. Demeritt, A. B. Ruffin, A. M. Crowley, D. T. Walton, and L. A. Zenteno, “Al/Ge co-doped large mode area fiber with high SBS threshold,” Opt. Express 15, 8290–8299 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Augst, J. K. Ranka, T. Y. Fan, and A. Sanchez, “Beam combining of ytterbium fiber amplifiers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 1707–1715 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Li, A. Schülzgen, H. Li, V. L. Temyanko, J. V. Moloney, and N. Peyghambarian, “Phase-locked multicore all-fiber lasers: modeling and experimental investigation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 1721–1728 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. T. Schermer, “Mode scalability in bent optical fibers,” Opt. Express 15, 15674–15701 (2007).
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F. Röser, T. Eidam, J. Rothhardt, O. Schmidt, D. N. Schimpf, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Millijoule pulse energy high repetition rate femtosecond fiber chirped-pulse amplification system,” Opt. Lett. 32, 3495–3497 (2007).
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F. Kong, L. Liu, C. Sanders, Y. C. Chen, and K. K. Lee, “Phase locking of nanosecond pulses in a passively Q-switched two-element fiber laser array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151110 (2007).
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T. M. Shay, V. Benham, J. T. Baker, A. D. Sanchez, D. Pilkington, and C. A. Lu, “Self-synchronous and self-referenced coherent beam combination for large optical arrays,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 480–486 (2007).
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F. Couny, F. Benabid, and P. S. Light, “Subwatt threshold cw Raman fiber-gas laser based on H2-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 143903 (2007).
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M. Meleshkevich, N. Platonov, D. V. Gapontsev, A. Drozhzhin, V. P. Gapontsev, and V. Sergeev, “415 W single-mode CW thulium fiber laser in all-fiber format,” in Proceedings of the European Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (2007), post-deadline paper CP-2-3-THU.

Y. Jeong, S. Yoo, C. A. Codemard, J. Nilsson, J. K. Sahu, D. N. Payne, R. Horley, P. W. Turner, L. M. B. Hickey, A. Harker, M. Lovelady, and A. Piper, “Erbium:ytterbium co-doped large-core fiber laser with 297 W continuous-wave output power,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 573–579 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Dudley, C. Finot, D. J. Richardson, and G. Millot, “Self-similarity in ultrafast nonlinear optics,” Nat. Phys. 3, 597–603 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Pan, I. Utkin, and R. Fedosejevs, “Passively Q-switched ytterbium-doped double-clad fiber laser with a Cr4+:YAG saturable absorber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1979–1981 (2007).
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Y. Jeong, J. Nilsson, J. K. Sahu, D. N. Payne, R. Horley, L. M. B. Hickey, and P. W. Turner, “Power scaling of single-frequency ytterbium-doped fiber master oscillator power amplifier sources up to 500 W,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 546–551 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Horley, S. Norman, and M. N. Zervas, “Progress and development in fibre laser technology,” Proc. SPIE 6738, K7380–K7386 (2007).

2006

J. B. Lecourt, G. Martel, M. Guezo, C. Labbe, and S. Loualiche, “Erbium-doped fiber laser passively Q-switched by an InGaAs/InP multiple quantum well saturable absorber,” Opt. Commun. 263, 71–83 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Brooks and F. Di Teodoro, “Multimegawatt peak-power, single-transverse-mode operation of a 100 μm core diameter, Yb-doped rod-like photonic crystal fiber amplifier,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 111119 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. V. Andersen, P. Perez-Millan, S. R. Keiding, S. Agger, R. Duchowicz, and M. V. Andres, “All-fiber actively Q-switched Yb-doped laser,” Opt. Commun. 260, 251–256 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Dupriez, A. Piper, A. Malinowski, J. K. Sahu, M. Ibsen, B. C. Thomsen, Y. Jeong, L. M. B. Hickey, M. N. Zervas, J. Nilsson, and D. J. Richardson, “High average power, high repetition rate, picosecond pulsed fiber master oscillator power amplifier source seeded by a gain-switched laser diode at 1060 nm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1013–1015 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. Torruellas, Y. Chen, B. McIntosh, J. Farroni, K. Tankala, S. Webster, D. Hagan, M. J. Soileau, M. Messerly, and J. Dawson, “High peak power ytterbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” Proc. SPIE 6102, 61020N (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Jackson, “Midinfrared holmium fiber laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 187–191 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Fedorov, S. B. Mirov, A. Gallian, D. V. Badikov, M. P. Frolov, Y. V. Korostelin, V. I. Kozlovsky, A. I. Landman, Y. P. Podmar’kov, V. A. Akimov, and A. A. Voronov, “3.77–5.05-μm tunable solid-state lasers based on Fe2+-doped ZnSe crystals operating at low and room temperatures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 907–917 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Laroche, S. Girard, J. K. Sahu, W. A. Clarkson, and J. Nilsson, “Accurate efficiency calculation of energy transfer processes in phosphosilicate Er3+-Yb3+ codoped fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23, 195–202 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Delgado-Pinar, D. Zalvidea, A. Diez, P. Perez-Millan, and M. V. Andres, “Q-switching of an all-fiber laser by acousto-optic modulation of a fiber Bragg grating,” Opt. Express 14, 1106–1112 (2006).
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T. Schreiber, C. K. Nielsen, B. Ortac, and J. Limpert, “Microjoule-level all-polarization-maintaining femtosecond fiber source,” Opt. Lett. 31, 574–576 (2006).
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D. Y. Shen, J. K. Sahu, and W. A. Clarkson, “High-power widely tunable Tm:fibre lasers pumped by an Er, Yb co-doped fibre laser at 1.6 microns,” Opt. Express 14, 6084–6090 (2006).
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R. L. Farrow, D. A. V. Kliner, G. R. Hadley, and A. V. Smith, “Peak power limits on fiber amplifiers imposed by self-focusing,” Opt. Lett. 31, 3423–3425 (2006).
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K. T. Vu, A. Malinowski, D. J. Richardson, F. Ghiringhelli, L. M. B. Hickey, and M. N. Zervas, “Adaptive pulse shape control in a diode seeded nanosecond fiber MOPA system,” Opt. Express 14, 10996–11001 (2006).
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F. Couny, F. Benabid, and P. S. Light, “Large-pitch kagome-structured hollow-core photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 31, 3574–3576 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

C. J. Corcoran and F. Durville, “Experimental demonstration of a phase-locked laser array using a self-Fourier cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 201118 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Kouznetsov, J. Bisson, A. Shirakawa, and K. Ueda, “Limits of coherent addition of lasers: Simple estimate,” Opt. Rev. 12, 445–447 (2005).
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M. Y. Cheng, Y. C. Chang, A. Galvanauskas, P. Mamidipudi, R. Changkakoti, and P. Gatchell, “High-energy and high-peak-power nanosecond pulse generation with beam quality control in 200-μm core highly multimode Yb-doped fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Lett. 30, 358–360 (2005).
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Y. Jeong, J. Nilsson, J. K. Sahu, D. B. S. Soh, C. Alegria, P. Dupriez, C. A. Codemard, D. N. Payne, R. Horley, L. M. B. Hickey, L. Wanzcyk, C. E. Chryssou, J. A. Alvarez-Chavez, and P. W. Turner, “Single-frequency, single-mode, plane-polarized ytterbium-doped fiber master oscillator power amplifier source with 264 W of output power,” Opt. Lett. 30, 459–461 (2005).
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J. Limpert, N. Deguil-Robin, I. Manek-Hönninger, F. Salin, T. Schreiber, A. Liem, F. Röser, H. Zellmer, A. Tünnermann, A. Courjaud, C. Hönninger, and E. Mottay, “High-power picosecond fiber amplifier based on nonlinear spectral compression,” Opt. Lett. 30, 714–716 (2005).
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D. Y. Shen, J. K. Sahu, and W. A. Clarkson, “Highly efficient Er,Yb-doped fiber laser with 188 W free-running and >100 W tunable output power,” Opt. Express 13, 4916–4921 (2005).
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G. Canat, J. C. Mollier, Y. Jaouen, and B. Dussardier, “Evidence of thermal effects in a high-power Er3+-Yb3+ fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 30, 3030–3032 (2005).
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2004

J. Nilsson, W. A. Clarkson, R. Selvas, J. K. Sahu, P. W. Turner, S. U. Alam, and A. B. Grudinin, “High-power wavelength-tunable cladding-pumped rare-earth-doped silica fiber lasers,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 10, 5–30 (2004).
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S. D. Jackson, “Cross relaxation and energy transfer upconversion processes relevant to the functioning of 2 μmTm3+ doped silica fibre lasers,” Opt. Commun. 230, 197–203 (2004).
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J. W. Dawson, R. Beach, I. Jovanovic, B. Wattellier, Z. Liao, S. Payne, and C. P. J. Barty, “Large flattened mode optical fiber for reduction of nonlinear effects in optical fiber lasers,” Proc. SPIE 5335, 132–139 (2004).
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A. Piper, A. Malinowski, K. Furusawa, and D. J. Richardson, “High-power high-brightness mJ Q-switched ytterbium-doped fiber laser,” Electron. Lett. 40, 928–929 (2004).
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Y. Jeong, J. K. Sahu, D. N. Payne, and J. Nilsson, “Ytterbium-doped large-core fibre laser with 1 kW of continuous-wave output power,” Electron. Lett. 40, 470–472 (2004).
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A. Malinowski, A. Piper, J. H. V. Price, K. Furusawa, Y. Jeong, J. Nilsson, and D. J. Richardson, “Ultrashort-pulse Yb3+-fiber-based laser and amplifier system producing >25-W average power,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2073–2075 (2004).
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Y. Jeong, J. K. Sahu, D. N. Payne, and J. Nilsson, “Ytterbium-doped large-core fiber laser with 1.36 kW continuous-wave output power,” Opt. Express 12, 6088–6092 (2004).
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W. J. Wadsworth, R. M. Percival, G. Bouwmans, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, T. D. Hedley, and P. St. J. Russell, “Very high numerical aperture fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 843–845 (2004).
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2003

M. D. O’Donnell, C. A. Miller, D. Furniss, V. K. Tikhomirov, and A. B. Seddon, “Fluorotellurite glasses with improved mid-infrared transmission,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 331, 48–57 (2003).
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R. Selvas, K. H. Ylä-Jarkko, J. K. Sahu, L.-B. Fu, J. N. Jang, J. Nilsson, S. U. Alam, P. W. Turner, J. Moore, and A. B. Grudinin, “High power, low noise, Yb-doped, cladding-pumped, three-level fiber sources at 980 nm,” Opt. Lett. 28, 1093–1095 (2003).
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E. J. Bochove, P. K. Cheo, and G. G. King, “Self-organization in a multicore fiber laser array,” Opt. Lett. 28, 1200–1202 (2003).
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A. Liem, J. Limpert, H. Zellmer, and A. Tünnermann, “100-W single-frequency master-oscillator fiber power amplifier,” Opt. Lett. 28, 1537–1539 (2003).
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C. J. S. de Matos, J. R. Taylor, T. P. Hansen, K. P. Hansen, and J. Broeng, “All-fiber chirped pulse amplification using highly-dispersive air-core photonic bandgap fiber,” Opt. Express 11, 2832–2837 (2003).
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J. Limpert, T. Schreiber, A. Liem, S. Nolte, H. Zellmer, T. Peschel, V. Guyenot, and A. Tünnermann, “Thermo-optical properties of air-clad photonic crystal fiber lasers in high power operation,” Opt. Express 11, 2982–2990 (2003).
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H. Lee and G. Agrawal, “Suppression of stimulated Brillouin scattering in optical fibers using fiber Bragg gratings,” Opt. Express 11, 3467–3472 (2003).
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J. Nilsson, S. U. Alam, J. A. Alvarez-Chavez, P. W. Turner, W. A. Clarkson, and A. B. Grudinin, “High-power and tunable operation of erbium-ytterbium co-doped cladding-pumped fiber laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 987–994 (2003).
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2002

2001

M. Pollnau and S. D. Jackson, “Erbium 3-μm fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 30–40 (2001).
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K. Furusawa, A. Malinowski, J. H. V. Price, T. M. Monro, J. K. Sahu, J. Nilsson, and D. J. Richardson, “Cladding pumped ytterbium-doped fiber laser with holey inner and outer cladding,” Opt. Express 9, 714–720 (2001).
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J. K. Sahu, C. C. Renaud, K. Furusawa, R. Selvas, J. A. Alvarez-Chavez, D. J. Richardson, and J. Nilsson, “Jacketed air clad cladding pumped ytterbium doped fibre laser with wide tuning range,” Electron. Lett. 37, 1116–1117 (2001).
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D. C. Brown and H. J. Hoffmann, “Thermal, stress, and thermo-optic effects in high average power double-clad silica fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 207–217 (2001).
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2000

R. A. Hayward, W. A. Clarkson, P. W. Turner, J. Nilsson, A. B. Grudinin, and D. C. Hanna, “Efficient cladding-pumped Tm-doped silica fibre laser with high power single mode output at 2 μm,” Electron. Lett. 36, 711–712 (2000).
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M. E. Fermann, V. I. Kruglov, B. C. Thomsen, J. M. Dudley, and J. D. Harvey, “Self-similar propagation and amplification of parabolic pulses in optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 6010–6013 (2000).
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J. P. Koplow, D. A. V. Kliner, and L. Goldberg, “Single-mode operation of a coiled multimode fiber amplifier,” Opt. Lett. 25, 442–444 (2000).
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P. A. Champert, S. V. Popov, J. R. Taylor, and J. P. Meyn, “Efficient second-harmonic generation at 384 nm in periodically poled lithium tantalate by use of a visible Yb-Er-seeded fiber source,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1252–1524 (2000).
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1999

R. Paschotta, R. Haring, E. Gini, H. Melchior, U. Keller, H. L. Offerhaus, and D. J. Richardson, “Passively Q-switched 0.1-mJ fiber laser system at 1.53 μm,” Opt. Lett. 24, 388–390 (1999).
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N. G. R. Broderick, H. L. Offerhaus, D. J. Richardson, R. A. Sammut, J. Caplen, and L. Dong, “Large mode area fibers for high power applications,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 5, 185–196 (1999).
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J. M. Sousa and O. G. Okhotnikov, “Multimode Er-doped fiber for single-transverse-mode amplification,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1528–1530 (1999).
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R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. S. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, “Single-mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air,” Science 285, 1537–1539 (1999).
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V. Dominic, S. MacCormack, R. Waarts, S. Sanders, S. Bicknese, R. Dohle, E. Wolak, P. S. Yeh, and E. Zucker, “110 W fibre laser,” Electron. Lett. 35, 1158–1160 (1999).
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1998

1997

D. Taverner, D. J. Richardson, L. Dong, J. E. Caplen, K. Williams, and R. V. Penty, “158-μJ pulses from a single-transverse-mode, large-mode-area erbium-doped fiber amplifier,” Opt. Lett. 22, 378–380 (1997).
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R. Paschotta, J. Nilsson, A. C. Tropper, and D. C. Hanna, “Ytterbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1049–1056 (1997).
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M. E. Fermann, A. Galvanauskas, G. Sucha, and D. Harter, “Fiber-lasers for ultrafast optics,” Appl. Phys. B 65, 259–275 (1997).
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1996

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, “Nanosecond-to-femtosecond laser-induced breakdown in dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 1749–1761 (1996).
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1995

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, “Laser induced damage in dielectrics with nanosecond to subpicosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2248–2251 (1995).
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H. M. Pask, R. J. Carman, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Tropper, C. J. MacKechnie, P. R. Barber, and J. M. Dawes, “Ytterbium-doped silica fiber lasers—versatile sources for the 1–1.2 μm region,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1, 2–13 (1995).
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1993

J. D. Minelly, W. L. Barnes, R. I. Laming, P. R. Morkel, J. E. Townsend, S. G. Grubb, and D. N. Payne, “Diode-array pumping of Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped fibre lasers and amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 301–303 (1993).
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A. B. Grudinin, D. J. Richardson, and D. N. Payne, “Passive harmonic mode locking of a fiber soliton ring laser,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1860–1861 (1993).
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B. Desthieux, R. I. Laming, and D. N. Payne, “111 kW (0.5 mJ) pulse amplification at 1.5-μm using a gated cascade of 3 erbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 586–588 (1993).
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T. Pfeiffer and G. Veith, “40 GHz pulse generation using a widely tunable all-polarization preserving erbium fiber ring laser,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1849–1850 (1993).
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S. V. Chernikov, E. M. Dianov, D. J. Richardson, and D. N. Payne, “Soliton pulse-compression in dispersion-decreasing fiber,” Opt. Lett. 18, 476–478 (1993).
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J. Nilsson and B. Jaskorzynska, “Modeling and optimization of low-repetition-rate high-energy pulse amplification in cw-pumped erbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Lett. 18, 2099–2101 (1993).
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1991

P. V. Mamyshev, S. V. Chernikov, and E. M. Dianov, “Generation of fundamental soliton trains for high bit-rate optical fiber communication lines,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 2347–2355 (1991).
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J. E. Townsend, W. L. Barnes, K. P. Jedrzejewski, and S. G. Grubb, “Yb sensitised Er doped silica optical fiber with ultrahigh transfer efficiency and gain,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1958–1959 (1991).
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1990

D. C. Hanna, R. M. Percival, I. R. Perry, R. G. Smart, P. J. Suni, and A. C. Tropper, “An Yb-doped monomode fiber laser: broadly tunable operation from 1.010 μm to 1.162 μm and three-level operation at 974 nm,” J. Mod. Opt. 37, 517–525 (1990).
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1989

T. Horiguchi, T. Kurashima, and M. Tateda, “Tensile strain dependence of Brillouin frequency shift in silica optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 107–108 (1989).
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E. Lichtman, R. G. Waarts, and A. A. Friesem, “Stimulated Brillouin scattering excited by a modulated pump wave in single-mode fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 171–174 (1989).
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1988

T. Y. Fan, G. Huber, R. L. Byer, and P. Mitzscherlich, “Spectroscopy and diode laser-pumped operation of Tm,Ho:YAG,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 924–933 (1988).
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D. P. Hand and P. S. Russell, “Solitary thermal-shock waves and optical damage in optical fibers—the fiber fuse,” Opt. Lett. 13, 767–769 (1988).
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1987

J. R. Leger, G. J. Swanson, and W. B. Veldkamp, “Coherent laser addition using binary phase gratings,” Appl. Opt. 26, 4391–4399 (1987).
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R. J. Mears, L. Reekie, I. M. Jauncey, and D. N. Payne, “Low-noise erbium-doped fibre amplifier operating at 1.54 μm,” Electron. Lett. 23, 1026–1028 (1987).
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1986

R. J. Mears, L. Reekie, S. B. Poole, and D. N. Payne, “Low-threshold tunable-CW and Q-switched fiber laser operating at 1.55 μm,” Electron. Lett. 22, 159–160 (1986).
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1985

S. B. Poole, D. N. Payne, and M. E. Fermann, “Fabrication of low loss optical fibres containing rare-earth ions,” Electron. Lett. 21, 737–738 (1985).
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R. J. Mears, L. Reekie, S. B. Poole, and D. N. Payne, “Neodymium-doped silica single-mode fibre laser,” Electron. Lett. 21, 738–740 (1985).
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D. Strickland and G. Mourou, “Compression of amplified chirped optical pulses,” Opt. Commun. 56, 219–221 (1985).
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1973

J. Stone and C. A. Burrus, “Neodymium-doped silica lasers in end-pumped fiber geometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 388–389 (1973).
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1972

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T. V. Andersen, P. Perez-Millan, S. R. Keiding, S. Agger, R. Duchowicz, and M. V. Andres, “All-fiber actively Q-switched Yb-doped laser,” Opt. Commun. 260, 251–256 (2006).
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Alam, S.

Alam, S. U.

K. K. Chen, S. U. Alam, J. H. V. Price, J. R. Hayes, D. J. Lin, A. Malinowski, and D. J. Richardson, “Picosecond fiber MOPA pumped supercontinuum source with 39 W output power,” Opt. Express 18, 5426–5432 (2010).
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K. K. Chen, S. U. Alam, J. R. Hayes, H. J. Baker, D. Hall, R. McBride, J. H. V. Price, D. J. Lin, A. Malinowski, and D. J. Richardson, “56-W frequency-doubled source at 530 nm pumped by a single-mode, single-polarization, picosecond, Yb3+-doped fiber MOPA,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 893–895 (2010).
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Y. Shen, S. U. Alam, K. K. Chen, D. J. Lin, S. Cai, B. Wu, P. Jiang, A. Malinowski, and D. J. Richardson, “PPMgLN based high power optical parametric oscillator pumped by Yb3+-doped fiber amplifier incorporating active pulse shaping,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 385–392 (2009).
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J. Nilsson, W. A. Clarkson, R. Selvas, J. K. Sahu, P. W. Turner, S. U. Alam, and A. B. Grudinin, “High-power wavelength-tunable cladding-pumped rare-earth-doped silica fiber lasers,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 10, 5–30 (2004).
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J. Nilsson, S. U. Alam, J. A. Alvarez-Chavez, P. W. Turner, W. A. Clarkson, and A. B. Grudinin, “High-power and tunable operation of erbium-ytterbium co-doped cladding-pumped fiber laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 987–994 (2003).
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R. Selvas, K. H. Ylä-Jarkko, J. K. Sahu, L.-B. Fu, J. N. Jang, J. Nilsson, S. U. Alam, P. W. Turner, J. Moore, and A. B. Grudinin, “High power, low noise, Yb-doped, cladding-pumped, three-level fiber sources at 980 nm,” Opt. Lett. 28, 1093–1095 (2003).
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Alam, S. -U.

F. Kienle, K. K. Chen, S.-U. Alam, C. B. E. Gawith, J. I. McKenzie, D. C. Hanna, D. J. Richardson, and D. P. Shepherd, “High-power, variable repetition rate, picosecond optical parametric oscillator pumped by an amplified gain-switched diode,” Opt. Express 18, 7602–7610 (2010).
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Alegria, C.

Allan, D. C.

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. S. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, “Single-mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air,” Science 285, 1537–1539 (1999).
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Alley, T. G.

Alvarez-Chavez, J. A.

Y. Jeong, J. Nilsson, J. K. Sahu, D. B. S. Soh, C. Alegria, P. Dupriez, C. A. Codemard, D. N. Payne, R. Horley, L. M. B. Hickey, L. Wanzcyk, C. E. Chryssou, J. A. Alvarez-Chavez, and P. W. Turner, “Single-frequency, single-mode, plane-polarized ytterbium-doped fiber master oscillator power amplifier source with 264 W of output power,” Opt. Lett. 30, 459–461 (2005).
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J. Nilsson, S. U. Alam, J. A. Alvarez-Chavez, P. W. Turner, W. A. Clarkson, and A. B. Grudinin, “High-power and tunable operation of erbium-ytterbium co-doped cladding-pumped fiber laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 987–994 (2003).
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J. K. Sahu, C. C. Renaud, K. Furusawa, R. Selvas, J. A. Alvarez-Chavez, D. J. Richardson, and J. Nilsson, “Jacketed air clad cladding pumped ytterbium doped fibre laser with wide tuning range,” Electron. Lett. 37, 1116–1117 (2001).
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T. Eidam, S. Hanf, E. Seise, T. V. Andersen, T. Gabler, C. Wirth, T. Schreiber, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond fiber CPA system emitting 830 W average output power,” Opt. Lett. 35, 94–96 (2010).
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T. V. Andersen, P. Perez-Millan, S. R. Keiding, S. Agger, R. Duchowicz, and M. V. Andres, “All-fiber actively Q-switched Yb-doped laser,” Opt. Commun. 260, 251–256 (2006).
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R. Slavik, Y. Park, and J. Azana, “Long-period fiber-grating-based filter for generation of picosecond and subpicosecond transform-limited flat-top pulses,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 806–808 (2008).
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Badikov, D. V.

V. V. Fedorov, S. B. Mirov, A. Gallian, D. V. Badikov, M. P. Frolov, Y. V. Korostelin, V. I. Kozlovsky, A. I. Landman, Y. P. Podmar’kov, V. A. Akimov, and A. A. Voronov, “3.77–5.05-μm tunable solid-state lasers based on Fe2+-doped ZnSe crystals operating at low and room temperatures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 907–917 (2006).
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Opt. Express

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J. Limpert, T. Schreiber, T. Clausnitzer, L. Zollner, H. J. Fuchs, E. B. Kley, H. Zellmer, and A. Tünnermann, “High-power femtosecond Yb-doped fiber amplifier,” Opt. Express 10, 628–638 (2002).
[PubMed]

A. Shirakawa, T. Saitou, T. Sekiguchi, and K. Ueda, “Coherent addition of fiber lasers by use of a fiber coupler,” Opt. Express 10, 1167–1172 (2002).
[PubMed]

C. J. S. de Matos, J. R. Taylor, T. P. Hansen, K. P. Hansen, and J. Broeng, “All-fiber chirped pulse amplification using highly-dispersive air-core photonic bandgap fiber,” Opt. Express 11, 2832–2837 (2003).
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J. Limpert, T. Schreiber, A. Liem, S. Nolte, H. Zellmer, T. Peschel, V. Guyenot, and A. Tünnermann, “Thermo-optical properties of air-clad photonic crystal fiber lasers in high power operation,” Opt. Express 11, 2982–2990 (2003).
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H. Lee and G. Agrawal, “Suppression of stimulated Brillouin scattering in optical fibers using fiber Bragg gratings,” Opt. Express 11, 3467–3472 (2003).
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K. K. Chen, S. U. Alam, J. H. V. Price, J. R. Hayes, D. J. Lin, A. Malinowski, and D. J. Richardson, “Picosecond fiber MOPA pumped supercontinuum source with 39 W output power,” Opt. Express 18, 5426–5432 (2010).
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Y. Feng, L. R. Taylor, and D. Bonaccini Calia, “150 W highly-efficient Raman fiber laser,” Opt. Express 17, 23678–23683 (2009).
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F. Kienle, K. K. Chen, S.-U. Alam, C. B. E. Gawith, J. I. McKenzie, D. C. Hanna, D. J. Richardson, and D. P. Shepherd, “High-power, variable repetition rate, picosecond optical parametric oscillator pumped by an amplified gain-switched diode,” Opt. Express 18, 7602–7610 (2010).
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W. Chang, H. G. Winful, and A. Galvanauskas, “Array size scalability of passively coherently phased fiber laser arrays,” Opt. Express 18, 9634–9642 (2010).
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M. Paurisse, M. Hanna, F. Druon, P. Georges, C. Bellanger, A. Brignon, and J. P. Huignard, “Phase and amplitude control of a multimode LMA fiber beam by use of digital holography,” Opt. Express 17, 13000–13008 (2009).
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J. W. Dawson, M. J. Messerly, R. J. Beach, M. Y. Shverdin, E. A. Stappaerts, A. K. Sridharan, P. H. Pax, J. E. Heebner, C. W. Siders, and C. P. J. Barty, “Analysis of the scalability of diffraction-limited fiber lasers and amplifiers to high average power,” Opt. Express 16, 13240–13266 (2008).
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L. Dong, H. A. McKay, L. B. Fu, M. Ohta, A. Marcinkevicius, S. Suzuki, and M. E. Fermann, “Ytterbium-doped all glass leakage channel fibers with highly fluorine-doped silica pump cladding,” Opt. Express 17, 8962–8969 (2009).
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A. Malinowski, K. T. Vu, K. K. Chen, J. Nilsson, Y. Jeong, S. Alam, D. J. Lin, and D. J. Richardson, “High power pulsed fiber MOPA system incorporating electro-optic modulator based adaptive pulse shaping,” Opt. Express 17, 20927–20937 (2009).
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R. Uberna, A. Bratcher, T. G. Alley, A. D. Sanchez, A. S. Flores, and B. Pulford, “Coherent combination of high power fiber amplifiers in a two-dimensional re-imaging waveguide,” Opt. Express 18, 13547–13553 (2010).
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L. Pearson, J. W. Kim, Z. Zhang, M. Ibsen, J. K. Sahu, and W. A. Clarkson, “High-power linearly-polarized single-frequency thulium-doped fiber master-oscillator power amplifier,” Opt. Express 18, 1607–1612 (2010).
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R. T. Schermer, “Mode scalability in bent optical fibers,” Opt. Express 15, 15674–15701 (2007).
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M. Li, X. Chen, J. Wang, S. Gray, A. Liu, J. A. Demeritt, A. B. Ruffin, A. M. Crowley, D. T. Walton, and L. A. Zenteno, “Al/Ge co-doped large mode area fiber with high SBS threshold,” Opt. Express 15, 8290–8299 (2007).
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O. Schmidt, J. Rothhardt, T. Eidam, F. Röser, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, K. P. Hansen, C. Jakobsen, and J. Broeng, “Single-polarization ultra-large-mode-area Yb-doped photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Express 16, 3918–3923 (2008).
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F. Roeser, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “94 W 980 nm high brightness Yb-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Express 16, 17310–17318 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Schimpf, C. Ruchert, D. Nodop, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, and F. Salin, “Compensation of pulse–distortion in saturated laser amplifiers,” Opt. Express 16, 17637–17646 (2008).
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J. Boullet, Y. Zaouter, R. Desmarchelier, M. Cazaux, F. Salin, J. Saby, R. Bello-Doua, and E. Cormier, “High power ytterbium-doped rod-type three-level photonic crystal fiber laser,” Opt. Express 16, 17891–17902 (2008).
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A. Shirakawa, H. Maruyama, K. Ueda, C. B. Olausson, J. K. Lyngsø, and J. Broeng, “High-power Yb-doped photonic bandgap fiber amplifier at 1150–1200 nm,” Opt. Express 17, 447–454 (2009).
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I. S. Moskalev, V. V. Fedorov, and S. B. Mirov, “10-Watt, pure continuous-wave, polycrystalline Cr2+:ZnSe laser,” Opt. Express 17, 2048–2056 (2009).
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M. Delgado-Pinar, D. Zalvidea, A. Diez, P. Perez-Millan, and M. V. Andres, “Q-switching of an all-fiber laser by acousto-optic modulation of a fiber Bragg grating,” Opt. Express 14, 1106–1112 (2006).
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D. Y. Shen, J. K. Sahu, and W. A. Clarkson, “High-power widely tunable Tm:fibre lasers pumped by an Er, Yb co-doped fibre laser at 1.6 microns,” Opt. Express 14, 6084–6090 (2006).
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K. T. Vu, A. Malinowski, D. J. Richardson, F. Ghiringhelli, L. M. B. Hickey, and M. N. Zervas, “Adaptive pulse shape control in a diode seeded nanosecond fiber MOPA system,” Opt. Express 14, 10996–11001 (2006).
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B. Steinhausser, A. Brignon, E. Lallier, J. P. Huignard, and P. Georges, “High energy, single-mode, narrow-linewidth fiber laser source using stimulated Brillouin scattering beam cleanup,” Opt. Express 15, 6464–6469 (2007).
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D. Y. Shen, J. K. Sahu, and W. A. Clarkson, “Highly efficient Er,Yb-doped fiber laser with 188 W free-running and >100 W tunable output power,” Opt. Express 13, 4916–4921 (2005).
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Y. Jeong, J. K. Sahu, D. N. Payne, and J. Nilsson, “Ytterbium-doped large-core fiber laser with 1.36 kW continuous-wave output power,” Opt. Express 12, 6088–6092 (2004).
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Opt. Fiber Technol.

N. G. R. Broderick, H. L. Offerhaus, D. J. Richardson, R. A. Sammut, J. Caplen, and L. Dong, “Large mode area fibers for high power applications,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 5, 185–196 (1999).
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J. Nilsson, W. A. Clarkson, R. Selvas, J. K. Sahu, P. W. Turner, S. U. Alam, and A. B. Grudinin, “High-power wavelength-tunable cladding-pumped rare-earth-doped silica fiber lasers,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 10, 5–30 (2004).
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Opt. Lett.

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M. L. R. Laroche, A. M. Chardon, J. Nilsson, D. P. Shepherd, W. A. Clarkson, S. Girard, and R. Moncorgé, “Compact diode-pumped passively Q-switched tunable Er-Yb double-clad fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1980–1982 (2002).
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R. Selvas, K. H. Ylä-Jarkko, J. K. Sahu, L.-B. Fu, J. N. Jang, J. Nilsson, S. U. Alam, P. W. Turner, J. Moore, and A. B. Grudinin, “High power, low noise, Yb-doped, cladding-pumped, three-level fiber sources at 980 nm,” Opt. Lett. 28, 1093–1095 (2003).
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D. Taverner, D. J. Richardson, L. Dong, J. E. Caplen, K. Williams, and R. V. Penty, “158-μJ pulses from a single-transverse-mode, large-mode-area erbium-doped fiber amplifier,” Opt. Lett. 22, 378–380 (1997).
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P. A. Champert, S. V. Popov, J. R. Taylor, and J. P. Meyn, “Efficient second-harmonic generation at 384 nm in periodically poled lithium tantalate by use of a visible Yb-Er-seeded fiber source,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1252–1524 (2000).
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H. L. Offerhaus, N. G. Broderick, D. J. Richardson, R. Sammut, J. Caplen, and L. Dong, “High-energy single-transverse-mode Q-switched fiber laser based on a multimode large-mode-area erbium-doped fiber,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1683–1685 (1998).
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M. Y. Cheng, Y. C. Chang, A. Galvanauskas, P. Mamidipudi, R. Changkakoti, and P. Gatchell, “High-energy and high-peak-power nanosecond pulse generation with beam quality control in 200-μm core highly multimode Yb-doped fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Lett. 30, 358–360 (2005).
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Y. Jeong, J. Nilsson, J. K. Sahu, D. B. S. Soh, C. Alegria, P. Dupriez, C. A. Codemard, D. N. Payne, R. Horley, L. M. B. Hickey, L. Wanzcyk, C. E. Chryssou, J. A. Alvarez-Chavez, and P. W. Turner, “Single-frequency, single-mode, plane-polarized ytterbium-doped fiber master oscillator power amplifier source with 264 W of output power,” Opt. Lett. 30, 459–461 (2005).
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J. Limpert, N. Deguil-Robin, I. Manek-Hönninger, F. Salin, T. Schreiber, A. Liem, F. Röser, H. Zellmer, A. Tünnermann, A. Courjaud, C. Hönninger, and E. Mottay, “High-power picosecond fiber amplifier based on nonlinear spectral compression,” Opt. Lett. 30, 714–716 (2005).
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G. Canat, J. C. Mollier, Y. Jaouen, and B. Dussardier, “Evidence of thermal effects in a high-power Er3+-Yb3+ fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 30, 3030–3032 (2005).
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A. Malinowski, A. Piper, J. H. V. Price, K. Furusawa, Y. Jeong, J. Nilsson, and D. J. Richardson, “Ultrashort-pulse Yb3+-fiber-based laser and amplifier system producing >25-W average power,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2073–2075 (2004).
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O. Schmidt, J. Rothhardt, F. Röser, S. Linke, T. Schreiber, K. Rademaker, J. Limpert, S. Ermeneux, P. Yvernault, F. Salin, and A. Tünnermann, “Millijoule pulse energy Q-switched short-length fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 32, 1551–1553 (2007).
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F. Couny, F. Benabid, and P. S. Light, “Large-pitch kagome-structured hollow-core photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 31, 3574–3576 (2006).
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S. D. Jackson, A. Sabella, A. Hemming, S. Bennetts, and D. G. Lancaster, “High-power 83 W holmium-doped silica fiber laser operating with high beam quality,” Opt. Lett. 32, 241–243 (2007).
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R. L. Farrow, D. A. V. Kliner, G. R. Hadley, and A. V. Smith, “Peak power limits on fiber amplifiers imposed by self-focusing,” Opt. Lett. 31, 3423–3425 (2006).
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T. Schreiber, C. K. Nielsen, B. Ortac, and J. Limpert, “Microjoule-level all-polarization-maintaining femtosecond fiber source,” Opt. Lett. 31, 574–576 (2006).
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G. D. Goodno, L. D. Book, and J. E. Rothenberg, “Low-phase-noise, single-frequency, single-mode 608 W thulium fiber amplifier,” Opt. Lett. 34, 1204–1206 (2009).
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M. Dubinskii, J. Zhang, and V. Ter-Mikirtychev, “Highly scalable, resonantly cladding-pumped, Er-doped fiber laser with record efficiency,” Opt. Lett. 34, 1507–1509 (2009).
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O. Schmidt, C. Wirth, I. Tsybin, T. Schreiber, R. Eberhardt, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Average power of 1.1 kW from spectrally combined, fiber-amplified, nanosecond-pulsed sources,” Opt. Lett. 34, 1567–1569 (2009).
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X. Zhu, A. Schülzgen, H. Li, L. Li, Q. Wang, S. Suzuki, V. L. Temyanko, J. V. Moloney, and N. Peyghambarian, “Single-transverse-mode output from a fiber laser based on multimode interference,” Opt. Lett. 33, 908–910 (2008).
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F. Röser, T. Eidam, J. Rothhardt, O. Schmidt, D. N. Schimpf, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Millijoule pulse energy high repetition rate femtosecond fiber chirped-pulse amplification system,” Opt. Lett. 32, 3495–3497 (2007).
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E. C. Cheung, J. G. Ho, G. D. Goodno, R. R. Rice, J. Rothenberg, P. Thielen, M. Weber, and M. Wickham, “Diffractive-optics-based beam combination of a phase-locked fiber laser array,” Opt. Lett. 33, 354–356 (2008).
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X. H. FangM. L. Hu, B. W., Liu, L. Chai, C. Y. Wang, and A. M. Zheltikov, “Generation of 150 MW, 110 fs pulses by phase-locked amplification in multicore photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 35, 2326–2328 (2010).
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K. K. Chen, S. Alam, P. Horak, C. Codemard, A. Malinowski, and D. J. Richardson, “Excitation of individual Raman orders in the visible using rectangular pulses,” Opt. Lett. 35, 2433–2435 (2010).
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D. Nodop, C. Jauregui, D. Schimpf, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Efficient high-power generation of visible and mid-infrared light by degenerate four-wave-mixing in a large-mode-area photonic-crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 34, 3499–3501 (2009).
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S. D. Jackson, “High-power and highly-efficient diode-cladding-pumped holmium-doped fluoride fiber laser at 2.94 μm,” Opt. Lett. 34, 2327–2329 (2009).
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S. Tokita, M. Murakami, S. Shimizu, M. Hashida, and S. Sakabe, “Liquid-cooled 24 W mid-infrared Er:ZBLAN fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 34, 3062–3064 (2009).
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J. R. Marciante, R. G. Roides, V. V. Shkunov, and D. A. Rockwell, “Near-diffraction-limited operation of step-index large-mode-area fiber lasers via gain filtering,” Opt. Lett. 35, 1828–1830 (2010).
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Phys. Rev. B

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Proc. SPIE

K. P. Hansen, C. B. Olausson, J. Broeng, K. Mattsson, M. D. T. Nikolajsena, P. M. W. Skovgaard, M. H. Sorensen, M. Denninger, C. Jakobsen, and H. R. Simonsen, “Airclad fiber laser technology,” Proc. SPIE 6873, U3–U14 (2008).

J. E. Rothenberg, “Passive coherent phasing of fiber laser arrays,” Proc. SPIE 6873, 687315 (2008).
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J. W. Dawson, R. Beach, I. Jovanovic, B. Wattellier, Z. Liao, S. Payne, and C. P. J. Barty, “Large flattened mode optical fiber for reduction of nonlinear effects in optical fiber lasers,” Proc. SPIE 5335, 132–139 (2004).
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C. A. Codemard, J. Ji, J. K. Sahu, and J. Nilsson, “100 W CW cladding-pumped Raman fiber laser at 1120 nm,” Proc. SPIE 7580, 75801N (2010).
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R. Horley, S. Norman, and M. N. Zervas, “Progress and development in fibre laser technology,” Proc. SPIE 6738, K7380–K7386 (2007).

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J. Nilsson, “High power fiber lasers and amplifiers,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference, 2007 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 2007), short course SC 290.

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Figures (15)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Progress in output power from diffraction-limited and near-diffraction-limited fiber lasers. Since 1999, all results are with Yb-doped fibers.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Emission and absorption spectrum of ytterbium ions in different silica hosts.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Principle of cladding-pumping.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Schematic of a (a) cladding-pumped fiber laser and (b) fiber amplifier in free-space end-pumped and all-fiber side-pumped configurations, respectively.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Schematic of a typical single-frequency fiber MOPA.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Diagram illustrating (in the horizontal plane) fiber-based pulse generation techniques appropriate to a given operational regime (in terms of repetition rate versus pulse duration). The vertical axis lists the pulse amplification techniques required to access particular pulse energy regimes for femtosecond pulses (OTDM, optical time division multiplexing; Active ML, active mode locking).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Energy level diagram for Er,Yb co-doped silica.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Maximum heat deposition density ( P h   max ) before the onset of coating damage as a function of heat transfer coefficient ( h ) .

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Energy level diagram for Tm-doped silica.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Absorption spectrum for Tm-doped silica.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Fiber-coupled broad-area pump diode.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Spatially combined multi-emitter diode pump source.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Theoretical limit on launched pump power for broad-area emitter-based pump schemes assuming P s = 10   W , θ NA = 0.4 , η coupling = 0.8 , and γ = 0.8 . The curves show the upper limit on launched power that can be achieved using (a) fiber-coupled broad-area emitters, (b) spatially combined and polarization-combined multi-emitter sources, and (c) ten wavelength-combined multi-emitter sources.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Different LMA fiber designs for the mitigation of nonlinearity. (a) Rod-type fiber incorporating a microstructured (air:glass) core and high-NA inner cladding [150]. (b) Air-core PBGF offering ultralow nonlinearity and high damage thresholds for beam delivery [161]. (c) Leakage channel fiber in which the leakage loss for high-order modes is arranged to be much higher than that of the fundamental [151]. (d) Solid PBGF offering PM guidance (due to stress rods placed close to the core) and in-fiber distributed spectral filtering to shape gain profiles and eliminate SRS [165].

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

(a) Fractional Yb excitation level for an ideal step-index core with a diameter of 50 μ m and a NA of 0.06. All signal photons are in the fundamental mode, and all pump photons are evenly distributed across the fiber cross-section. The numbers of pump and signal photons are the same, spontaneous emission is negligible, and the pump area is adjusted for an average fractional excitation of 0.030 for the fundamental mode, corresponding to a signal gain of 0.95 dB/m. (b) Fundamental mode— LP 01 (solid horizontal line) and HOM (dashed curves) gains at the signal wavelength, and highest gain of any HOM at any wavelength (long-dashed curve) under different pumping wavelengths with cladding area adjusted for the same fundamental mode signal gain of 0.95 dB/m [155].

Equations (11)

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P max = I t h A eff = X A eff τ ,
E sat h ν L A c o / [ σ a ( λ L ) + σ e ( λ L ) ] η L = E fluence A c o ,
ϕ ( t ) = n 2 k L P ( t ) A eff ,
L eff = 1 G ( 1 e G L ) .
P h   max 4 π ( T d T s ) [ 2 K o c log e ( r o c r i c ) + 2 r o c h ] 1 ,
P L   max P h   max η abs α p ( η q ν L ν p η q ν L ) ,
P p   max 2 P s N η coupling M x 2 M y 2 ( π r i c θ NA γ λ p ) 2 ,
P SRS-thermal = 4 π λ L A eff η laser K silica G tot A c o 2 η heat d n d T g R ,
( L / A eff ) opt = 4 π λ L A c o 2 η heat d n d T G tot A eff η laser K silica g R .
P SRS-thermal = 4 π λ L A eff η pulse η laser K silica G tot A c o 2 η heat d n d T g R ,
( L / A eff ) opt = 4 π λ L A c o 2 η pulse η heat d n d T G tot A eff η laser K silica g R ,

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