Abstract

The mechanisms of refractive index change in poly(methyl methacrylate) by frequency doubled femtosecond laser pulses are investigated. It is demonstrated that positive refractive index modificaton can be caused by a combination of depolymerization and crosslinking.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. Zoubir, C. Lopez, M. Richardson, and K. Richardson,“Femtosecond laser fabrication of tubular waveguides in PMMA,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1840-1842 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. K. Ohta, M. Kamata, M. Obara, and N. Sawanobori, “Optical waveguide fabrication in new glasses and PMMA with temporally tailored ultrashort laser,” Proc. SPIE 5340, 172-178 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  3. C. Wochnowski, Y. Cheng, K. Meteva, K. Sugioka, K. Midorikawa, and S. Metev, “Femtosecond-laser induced formation of grating structures in planar polymer substrates,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 493-501 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. Sowa, W. Watanabe, T. Tamaki, J. Nishii, and K. Itoh, “Symmetric waveguides in PMMA fabricated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 14, 291-297 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. W. Watanabe, S. Sowa, T. Tamaki, K. Itoh, and J. Nishii, “Three-dimensional waveguides fabricated in PMMA by a femtosecond laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, L765-L767 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. Hirono, M. Kasuya, K. Matsuda, Y. Ozeki, K. Itoh, H. Mochizuki, and W. Watanabe, “Increasing diffraction efficiency by heating phase gratings formed by femtosecond laser irradiation in polymethyl methacrylate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 241122 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. Baum, P. J. Scully, M. Basanta, C. L. P. Thomas, P. R. Fielden, N. J. Goddard, W. Perrie, and P. R. Chalker, “Photochemistry of refractive index structures in PMMA by femtosecond laser irradiation,” Opt. Lett. 32, 190-192 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  8. D. Liu, Laser Group, Department of Engineering, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3GQ, UK; and Z. Kuang, W. Perrie, P. J. Scully, A. Baum, S. P. Edwardson, E. Fearon, G. Dearden, and K. G. Watkins are preparing a manuscript to be called “High speed ultrafast 3D refractive index micro-structuring of poly(methyl methacrylate).”
  9. C. B. Schaffer, J. F. Garcia, and E. Mazur, “Bulk heating of transparent materials using a high-repetition-rate femtosecond laser,” Appl. Phys. A: Solids Surf. 76, 351-354 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  10. R. Vieweg and F. Esser, Kunststoff-Handbuch Band 4, Polymethacrylate--Herstellung, Eigenschaften, Verarbeitung und Anwendung (Carl Hanser, 1975).
    [PubMed]
  11. S. Kuper and M. Stuke, “Ablation of uv-transparent materials with femtosecond uv excimer laser-pulses,” Microelectron. Eng. 9, 475-480 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. K. Baker and P. E. Dyer, “Refractive-index modification of PMMA thin-films by KrF-laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. A: Solids Surf. 57, 543-544 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  13. V. Lucarini, J. J. Saarinen, K. E. Peiponen, and E. M. Vartiainen, Kramers-Kronig Relations in Optical Materials (Springer, 2005).
  14. D. W. van Krevelen, Properties of Polymers: Their Estimation and Correlation with Chemical Structure, 2nd ed. (Elsevier, 1976).
  15. H. Looyenga, “Dielectric constants of heterogeneous mixtures,” Physica (Amsterdam) 31, 401-406 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. Marotz, “Holographic storage in sensitized poly (methyl methacrylate) blocks,” Appl. Phys. B: Photophys. Laser Chem. 37, 181-187 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  17. G. B. Blanchet, P. Cotts, and C. R. Fincher, “Incubation: Subthreshold ablation of poly-(methyl methacrylate) and the nature of the decomposition pathways,” J. Appl. Phys. 88, 2975-2978 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  18. S. D. Smith, T. E. Long, and J. E. McGrath, “Thermogravimetric analysis of poly(alkyl methacrylates) and poly(methylmethacrylate-g-dimethyl siloxane) graft copolymers,” J. Polym. Sci. A 32, 1747-1753 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  19. E. Süske, T. Scharf, H.-U. Krebs, E. Panchenko, T. Junkers, M. Egorov, M. Buback, and H. Kijewski, “Tuning of cross-linking and mechanical properties of laser-deposited poly (methyl methacrylate) films,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 1-4 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  20. H. Nagai, “Infrared spectra of stereoregular polymethyl methacrylate,” J. Polym. Sci. 7, 1697-1714 (1963).

2009

S. Hirono, M. Kasuya, K. Matsuda, Y. Ozeki, K. Itoh, H. Mochizuki, and W. Watanabe, “Increasing diffraction efficiency by heating phase gratings formed by femtosecond laser irradiation in polymethyl methacrylate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 241122 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007

2006

S. Sowa, W. Watanabe, T. Tamaki, J. Nishii, and K. Itoh, “Symmetric waveguides in PMMA fabricated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 14, 291-297 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Watanabe, S. Sowa, T. Tamaki, K. Itoh, and J. Nishii, “Three-dimensional waveguides fabricated in PMMA by a femtosecond laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, L765-L767 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

C. Wochnowski, Y. Cheng, K. Meteva, K. Sugioka, K. Midorikawa, and S. Metev, “Femtosecond-laser induced formation of grating structures in planar polymer substrates,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 493-501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. Süske, T. Scharf, H.-U. Krebs, E. Panchenko, T. Junkers, M. Egorov, M. Buback, and H. Kijewski, “Tuning of cross-linking and mechanical properties of laser-deposited poly (methyl methacrylate) films,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 1-4 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

K. Ohta, M. Kamata, M. Obara, and N. Sawanobori, “Optical waveguide fabrication in new glasses and PMMA with temporally tailored ultrashort laser,” Proc. SPIE 5340, 172-178 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Zoubir, C. Lopez, M. Richardson, and K. Richardson,“Femtosecond laser fabrication of tubular waveguides in PMMA,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1840-1842 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

C. B. Schaffer, J. F. Garcia, and E. Mazur, “Bulk heating of transparent materials using a high-repetition-rate femtosecond laser,” Appl. Phys. A: Solids Surf. 76, 351-354 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000

G. B. Blanchet, P. Cotts, and C. R. Fincher, “Incubation: Subthreshold ablation of poly-(methyl methacrylate) and the nature of the decomposition pathways,” J. Appl. Phys. 88, 2975-2978 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1994

S. D. Smith, T. E. Long, and J. E. McGrath, “Thermogravimetric analysis of poly(alkyl methacrylates) and poly(methylmethacrylate-g-dimethyl siloxane) graft copolymers,” J. Polym. Sci. A 32, 1747-1753 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

A. K. Baker and P. E. Dyer, “Refractive-index modification of PMMA thin-films by KrF-laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. A: Solids Surf. 57, 543-544 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1989

S. Kuper and M. Stuke, “Ablation of uv-transparent materials with femtosecond uv excimer laser-pulses,” Microelectron. Eng. 9, 475-480 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1985

J. Marotz, “Holographic storage in sensitized poly (methyl methacrylate) blocks,” Appl. Phys. B: Photophys. Laser Chem. 37, 181-187 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1965

H. Looyenga, “Dielectric constants of heterogeneous mixtures,” Physica (Amsterdam) 31, 401-406 (1965).
[CrossRef]

1963

H. Nagai, “Infrared spectra of stereoregular polymethyl methacrylate,” J. Polym. Sci. 7, 1697-1714 (1963).

Baker, A. K.

A. K. Baker and P. E. Dyer, “Refractive-index modification of PMMA thin-films by KrF-laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. A: Solids Surf. 57, 543-544 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Basanta, M.

Baum, A.

A. Baum, P. J. Scully, M. Basanta, C. L. P. Thomas, P. R. Fielden, N. J. Goddard, W. Perrie, and P. R. Chalker, “Photochemistry of refractive index structures in PMMA by femtosecond laser irradiation,” Opt. Lett. 32, 190-192 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Liu, Laser Group, Department of Engineering, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3GQ, UK; and Z. Kuang, W. Perrie, P. J. Scully, A. Baum, S. P. Edwardson, E. Fearon, G. Dearden, and K. G. Watkins are preparing a manuscript to be called “High speed ultrafast 3D refractive index micro-structuring of poly(methyl methacrylate).”

Blanchet, G. B.

G. B. Blanchet, P. Cotts, and C. R. Fincher, “Incubation: Subthreshold ablation of poly-(methyl methacrylate) and the nature of the decomposition pathways,” J. Appl. Phys. 88, 2975-2978 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Buback, M.

E. Süske, T. Scharf, H.-U. Krebs, E. Panchenko, T. Junkers, M. Egorov, M. Buback, and H. Kijewski, “Tuning of cross-linking and mechanical properties of laser-deposited poly (methyl methacrylate) films,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 1-4 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chalker, P. R.

Cheng, Y.

C. Wochnowski, Y. Cheng, K. Meteva, K. Sugioka, K. Midorikawa, and S. Metev, “Femtosecond-laser induced formation of grating structures in planar polymer substrates,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 493-501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cotts, P.

G. B. Blanchet, P. Cotts, and C. R. Fincher, “Incubation: Subthreshold ablation of poly-(methyl methacrylate) and the nature of the decomposition pathways,” J. Appl. Phys. 88, 2975-2978 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dearden, G.

D. Liu, Laser Group, Department of Engineering, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3GQ, UK; and Z. Kuang, W. Perrie, P. J. Scully, A. Baum, S. P. Edwardson, E. Fearon, G. Dearden, and K. G. Watkins are preparing a manuscript to be called “High speed ultrafast 3D refractive index micro-structuring of poly(methyl methacrylate).”

Dyer, P. E.

A. K. Baker and P. E. Dyer, “Refractive-index modification of PMMA thin-films by KrF-laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. A: Solids Surf. 57, 543-544 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Edwardson, S. P.

D. Liu, Laser Group, Department of Engineering, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3GQ, UK; and Z. Kuang, W. Perrie, P. J. Scully, A. Baum, S. P. Edwardson, E. Fearon, G. Dearden, and K. G. Watkins are preparing a manuscript to be called “High speed ultrafast 3D refractive index micro-structuring of poly(methyl methacrylate).”

Egorov, M.

E. Süske, T. Scharf, H.-U. Krebs, E. Panchenko, T. Junkers, M. Egorov, M. Buback, and H. Kijewski, “Tuning of cross-linking and mechanical properties of laser-deposited poly (methyl methacrylate) films,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 1-4 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Esser, F.

R. Vieweg and F. Esser, Kunststoff-Handbuch Band 4, Polymethacrylate--Herstellung, Eigenschaften, Verarbeitung und Anwendung (Carl Hanser, 1975).
[PubMed]

Fearon, E.

D. Liu, Laser Group, Department of Engineering, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3GQ, UK; and Z. Kuang, W. Perrie, P. J. Scully, A. Baum, S. P. Edwardson, E. Fearon, G. Dearden, and K. G. Watkins are preparing a manuscript to be called “High speed ultrafast 3D refractive index micro-structuring of poly(methyl methacrylate).”

Fielden, P. R.

Fincher, C. R.

G. B. Blanchet, P. Cotts, and C. R. Fincher, “Incubation: Subthreshold ablation of poly-(methyl methacrylate) and the nature of the decomposition pathways,” J. Appl. Phys. 88, 2975-2978 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Garcia, J. F.

C. B. Schaffer, J. F. Garcia, and E. Mazur, “Bulk heating of transparent materials using a high-repetition-rate femtosecond laser,” Appl. Phys. A: Solids Surf. 76, 351-354 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Goddard, N. J.

Hirono, S.

S. Hirono, M. Kasuya, K. Matsuda, Y. Ozeki, K. Itoh, H. Mochizuki, and W. Watanabe, “Increasing diffraction efficiency by heating phase gratings formed by femtosecond laser irradiation in polymethyl methacrylate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 241122 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Itoh, K.

S. Hirono, M. Kasuya, K. Matsuda, Y. Ozeki, K. Itoh, H. Mochizuki, and W. Watanabe, “Increasing diffraction efficiency by heating phase gratings formed by femtosecond laser irradiation in polymethyl methacrylate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 241122 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Sowa, W. Watanabe, T. Tamaki, J. Nishii, and K. Itoh, “Symmetric waveguides in PMMA fabricated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 14, 291-297 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Watanabe, S. Sowa, T. Tamaki, K. Itoh, and J. Nishii, “Three-dimensional waveguides fabricated in PMMA by a femtosecond laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, L765-L767 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Junkers, T.

E. Süske, T. Scharf, H.-U. Krebs, E. Panchenko, T. Junkers, M. Egorov, M. Buback, and H. Kijewski, “Tuning of cross-linking and mechanical properties of laser-deposited poly (methyl methacrylate) films,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 1-4 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kamata, M.

K. Ohta, M. Kamata, M. Obara, and N. Sawanobori, “Optical waveguide fabrication in new glasses and PMMA with temporally tailored ultrashort laser,” Proc. SPIE 5340, 172-178 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kasuya, M.

S. Hirono, M. Kasuya, K. Matsuda, Y. Ozeki, K. Itoh, H. Mochizuki, and W. Watanabe, “Increasing diffraction efficiency by heating phase gratings formed by femtosecond laser irradiation in polymethyl methacrylate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 241122 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kijewski, H.

E. Süske, T. Scharf, H.-U. Krebs, E. Panchenko, T. Junkers, M. Egorov, M. Buback, and H. Kijewski, “Tuning of cross-linking and mechanical properties of laser-deposited poly (methyl methacrylate) films,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 1-4 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Krebs, H.-U.

E. Süske, T. Scharf, H.-U. Krebs, E. Panchenko, T. Junkers, M. Egorov, M. Buback, and H. Kijewski, “Tuning of cross-linking and mechanical properties of laser-deposited poly (methyl methacrylate) films,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 1-4 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kuang, Z.

D. Liu, Laser Group, Department of Engineering, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3GQ, UK; and Z. Kuang, W. Perrie, P. J. Scully, A. Baum, S. P. Edwardson, E. Fearon, G. Dearden, and K. G. Watkins are preparing a manuscript to be called “High speed ultrafast 3D refractive index micro-structuring of poly(methyl methacrylate).”

Kuper, S.

S. Kuper and M. Stuke, “Ablation of uv-transparent materials with femtosecond uv excimer laser-pulses,” Microelectron. Eng. 9, 475-480 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Liu, D.

D. Liu, Laser Group, Department of Engineering, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3GQ, UK; and Z. Kuang, W. Perrie, P. J. Scully, A. Baum, S. P. Edwardson, E. Fearon, G. Dearden, and K. G. Watkins are preparing a manuscript to be called “High speed ultrafast 3D refractive index micro-structuring of poly(methyl methacrylate).”

Long, T. E.

S. D. Smith, T. E. Long, and J. E. McGrath, “Thermogravimetric analysis of poly(alkyl methacrylates) and poly(methylmethacrylate-g-dimethyl siloxane) graft copolymers,” J. Polym. Sci. A 32, 1747-1753 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Looyenga, H.

H. Looyenga, “Dielectric constants of heterogeneous mixtures,” Physica (Amsterdam) 31, 401-406 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Lopez, C.

Lucarini, V.

V. Lucarini, J. J. Saarinen, K. E. Peiponen, and E. M. Vartiainen, Kramers-Kronig Relations in Optical Materials (Springer, 2005).

Marotz, J.

J. Marotz, “Holographic storage in sensitized poly (methyl methacrylate) blocks,” Appl. Phys. B: Photophys. Laser Chem. 37, 181-187 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Matsuda, K.

S. Hirono, M. Kasuya, K. Matsuda, Y. Ozeki, K. Itoh, H. Mochizuki, and W. Watanabe, “Increasing diffraction efficiency by heating phase gratings formed by femtosecond laser irradiation in polymethyl methacrylate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 241122 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mazur, E.

C. B. Schaffer, J. F. Garcia, and E. Mazur, “Bulk heating of transparent materials using a high-repetition-rate femtosecond laser,” Appl. Phys. A: Solids Surf. 76, 351-354 (2003).
[CrossRef]

McGrath, J. E.

S. D. Smith, T. E. Long, and J. E. McGrath, “Thermogravimetric analysis of poly(alkyl methacrylates) and poly(methylmethacrylate-g-dimethyl siloxane) graft copolymers,” J. Polym. Sci. A 32, 1747-1753 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Metev, S.

C. Wochnowski, Y. Cheng, K. Meteva, K. Sugioka, K. Midorikawa, and S. Metev, “Femtosecond-laser induced formation of grating structures in planar polymer substrates,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 493-501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Meteva, K.

C. Wochnowski, Y. Cheng, K. Meteva, K. Sugioka, K. Midorikawa, and S. Metev, “Femtosecond-laser induced formation of grating structures in planar polymer substrates,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 493-501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Midorikawa, K.

C. Wochnowski, Y. Cheng, K. Meteva, K. Sugioka, K. Midorikawa, and S. Metev, “Femtosecond-laser induced formation of grating structures in planar polymer substrates,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 493-501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mochizuki, H.

S. Hirono, M. Kasuya, K. Matsuda, Y. Ozeki, K. Itoh, H. Mochizuki, and W. Watanabe, “Increasing diffraction efficiency by heating phase gratings formed by femtosecond laser irradiation in polymethyl methacrylate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 241122 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nagai, H.

H. Nagai, “Infrared spectra of stereoregular polymethyl methacrylate,” J. Polym. Sci. 7, 1697-1714 (1963).

Nishii, J.

W. Watanabe, S. Sowa, T. Tamaki, K. Itoh, and J. Nishii, “Three-dimensional waveguides fabricated in PMMA by a femtosecond laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, L765-L767 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Sowa, W. Watanabe, T. Tamaki, J. Nishii, and K. Itoh, “Symmetric waveguides in PMMA fabricated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 14, 291-297 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Obara, M.

K. Ohta, M. Kamata, M. Obara, and N. Sawanobori, “Optical waveguide fabrication in new glasses and PMMA with temporally tailored ultrashort laser,” Proc. SPIE 5340, 172-178 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ohta, K.

K. Ohta, M. Kamata, M. Obara, and N. Sawanobori, “Optical waveguide fabrication in new glasses and PMMA with temporally tailored ultrashort laser,” Proc. SPIE 5340, 172-178 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ozeki, Y.

S. Hirono, M. Kasuya, K. Matsuda, Y. Ozeki, K. Itoh, H. Mochizuki, and W. Watanabe, “Increasing diffraction efficiency by heating phase gratings formed by femtosecond laser irradiation in polymethyl methacrylate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 241122 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Panchenko, E.

E. Süske, T. Scharf, H.-U. Krebs, E. Panchenko, T. Junkers, M. Egorov, M. Buback, and H. Kijewski, “Tuning of cross-linking and mechanical properties of laser-deposited poly (methyl methacrylate) films,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 1-4 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Peiponen, K. E.

V. Lucarini, J. J. Saarinen, K. E. Peiponen, and E. M. Vartiainen, Kramers-Kronig Relations in Optical Materials (Springer, 2005).

Perrie, W.

A. Baum, P. J. Scully, M. Basanta, C. L. P. Thomas, P. R. Fielden, N. J. Goddard, W. Perrie, and P. R. Chalker, “Photochemistry of refractive index structures in PMMA by femtosecond laser irradiation,” Opt. Lett. 32, 190-192 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Liu, Laser Group, Department of Engineering, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3GQ, UK; and Z. Kuang, W. Perrie, P. J. Scully, A. Baum, S. P. Edwardson, E. Fearon, G. Dearden, and K. G. Watkins are preparing a manuscript to be called “High speed ultrafast 3D refractive index micro-structuring of poly(methyl methacrylate).”

Richardson, K.

Richardson, M.

Saarinen, J. J.

V. Lucarini, J. J. Saarinen, K. E. Peiponen, and E. M. Vartiainen, Kramers-Kronig Relations in Optical Materials (Springer, 2005).

Sawanobori, N.

K. Ohta, M. Kamata, M. Obara, and N. Sawanobori, “Optical waveguide fabrication in new glasses and PMMA with temporally tailored ultrashort laser,” Proc. SPIE 5340, 172-178 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schaffer, C. B.

C. B. Schaffer, J. F. Garcia, and E. Mazur, “Bulk heating of transparent materials using a high-repetition-rate femtosecond laser,” Appl. Phys. A: Solids Surf. 76, 351-354 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Scharf, T.

E. Süske, T. Scharf, H.-U. Krebs, E. Panchenko, T. Junkers, M. Egorov, M. Buback, and H. Kijewski, “Tuning of cross-linking and mechanical properties of laser-deposited poly (methyl methacrylate) films,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 1-4 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Scully, P. J.

A. Baum, P. J. Scully, M. Basanta, C. L. P. Thomas, P. R. Fielden, N. J. Goddard, W. Perrie, and P. R. Chalker, “Photochemistry of refractive index structures in PMMA by femtosecond laser irradiation,” Opt. Lett. 32, 190-192 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Liu, Laser Group, Department of Engineering, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3GQ, UK; and Z. Kuang, W. Perrie, P. J. Scully, A. Baum, S. P. Edwardson, E. Fearon, G. Dearden, and K. G. Watkins are preparing a manuscript to be called “High speed ultrafast 3D refractive index micro-structuring of poly(methyl methacrylate).”

Smith, S. D.

S. D. Smith, T. E. Long, and J. E. McGrath, “Thermogravimetric analysis of poly(alkyl methacrylates) and poly(methylmethacrylate-g-dimethyl siloxane) graft copolymers,” J. Polym. Sci. A 32, 1747-1753 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sowa, S.

W. Watanabe, S. Sowa, T. Tamaki, K. Itoh, and J. Nishii, “Three-dimensional waveguides fabricated in PMMA by a femtosecond laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, L765-L767 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Sowa, W. Watanabe, T. Tamaki, J. Nishii, and K. Itoh, “Symmetric waveguides in PMMA fabricated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 14, 291-297 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stuke, M.

S. Kuper and M. Stuke, “Ablation of uv-transparent materials with femtosecond uv excimer laser-pulses,” Microelectron. Eng. 9, 475-480 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Sugioka, K.

C. Wochnowski, Y. Cheng, K. Meteva, K. Sugioka, K. Midorikawa, and S. Metev, “Femtosecond-laser induced formation of grating structures in planar polymer substrates,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 493-501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Süske, E.

E. Süske, T. Scharf, H.-U. Krebs, E. Panchenko, T. Junkers, M. Egorov, M. Buback, and H. Kijewski, “Tuning of cross-linking and mechanical properties of laser-deposited poly (methyl methacrylate) films,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 1-4 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tamaki, T.

S. Sowa, W. Watanabe, T. Tamaki, J. Nishii, and K. Itoh, “Symmetric waveguides in PMMA fabricated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 14, 291-297 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Watanabe, S. Sowa, T. Tamaki, K. Itoh, and J. Nishii, “Three-dimensional waveguides fabricated in PMMA by a femtosecond laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, L765-L767 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, C. L. P.

van Krevelen, D. W.

D. W. van Krevelen, Properties of Polymers: Their Estimation and Correlation with Chemical Structure, 2nd ed. (Elsevier, 1976).

Vartiainen, E. M.

V. Lucarini, J. J. Saarinen, K. E. Peiponen, and E. M. Vartiainen, Kramers-Kronig Relations in Optical Materials (Springer, 2005).

Vieweg, R.

R. Vieweg and F. Esser, Kunststoff-Handbuch Band 4, Polymethacrylate--Herstellung, Eigenschaften, Verarbeitung und Anwendung (Carl Hanser, 1975).
[PubMed]

Watanabe, W.

S. Hirono, M. Kasuya, K. Matsuda, Y. Ozeki, K. Itoh, H. Mochizuki, and W. Watanabe, “Increasing diffraction efficiency by heating phase gratings formed by femtosecond laser irradiation in polymethyl methacrylate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 241122 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Sowa, W. Watanabe, T. Tamaki, J. Nishii, and K. Itoh, “Symmetric waveguides in PMMA fabricated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 14, 291-297 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Transmittance of pure and laser-modified PMMA ( 1.1 mm Vistacryl CQ, Λ = 10 μ m , N = 1 ).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Difference extinction coefficient (left) and Δ n (right) between laser-modified and unmodified PMMA ( τ i from Fig. 1, C = 50 % ).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

TGA of laser-modified and unmodified PMMA ( 260 μ m initiator-free Vistacryl CQ; Φ = 0.446 J cm 2 , Λ = 10 μ m , N = 1 , 10 ).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Surface profile of a previously sub-surface grating after etching in MIBK ( 0.5 mm Vistacryl CQ, Φ = 0.446 J cm 2 , Λ = 20 μ m , N = 1 ).

Equations (2)

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n = [ 1 + 2 [ R ] V M 1 [ R ] V M ] 1 2 .
n = [ ( n 2 2 3 n 1 2 3 ) υ 2 + n 1 2 3 ] 3 2 ,

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