Abstract

Efficient energy transfer at room temperature from Tm3+ to Pr3+ has been demonstrated in co-doped KPb2Cl5. Because of the low phonon energies in KPb2Cl5, the energy transfer processes result in the conversion of 805nm laser diode pump energy to a broad band of mid-IR radiation between 3500to5500nm. Energy transfer pathways, rates, and quantum efficiencies are evaluated. Results show that the material is suitable as a phosphor for the 4to5μm spectral range that can be optically pumped with low-cost 0.8μm laser diodes.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Aidaraliev, N. V. Zotova, S. A. Karandashev, B. A. Matveev, M. A. Remennyi, N. M. Stus', and G. N. Talalakin, “Optically pumped 'immersion-lens' infrared light emitting diodes based on narrow-gap III-V semiconductors,” Semiconductors 36, 828-831 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  3. V. V. Fedorov, A. Galliana, I. Moskalev, and S. B. Mirov, “En route to electrically pumped broadly tunable middle infrared lasers based on transition metal doped II-VI semiconductors,” J. Lumin. 125, 184-195 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  4. L. B. Shaw, B. Cole, D. T. Schaafsma, B. B. Harbison, J. S. Sanghera, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Rare-earth-doped selenide glass optical sources,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, CLEO 98 Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 1998), pp. 420-421.
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    [CrossRef]
  6. S. R. Bowman, L. B. Shaw, B. J. Feldman, and Joseph Ganem, “A 7 μm praseodymium-based solid-state laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 646-649 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  23. A. Mendioroz, R. Balda, M. Voda, M. Al-Saleh, and J. Fernadez, “Infrared to visible and ultraviolet upconversion processes in Nd3+-doped potassium lead chloride crystal,” Opt. Mater. (Amsterdam, Neth.) 95, 351-357 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  24. M. C. Nostrand, R. H. Page, S. A. Payne, L. I. Isaenko, and A. P. Yelisseyev, “Optical properties of Dy3+− and Nd3+-doped KPb2Cl5,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 264-276 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  26. U. Hömmerich, Ei Ei Nyein, and S. B. Trivedi, “Crystal growth, upconversion, and infrared emission properties of Er3+-doped KPb2Br5,” J. Lumin. 113, 100-108 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  27. P. Amedzake, E. Brown, U. Hommerich, S. B. Trivedi, and J. M. Zavada, “Crystal growth and spectroscopic characterization of Pr-doped KPb2Cl5 for mid-infrared laser applications,” J. Cryst. Growth 310, 2015-2019 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  28. A. Ferrier, M. Velazquez, J.-L. Doualan, and R. Moncorge, “Mid-infrared luminescence properties and laser potentials of Pr3+ doped KPb2Cl5 and CsCdBr3,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 123513:1-14 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  29. A. G. Okhrimchuk, L. N. Butvina, E. M. Dianov, N. V. Lichkova, V. N. Zagorodnev, and A. V. Shestakov, “New laser transition in the RbPb2Cl5:Pr3+ crystal in the 2.3-2.5 μm wavelength range,” Quantum Electron. 36, 41-44 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  30. P. Y. Tigreat, J. L. Doualan, C. Budasca, and R. Moncorge, “Energy transfer processes in (Yb3+,Dy3+) and (Tm3+,Dy3+) co-doped LiYF4 and KY3F10 single crystals,” J. Lumin. 94-95, 23-27 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  31. A. Braud, S. Girard, J. L. Doualan, and R. Moncorge, “Spectroscopy and fluorescence dynamics of (Tm3+,Tb3+) and (Tm3+,Eu3+) doped LiYF4 single crystals for 1.5-μm laser operation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 2246-2255 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  32. G. Özen and B. Di Bartolo, “The microscopic interaction parameter for Tm-to-Ho resonant energy transfer in LiYF4,” J. Phys. 13, 195-202 (2001).
  33. J. Ganem, J. Crawford, P. Schmidt, N. W. Jenkins, and S. R. Bowman, “Thulium cross-relaxation in a low phonon energy crystalline host,” Phys. Rev. B 66, 245101:1-14 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  34. K. M. Murdoch and N. J. Cockroft, “Energy-transfer processes between Tm3+ and Pr3+ ions in CsCdBr3,” Phys. Rev. B 54, 4589-4603 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  35. A. G. Bluiett, N. J. Condon, S. O'Connor, S. R. Bowman, Michael Logie, and Joseph Ganem, “Thulium-sensitized neodymium in KPb2Cl5 for mid-infrared laser development,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 2250-2256 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  36. A. Okhrimchuk, L. Butvina, E. Dianov, N. Lichkova, and V. Zavgorodnev, “Sensitization of MIR Tb3+ luminescence by Tm3+ ions in CsCdBr3 and KPb2Cl5 crystals,” in Advanced Solid-State Photonics, Vol. 83 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2003), paper 303.
  37. D. S. Sumida and T. Y. Fan, “Effects of radiation trapping on fluorescence lifetime and emission cross section measurements in solid-state laser media,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1343-1345 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  38. D. L. Dexter, “A theory of sensitized luminescence in solids,” J. Chem. Phys. 21, 836-850 (1953).
    [CrossRef]
  39. T. Förster, “Experimentelle und theoretische Untersuchung des zwischenmolecularen Uebergangs von Electronenanregungsenergie,” Z. Naturforsch. 4a, 321-327 (1949).
  40. A. I. Burshtein, “Hopping mechanism of energy transfer,” Sov. Phys. JETP 35, 882-885 (1972).
  41. S. A. Payne, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, J. B. Tassano, and W. F. Krupke, “The mechanism of Tm-->Ho energy transfer in LiYF4,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 4, 8525-8542 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  42. V. A. French, R. R. Petrin, R. C. Powell, and M. Kokta, “Energy-transfer processes in Y3Al5O12:Tm,Ho,” Phys. Rev. B 46, 8018-8026 (1992).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (3)

A. Kosterev, G. Wysocki, Y. Bakhirkin, S. So, R. Lewicki, M. Fraser, F. Tittel, and R. F. Curl, “Application of quantum cascade lasers to trace gas analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 90, 165-176 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Amedzake, E. Brown, U. Hommerich, S. B. Trivedi, and J. M. Zavada, “Crystal growth and spectroscopic characterization of Pr-doped KPb2Cl5 for mid-infrared laser applications,” J. Cryst. Growth 310, 2015-2019 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Ferrier, M. Velazquez, J.-L. Doualan, and R. Moncorge, “Mid-infrared luminescence properties and laser potentials of Pr3+ doped KPb2Cl5 and CsCdBr3,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 123513:1-14 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (4)

A. M. Tkachuk, S. E. Ivanova, M.-F. Joubert, Y. Guyot, L. I. Isaenko, and V. P. Gapontsev, “Upconversion processes in Er3+:KPb2Cl5 laser crystals,” J. Lumin. 125, 271-278 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Fedorov, A. Galliana, I. Moskalev, and S. B. Mirov, “En route to electrically pumped broadly tunable middle infrared lasers based on transition metal doped II-VI semiconductors,” J. Lumin. 125, 184-195 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Brown, U. Hömmerich, A. G. Bluiett, S. B. Trivedi, and J. M. Zavada, “Synthesis and spectroscopic properties of neodymium doped lead chloride,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 113103:1-7 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Okhrimchuk, L. N. Butvina, E. M. Dianov, I. A. Shestakova, N. V. Lichkova, V. N. Zagorodnev, and A. V. Shestakov, “Optical spectroscopy of the RbPb2Cl5:Dy3+ laser crystal and oscillation at 5.5 μm at room temperature,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 2690-2695 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

N. J. Condon, S. O'Connor, and S. R. Bowman, “Growth and characterization of single-crystal Er3+:KPb2Cl5 as a mid-infrared laser material,” J. Cryst. Growth 291, 472-478 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. V. Lichkova, V. N. Zagorodnev, L. N. Butvina, A. G. Okhrimchuk, and A. V. Shestakov, “Preparation and optical properties of rare-earth-activated alkali metal lead chlorides,” Inorg. Mater. 42, 81-88 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Okhrimchuk, L. N. Butvina, E. M. Dianov, N. V. Lichkova, V. N. Zagorodnev, and A. V. Shestakov, “New laser transition in the RbPb2Cl5:Pr3+ crystal in the 2.3-2.5 μm wavelength range,” Quantum Electron. 36, 41-44 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

U. Hömmerich, Ei Ei Nyein, and S. B. Trivedi, “Crystal growth, upconversion, and infrared emission properties of Er3+-doped KPb2Br5,” J. Lumin. 113, 100-108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Bluiett, N. J. Condon, S. O'Connor, S. R. Bowman, Michael Logie, and Joseph Ganem, “Thulium-sensitized neodymium in KPb2Cl5 for mid-infrared laser development,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 2250-2256 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

A. Mendioroz, R. Balda, M. Voda, M. Al-Saleh, and J. Fernadez, “Infrared to visible and ultraviolet upconversion processes in Nd3+-doped potassium lead chloride crystal,” Opt. Mater. (Amsterdam, Neth.) 95, 351-357 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Voda, M. Al-Saleh, G. Lobera, R. Balda, and J. Fernadez, “Crystal growth of rare-earth-doped ternary potassium lead chloride single crystals by the Bridgman method,” Opt. Mater. (Amsterdam, Neth.) 25, 359-363 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

U. N. Roy, Y. Cui, M. Guo, M. Groza, A. Burger, Gregory J. Wagner, Timothy J. Carrig, and S. A. Payne, “Growth and characterization of Er-doped KPb2Cl5 as laser host crystal,” J. Cryst. Growth 258, 331-336 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Tkachuk, S. E. Ivanova, L. I. Isaenko, A. P. Yelisseyev, M.-F. Joubert, Y. Guyot, and S. Payne, “Spectroscopic studies of erbium-doped potassium-lead double chloride crystals KPb2Cl5:Er3+:1. Optical spectra and relaxation of excited states of the erbium ion in potassium-lead double chloride crystals,” Opt. Spectrosc. 95, 722-740 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. W. Jenkins, S. R. Bowman, S. O'Conner, S. K. Searles, and Joesph Ganem, “Spectroscopic characterization of Er-doped KPb2Cl5 laser crystals,” Opt. Mater. (Amsterdam, Neth.) 22, 311-320 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (5)

L. Isaenko, A. Tkachuk, S. Ivanova, S. Payne, R. Page, and M. Nostrand, “New low-phonon crystals based on rare earth doped double halogenides for multiwavelength diode-pumped solid-state laser,” Proc. SPIE 4900, 962-972 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. T. Basiev, Yu. V. Orlovskii, B. I. Galagan, M. E. Doroshenko, I. N. Vorob'ev, L. N. Dmitruk, A. G. Papashvili, V. N. Skvortsov, V. A. Konyushkin, K. K. Pukhov, G. A. Ermamakov, V. V. Osiko, A. M. Prokhorov, and S. Smith, “Evaluation of rare-earth doped crystals and glasses for 4-5 μm lasing,” Laser Phys. 12, 859-877 (2002).

M. Aidaraliev, N. V. Zotova, S. A. Karandashev, B. A. Matveev, M. A. Remennyi, N. M. Stus', and G. N. Talalakin, “Optically pumped 'immersion-lens' infrared light emitting diodes based on narrow-gap III-V semiconductors,” Semiconductors 36, 828-831 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. W. Jenkins, S. R. Bowman, L. B. Shaw, and J. R. Lindle, “Spectroscopic analysis and laser modeling of neodymium-doped potassium lead chloride,” J. Lumin. 97, 127-134 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Ganem, J. Crawford, P. Schmidt, N. W. Jenkins, and S. R. Bowman, “Thulium cross-relaxation in a low phonon energy crystalline host,” Phys. Rev. B 66, 245101:1-14 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (4)

G. Özen and B. Di Bartolo, “The microscopic interaction parameter for Tm-to-Ho resonant energy transfer in LiYF4,” J. Phys. 13, 195-202 (2001).

P. Y. Tigreat, J. L. Doualan, C. Budasca, and R. Moncorge, “Energy transfer processes in (Yb3+,Dy3+) and (Tm3+,Dy3+) co-doped LiYF4 and KY3F10 single crystals,” J. Lumin. 94-95, 23-27 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. Isaenko, A. Yelisseyev, A. Tkachuk, S. Ivanova, S. Vatnik, A. Merkulov, S. Payne, R. Page, and M. Nostrand, “New laser crystal based on KPb2Cl5 for IR region,” Mater. Sci. Eng., B 81, 188-190 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Nostrand, R. H. Page, S. A. Payne, L. I. Isaenko, and A. P. Yelisseyev, “Optical properties of Dy3+− and Nd3+-doped KPb2Cl5,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 264-276 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

A. Braud, S. Girard, J. L. Doualan, and R. Moncorge, “Spectroscopy and fluorescence dynamics of (Tm3+,Tb3+) and (Tm3+,Eu3+) doped LiYF4 single crystals for 1.5-μm laser operation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 2246-2255 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

K. M. Murdoch and N. J. Cockroft, “Energy-transfer processes between Tm3+ and Pr3+ ions in CsCdBr3,” Phys. Rev. B 54, 4589-4603 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Bowman, L. B. Shaw, B. J. Feldman, and Joseph Ganem, “A 7 μm praseodymium-based solid-state laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 646-649 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

K. Nitsch, M. Dusek, M. Nikl, K. Polak, and M. Rodova, “Ternary alkali lead chlorides: crystal growth, crystal structure, absorption and emission properties,” Prog. Cryst. Growth Charact. 30, 1-22 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

S. R. Bowman, B. J. Feldman, Joseph Ganem, and A. W. Kueny, “Infrared laser characteristics of praseodymium-doped lanthanum trichloride,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 2925-2928 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Sumida and T. Y. Fan, “Effects of radiation trapping on fluorescence lifetime and emission cross section measurements in solid-state laser media,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1343-1345 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (2)

S. A. Payne, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, J. B. Tassano, and W. F. Krupke, “The mechanism of Tm-->Ho energy transfer in LiYF4,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 4, 8525-8542 (1992).
[CrossRef]

V. A. French, R. R. Petrin, R. C. Powell, and M. Kokta, “Energy-transfer processes in Y3Al5O12:Tm,Ho,” Phys. Rev. B 46, 8018-8026 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

A. I. Burshtein, “Hopping mechanism of energy transfer,” Sov. Phys. JETP 35, 882-885 (1972).

1953 (1)

D. L. Dexter, “A theory of sensitized luminescence in solids,” J. Chem. Phys. 21, 836-850 (1953).
[CrossRef]

1949 (1)

T. Förster, “Experimentelle und theoretische Untersuchung des zwischenmolecularen Uebergangs von Electronenanregungsenergie,” Z. Naturforsch. 4a, 321-327 (1949).

Aggarwal, I. D.

L. B. Shaw, B. Cole, D. T. Schaafsma, B. B. Harbison, J. S. Sanghera, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Rare-earth-doped selenide glass optical sources,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, CLEO 98 Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 1998), pp. 420-421.

Aidaraliev, M.

M. Aidaraliev, N. V. Zotova, S. A. Karandashev, B. A. Matveev, M. A. Remennyi, N. M. Stus', and G. N. Talalakin, “Optically pumped 'immersion-lens' infrared light emitting diodes based on narrow-gap III-V semiconductors,” Semiconductors 36, 828-831 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Al-Saleh, M.

A. Mendioroz, R. Balda, M. Voda, M. Al-Saleh, and J. Fernadez, “Infrared to visible and ultraviolet upconversion processes in Nd3+-doped potassium lead chloride crystal,” Opt. Mater. (Amsterdam, Neth.) 95, 351-357 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Voda, M. Al-Saleh, G. Lobera, R. Balda, and J. Fernadez, “Crystal growth of rare-earth-doped ternary potassium lead chloride single crystals by the Bridgman method,” Opt. Mater. (Amsterdam, Neth.) 25, 359-363 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Amedzake, P.

P. Amedzake, E. Brown, U. Hommerich, S. B. Trivedi, and J. M. Zavada, “Crystal growth and spectroscopic characterization of Pr-doped KPb2Cl5 for mid-infrared laser applications,” J. Cryst. Growth 310, 2015-2019 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bakhirkin, Y.

A. Kosterev, G. Wysocki, Y. Bakhirkin, S. So, R. Lewicki, M. Fraser, F. Tittel, and R. F. Curl, “Application of quantum cascade lasers to trace gas analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 90, 165-176 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Balda, R.

M. Voda, M. Al-Saleh, G. Lobera, R. Balda, and J. Fernadez, “Crystal growth of rare-earth-doped ternary potassium lead chloride single crystals by the Bridgman method,” Opt. Mater. (Amsterdam, Neth.) 25, 359-363 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Mendioroz, R. Balda, M. Voda, M. Al-Saleh, and J. Fernadez, “Infrared to visible and ultraviolet upconversion processes in Nd3+-doped potassium lead chloride crystal,” Opt. Mater. (Amsterdam, Neth.) 95, 351-357 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Basiev, T. T.

T. T. Basiev, Yu. V. Orlovskii, B. I. Galagan, M. E. Doroshenko, I. N. Vorob'ev, L. N. Dmitruk, A. G. Papashvili, V. N. Skvortsov, V. A. Konyushkin, K. K. Pukhov, G. A. Ermamakov, V. V. Osiko, A. M. Prokhorov, and S. Smith, “Evaluation of rare-earth doped crystals and glasses for 4-5 μm lasing,” Laser Phys. 12, 859-877 (2002).

Bluiett, A. G.

E. Brown, U. Hömmerich, A. G. Bluiett, S. B. Trivedi, and J. M. Zavada, “Synthesis and spectroscopic properties of neodymium doped lead chloride,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 113103:1-7 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Bluiett, N. J. Condon, S. O'Connor, S. R. Bowman, Michael Logie, and Joseph Ganem, “Thulium-sensitized neodymium in KPb2Cl5 for mid-infrared laser development,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 2250-2256 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bowman, S. R.

N. J. Condon, S. O'Connor, and S. R. Bowman, “Growth and characterization of single-crystal Er3+:KPb2Cl5 as a mid-infrared laser material,” J. Cryst. Growth 291, 472-478 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Bluiett, N. J. Condon, S. O'Connor, S. R. Bowman, Michael Logie, and Joseph Ganem, “Thulium-sensitized neodymium in KPb2Cl5 for mid-infrared laser development,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 2250-2256 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. W. Jenkins, S. R. Bowman, S. O'Conner, S. K. Searles, and Joesph Ganem, “Spectroscopic characterization of Er-doped KPb2Cl5 laser crystals,” Opt. Mater. (Amsterdam, Neth.) 22, 311-320 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Ganem, J. Crawford, P. Schmidt, N. W. Jenkins, and S. R. Bowman, “Thulium cross-relaxation in a low phonon energy crystalline host,” Phys. Rev. B 66, 245101:1-14 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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S. R. Bowman, L. B. Shaw, B. J. Feldman, and Joseph Ganem, “A 7 μm praseodymium-based solid-state laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 646-649 (1996).
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[CrossRef]

S. R. Bowman, S. K. Searles, N. W. Jenkins, S. B. Qadri, E. F. Skelton, and Joseph Ganem, “Diode pumped room temperature 4.6 μm erbium laser,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers,Vol. 50 of OSA TOPS Proceeding Series (Optical Society of America, 2001), pp. 154-156.

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A. Braud, S. Girard, J. L. Doualan, and R. Moncorge, “Spectroscopy and fluorescence dynamics of (Tm3+,Tb3+) and (Tm3+,Eu3+) doped LiYF4 single crystals for 1.5-μm laser operation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 2246-2255 (1998).
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P. Amedzake, E. Brown, U. Hommerich, S. B. Trivedi, and J. M. Zavada, “Crystal growth and spectroscopic characterization of Pr-doped KPb2Cl5 for mid-infrared laser applications,” J. Cryst. Growth 310, 2015-2019 (2008).
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E. Brown, U. Hömmerich, A. G. Bluiett, S. B. Trivedi, and J. M. Zavada, “Synthesis and spectroscopic properties of neodymium doped lead chloride,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 113103:1-7 (2007).
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U. N. Roy, Y. Cui, M. Guo, M. Groza, A. Burger, Gregory J. Wagner, Timothy J. Carrig, and S. A. Payne, “Growth and characterization of Er-doped KPb2Cl5 as laser host crystal,” J. Cryst. Growth 258, 331-336 (2003).
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U. N. Roy, Y. Cui, M. Guo, M. Groza, A. Burger, Gregory J. Wagner, Timothy J. Carrig, and S. A. Payne, “Growth and characterization of Er-doped KPb2Cl5 as laser host crystal,” J. Cryst. Growth 258, 331-336 (2003).
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L. B. Shaw, B. Cole, D. T. Schaafsma, B. B. Harbison, J. S. Sanghera, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Rare-earth-doped selenide glass optical sources,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, CLEO 98 Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 1998), pp. 420-421.

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N. J. Condon, S. O'Connor, and S. R. Bowman, “Growth and characterization of single-crystal Er3+:KPb2Cl5 as a mid-infrared laser material,” J. Cryst. Growth 291, 472-478 (2006).
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A. G. Bluiett, N. J. Condon, S. O'Connor, S. R. Bowman, Michael Logie, and Joseph Ganem, “Thulium-sensitized neodymium in KPb2Cl5 for mid-infrared laser development,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 2250-2256 (2005).
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J. Ganem, J. Crawford, P. Schmidt, N. W. Jenkins, and S. R. Bowman, “Thulium cross-relaxation in a low phonon energy crystalline host,” Phys. Rev. B 66, 245101:1-14 (2002).
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U. N. Roy, Y. Cui, M. Guo, M. Groza, A. Burger, Gregory J. Wagner, Timothy J. Carrig, and S. A. Payne, “Growth and characterization of Er-doped KPb2Cl5 as laser host crystal,” J. Cryst. Growth 258, 331-336 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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A. Kosterev, G. Wysocki, Y. Bakhirkin, S. So, R. Lewicki, M. Fraser, F. Tittel, and R. F. Curl, “Application of quantum cascade lasers to trace gas analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 90, 165-176 (2008).
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Dianov, E. M.

A. G. Okhrimchuk, L. N. Butvina, E. M. Dianov, I. A. Shestakova, N. V. Lichkova, V. N. Zagorodnev, and A. V. Shestakov, “Optical spectroscopy of the RbPb2Cl5:Dy3+ laser crystal and oscillation at 5.5 μm at room temperature,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 2690-2695 (2007).
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A. G. Okhrimchuk, L. N. Butvina, E. M. Dianov, N. V. Lichkova, V. N. Zagorodnev, and A. V. Shestakov, “New laser transition in the RbPb2Cl5:Pr3+ crystal in the 2.3-2.5 μm wavelength range,” Quantum Electron. 36, 41-44 (2006).
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T. T. Basiev, Yu. V. Orlovskii, B. I. Galagan, M. E. Doroshenko, I. N. Vorob'ev, L. N. Dmitruk, A. G. Papashvili, V. N. Skvortsov, V. A. Konyushkin, K. K. Pukhov, G. A. Ermamakov, V. V. Osiko, A. M. Prokhorov, and S. Smith, “Evaluation of rare-earth doped crystals and glasses for 4-5 μm lasing,” Laser Phys. 12, 859-877 (2002).

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T. T. Basiev, Yu. V. Orlovskii, B. I. Galagan, M. E. Doroshenko, I. N. Vorob'ev, L. N. Dmitruk, A. G. Papashvili, V. N. Skvortsov, V. A. Konyushkin, K. K. Pukhov, G. A. Ermamakov, V. V. Osiko, A. M. Prokhorov, and S. Smith, “Evaluation of rare-earth doped crystals and glasses for 4-5 μm lasing,” Laser Phys. 12, 859-877 (2002).

Doualan, J. L.

P. Y. Tigreat, J. L. Doualan, C. Budasca, and R. Moncorge, “Energy transfer processes in (Yb3+,Dy3+) and (Tm3+,Dy3+) co-doped LiYF4 and KY3F10 single crystals,” J. Lumin. 94-95, 23-27 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Braud, S. Girard, J. L. Doualan, and R. Moncorge, “Spectroscopy and fluorescence dynamics of (Tm3+,Tb3+) and (Tm3+,Eu3+) doped LiYF4 single crystals for 1.5-μm laser operation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 2246-2255 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Doualan, J.-L.

A. Ferrier, M. Velazquez, J.-L. Doualan, and R. Moncorge, “Mid-infrared luminescence properties and laser potentials of Pr3+ doped KPb2Cl5 and CsCdBr3,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 123513:1-14 (2008).
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T. T. Basiev, Yu. V. Orlovskii, B. I. Galagan, M. E. Doroshenko, I. N. Vorob'ev, L. N. Dmitruk, A. G. Papashvili, V. N. Skvortsov, V. A. Konyushkin, K. K. Pukhov, G. A. Ermamakov, V. V. Osiko, A. M. Prokhorov, and S. Smith, “Evaluation of rare-earth doped crystals and glasses for 4-5 μm lasing,” Laser Phys. 12, 859-877 (2002).

Fan, T. Y.

Fedorov, V. V.

V. V. Fedorov, A. Galliana, I. Moskalev, and S. B. Mirov, “En route to electrically pumped broadly tunable middle infrared lasers based on transition metal doped II-VI semiconductors,” J. Lumin. 125, 184-195 (2007).
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S. R. Bowman, L. B. Shaw, B. J. Feldman, and Joseph Ganem, “A 7 μm praseodymium-based solid-state laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 646-649 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Bowman, B. J. Feldman, Joseph Ganem, and A. W. Kueny, “Infrared laser characteristics of praseodymium-doped lanthanum trichloride,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 2925-2928 (1994).
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A. Mendioroz, R. Balda, M. Voda, M. Al-Saleh, and J. Fernadez, “Infrared to visible and ultraviolet upconversion processes in Nd3+-doped potassium lead chloride crystal,” Opt. Mater. (Amsterdam, Neth.) 95, 351-357 (2004).
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M. Voda, M. Al-Saleh, G. Lobera, R. Balda, and J. Fernadez, “Crystal growth of rare-earth-doped ternary potassium lead chloride single crystals by the Bridgman method,” Opt. Mater. (Amsterdam, Neth.) 25, 359-363 (2004).
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A. Ferrier, M. Velazquez, J.-L. Doualan, and R. Moncorge, “Mid-infrared luminescence properties and laser potentials of Pr3+ doped KPb2Cl5 and CsCdBr3,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 123513:1-14 (2008).
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T. Förster, “Experimentelle und theoretische Untersuchung des zwischenmolecularen Uebergangs von Electronenanregungsenergie,” Z. Naturforsch. 4a, 321-327 (1949).

Fraser, M.

A. Kosterev, G. Wysocki, Y. Bakhirkin, S. So, R. Lewicki, M. Fraser, F. Tittel, and R. F. Curl, “Application of quantum cascade lasers to trace gas analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 90, 165-176 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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V. A. French, R. R. Petrin, R. C. Powell, and M. Kokta, “Energy-transfer processes in Y3Al5O12:Tm,Ho,” Phys. Rev. B 46, 8018-8026 (1992).
[CrossRef]

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T. T. Basiev, Yu. V. Orlovskii, B. I. Galagan, M. E. Doroshenko, I. N. Vorob'ev, L. N. Dmitruk, A. G. Papashvili, V. N. Skvortsov, V. A. Konyushkin, K. K. Pukhov, G. A. Ermamakov, V. V. Osiko, A. M. Prokhorov, and S. Smith, “Evaluation of rare-earth doped crystals and glasses for 4-5 μm lasing,” Laser Phys. 12, 859-877 (2002).

Galliana, A.

V. V. Fedorov, A. Galliana, I. Moskalev, and S. B. Mirov, “En route to electrically pumped broadly tunable middle infrared lasers based on transition metal doped II-VI semiconductors,” J. Lumin. 125, 184-195 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ganem, J.

J. Ganem, J. Crawford, P. Schmidt, N. W. Jenkins, and S. R. Bowman, “Thulium cross-relaxation in a low phonon energy crystalline host,” Phys. Rev. B 66, 245101:1-14 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ganem, Joesph

N. W. Jenkins, S. R. Bowman, S. O'Conner, S. K. Searles, and Joesph Ganem, “Spectroscopic characterization of Er-doped KPb2Cl5 laser crystals,” Opt. Mater. (Amsterdam, Neth.) 22, 311-320 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ganem, Joseph

A. G. Bluiett, N. J. Condon, S. O'Connor, S. R. Bowman, Michael Logie, and Joseph Ganem, “Thulium-sensitized neodymium in KPb2Cl5 for mid-infrared laser development,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 2250-2256 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Bowman, L. B. Shaw, B. J. Feldman, and Joseph Ganem, “A 7 μm praseodymium-based solid-state laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 646-649 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Bowman, B. J. Feldman, Joseph Ganem, and A. W. Kueny, “Infrared laser characteristics of praseodymium-doped lanthanum trichloride,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 2925-2928 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Bowman, S. K. Searles, N. W. Jenkins, S. B. Qadri, E. F. Skelton, and Joseph Ganem, “Diode pumped room temperature 4.6 μm erbium laser,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers,Vol. 50 of OSA TOPS Proceeding Series (Optical Society of America, 2001), pp. 154-156.

Gapontsev, V. P.

A. M. Tkachuk, S. E. Ivanova, M.-F. Joubert, Y. Guyot, L. I. Isaenko, and V. P. Gapontsev, “Upconversion processes in Er3+:KPb2Cl5 laser crystals,” J. Lumin. 125, 271-278 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Girard, S.

A. Braud, S. Girard, J. L. Doualan, and R. Moncorge, “Spectroscopy and fluorescence dynamics of (Tm3+,Tb3+) and (Tm3+,Eu3+) doped LiYF4 single crystals for 1.5-μm laser operation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 2246-2255 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Groza, M.

U. N. Roy, Y. Cui, M. Guo, M. Groza, A. Burger, Gregory J. Wagner, Timothy J. Carrig, and S. A. Payne, “Growth and characterization of Er-doped KPb2Cl5 as laser host crystal,” J. Cryst. Growth 258, 331-336 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Guo, M.

U. N. Roy, Y. Cui, M. Guo, M. Groza, A. Burger, Gregory J. Wagner, Timothy J. Carrig, and S. A. Payne, “Growth and characterization of Er-doped KPb2Cl5 as laser host crystal,” J. Cryst. Growth 258, 331-336 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Guyot, Y.

A. M. Tkachuk, S. E. Ivanova, M.-F. Joubert, Y. Guyot, L. I. Isaenko, and V. P. Gapontsev, “Upconversion processes in Er3+:KPb2Cl5 laser crystals,” J. Lumin. 125, 271-278 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Tkachuk, S. E. Ivanova, L. I. Isaenko, A. P. Yelisseyev, M.-F. Joubert, Y. Guyot, and S. Payne, “Spectroscopic studies of erbium-doped potassium-lead double chloride crystals KPb2Cl5:Er3+:1. Optical spectra and relaxation of excited states of the erbium ion in potassium-lead double chloride crystals,” Opt. Spectrosc. 95, 722-740 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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L. B. Shaw, B. Cole, D. T. Schaafsma, B. B. Harbison, J. S. Sanghera, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Rare-earth-doped selenide glass optical sources,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, CLEO 98 Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 1998), pp. 420-421.

Hommerich, U.

P. Amedzake, E. Brown, U. Hommerich, S. B. Trivedi, and J. M. Zavada, “Crystal growth and spectroscopic characterization of Pr-doped KPb2Cl5 for mid-infrared laser applications,” J. Cryst. Growth 310, 2015-2019 (2008).
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Hömmerich, U.

E. Brown, U. Hömmerich, A. G. Bluiett, S. B. Trivedi, and J. M. Zavada, “Synthesis and spectroscopic properties of neodymium doped lead chloride,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 113103:1-7 (2007).
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U. Hömmerich, Ei Ei Nyein, and S. B. Trivedi, “Crystal growth, upconversion, and infrared emission properties of Er3+-doped KPb2Br5,” J. Lumin. 113, 100-108 (2005).
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Isaenko, L.

L. Isaenko, A. Tkachuk, S. Ivanova, S. Payne, R. Page, and M. Nostrand, “New low-phonon crystals based on rare earth doped double halogenides for multiwavelength diode-pumped solid-state laser,” Proc. SPIE 4900, 962-972 (2002).
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L. Isaenko, A. Yelisseyev, A. Tkachuk, S. Ivanova, S. Vatnik, A. Merkulov, S. Payne, R. Page, and M. Nostrand, “New laser crystal based on KPb2Cl5 for IR region,” Mater. Sci. Eng., B 81, 188-190 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Isaenko, L. I.

A. M. Tkachuk, S. E. Ivanova, M.-F. Joubert, Y. Guyot, L. I. Isaenko, and V. P. Gapontsev, “Upconversion processes in Er3+:KPb2Cl5 laser crystals,” J. Lumin. 125, 271-278 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Tkachuk, S. E. Ivanova, L. I. Isaenko, A. P. Yelisseyev, M.-F. Joubert, Y. Guyot, and S. Payne, “Spectroscopic studies of erbium-doped potassium-lead double chloride crystals KPb2Cl5:Er3+:1. Optical spectra and relaxation of excited states of the erbium ion in potassium-lead double chloride crystals,” Opt. Spectrosc. 95, 722-740 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Nostrand, R. H. Page, S. A. Payne, L. I. Isaenko, and A. P. Yelisseyev, “Optical properties of Dy3+− and Nd3+-doped KPb2Cl5,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 264-276 (2001).
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M. C. Nostrand, S. A. Payne, P. G. Schunemann, and L. I. Isaenko, “Laser demonstration of rare-earth ions in low-phonon chloride and sulfide crystals,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, Vol. 34 of OSA TOPS Proceeding Series (Optical Society of America, 2000), 459-463.

M. C. Nostrand, R. H. Page, S. A. Payne, W. F. Krupke, P. G. Schunemann, and L. I. Isaenko, “Room temperature CaGa2S4:Dy3+ laser action at 2.43 μm and 4.31 μm and KPb2Cl5 laser action at 2.43 μm,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, Vol. 26 of OSA TOPS Proceeding Series (Optical Society of America, 1999), pp. 441-449.

Ivanova, S.

L. Isaenko, A. Tkachuk, S. Ivanova, S. Payne, R. Page, and M. Nostrand, “New low-phonon crystals based on rare earth doped double halogenides for multiwavelength diode-pumped solid-state laser,” Proc. SPIE 4900, 962-972 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. Isaenko, A. Yelisseyev, A. Tkachuk, S. Ivanova, S. Vatnik, A. Merkulov, S. Payne, R. Page, and M. Nostrand, “New laser crystal based on KPb2Cl5 for IR region,” Mater. Sci. Eng., B 81, 188-190 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ivanova, S. E.

A. M. Tkachuk, S. E. Ivanova, M.-F. Joubert, Y. Guyot, L. I. Isaenko, and V. P. Gapontsev, “Upconversion processes in Er3+:KPb2Cl5 laser crystals,” J. Lumin. 125, 271-278 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Tkachuk, S. E. Ivanova, L. I. Isaenko, A. P. Yelisseyev, M.-F. Joubert, Y. Guyot, and S. Payne, “Spectroscopic studies of erbium-doped potassium-lead double chloride crystals KPb2Cl5:Er3+:1. Optical spectra and relaxation of excited states of the erbium ion in potassium-lead double chloride crystals,” Opt. Spectrosc. 95, 722-740 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jenkins, N. W.

N. W. Jenkins, S. R. Bowman, S. O'Conner, S. K. Searles, and Joesph Ganem, “Spectroscopic characterization of Er-doped KPb2Cl5 laser crystals,” Opt. Mater. (Amsterdam, Neth.) 22, 311-320 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Ganem, J. Crawford, P. Schmidt, N. W. Jenkins, and S. R. Bowman, “Thulium cross-relaxation in a low phonon energy crystalline host,” Phys. Rev. B 66, 245101:1-14 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. W. Jenkins, S. R. Bowman, L. B. Shaw, and J. R. Lindle, “Spectroscopic analysis and laser modeling of neodymium-doped potassium lead chloride,” J. Lumin. 97, 127-134 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Bowman, S. K. Searles, N. W. Jenkins, S. B. Qadri, E. F. Skelton, and Joseph Ganem, “Diode pumped room temperature 4.6 μm erbium laser,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers,Vol. 50 of OSA TOPS Proceeding Series (Optical Society of America, 2001), pp. 154-156.

Joubert, M.-F.

A. M. Tkachuk, S. E. Ivanova, M.-F. Joubert, Y. Guyot, L. I. Isaenko, and V. P. Gapontsev, “Upconversion processes in Er3+:KPb2Cl5 laser crystals,” J. Lumin. 125, 271-278 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Tkachuk, S. E. Ivanova, L. I. Isaenko, A. P. Yelisseyev, M.-F. Joubert, Y. Guyot, and S. Payne, “Spectroscopic studies of erbium-doped potassium-lead double chloride crystals KPb2Cl5:Er3+:1. Optical spectra and relaxation of excited states of the erbium ion in potassium-lead double chloride crystals,” Opt. Spectrosc. 95, 722-740 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Karandashev, S. A.

M. Aidaraliev, N. V. Zotova, S. A. Karandashev, B. A. Matveev, M. A. Remennyi, N. M. Stus', and G. N. Talalakin, “Optically pumped 'immersion-lens' infrared light emitting diodes based on narrow-gap III-V semiconductors,” Semiconductors 36, 828-831 (2002).
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Kokta, M.

V. A. French, R. R. Petrin, R. C. Powell, and M. Kokta, “Energy-transfer processes in Y3Al5O12:Tm,Ho,” Phys. Rev. B 46, 8018-8026 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Konyushkin, V. A.

T. T. Basiev, Yu. V. Orlovskii, B. I. Galagan, M. E. Doroshenko, I. N. Vorob'ev, L. N. Dmitruk, A. G. Papashvili, V. N. Skvortsov, V. A. Konyushkin, K. K. Pukhov, G. A. Ermamakov, V. V. Osiko, A. M. Prokhorov, and S. Smith, “Evaluation of rare-earth doped crystals and glasses for 4-5 μm lasing,” Laser Phys. 12, 859-877 (2002).

Kosterev, A.

A. Kosterev, G. Wysocki, Y. Bakhirkin, S. So, R. Lewicki, M. Fraser, F. Tittel, and R. F. Curl, “Application of quantum cascade lasers to trace gas analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 90, 165-176 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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S. A. Payne, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, J. B. Tassano, and W. F. Krupke, “The mechanism of Tm-->Ho energy transfer in LiYF4,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 4, 8525-8542 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Nostrand, R. H. Page, S. A. Payne, W. F. Krupke, P. G. Schunemann, and L. I. Isaenko, “Room temperature CaGa2S4:Dy3+ laser action at 2.43 μm and 4.31 μm and KPb2Cl5 laser action at 2.43 μm,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, Vol. 26 of OSA TOPS Proceeding Series (Optical Society of America, 1999), pp. 441-449.

Kueny, A. W.

S. R. Bowman, B. J. Feldman, Joseph Ganem, and A. W. Kueny, “Infrared laser characteristics of praseodymium-doped lanthanum trichloride,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 2925-2928 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kway, W. L.

S. A. Payne, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, J. B. Tassano, and W. F. Krupke, “The mechanism of Tm-->Ho energy transfer in LiYF4,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 4, 8525-8542 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Lewicki, R.

A. Kosterev, G. Wysocki, Y. Bakhirkin, S. So, R. Lewicki, M. Fraser, F. Tittel, and R. F. Curl, “Application of quantum cascade lasers to trace gas analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 90, 165-176 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lichkova, N.

A. Okhrimchuk, L. Butvina, E. Dianov, N. Lichkova, and V. Zavgorodnev, “Sensitization of MIR Tb3+ luminescence by Tm3+ ions in CsCdBr3 and KPb2Cl5 crystals,” in Advanced Solid-State Photonics, Vol. 83 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2003), paper 303.

Lichkova, N. V.

A. G. Okhrimchuk, L. N. Butvina, E. M. Dianov, I. A. Shestakova, N. V. Lichkova, V. N. Zagorodnev, and A. V. Shestakov, “Optical spectroscopy of the RbPb2Cl5:Dy3+ laser crystal and oscillation at 5.5 μm at room temperature,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 2690-2695 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Okhrimchuk, L. N. Butvina, E. M. Dianov, N. V. Lichkova, V. N. Zagorodnev, and A. V. Shestakov, “New laser transition in the RbPb2Cl5:Pr3+ crystal in the 2.3-2.5 μm wavelength range,” Quantum Electron. 36, 41-44 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. V. Lichkova, V. N. Zagorodnev, L. N. Butvina, A. G. Okhrimchuk, and A. V. Shestakov, “Preparation and optical properties of rare-earth-activated alkali metal lead chlorides,” Inorg. Mater. 42, 81-88 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lindle, J. R.

N. W. Jenkins, S. R. Bowman, L. B. Shaw, and J. R. Lindle, “Spectroscopic analysis and laser modeling of neodymium-doped potassium lead chloride,” J. Lumin. 97, 127-134 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lobera, G.

M. Voda, M. Al-Saleh, G. Lobera, R. Balda, and J. Fernadez, “Crystal growth of rare-earth-doped ternary potassium lead chloride single crystals by the Bridgman method,” Opt. Mater. (Amsterdam, Neth.) 25, 359-363 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Logie, Michael

Matveev, B. A.

M. Aidaraliev, N. V. Zotova, S. A. Karandashev, B. A. Matveev, M. A. Remennyi, N. M. Stus', and G. N. Talalakin, “Optically pumped 'immersion-lens' infrared light emitting diodes based on narrow-gap III-V semiconductors,” Semiconductors 36, 828-831 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mendioroz, A.

A. Mendioroz, R. Balda, M. Voda, M. Al-Saleh, and J. Fernadez, “Infrared to visible and ultraviolet upconversion processes in Nd3+-doped potassium lead chloride crystal,” Opt. Mater. (Amsterdam, Neth.) 95, 351-357 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Merkulov, A.

L. Isaenko, A. Yelisseyev, A. Tkachuk, S. Ivanova, S. Vatnik, A. Merkulov, S. Payne, R. Page, and M. Nostrand, “New laser crystal based on KPb2Cl5 for IR region,” Mater. Sci. Eng., B 81, 188-190 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mirov, S. B.

V. V. Fedorov, A. Galliana, I. Moskalev, and S. B. Mirov, “En route to electrically pumped broadly tunable middle infrared lasers based on transition metal doped II-VI semiconductors,” J. Lumin. 125, 184-195 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Moncorge, R.

A. Ferrier, M. Velazquez, J.-L. Doualan, and R. Moncorge, “Mid-infrared luminescence properties and laser potentials of Pr3+ doped KPb2Cl5 and CsCdBr3,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 123513:1-14 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Y. Tigreat, J. L. Doualan, C. Budasca, and R. Moncorge, “Energy transfer processes in (Yb3+,Dy3+) and (Tm3+,Dy3+) co-doped LiYF4 and KY3F10 single crystals,” J. Lumin. 94-95, 23-27 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Braud, S. Girard, J. L. Doualan, and R. Moncorge, “Spectroscopy and fluorescence dynamics of (Tm3+,Tb3+) and (Tm3+,Eu3+) doped LiYF4 single crystals for 1.5-μm laser operation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 2246-2255 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Moskalev, I.

V. V. Fedorov, A. Galliana, I. Moskalev, and S. B. Mirov, “En route to electrically pumped broadly tunable middle infrared lasers based on transition metal doped II-VI semiconductors,” J. Lumin. 125, 184-195 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Murdoch, K. M.

K. M. Murdoch and N. J. Cockroft, “Energy-transfer processes between Tm3+ and Pr3+ ions in CsCdBr3,” Phys. Rev. B 54, 4589-4603 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nikl, M.

K. Nitsch, M. Dusek, M. Nikl, K. Polak, and M. Rodova, “Ternary alkali lead chlorides: crystal growth, crystal structure, absorption and emission properties,” Prog. Cryst. Growth Charact. 30, 1-22 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nitsch, K.

K. Nitsch, M. Dusek, M. Nikl, K. Polak, and M. Rodova, “Ternary alkali lead chlorides: crystal growth, crystal structure, absorption and emission properties,” Prog. Cryst. Growth Charact. 30, 1-22 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nostrand, M.

L. Isaenko, A. Tkachuk, S. Ivanova, S. Payne, R. Page, and M. Nostrand, “New low-phonon crystals based on rare earth doped double halogenides for multiwavelength diode-pumped solid-state laser,” Proc. SPIE 4900, 962-972 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. Isaenko, A. Yelisseyev, A. Tkachuk, S. Ivanova, S. Vatnik, A. Merkulov, S. Payne, R. Page, and M. Nostrand, “New laser crystal based on KPb2Cl5 for IR region,” Mater. Sci. Eng., B 81, 188-190 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nostrand, M. C.

M. C. Nostrand, R. H. Page, S. A. Payne, L. I. Isaenko, and A. P. Yelisseyev, “Optical properties of Dy3+− and Nd3+-doped KPb2Cl5,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 264-276 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Nostrand, S. A. Payne, P. G. Schunemann, and L. I. Isaenko, “Laser demonstration of rare-earth ions in low-phonon chloride and sulfide crystals,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, Vol. 34 of OSA TOPS Proceeding Series (Optical Society of America, 2000), 459-463.

M. C. Nostrand, R. H. Page, S. A. Payne, W. F. Krupke, P. G. Schunemann, and L. I. Isaenko, “Room temperature CaGa2S4:Dy3+ laser action at 2.43 μm and 4.31 μm and KPb2Cl5 laser action at 2.43 μm,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, Vol. 26 of OSA TOPS Proceeding Series (Optical Society of America, 1999), pp. 441-449.

Nyein, Ei Ei

U. Hömmerich, Ei Ei Nyein, and S. B. Trivedi, “Crystal growth, upconversion, and infrared emission properties of Er3+-doped KPb2Br5,” J. Lumin. 113, 100-108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

O'Conner, S.

N. W. Jenkins, S. R. Bowman, S. O'Conner, S. K. Searles, and Joesph Ganem, “Spectroscopic characterization of Er-doped KPb2Cl5 laser crystals,” Opt. Mater. (Amsterdam, Neth.) 22, 311-320 (2003).
[CrossRef]

O'Connor, S.

N. J. Condon, S. O'Connor, and S. R. Bowman, “Growth and characterization of single-crystal Er3+:KPb2Cl5 as a mid-infrared laser material,” J. Cryst. Growth 291, 472-478 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Bluiett, N. J. Condon, S. O'Connor, S. R. Bowman, Michael Logie, and Joseph Ganem, “Thulium-sensitized neodymium in KPb2Cl5 for mid-infrared laser development,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 2250-2256 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Okhrimchuk, A.

A. Okhrimchuk, L. Butvina, E. Dianov, N. Lichkova, and V. Zavgorodnev, “Sensitization of MIR Tb3+ luminescence by Tm3+ ions in CsCdBr3 and KPb2Cl5 crystals,” in Advanced Solid-State Photonics, Vol. 83 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2003), paper 303.

Okhrimchuk, A. G.

A. G. Okhrimchuk, L. N. Butvina, E. M. Dianov, I. A. Shestakova, N. V. Lichkova, V. N. Zagorodnev, and A. V. Shestakov, “Optical spectroscopy of the RbPb2Cl5:Dy3+ laser crystal and oscillation at 5.5 μm at room temperature,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 2690-2695 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. V. Lichkova, V. N. Zagorodnev, L. N. Butvina, A. G. Okhrimchuk, and A. V. Shestakov, “Preparation and optical properties of rare-earth-activated alkali metal lead chlorides,” Inorg. Mater. 42, 81-88 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Okhrimchuk, L. N. Butvina, E. M. Dianov, N. V. Lichkova, V. N. Zagorodnev, and A. V. Shestakov, “New laser transition in the RbPb2Cl5:Pr3+ crystal in the 2.3-2.5 μm wavelength range,” Quantum Electron. 36, 41-44 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Orlovskii, Yu. V.

T. T. Basiev, Yu. V. Orlovskii, B. I. Galagan, M. E. Doroshenko, I. N. Vorob'ev, L. N. Dmitruk, A. G. Papashvili, V. N. Skvortsov, V. A. Konyushkin, K. K. Pukhov, G. A. Ermamakov, V. V. Osiko, A. M. Prokhorov, and S. Smith, “Evaluation of rare-earth doped crystals and glasses for 4-5 μm lasing,” Laser Phys. 12, 859-877 (2002).

Osiko, V. V.

T. T. Basiev, Yu. V. Orlovskii, B. I. Galagan, M. E. Doroshenko, I. N. Vorob'ev, L. N. Dmitruk, A. G. Papashvili, V. N. Skvortsov, V. A. Konyushkin, K. K. Pukhov, G. A. Ermamakov, V. V. Osiko, A. M. Prokhorov, and S. Smith, “Evaluation of rare-earth doped crystals and glasses for 4-5 μm lasing,” Laser Phys. 12, 859-877 (2002).

Özen, G.

G. Özen and B. Di Bartolo, “The microscopic interaction parameter for Tm-to-Ho resonant energy transfer in LiYF4,” J. Phys. 13, 195-202 (2001).

Page, R.

L. Isaenko, A. Tkachuk, S. Ivanova, S. Payne, R. Page, and M. Nostrand, “New low-phonon crystals based on rare earth doped double halogenides for multiwavelength diode-pumped solid-state laser,” Proc. SPIE 4900, 962-972 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. Isaenko, A. Yelisseyev, A. Tkachuk, S. Ivanova, S. Vatnik, A. Merkulov, S. Payne, R. Page, and M. Nostrand, “New laser crystal based on KPb2Cl5 for IR region,” Mater. Sci. Eng., B 81, 188-190 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Page, R. H.

M. C. Nostrand, R. H. Page, S. A. Payne, L. I. Isaenko, and A. P. Yelisseyev, “Optical properties of Dy3+− and Nd3+-doped KPb2Cl5,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 264-276 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Nostrand, R. H. Page, S. A. Payne, W. F. Krupke, P. G. Schunemann, and L. I. Isaenko, “Room temperature CaGa2S4:Dy3+ laser action at 2.43 μm and 4.31 μm and KPb2Cl5 laser action at 2.43 μm,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, Vol. 26 of OSA TOPS Proceeding Series (Optical Society of America, 1999), pp. 441-449.

Papashvili, A. G.

T. T. Basiev, Yu. V. Orlovskii, B. I. Galagan, M. E. Doroshenko, I. N. Vorob'ev, L. N. Dmitruk, A. G. Papashvili, V. N. Skvortsov, V. A. Konyushkin, K. K. Pukhov, G. A. Ermamakov, V. V. Osiko, A. M. Prokhorov, and S. Smith, “Evaluation of rare-earth doped crystals and glasses for 4-5 μm lasing,” Laser Phys. 12, 859-877 (2002).

Payne, S.

A. M. Tkachuk, S. E. Ivanova, L. I. Isaenko, A. P. Yelisseyev, M.-F. Joubert, Y. Guyot, and S. Payne, “Spectroscopic studies of erbium-doped potassium-lead double chloride crystals KPb2Cl5:Er3+:1. Optical spectra and relaxation of excited states of the erbium ion in potassium-lead double chloride crystals,” Opt. Spectrosc. 95, 722-740 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. Isaenko, A. Tkachuk, S. Ivanova, S. Payne, R. Page, and M. Nostrand, “New low-phonon crystals based on rare earth doped double halogenides for multiwavelength diode-pumped solid-state laser,” Proc. SPIE 4900, 962-972 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. Isaenko, A. Yelisseyev, A. Tkachuk, S. Ivanova, S. Vatnik, A. Merkulov, S. Payne, R. Page, and M. Nostrand, “New laser crystal based on KPb2Cl5 for IR region,” Mater. Sci. Eng., B 81, 188-190 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Payne, S. A.

U. N. Roy, Y. Cui, M. Guo, M. Groza, A. Burger, Gregory J. Wagner, Timothy J. Carrig, and S. A. Payne, “Growth and characterization of Er-doped KPb2Cl5 as laser host crystal,” J. Cryst. Growth 258, 331-336 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Nostrand, R. H. Page, S. A. Payne, L. I. Isaenko, and A. P. Yelisseyev, “Optical properties of Dy3+− and Nd3+-doped KPb2Cl5,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 264-276 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Payne, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, J. B. Tassano, and W. F. Krupke, “The mechanism of Tm-->Ho energy transfer in LiYF4,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 4, 8525-8542 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Nostrand, S. A. Payne, P. G. Schunemann, and L. I. Isaenko, “Laser demonstration of rare-earth ions in low-phonon chloride and sulfide crystals,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, Vol. 34 of OSA TOPS Proceeding Series (Optical Society of America, 2000), 459-463.

M. C. Nostrand, R. H. Page, S. A. Payne, W. F. Krupke, P. G. Schunemann, and L. I. Isaenko, “Room temperature CaGa2S4:Dy3+ laser action at 2.43 μm and 4.31 μm and KPb2Cl5 laser action at 2.43 μm,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, Vol. 26 of OSA TOPS Proceeding Series (Optical Society of America, 1999), pp. 441-449.

Petrin, R. R.

V. A. French, R. R. Petrin, R. C. Powell, and M. Kokta, “Energy-transfer processes in Y3Al5O12:Tm,Ho,” Phys. Rev. B 46, 8018-8026 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Polak, K.

K. Nitsch, M. Dusek, M. Nikl, K. Polak, and M. Rodova, “Ternary alkali lead chlorides: crystal growth, crystal structure, absorption and emission properties,” Prog. Cryst. Growth Charact. 30, 1-22 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Powell, R. C.

V. A. French, R. R. Petrin, R. C. Powell, and M. Kokta, “Energy-transfer processes in Y3Al5O12:Tm,Ho,” Phys. Rev. B 46, 8018-8026 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Prokhorov, A. M.

T. T. Basiev, Yu. V. Orlovskii, B. I. Galagan, M. E. Doroshenko, I. N. Vorob'ev, L. N. Dmitruk, A. G. Papashvili, V. N. Skvortsov, V. A. Konyushkin, K. K. Pukhov, G. A. Ermamakov, V. V. Osiko, A. M. Prokhorov, and S. Smith, “Evaluation of rare-earth doped crystals and glasses for 4-5 μm lasing,” Laser Phys. 12, 859-877 (2002).

Pukhov, K. K.

T. T. Basiev, Yu. V. Orlovskii, B. I. Galagan, M. E. Doroshenko, I. N. Vorob'ev, L. N. Dmitruk, A. G. Papashvili, V. N. Skvortsov, V. A. Konyushkin, K. K. Pukhov, G. A. Ermamakov, V. V. Osiko, A. M. Prokhorov, and S. Smith, “Evaluation of rare-earth doped crystals and glasses for 4-5 μm lasing,” Laser Phys. 12, 859-877 (2002).

Qadri, S. B.

S. R. Bowman, S. K. Searles, N. W. Jenkins, S. B. Qadri, E. F. Skelton, and Joseph Ganem, “Diode pumped room temperature 4.6 μm erbium laser,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers,Vol. 50 of OSA TOPS Proceeding Series (Optical Society of America, 2001), pp. 154-156.

Remennyi, M. A.

M. Aidaraliev, N. V. Zotova, S. A. Karandashev, B. A. Matveev, M. A. Remennyi, N. M. Stus', and G. N. Talalakin, “Optically pumped 'immersion-lens' infrared light emitting diodes based on narrow-gap III-V semiconductors,” Semiconductors 36, 828-831 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rodova, M.

K. Nitsch, M. Dusek, M. Nikl, K. Polak, and M. Rodova, “Ternary alkali lead chlorides: crystal growth, crystal structure, absorption and emission properties,” Prog. Cryst. Growth Charact. 30, 1-22 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Roy, U. N.

U. N. Roy, Y. Cui, M. Guo, M. Groza, A. Burger, Gregory J. Wagner, Timothy J. Carrig, and S. A. Payne, “Growth and characterization of Er-doped KPb2Cl5 as laser host crystal,” J. Cryst. Growth 258, 331-336 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sanghera, J. S.

L. B. Shaw, B. Cole, D. T. Schaafsma, B. B. Harbison, J. S. Sanghera, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Rare-earth-doped selenide glass optical sources,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, CLEO 98 Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 1998), pp. 420-421.

Schaafsma, D. T.

L. B. Shaw, B. Cole, D. T. Schaafsma, B. B. Harbison, J. S. Sanghera, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Rare-earth-doped selenide glass optical sources,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, CLEO 98 Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 1998), pp. 420-421.

Schmidt, P.

J. Ganem, J. Crawford, P. Schmidt, N. W. Jenkins, and S. R. Bowman, “Thulium cross-relaxation in a low phonon energy crystalline host,” Phys. Rev. B 66, 245101:1-14 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schunemann, P. G.

M. C. Nostrand, R. H. Page, S. A. Payne, W. F. Krupke, P. G. Schunemann, and L. I. Isaenko, “Room temperature CaGa2S4:Dy3+ laser action at 2.43 μm and 4.31 μm and KPb2Cl5 laser action at 2.43 μm,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, Vol. 26 of OSA TOPS Proceeding Series (Optical Society of America, 1999), pp. 441-449.

M. C. Nostrand, S. A. Payne, P. G. Schunemann, and L. I. Isaenko, “Laser demonstration of rare-earth ions in low-phonon chloride and sulfide crystals,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, Vol. 34 of OSA TOPS Proceeding Series (Optical Society of America, 2000), 459-463.

Searles, S. K.

N. W. Jenkins, S. R. Bowman, S. O'Conner, S. K. Searles, and Joesph Ganem, “Spectroscopic characterization of Er-doped KPb2Cl5 laser crystals,” Opt. Mater. (Amsterdam, Neth.) 22, 311-320 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Bowman, S. K. Searles, N. W. Jenkins, S. B. Qadri, E. F. Skelton, and Joseph Ganem, “Diode pumped room temperature 4.6 μm erbium laser,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers,Vol. 50 of OSA TOPS Proceeding Series (Optical Society of America, 2001), pp. 154-156.

Shaw, L. B.

N. W. Jenkins, S. R. Bowman, L. B. Shaw, and J. R. Lindle, “Spectroscopic analysis and laser modeling of neodymium-doped potassium lead chloride,” J. Lumin. 97, 127-134 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Bowman, L. B. Shaw, B. J. Feldman, and Joseph Ganem, “A 7 μm praseodymium-based solid-state laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 646-649 (1996).
[CrossRef]

L. B. Shaw, B. Cole, D. T. Schaafsma, B. B. Harbison, J. S. Sanghera, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Rare-earth-doped selenide glass optical sources,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, CLEO 98 Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 1998), pp. 420-421.

Shestakov, A. V.

A. G. Okhrimchuk, L. N. Butvina, E. M. Dianov, I. A. Shestakova, N. V. Lichkova, V. N. Zagorodnev, and A. V. Shestakov, “Optical spectroscopy of the RbPb2Cl5:Dy3+ laser crystal and oscillation at 5.5 μm at room temperature,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 2690-2695 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Okhrimchuk, L. N. Butvina, E. M. Dianov, N. V. Lichkova, V. N. Zagorodnev, and A. V. Shestakov, “New laser transition in the RbPb2Cl5:Pr3+ crystal in the 2.3-2.5 μm wavelength range,” Quantum Electron. 36, 41-44 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. V. Lichkova, V. N. Zagorodnev, L. N. Butvina, A. G. Okhrimchuk, and A. V. Shestakov, “Preparation and optical properties of rare-earth-activated alkali metal lead chlorides,” Inorg. Mater. 42, 81-88 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shestakova, I. A.

Skelton, E. F.

S. R. Bowman, S. K. Searles, N. W. Jenkins, S. B. Qadri, E. F. Skelton, and Joseph Ganem, “Diode pumped room temperature 4.6 μm erbium laser,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers,Vol. 50 of OSA TOPS Proceeding Series (Optical Society of America, 2001), pp. 154-156.

Skvortsov, V. N.

T. T. Basiev, Yu. V. Orlovskii, B. I. Galagan, M. E. Doroshenko, I. N. Vorob'ev, L. N. Dmitruk, A. G. Papashvili, V. N. Skvortsov, V. A. Konyushkin, K. K. Pukhov, G. A. Ermamakov, V. V. Osiko, A. M. Prokhorov, and S. Smith, “Evaluation of rare-earth doped crystals and glasses for 4-5 μm lasing,” Laser Phys. 12, 859-877 (2002).

Smith, L. K.

S. A. Payne, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, J. B. Tassano, and W. F. Krupke, “The mechanism of Tm-->Ho energy transfer in LiYF4,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 4, 8525-8542 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Smith, S.

T. T. Basiev, Yu. V. Orlovskii, B. I. Galagan, M. E. Doroshenko, I. N. Vorob'ev, L. N. Dmitruk, A. G. Papashvili, V. N. Skvortsov, V. A. Konyushkin, K. K. Pukhov, G. A. Ermamakov, V. V. Osiko, A. M. Prokhorov, and S. Smith, “Evaluation of rare-earth doped crystals and glasses for 4-5 μm lasing,” Laser Phys. 12, 859-877 (2002).

So, S.

A. Kosterev, G. Wysocki, Y. Bakhirkin, S. So, R. Lewicki, M. Fraser, F. Tittel, and R. F. Curl, “Application of quantum cascade lasers to trace gas analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 90, 165-176 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Stus', N. M.

M. Aidaraliev, N. V. Zotova, S. A. Karandashev, B. A. Matveev, M. A. Remennyi, N. M. Stus', and G. N. Talalakin, “Optically pumped 'immersion-lens' infrared light emitting diodes based on narrow-gap III-V semiconductors,” Semiconductors 36, 828-831 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sumida, D. S.

Talalakin, G. N.

M. Aidaraliev, N. V. Zotova, S. A. Karandashev, B. A. Matveev, M. A. Remennyi, N. M. Stus', and G. N. Talalakin, “Optically pumped 'immersion-lens' infrared light emitting diodes based on narrow-gap III-V semiconductors,” Semiconductors 36, 828-831 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tassano, J. B.

S. A. Payne, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, J. B. Tassano, and W. F. Krupke, “The mechanism of Tm-->Ho energy transfer in LiYF4,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 4, 8525-8542 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Tigreat, P. Y.

P. Y. Tigreat, J. L. Doualan, C. Budasca, and R. Moncorge, “Energy transfer processes in (Yb3+,Dy3+) and (Tm3+,Dy3+) co-doped LiYF4 and KY3F10 single crystals,” J. Lumin. 94-95, 23-27 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tittel, F.

A. Kosterev, G. Wysocki, Y. Bakhirkin, S. So, R. Lewicki, M. Fraser, F. Tittel, and R. F. Curl, “Application of quantum cascade lasers to trace gas analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 90, 165-176 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tkachuk, A.

L. Isaenko, A. Tkachuk, S. Ivanova, S. Payne, R. Page, and M. Nostrand, “New low-phonon crystals based on rare earth doped double halogenides for multiwavelength diode-pumped solid-state laser,” Proc. SPIE 4900, 962-972 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. Isaenko, A. Yelisseyev, A. Tkachuk, S. Ivanova, S. Vatnik, A. Merkulov, S. Payne, R. Page, and M. Nostrand, “New laser crystal based on KPb2Cl5 for IR region,” Mater. Sci. Eng., B 81, 188-190 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tkachuk, A. M.

A. M. Tkachuk, S. E. Ivanova, M.-F. Joubert, Y. Guyot, L. I. Isaenko, and V. P. Gapontsev, “Upconversion processes in Er3+:KPb2Cl5 laser crystals,” J. Lumin. 125, 271-278 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Tkachuk, S. E. Ivanova, L. I. Isaenko, A. P. Yelisseyev, M.-F. Joubert, Y. Guyot, and S. Payne, “Spectroscopic studies of erbium-doped potassium-lead double chloride crystals KPb2Cl5:Er3+:1. Optical spectra and relaxation of excited states of the erbium ion in potassium-lead double chloride crystals,” Opt. Spectrosc. 95, 722-740 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Trivedi, S. B.

P. Amedzake, E. Brown, U. Hommerich, S. B. Trivedi, and J. M. Zavada, “Crystal growth and spectroscopic characterization of Pr-doped KPb2Cl5 for mid-infrared laser applications,” J. Cryst. Growth 310, 2015-2019 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Brown, U. Hömmerich, A. G. Bluiett, S. B. Trivedi, and J. M. Zavada, “Synthesis and spectroscopic properties of neodymium doped lead chloride,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 113103:1-7 (2007).
[CrossRef]

U. Hömmerich, Ei Ei Nyein, and S. B. Trivedi, “Crystal growth, upconversion, and infrared emission properties of Er3+-doped KPb2Br5,” J. Lumin. 113, 100-108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Vatnik, S.

L. Isaenko, A. Yelisseyev, A. Tkachuk, S. Ivanova, S. Vatnik, A. Merkulov, S. Payne, R. Page, and M. Nostrand, “New laser crystal based on KPb2Cl5 for IR region,” Mater. Sci. Eng., B 81, 188-190 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Velazquez, M.

A. Ferrier, M. Velazquez, J.-L. Doualan, and R. Moncorge, “Mid-infrared luminescence properties and laser potentials of Pr3+ doped KPb2Cl5 and CsCdBr3,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 123513:1-14 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Voda, M.

A. Mendioroz, R. Balda, M. Voda, M. Al-Saleh, and J. Fernadez, “Infrared to visible and ultraviolet upconversion processes in Nd3+-doped potassium lead chloride crystal,” Opt. Mater. (Amsterdam, Neth.) 95, 351-357 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Voda, M. Al-Saleh, G. Lobera, R. Balda, and J. Fernadez, “Crystal growth of rare-earth-doped ternary potassium lead chloride single crystals by the Bridgman method,” Opt. Mater. (Amsterdam, Neth.) 25, 359-363 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Vorob'ev, I. N.

T. T. Basiev, Yu. V. Orlovskii, B. I. Galagan, M. E. Doroshenko, I. N. Vorob'ev, L. N. Dmitruk, A. G. Papashvili, V. N. Skvortsov, V. A. Konyushkin, K. K. Pukhov, G. A. Ermamakov, V. V. Osiko, A. M. Prokhorov, and S. Smith, “Evaluation of rare-earth doped crystals and glasses for 4-5 μm lasing,” Laser Phys. 12, 859-877 (2002).

Wagner, Gregory J.

U. N. Roy, Y. Cui, M. Guo, M. Groza, A. Burger, Gregory J. Wagner, Timothy J. Carrig, and S. A. Payne, “Growth and characterization of Er-doped KPb2Cl5 as laser host crystal,” J. Cryst. Growth 258, 331-336 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wysocki, G.

A. Kosterev, G. Wysocki, Y. Bakhirkin, S. So, R. Lewicki, M. Fraser, F. Tittel, and R. F. Curl, “Application of quantum cascade lasers to trace gas analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 90, 165-176 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yelisseyev, A.

L. Isaenko, A. Yelisseyev, A. Tkachuk, S. Ivanova, S. Vatnik, A. Merkulov, S. Payne, R. Page, and M. Nostrand, “New laser crystal based on KPb2Cl5 for IR region,” Mater. Sci. Eng., B 81, 188-190 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yelisseyev, A. P.

A. M. Tkachuk, S. E. Ivanova, L. I. Isaenko, A. P. Yelisseyev, M.-F. Joubert, Y. Guyot, and S. Payne, “Spectroscopic studies of erbium-doped potassium-lead double chloride crystals KPb2Cl5:Er3+:1. Optical spectra and relaxation of excited states of the erbium ion in potassium-lead double chloride crystals,” Opt. Spectrosc. 95, 722-740 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Nostrand, R. H. Page, S. A. Payne, L. I. Isaenko, and A. P. Yelisseyev, “Optical properties of Dy3+− and Nd3+-doped KPb2Cl5,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 264-276 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zagorodnev, V. N.

A. G. Okhrimchuk, L. N. Butvina, E. M. Dianov, I. A. Shestakova, N. V. Lichkova, V. N. Zagorodnev, and A. V. Shestakov, “Optical spectroscopy of the RbPb2Cl5:Dy3+ laser crystal and oscillation at 5.5 μm at room temperature,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 2690-2695 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. V. Lichkova, V. N. Zagorodnev, L. N. Butvina, A. G. Okhrimchuk, and A. V. Shestakov, “Preparation and optical properties of rare-earth-activated alkali metal lead chlorides,” Inorg. Mater. 42, 81-88 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Okhrimchuk, L. N. Butvina, E. M. Dianov, N. V. Lichkova, V. N. Zagorodnev, and A. V. Shestakov, “New laser transition in the RbPb2Cl5:Pr3+ crystal in the 2.3-2.5 μm wavelength range,” Quantum Electron. 36, 41-44 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zavada, J. M.

P. Amedzake, E. Brown, U. Hommerich, S. B. Trivedi, and J. M. Zavada, “Crystal growth and spectroscopic characterization of Pr-doped KPb2Cl5 for mid-infrared laser applications,” J. Cryst. Growth 310, 2015-2019 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Brown, U. Hömmerich, A. G. Bluiett, S. B. Trivedi, and J. M. Zavada, “Synthesis and spectroscopic properties of neodymium doped lead chloride,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 113103:1-7 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zavgorodnev, V.

A. Okhrimchuk, L. Butvina, E. Dianov, N. Lichkova, and V. Zavgorodnev, “Sensitization of MIR Tb3+ luminescence by Tm3+ ions in CsCdBr3 and KPb2Cl5 crystals,” in Advanced Solid-State Photonics, Vol. 83 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2003), paper 303.

Zotova, N. V.

M. Aidaraliev, N. V. Zotova, S. A. Karandashev, B. A. Matveev, M. A. Remennyi, N. M. Stus', and G. N. Talalakin, “Optically pumped 'immersion-lens' infrared light emitting diodes based on narrow-gap III-V semiconductors,” Semiconductors 36, 828-831 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

A. Kosterev, G. Wysocki, Y. Bakhirkin, S. So, R. Lewicki, M. Fraser, F. Tittel, and R. F. Curl, “Application of quantum cascade lasers to trace gas analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 90, 165-176 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (3)

S. R. Bowman, B. J. Feldman, Joseph Ganem, and A. W. Kueny, “Infrared laser characteristics of praseodymium-doped lanthanum trichloride,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 2925-2928 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Bowman, L. B. Shaw, B. J. Feldman, and Joseph Ganem, “A 7 μm praseodymium-based solid-state laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 646-649 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Braud, S. Girard, J. L. Doualan, and R. Moncorge, “Spectroscopy and fluorescence dynamics of (Tm3+,Tb3+) and (Tm3+,Eu3+) doped LiYF4 single crystals for 1.5-μm laser operation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 2246-2255 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Inorg. Mater. (1)

N. V. Lichkova, V. N. Zagorodnev, L. N. Butvina, A. G. Okhrimchuk, and A. V. Shestakov, “Preparation and optical properties of rare-earth-activated alkali metal lead chlorides,” Inorg. Mater. 42, 81-88 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

E. Brown, U. Hömmerich, A. G. Bluiett, S. B. Trivedi, and J. M. Zavada, “Synthesis and spectroscopic properties of neodymium doped lead chloride,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 113103:1-7 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Ferrier, M. Velazquez, J.-L. Doualan, and R. Moncorge, “Mid-infrared luminescence properties and laser potentials of Pr3+ doped KPb2Cl5 and CsCdBr3,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 123513:1-14 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

D. L. Dexter, “A theory of sensitized luminescence in solids,” J. Chem. Phys. 21, 836-850 (1953).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth (3)

P. Amedzake, E. Brown, U. Hommerich, S. B. Trivedi, and J. M. Zavada, “Crystal growth and spectroscopic characterization of Pr-doped KPb2Cl5 for mid-infrared laser applications,” J. Cryst. Growth 310, 2015-2019 (2008).
[CrossRef]

U. N. Roy, Y. Cui, M. Guo, M. Groza, A. Burger, Gregory J. Wagner, Timothy J. Carrig, and S. A. Payne, “Growth and characterization of Er-doped KPb2Cl5 as laser host crystal,” J. Cryst. Growth 258, 331-336 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. J. Condon, S. O'Connor, and S. R. Bowman, “Growth and characterization of single-crystal Er3+:KPb2Cl5 as a mid-infrared laser material,” J. Cryst. Growth 291, 472-478 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Lumin. (5)

V. V. Fedorov, A. Galliana, I. Moskalev, and S. B. Mirov, “En route to electrically pumped broadly tunable middle infrared lasers based on transition metal doped II-VI semiconductors,” J. Lumin. 125, 184-195 (2007).
[CrossRef]

U. Hömmerich, Ei Ei Nyein, and S. B. Trivedi, “Crystal growth, upconversion, and infrared emission properties of Er3+-doped KPb2Br5,” J. Lumin. 113, 100-108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Tkachuk, S. E. Ivanova, M.-F. Joubert, Y. Guyot, L. I. Isaenko, and V. P. Gapontsev, “Upconversion processes in Er3+:KPb2Cl5 laser crystals,” J. Lumin. 125, 271-278 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. W. Jenkins, S. R. Bowman, L. B. Shaw, and J. R. Lindle, “Spectroscopic analysis and laser modeling of neodymium-doped potassium lead chloride,” J. Lumin. 97, 127-134 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. Y. Tigreat, J. L. Doualan, C. Budasca, and R. Moncorge, “Energy transfer processes in (Yb3+,Dy3+) and (Tm3+,Dy3+) co-doped LiYF4 and KY3F10 single crystals,” J. Lumin. 94-95, 23-27 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (3)

J. Phys. (1)

G. Özen and B. Di Bartolo, “The microscopic interaction parameter for Tm-to-Ho resonant energy transfer in LiYF4,” J. Phys. 13, 195-202 (2001).

J. Phys. Condens. Matter (1)

S. A. Payne, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, J. B. Tassano, and W. F. Krupke, “The mechanism of Tm-->Ho energy transfer in LiYF4,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 4, 8525-8542 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Laser Phys. (1)

T. T. Basiev, Yu. V. Orlovskii, B. I. Galagan, M. E. Doroshenko, I. N. Vorob'ev, L. N. Dmitruk, A. G. Papashvili, V. N. Skvortsov, V. A. Konyushkin, K. K. Pukhov, G. A. Ermamakov, V. V. Osiko, A. M. Prokhorov, and S. Smith, “Evaluation of rare-earth doped crystals and glasses for 4-5 μm lasing,” Laser Phys. 12, 859-877 (2002).

Mater. Sci. Eng., B (1)

L. Isaenko, A. Yelisseyev, A. Tkachuk, S. Ivanova, S. Vatnik, A. Merkulov, S. Payne, R. Page, and M. Nostrand, “New laser crystal based on KPb2Cl5 for IR region,” Mater. Sci. Eng., B 81, 188-190 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Mater. (Amsterdam, Neth.) (3)

A. Mendioroz, R. Balda, M. Voda, M. Al-Saleh, and J. Fernadez, “Infrared to visible and ultraviolet upconversion processes in Nd3+-doped potassium lead chloride crystal,” Opt. Mater. (Amsterdam, Neth.) 95, 351-357 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Voda, M. Al-Saleh, G. Lobera, R. Balda, and J. Fernadez, “Crystal growth of rare-earth-doped ternary potassium lead chloride single crystals by the Bridgman method,” Opt. Mater. (Amsterdam, Neth.) 25, 359-363 (2004).
[CrossRef]

N. W. Jenkins, S. R. Bowman, S. O'Conner, S. K. Searles, and Joesph Ganem, “Spectroscopic characterization of Er-doped KPb2Cl5 laser crystals,” Opt. Mater. (Amsterdam, Neth.) 22, 311-320 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Spectrosc. (1)

A. M. Tkachuk, S. E. Ivanova, L. I. Isaenko, A. P. Yelisseyev, M.-F. Joubert, Y. Guyot, and S. Payne, “Spectroscopic studies of erbium-doped potassium-lead double chloride crystals KPb2Cl5:Er3+:1. Optical spectra and relaxation of excited states of the erbium ion in potassium-lead double chloride crystals,” Opt. Spectrosc. 95, 722-740 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (3)

J. Ganem, J. Crawford, P. Schmidt, N. W. Jenkins, and S. R. Bowman, “Thulium cross-relaxation in a low phonon energy crystalline host,” Phys. Rev. B 66, 245101:1-14 (2002).
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[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

L. Isaenko, A. Tkachuk, S. Ivanova, S. Payne, R. Page, and M. Nostrand, “New low-phonon crystals based on rare earth doped double halogenides for multiwavelength diode-pumped solid-state laser,” Proc. SPIE 4900, 962-972 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Cryst. Growth Charact. (1)

K. Nitsch, M. Dusek, M. Nikl, K. Polak, and M. Rodova, “Ternary alkali lead chlorides: crystal growth, crystal structure, absorption and emission properties,” Prog. Cryst. Growth Charact. 30, 1-22 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Quantum Electron. (1)

A. G. Okhrimchuk, L. N. Butvina, E. M. Dianov, N. V. Lichkova, V. N. Zagorodnev, and A. V. Shestakov, “New laser transition in the RbPb2Cl5:Pr3+ crystal in the 2.3-2.5 μm wavelength range,” Quantum Electron. 36, 41-44 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Semiconductors (1)

M. Aidaraliev, N. V. Zotova, S. A. Karandashev, B. A. Matveev, M. A. Remennyi, N. M. Stus', and G. N. Talalakin, “Optically pumped 'immersion-lens' infrared light emitting diodes based on narrow-gap III-V semiconductors,” Semiconductors 36, 828-831 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sov. Phys. JETP (1)

A. I. Burshtein, “Hopping mechanism of energy transfer,” Sov. Phys. JETP 35, 882-885 (1972).

Z. Naturforsch. (1)

T. Förster, “Experimentelle und theoretische Untersuchung des zwischenmolecularen Uebergangs von Electronenanregungsenergie,” Z. Naturforsch. 4a, 321-327 (1949).

Other (5)

L. B. Shaw, B. Cole, D. T. Schaafsma, B. B. Harbison, J. S. Sanghera, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Rare-earth-doped selenide glass optical sources,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, CLEO 98 Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 1998), pp. 420-421.

S. R. Bowman, S. K. Searles, N. W. Jenkins, S. B. Qadri, E. F. Skelton, and Joseph Ganem, “Diode pumped room temperature 4.6 μm erbium laser,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers,Vol. 50 of OSA TOPS Proceeding Series (Optical Society of America, 2001), pp. 154-156.

M. C. Nostrand, R. H. Page, S. A. Payne, W. F. Krupke, P. G. Schunemann, and L. I. Isaenko, “Room temperature CaGa2S4:Dy3+ laser action at 2.43 μm and 4.31 μm and KPb2Cl5 laser action at 2.43 μm,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, Vol. 26 of OSA TOPS Proceeding Series (Optical Society of America, 1999), pp. 441-449.

M. C. Nostrand, S. A. Payne, P. G. Schunemann, and L. I. Isaenko, “Laser demonstration of rare-earth ions in low-phonon chloride and sulfide crystals,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, Vol. 34 of OSA TOPS Proceeding Series (Optical Society of America, 2000), 459-463.

A. Okhrimchuk, L. Butvina, E. Dianov, N. Lichkova, and V. Zavgorodnev, “Sensitization of MIR Tb3+ luminescence by Tm3+ ions in CsCdBr3 and KPb2Cl5 crystals,” in Advanced Solid-State Photonics, Vol. 83 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2003), paper 303.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Lower energy levels and demonstrated mid-infrared lasers for Pr 3 + : La Cl 3 . The lasers shown all originated from the F 3 3 level that was populated by an upconversion process activated with a 2.0 μ m pump into the F 2 3 .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Lower energy levels for Tm 3 + : K Pb 2 Cl 5 and the resulting fluorescence spectrum under 800 nm -diode pumping.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Normalized fluorescence decays arising from 805 nm -diode pumping for Tm 3 + : K Pb 2 Cl 5 compared to decays for Tm 3 + Pr 3 + : K Pb 2 Cl 5 . (a) 1450 nm emission from H 4 3 level of Tm 3 + . (b) 1850 nm emission from F 4 3 level of Tm 3 + . (c) 1250 nm emission from H 5 3 level of Tm 3 + . Superimposed are exponential fits for the decays from Tm 3 + : K Pb 2 Cl 5 and fits to Eq. (6) for the decays from Tm 3 + Pr 3 + : K Pb 2 Cl 5 .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Fluorescence resulting from Pr 3 + : K Pb 2 Cl 5 under 1483 nm -diode pumping: (a) 1600 to 2800 nm ; (b) 3000 5500 nm .

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Fluorescence from Tm 3 + Pr 3 + : K Pb 2 Cl 5 resulting from 1483 nm -diode pumping compared to fluorescence resulting from 805 nm -diode pumping: (a) 1600 to 2800 nm ; (b) 3000 5500 nm .

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Allowed energy transfer processes between Tm 3 + and Pr 3 + . The energy transfer processes T 1 , T 2 , and T 3 all connect excited-state Tm 3 + ions with ground-state Pr 3 + ions.

Equations (13)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

R 6 SX = ( 3 c τ S 8 π 4 n 2 ) σ s em ( λ ) σ x abs ( λ ) d λ ,
I = I 0 exp [ t τ s γ t 1 2 ] ,
γ = ( 4 3 ) π 3 2 ( R 3 SA τ 1 2 S ) n A ,
I = I 0 exp [ t τ S γ t 1 2 Kt ] ,
K = [ π ( 2 π 3 ) 5 2 R 3 SA R 3 SS τ S ] n S n A ,
Tm 3 + ( H 4 3 ) Tm 3 + ( F 4 3 ) ; Pr 3 + ( H 4 3 ) Pr 3 + ( F 4 3 ) .
Tm 3 + ( F 4 3 ) Tm 3 + ( H 6 3 ) ; Pr 3 + ( H 4 3 ) Pr 3 + ( F 2 3 ) .
R Tm = ( 1 N Tm ) 1 3 ,
η = W ET ( W ET + W 0 ) ,
W 0 = A + W MP ,
W = W ET + A + W MP = W ET + W 0 .
η = 1 ( W 0 W ) .
η = 1 ( τ τ o ) .

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