Abstract

I develop a theory that predicts a two-photon-induced molecular polar order in solid polymers at a temperature far below the glass transition temperature of the polymer. Phenomenologically, the rotational mobility of the chromophores is enhanced during a two-photon isomerization process, allowing for polar order to build up in the presence of a dc field that is applied across the solid polymer. No (or negligible) poling is possible in the absence of two-photon isomerization. Using the formalism of Legendre polynomials solves the general equations of the theory, and analytical solutions are derived for the early time evolution and the steady state of this two-photon poling process. The effects of the poling parameters are discussed, and it is shown that the two-photon poling efficiency can be as high as that achieved by dc field poling at elevated temperatures.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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2007 (2)

C. R. Mendonca, U. M. Neves, L. De Boni, A. A. Andrade, D. S. dos Santos, Jr., F. J. Pavinatto, S. C. Zilio, L. Misoguti, and O. N. Oliveira, “Two-photon induced anisotropy in PMMA film doped with Disperse Red 13,” Opt. Commun. 273, 435-441 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Raschella, I. G. Marino, C. Razzetti, D. Bersani, and P. P. Lottici, “Modeling and experimental study of photoinduced anisotropy in hybrid solgel films,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 504-514 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (6)

S. P. Bian, D. Robinson, and M. G. Kuzyk, “Optically activated cantilever using photomechanical effects in dye doped polymer fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23, 697-707 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Ishitobi, Z. Sekkat, and S. Kawata, “Photo-orientation by multiphoton photoselection,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23, 868-873 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Dubrovkin, Y. Jung, V. M. Kozenkov, S. A. Magnitskii, and N. M. Nagorskiy, “Nonlinear induced polarization dependent scattering in solid state azo-dye films,” Laser Phys. Lett. 4, 275-278 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Ishitobi, Z. Sekkat, and S. Kawata, “Ordering of azobenzenes by two-photon isomerization,” J. Chem. Phys. 25, 164718 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. T. Thieghi, F. Batalioto, I. H. Bechtold, L. R. Evangelista, V. Zucolotto, D. T. Balogh, O. N. Oliveira, Jr., and E. A. Oliveira, “Phenomenological analysis of the light intensity dependence of the photoalignment process in azo-containing polymeric films,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 011802 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Yang, S. Yang, and J. Kumar, “Formation mechanism of surface relief structures on amorphous azopolymer films,” Phys. Rev. B 73, 165204 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

M. Maeda, H. Ishitobi, Z. Sekkat, and S. Kawata, “Polarization storage by nonlinear orientational hole burning in azo dye-containing polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 351-353 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Z. Sekkat, “Isomeric orientation by two-photon excitation: a theoretical study,” Opt. Commun. 229, 291-303 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Stockman, D. J. Bergman, C. Anceau, S. Brasselet, and J. Zyss, “Enhanced second-harmonic generation by metal surfaces with nanoscale roughness: nanoscale dephasing, depolarization, and correlations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 057402 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

Z. Sekkat, H. Ishitobi, and S. Kawata, “Two-photon isomerization and orientation of photoisomers in thin films of polymer,” Opt. Commun. 222, 269-276 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

W. Zhou, S. M. Kuebler, K. L. Braun, T. Yu, J. K. Cammack, C. K. Ober, J. W. Perry, and S. R. Marder, “An efficient two-photon-generated photoacid applied to positive-tone 3D microfabrication,” Science 296, 1106-1109 (2002).
[CrossRef]

I. Fucks-Janczarek, J-M. Nunzi, B. Sahraoui, I. V. Kityk, J. Berdowski, A. M. Caminade, J-P. Majoral, A. C. Martineau, P. Frere, and J. Roncali, “Third-order nonlinear optical properties and two-photon absorption in branched oligothienylenevinylenes,” Opt. Commun. 209, 461-466 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Z. Sekkat, D. Yasumatsu, and S. Kawata, “Pure photo-orientation of azo dye in polyurethanes and quantification of orientation of spectrally overlapping isomers,” J. Phys. Chem. B 106, 12407-12417 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (3)

S. Kawata, H.-B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, “Finer features for functional microdevices,” Nature 412, 697-698 (2001).
[CrossRef]

N. I. Smith, K. Fujita, T. Kaneko, K. Katoh, O. Nakamura, S. Kawata, and T. Takamatsu, “Generation of calcium waves in living cells by pulsed-laser-induced photodisruption,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1208-1210 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. König, I. Riemann, and W. Fritzsche, “Nanodissection of human chromosomes with near infrared femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 26, 819-821 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

H. Ishitobi, Z. Sekkat, and S. Kawata, “Quantifying theory of optical orientation processes in spectrally distinguishable photoisomers: application to a spiropyran-type chromophore,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 316, 578-584 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

A. Donval, E. Toussaere, S. Brasselet, and J. Zyss, “Comparative assessment of electrical, photoassisted and all optical in-plane poling of polymer based electrooptic modulators,” Opt. Mater. 12, 215-221 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (4)

1997 (4)

1996 (2)

1995 (4)

T. Verbiest, D. M. Burland, M. C. Jurich, V. Y. Lee, R. D. Miller, and W. Volksen, “Exceptionally thermally stable polyimides for second-order nonlinear optical applications,” Science 268, 1604-1606 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Hill, S. Dreher, A. Knoesen, and D. Yankelevich, “Optically initiated electric field poling of nonlinear polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 2156-2158 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Z. Sekkat, J. Wood, and W. Knoll, “Reorientation mechanism of azobenzenes within the trans-cis photoisomerization,” J. Phys. Chem. 99, 17226-17234 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Z. Sekkat and W. Knoll, “Creation of second-order nonlinear optical effects by photoisomerization of polar azo dyes in polymeric thin films: Theoretical study of steady state and transient properties,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 1855-1867 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (4)

J. M. Nunzi, F. Charra, C. Fiorini, and J. Zyss, “Transient optically induced non-centrosymmetry in a solution of octupolar molecules,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 219, 349-357 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Z. Sekkat and W. Knoll, “Stationary-state and dynamics of birefringence and nonlinear optical properties induced by electric field poling in polymeric films,” Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. 98, 1231-1242 (1994).

R. M. Williams, D. W. Piston, and W. W. Webb, “Two-photon molecular excitation provides intrinsic 3-dimensional resolution for laser-based microscopy and microphotochemistry,” FASEB J. 8, 804-813 (1994).

D. M. Burland, R. D. Miller, and C. A. Walsh, “Second-order nonlinearity in poled-polymer systems,” Chem. Rev. 94, 31-55 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

Z. Sekkat, and M. Dumont, “Photoinduced orientation of azo dye in polymeric films: Characterization of angular molecular mobility,” Synth. Met. 54, 373-381 (1993).
[CrossRef]

F. Charra, F. Kajzar, J. M. Nunzi, P. Raimond, and E. Idiart, “Light-induced second-harmonic generation in azo-dye polymers,” Opt. Lett. 18, 941-243 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

Z. Sekkat and M. Dumont, “Photoassisted poling of azo dye doped polymeric films at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. B 54, 486-489 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

1990 (2)

1989 (2)

1986 (1)

K. D. Singer, J. E. Sohn, and S. J. Lalama, “Second harmonic generation in poled polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 248-251 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

B. D. Davydov, L. D. Derkacheva, V. V. Dumina, M. E. Zhabostinskii, V. F. Zolin, L. G. Koreneva, and M. A. Sanokhina, “Charge transfer and harmonic generation in molecular crystals,” Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 30, 274-279 (1971).

Albota, M.

M. Albota, D. Beljonne, J. L. Bredas, J. E. Ehrlich, J. Y. Fu, A. A. Heikal, S. E. Hess, T. Kogej, M. D. Levin, S. R. Marder, D. McCord-Maughon, J. W. Perry, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, C. Subramaniam, W. W. Webb, X. L. Wu, and C. Xu, “Design of organic molecules with large two-photon absorption cross sections,” Science 281, 1653-1656 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Anceau, C.

M. I. Stockman, D. J. Bergman, C. Anceau, S. Brasselet, and J. Zyss, “Enhanced second-harmonic generation by metal surfaces with nanoscale roughness: nanoscale dephasing, depolarization, and correlations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 057402 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Andrade, A. A.

C. R. Mendonca, U. M. Neves, L. De Boni, A. A. Andrade, D. S. dos Santos, Jr., F. J. Pavinatto, S. C. Zilio, L. Misoguti, and O. N. Oliveira, “Two-photon induced anisotropy in PMMA film doped with Disperse Red 13,” Opt. Commun. 273, 435-441 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Balogh, D. T.

L. T. Thieghi, F. Batalioto, I. H. Bechtold, L. R. Evangelista, V. Zucolotto, D. T. Balogh, O. N. Oliveira, Jr., and E. A. Oliveira, “Phenomenological analysis of the light intensity dependence of the photoalignment process in azo-containing polymeric films,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 011802 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Batalioto, F.

L. T. Thieghi, F. Batalioto, I. H. Bechtold, L. R. Evangelista, V. Zucolotto, D. T. Balogh, O. N. Oliveira, Jr., and E. A. Oliveira, “Phenomenological analysis of the light intensity dependence of the photoalignment process in azo-containing polymeric films,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 011802 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bechtold, I. H.

L. T. Thieghi, F. Batalioto, I. H. Bechtold, L. R. Evangelista, V. Zucolotto, D. T. Balogh, O. N. Oliveira, Jr., and E. A. Oliveira, “Phenomenological analysis of the light intensity dependence of the photoalignment process in azo-containing polymeric films,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 011802 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Beljonne, D.

M. Albota, D. Beljonne, J. L. Bredas, J. E. Ehrlich, J. Y. Fu, A. A. Heikal, S. E. Hess, T. Kogej, M. D. Levin, S. R. Marder, D. McCord-Maughon, J. W. Perry, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, C. Subramaniam, W. W. Webb, X. L. Wu, and C. Xu, “Design of organic molecules with large two-photon absorption cross sections,” Science 281, 1653-1656 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Berdowski, J.

I. Fucks-Janczarek, J-M. Nunzi, B. Sahraoui, I. V. Kityk, J. Berdowski, A. M. Caminade, J-P. Majoral, A. C. Martineau, P. Frere, and J. Roncali, “Third-order nonlinear optical properties and two-photon absorption in branched oligothienylenevinylenes,” Opt. Commun. 209, 461-466 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bergman, D. J.

M. I. Stockman, D. J. Bergman, C. Anceau, S. Brasselet, and J. Zyss, “Enhanced second-harmonic generation by metal surfaces with nanoscale roughness: nanoscale dephasing, depolarization, and correlations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 057402 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bersani, D.

Bian, S. P.

Brasselet, S.

M. I. Stockman, D. J. Bergman, C. Anceau, S. Brasselet, and J. Zyss, “Enhanced second-harmonic generation by metal surfaces with nanoscale roughness: nanoscale dephasing, depolarization, and correlations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 057402 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Donval, E. Toussaere, S. Brasselet, and J. Zyss, “Comparative assessment of electrical, photoassisted and all optical in-plane poling of polymer based electrooptic modulators,” Opt. Mater. 12, 215-221 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Brasselet and J. Zyss, “Multipolar molecules and multipolar fields: probing and controlling the tensorial nature of nonlinear molecular media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 257-265 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Brasselet and J. Zyss, “Multipolar molecules and multipolar fields: probing and controlling the tensorial nature of nonlinear molecular media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 257-269 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Braun, K. L.

W. Zhou, S. M. Kuebler, K. L. Braun, T. Yu, J. K. Cammack, C. K. Ober, J. W. Perry, and S. R. Marder, “An efficient two-photon-generated photoacid applied to positive-tone 3D microfabrication,” Science 296, 1106-1109 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bredas, J. L.

M. Albota, D. Beljonne, J. L. Bredas, J. E. Ehrlich, J. Y. Fu, A. A. Heikal, S. E. Hess, T. Kogej, M. D. Levin, S. R. Marder, D. McCord-Maughon, J. W. Perry, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, C. Subramaniam, W. W. Webb, X. L. Wu, and C. Xu, “Design of organic molecules with large two-photon absorption cross sections,” Science 281, 1653-1656 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Burland, D. M.

T. Verbiest, D. M. Burland, M. C. Jurich, V. Y. Lee, R. D. Miller, and W. Volksen, “Exceptionally thermally stable polyimides for second-order nonlinear optical applications,” Science 268, 1604-1606 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Burland, R. D. Miller, and C. A. Walsh, “Second-order nonlinearity in poled-polymer systems,” Chem. Rev. 94, 31-55 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Caminade, A. M.

I. Fucks-Janczarek, J-M. Nunzi, B. Sahraoui, I. V. Kityk, J. Berdowski, A. M. Caminade, J-P. Majoral, A. C. Martineau, P. Frere, and J. Roncali, “Third-order nonlinear optical properties and two-photon absorption in branched oligothienylenevinylenes,” Opt. Commun. 209, 461-466 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cammack, J. K.

W. Zhou, S. M. Kuebler, K. L. Braun, T. Yu, J. K. Cammack, C. K. Ober, J. W. Perry, and S. R. Marder, “An efficient two-photon-generated photoacid applied to positive-tone 3D microfabrication,” Science 296, 1106-1109 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

Roncali, J.

I. Fucks-Janczarek, J-M. Nunzi, B. Sahraoui, I. V. Kityk, J. Berdowski, A. M. Caminade, J-P. Majoral, A. C. Martineau, P. Frere, and J. Roncali, “Third-order nonlinear optical properties and two-photon absorption in branched oligothienylenevinylenes,” Opt. Commun. 209, 461-466 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rumi, M.

M. Albota, D. Beljonne, J. L. Bredas, J. E. Ehrlich, J. Y. Fu, A. A. Heikal, S. E. Hess, T. Kogej, M. D. Levin, S. R. Marder, D. McCord-Maughon, J. W. Perry, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, C. Subramaniam, W. W. Webb, X. L. Wu, and C. Xu, “Design of organic molecules with large two-photon absorption cross sections,” Science 281, 1653-1656 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sahraoui, B.

I. Fucks-Janczarek, J-M. Nunzi, B. Sahraoui, I. V. Kityk, J. Berdowski, A. M. Caminade, J-P. Majoral, A. C. Martineau, P. Frere, and J. Roncali, “Third-order nonlinear optical properties and two-photon absorption in branched oligothienylenevinylenes,” Opt. Commun. 209, 461-466 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sanokhina, M. A.

B. D. Davydov, L. D. Derkacheva, V. V. Dumina, M. E. Zhabostinskii, V. F. Zolin, L. G. Koreneva, and M. A. Sanokhina, “Charge transfer and harmonic generation in molecular crystals,” Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 30, 274-279 (1971).

Sekkat, Z.

H. Ishitobi, Z. Sekkat, and S. Kawata, “Photo-orientation by multiphoton photoselection,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23, 868-873 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Ishitobi, Z. Sekkat, and S. Kawata, “Ordering of azobenzenes by two-photon isomerization,” J. Chem. Phys. 25, 164718 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Z. Sekkat, “Isomeric orientation by two-photon excitation: a theoretical study,” Opt. Commun. 229, 291-303 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Maeda, H. Ishitobi, Z. Sekkat, and S. Kawata, “Polarization storage by nonlinear orientational hole burning in azo dye-containing polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 351-353 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Z. Sekkat, H. Ishitobi, and S. Kawata, “Two-photon isomerization and orientation of photoisomers in thin films of polymer,” Opt. Commun. 222, 269-276 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Z. Sekkat, D. Yasumatsu, and S. Kawata, “Pure photo-orientation of azo dye in polyurethanes and quantification of orientation of spectrally overlapping isomers,” J. Phys. Chem. B 106, 12407-12417 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Ishitobi, Z. Sekkat, and S. Kawata, “Quantifying theory of optical orientation processes in spectrally distinguishable photoisomers: application to a spiropyran-type chromophore,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 316, 578-584 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Z. Sekkat, J. Wood, W. Knoll, W. Volksen, R. D. Miller, and A. Knoesen, “Light-induced orientation in azo-polyimide polymers 325 degreesC below the glass transition temperature,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 829-833 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Z. Sekkat, J. Wood, W. Knoll, W. Volksen, and R. D. Miller, “Light-induced orientation in a high glass transition temperature polyimide with polar azo dyes in the side chain,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 1713-1724 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Z. Sekkat, J. Wood, and W. Knoll, “Reorientation mechanism of azobenzenes within the trans-cis photoisomerization,” J. Phys. Chem. 99, 17226-17234 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Z. Sekkat and W. Knoll, “Creation of second-order nonlinear optical effects by photoisomerization of polar azo dyes in polymeric thin films: Theoretical study of steady state and transient properties,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 1855-1867 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Z. Sekkat and W. Knoll, “Stationary-state and dynamics of birefringence and nonlinear optical properties induced by electric field poling in polymeric films,” Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. 98, 1231-1242 (1994).

Z. Sekkat, and M. Dumont, “Photoinduced orientation of azo dye in polymeric films: Characterization of angular molecular mobility,” Synth. Met. 54, 373-381 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Z. Sekkat and M. Dumont, “Photoassisted poling of azo dye doped polymeric films at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. B 54, 486-489 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Z. Sekkat, “Photo-orientation by photoisomerization,” in Photoreactive Organic Thin Films (Academic, 2002),Chapt. 3, pp. 63-104.

Z. Sekkat and W. Knoll, Photoreactive Organic Thin Films (Academic, 2002), and references therein.

Singer, K. D.

K. D. Singer, J. E. Sohn, and S. J. Lalama, “Second harmonic generation in poled polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 248-251 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Smith, N. I.

N. I. Smith, K. Fujita, T. Kaneko, K. Katoh, O. Nakamura, S. Kawata, and T. Takamatsu, “Generation of calcium waves in living cells by pulsed-laser-induced photodisruption,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1208-1210 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sohn, J. E.

K. D. Singer, J. E. Sohn, and S. J. Lalama, “Second harmonic generation in poled polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 248-251 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Stockman, M. I.

M. I. Stockman, D. J. Bergman, C. Anceau, S. Brasselet, and J. Zyss, “Enhanced second-harmonic generation by metal surfaces with nanoscale roughness: nanoscale dephasing, depolarization, and correlations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 057402 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Strickler, J. H.

J. H. Strickler and W. W. Webb, “Three-dimensional optical data storage in refractive media by two-photon point excitation,” Opt. Lett. 16, 1780-1782 (1991).
[CrossRef]

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, “Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy,” Science 248, 73-76 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Subramaniam, C.

M. Albota, D. Beljonne, J. L. Bredas, J. E. Ehrlich, J. Y. Fu, A. A. Heikal, S. E. Hess, T. Kogej, M. D. Levin, S. R. Marder, D. McCord-Maughon, J. W. Perry, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, C. Subramaniam, W. W. Webb, X. L. Wu, and C. Xu, “Design of organic molecules with large two-photon absorption cross sections,” Science 281, 1653-1656 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sun, H.-B.

S. Kawata, H.-B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, “Finer features for functional microdevices,” Nature 412, 697-698 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Takada, K.

S. Kawata, H.-B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, “Finer features for functional microdevices,” Nature 412, 697-698 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Takamatsu, T.

N. I. Smith, K. Fujita, T. Kaneko, K. Katoh, O. Nakamura, S. Kawata, and T. Takamatsu, “Generation of calcium waves in living cells by pulsed-laser-induced photodisruption,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1208-1210 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, T.

S. Kawata, H.-B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, “Finer features for functional microdevices,” Nature 412, 697-698 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Thieghi, L. T.

L. T. Thieghi, F. Batalioto, I. H. Bechtold, L. R. Evangelista, V. Zucolotto, D. T. Balogh, O. N. Oliveira, Jr., and E. A. Oliveira, “Phenomenological analysis of the light intensity dependence of the photoalignment process in azo-containing polymeric films,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 011802 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Toriumi, A.

Toussaere, E.

A. Donval, E. Toussaere, S. Brasselet, and J. Zyss, “Comparative assessment of electrical, photoassisted and all optical in-plane poling of polymer based electrooptic modulators,” Opt. Mater. 12, 215-221 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Verbiest, T.

T. Verbiest, D. M. Burland, M. C. Jurich, V. Y. Lee, R. D. Miller, and W. Volksen, “Exceptionally thermally stable polyimides for second-order nonlinear optical applications,” Science 268, 1604-1606 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Volksen, W.

Walsh, C. A.

D. M. Burland, R. D. Miller, and C. A. Walsh, “Second-order nonlinearity in poled-polymer systems,” Chem. Rev. 94, 31-55 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Webb, W. W.

M. Albota, D. Beljonne, J. L. Bredas, J. E. Ehrlich, J. Y. Fu, A. A. Heikal, S. E. Hess, T. Kogej, M. D. Levin, S. R. Marder, D. McCord-Maughon, J. W. Perry, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, C. Subramaniam, W. W. Webb, X. L. Wu, and C. Xu, “Design of organic molecules with large two-photon absorption cross sections,” Science 281, 1653-1656 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. Xu and W. W. Webb, “Measurement of two-photon excitation cross sections of molecular fluorophores with data from 690to1050 nm,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 481-491 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Williams, D. W. Piston, and W. W. Webb, “Two-photon molecular excitation provides intrinsic 3-dimensional resolution for laser-based microscopy and microphotochemistry,” FASEB J. 8, 804-813 (1994).

J. H. Strickler and W. W. Webb, “Three-dimensional optical data storage in refractive media by two-photon point excitation,” Opt. Lett. 16, 1780-1782 (1991).
[CrossRef]

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, “Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy,” Science 248, 73-76 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Williams, R. M.

R. M. Williams, D. W. Piston, and W. W. Webb, “Two-photon molecular excitation provides intrinsic 3-dimensional resolution for laser-based microscopy and microphotochemistry,” FASEB J. 8, 804-813 (1994).

Wood, J.

Wu, X. L.

M. Albota, D. Beljonne, J. L. Bredas, J. E. Ehrlich, J. Y. Fu, A. A. Heikal, S. E. Hess, T. Kogej, M. D. Levin, S. R. Marder, D. McCord-Maughon, J. W. Perry, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, C. Subramaniam, W. W. Webb, X. L. Wu, and C. Xu, “Design of organic molecules with large two-photon absorption cross sections,” Science 281, 1653-1656 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Xu, C.

M. Albota, D. Beljonne, J. L. Bredas, J. E. Ehrlich, J. Y. Fu, A. A. Heikal, S. E. Hess, T. Kogej, M. D. Levin, S. R. Marder, D. McCord-Maughon, J. W. Perry, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, C. Subramaniam, W. W. Webb, X. L. Wu, and C. Xu, “Design of organic molecules with large two-photon absorption cross sections,” Science 281, 1653-1656 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. Xu and W. W. Webb, “Measurement of two-photon excitation cross sections of molecular fluorophores with data from 690to1050 nm,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 481-491 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yang, K.

K. Yang, S. Yang, and J. Kumar, “Formation mechanism of surface relief structures on amorphous azopolymer films,” Phys. Rev. B 73, 165204 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yang, S.

K. Yang, S. Yang, and J. Kumar, “Formation mechanism of surface relief structures on amorphous azopolymer films,” Phys. Rev. B 73, 165204 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yankelevich, D.

R. A. Hill, S. Dreher, A. Knoesen, and D. Yankelevich, “Optically initiated electric field poling of nonlinear polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 2156-2158 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Yasumatsu, D.

Z. Sekkat, D. Yasumatsu, and S. Kawata, “Pure photo-orientation of azo dye in polyurethanes and quantification of orientation of spectrally overlapping isomers,” J. Phys. Chem. B 106, 12407-12417 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yu, T.

W. Zhou, S. M. Kuebler, K. L. Braun, T. Yu, J. K. Cammack, C. K. Ober, J. W. Perry, and S. R. Marder, “An efficient two-photon-generated photoacid applied to positive-tone 3D microfabrication,” Science 296, 1106-1109 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhabostinskii, M. E.

B. D. Davydov, L. D. Derkacheva, V. V. Dumina, M. E. Zhabostinskii, V. F. Zolin, L. G. Koreneva, and M. A. Sanokhina, “Charge transfer and harmonic generation in molecular crystals,” Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 30, 274-279 (1971).

Zhou, W.

W. Zhou, S. M. Kuebler, K. L. Braun, T. Yu, J. K. Cammack, C. K. Ober, J. W. Perry, and S. R. Marder, “An efficient two-photon-generated photoacid applied to positive-tone 3D microfabrication,” Science 296, 1106-1109 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zilio, S. C.

C. R. Mendonca, U. M. Neves, L. De Boni, A. A. Andrade, D. S. dos Santos, Jr., F. J. Pavinatto, S. C. Zilio, L. Misoguti, and O. N. Oliveira, “Two-photon induced anisotropy in PMMA film doped with Disperse Red 13,” Opt. Commun. 273, 435-441 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zolin, V. F.

B. D. Davydov, L. D. Derkacheva, V. V. Dumina, M. E. Zhabostinskii, V. F. Zolin, L. G. Koreneva, and M. A. Sanokhina, “Charge transfer and harmonic generation in molecular crystals,” Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 30, 274-279 (1971).

Zucolotto, V.

L. T. Thieghi, F. Batalioto, I. H. Bechtold, L. R. Evangelista, V. Zucolotto, D. T. Balogh, O. N. Oliveira, Jr., and E. A. Oliveira, “Phenomenological analysis of the light intensity dependence of the photoalignment process in azo-containing polymeric films,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 011802 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zyss, J.

M. I. Stockman, D. J. Bergman, C. Anceau, S. Brasselet, and J. Zyss, “Enhanced second-harmonic generation by metal surfaces with nanoscale roughness: nanoscale dephasing, depolarization, and correlations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 057402 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Donval, E. Toussaere, S. Brasselet, and J. Zyss, “Comparative assessment of electrical, photoassisted and all optical in-plane poling of polymer based electrooptic modulators,” Opt. Mater. 12, 215-221 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Brasselet and J. Zyss, “Multipolar molecules and multipolar fields: probing and controlling the tensorial nature of nonlinear molecular media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 257-265 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Brasselet and J. Zyss, “Multipolar molecules and multipolar fields: probing and controlling the tensorial nature of nonlinear molecular media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 257-269 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Nunzi, F. Charra, C. Fiorini, and J. Zyss, “Transient optically induced non-centrosymmetry in a solution of octupolar molecules,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 219, 349-357 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Zyss and D. S. Chemla, “Quadratic nonlinear optics and optimization of the second-order nonlinear optical response of molecular crystals,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Molecules and Crystals, D.S.Chemla and J.Zyss, eds. (Academic, 1987), Vol. 1, p. 3.

Appl. Phys. B (1)

Z. Sekkat and M. Dumont, “Photoassisted poling of azo dye doped polymeric films at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. B 54, 486-489 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

R. A. Hill, S. Dreher, A. Knoesen, and D. Yankelevich, “Optically initiated electric field poling of nonlinear polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 2156-2158 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Singer, J. E. Sohn, and S. J. Lalama, “Second harmonic generation in poled polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 248-251 (1986).
[CrossRef]

N. I. Smith, K. Fujita, T. Kaneko, K. Katoh, O. Nakamura, S. Kawata, and T. Takamatsu, “Generation of calcium waves in living cells by pulsed-laser-induced photodisruption,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1208-1210 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Maeda, H. Ishitobi, Z. Sekkat, and S. Kawata, “Polarization storage by nonlinear orientational hole burning in azo dye-containing polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 351-353 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. (1)

Z. Sekkat and W. Knoll, “Stationary-state and dynamics of birefringence and nonlinear optical properties induced by electric field poling in polymeric films,” Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. 98, 1231-1242 (1994).

Chem. Phys. (1)

S. Delysee, P. Raimond, and J. M. Nunzi, “Two-photon absorption in non centrosymmetric dyes,” Chem. Phys. 219, 341-351 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (2)

J. M. Nunzi, F. Charra, C. Fiorini, and J. Zyss, “Transient optically induced non-centrosymmetry in a solution of octupolar molecules,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 219, 349-357 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. Ishitobi, Z. Sekkat, and S. Kawata, “Quantifying theory of optical orientation processes in spectrally distinguishable photoisomers: application to a spiropyran-type chromophore,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 316, 578-584 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Rev. (1)

D. M. Burland, R. D. Miller, and C. A. Walsh, “Second-order nonlinearity in poled-polymer systems,” Chem. Rev. 94, 31-55 (1994).
[CrossRef]

FASEB J. (1)

R. M. Williams, D. W. Piston, and W. W. Webb, “Two-photon molecular excitation provides intrinsic 3-dimensional resolution for laser-based microscopy and microphotochemistry,” FASEB J. 8, 804-813 (1994).

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

H. Ishitobi, Z. Sekkat, and S. Kawata, “Ordering of azobenzenes by two-photon isomerization,” J. Chem. Phys. 25, 164718 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (12)

M. A. Mortazavi, A. Knoesen, S. T. Kowel, B. Higgins, and A. Dienes, “Second-harmonic generation and absorption studies of polymer-dye films oriented by corona-onset poling at elevated temperatures,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 733-745 (1989).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Kuzyk, R. C. Moore, and L. A. King, “Second-harmonic-generation measurements of the elastic constant of a molecule in a polymer matrix,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 64-76 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Z. Sekkat and W. Knoll, “Creation of second-order nonlinear optical effects by photoisomerization of polar azo dyes in polymeric thin films: Theoretical study of steady state and transient properties,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 1855-1867 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. Xu and W. W. Webb, “Measurement of two-photon excitation cross sections of molecular fluorophores with data from 690to1050 nm,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 481-491 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Z. Sekkat, J. Wood, W. Knoll, W. Volksen, and R. D. Miller, “Light-induced orientation in a high glass transition temperature polyimide with polar azo dyes in the side chain,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 1713-1724 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Z. Sekkat, J. Wood, W. Knoll, W. Volksen, R. D. Miller, and A. Knoesen, “Light-induced orientation in azo-polyimide polymers 325 degreesC below the glass transition temperature,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 829-833 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Brasselet and J. Zyss, “Multipolar molecules and multipolar fields: probing and controlling the tensorial nature of nonlinear molecular media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 257-265 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Brasselet and J. Zyss, “Multipolar molecules and multipolar fields: probing and controlling the tensorial nature of nonlinear molecular media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 257-269 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. Fiorini, F. Charra, J. M. Nunzi, and P. Raimond, “Quasi-permanent all-optical encoding of noncentrosymmetry in azo-dye polymers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 1984-1996 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Bian, D. Robinson, and M. G. Kuzyk, “Optically activated cantilever using photomechanical effects in dye doped polymer fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23, 697-707 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Ishitobi, Z. Sekkat, and S. Kawata, “Photo-orientation by multiphoton photoselection,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23, 868-873 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Raschella, I. G. Marino, C. Razzetti, D. Bersani, and P. P. Lottici, “Modeling and experimental study of photoinduced anisotropy in hybrid solgel films,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 504-514 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. (1)

Z. Sekkat, J. Wood, and W. Knoll, “Reorientation mechanism of azobenzenes within the trans-cis photoisomerization,” J. Phys. Chem. 99, 17226-17234 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

Z. Sekkat, D. Yasumatsu, and S. Kawata, “Pure photo-orientation of azo dye in polyurethanes and quantification of orientation of spectrally overlapping isomers,” J. Phys. Chem. B 106, 12407-12417 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Laser Phys. Lett. (1)

A. M. Dubrovkin, Y. Jung, V. M. Kozenkov, S. A. Magnitskii, and N. M. Nagorskiy, “Nonlinear induced polarization dependent scattering in solid state azo-dye films,” Laser Phys. Lett. 4, 275-278 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

S. Kawata, H.-B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, “Finer features for functional microdevices,” Nature 412, 697-698 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (4)

Z. Sekkat, “Isomeric orientation by two-photon excitation: a theoretical study,” Opt. Commun. 229, 291-303 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Mendonca, U. M. Neves, L. De Boni, A. A. Andrade, D. S. dos Santos, Jr., F. J. Pavinatto, S. C. Zilio, L. Misoguti, and O. N. Oliveira, “Two-photon induced anisotropy in PMMA film doped with Disperse Red 13,” Opt. Commun. 273, 435-441 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Sekkat, H. Ishitobi, and S. Kawata, “Two-photon isomerization and orientation of photoisomers in thin films of polymer,” Opt. Commun. 222, 269-276 (2003).
[CrossRef]

I. Fucks-Janczarek, J-M. Nunzi, B. Sahraoui, I. V. Kityk, J. Berdowski, A. M. Caminade, J-P. Majoral, A. C. Martineau, P. Frere, and J. Roncali, “Third-order nonlinear optical properties and two-photon absorption in branched oligothienylenevinylenes,” Opt. Commun. 209, 461-466 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (5)

Opt. Mater. (1)

A. Donval, E. Toussaere, S. Brasselet, and J. Zyss, “Comparative assessment of electrical, photoassisted and all optical in-plane poling of polymer based electrooptic modulators,” Opt. Mater. 12, 215-221 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) (1)

B. D. Davydov, L. D. Derkacheva, V. V. Dumina, M. E. Zhabostinskii, V. F. Zolin, L. G. Koreneva, and M. A. Sanokhina, “Charge transfer and harmonic generation in molecular crystals,” Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 30, 274-279 (1971).

Phys. Rev. B (1)

K. Yang, S. Yang, and J. Kumar, “Formation mechanism of surface relief structures on amorphous azopolymer films,” Phys. Rev. B 73, 165204 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E (1)

L. T. Thieghi, F. Batalioto, I. H. Bechtold, L. R. Evangelista, V. Zucolotto, D. T. Balogh, O. N. Oliveira, Jr., and E. A. Oliveira, “Phenomenological analysis of the light intensity dependence of the photoalignment process in azo-containing polymeric films,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 011802 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

M. I. Stockman, D. J. Bergman, C. Anceau, S. Brasselet, and J. Zyss, “Enhanced second-harmonic generation by metal surfaces with nanoscale roughness: nanoscale dephasing, depolarization, and correlations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 057402 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Science (5)

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, “Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy,” Science 248, 73-76 (1990).
[CrossRef]

W. Zhou, S. M. Kuebler, K. L. Braun, T. Yu, J. K. Cammack, C. K. Ober, J. W. Perry, and S. R. Marder, “An efficient two-photon-generated photoacid applied to positive-tone 3D microfabrication,” Science 296, 1106-1109 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Parthenopoulos and P. M. Rentzepis, “Three-dimensional optical storage memory,” Science 245, 843-845 (1989).
[CrossRef]

M. Albota, D. Beljonne, J. L. Bredas, J. E. Ehrlich, J. Y. Fu, A. A. Heikal, S. E. Hess, T. Kogej, M. D. Levin, S. R. Marder, D. McCord-Maughon, J. W. Perry, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, C. Subramaniam, W. W. Webb, X. L. Wu, and C. Xu, “Design of organic molecules with large two-photon absorption cross sections,” Science 281, 1653-1656 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Verbiest, D. M. Burland, M. C. Jurich, V. Y. Lee, R. D. Miller, and W. Volksen, “Exceptionally thermally stable polyimides for second-order nonlinear optical applications,” Science 268, 1604-1606 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Synth. Met. (1)

Z. Sekkat, and M. Dumont, “Photoinduced orientation of azo dye in polymeric films: Characterization of angular molecular mobility,” Synth. Met. 54, 373-381 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

Z. Sekkat, “Photo-orientation by photoisomerization,” in Photoreactive Organic Thin Films (Academic, 2002),Chapt. 3, pp. 63-104.

Z. Sekkat and W. Knoll, Photoreactive Organic Thin Films (Academic, 2002), and references therein.

J. Zyss and D. S. Chemla, “Quadratic nonlinear optics and optimization of the second-order nonlinear optical response of molecular crystals,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Molecules and Crystals, D.S.Chemla and J.Zyss, eds. (Academic, 1987), Vol. 1, p. 3.

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