Abstract

We demonstrate the control of terahertz (THz) wave generation in nitrogen gas using shaped optical pulses with a spatial light modulator (SLM). We employ a genetic optimization algorithm to optimize the optical excitation pulses for the THz wave generation. A comparison of the optimization processes using THz power and second harmonics intensity as fitness functions is given. We also show that THz pulse trains with variable separation of pulses can be generated by using a series of periodic rectangular optical phases in Fourier space.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. Y. Sohn, Y. H. Ahn, D. J. Park, E. Oh, and D. S. Kim, “Tunable terahertz generation using femtosecond pulse shaping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 13-15 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. Rangan and P. H. Bucksbaum, “Optimally shaped terahertz pulses for phase retrieval in a Rydberg-atom data register,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 0334171-0334171 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. Meshulach and Y. Silberberg, “Coherent quantum control of two-photon transitions by a femtosecond laser pulse,” Nature (London) 396, 239-242 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. Bartels, S. Backus, E. Zeek, L. Misoguti, G. Vdovin, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Shaped-pulse optimization of coherent emission of high-harmonic soft X-rays,” Nature (London) 406, 164-166 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
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  7. T. Feurer, J. C. Vaughan, and K. A. Nelson, “Spatiotemporal coherent control of lattice vibrational waves,” Science 299, 374-377 (2003).
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  8. Y. S. Lee, T. Meade, T. B. Norris, and A. Galvanauskas, “Tunable narrow-band terahertz generation from periodically poled lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3583-3585 (2001).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. M. Kress, T. Loffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dorner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrosp, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, “Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 2, 327-331 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  16. J. Dai, X. Xie, and X.-C. Zhang, “Detection of broadband terahertz waves with a laser-induced plasma in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 103903-103906 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X. Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X.-C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, C. Fletcher, O. Mamer, A. Lesimple, and K. Johnson, “Coherent heterodyne time-domain spectrometry covering the entire 'terahertz gap',” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011131-011133 (2008).
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    [CrossRef]
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  21. Introduction to Genetic Algorithms(2008), http://www.obitko.com/tutorials/genetic-algorithms/.
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    [CrossRef]
  23. N. E. Karpowicz, J. Chen, T. Tongue, and X. C. Zhang, “Coherent millimeter wave to mid-infrared measurements with continuous bandwidth reaching 40 THz,” Electron. Lett. 44, 544-545 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  24. H.-G. Beyer, M. Olhofer, and B. Sendhoff, “On the impact of systematic noise on the evolutionary optimization performance--a sphere module analysis,” Genetic Programming and Evolvable Machines 5, 327-360 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  25. F. Shuang and H. Rabitz, “Cooperating or fighting with control noise in the optimal manipulation of quantum dynamics,” J. Chem. Phys. 121, 9270-9278 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

2008

D. Weidinger and M. Gruebele, “Simulations of quantum computation with a molecular ion,” Chem. Phys. 350, 139-144 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. E. Karpowicz, J. Chen, T. Tongue, and X. C. Zhang, “Coherent millimeter wave to mid-infrared measurements with continuous bandwidth reaching 40 THz,” Electron. Lett. 44, 544-545 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X. Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X.-C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, C. Fletcher, O. Mamer, A. Lesimple, and K. Johnson, “Coherent heterodyne time-domain spectrometry covering the entire 'terahertz gap',” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011131-011133 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

M. D. Thomson, M. Kreß, T. Löffler, and H. G. Roskos, “Broadband THz emission from gas plasmas induced by femtosecond optical pulses: from fundamentals to applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 1, 349-368 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, M. Wang, and X.-C. Zhang, “Terahertz pulse generation from noble gases,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 251116-251118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Xie, J. Dai, M. Yamaguchi, and X.-C. Zhang, “Ambient air used as the nonlinear media for THz wave generation,” Int. J. High Speed Electron. Syst. 17, 69-78 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Y. Kim, J. H. Glownia, A. J. Taylor, and G. Rodriguez, “Terahertz emission from ultrafast ionizing air in symmetry-broken laser fields,” Opt. Express 15, 4577-4584 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

J. Dai, X. Xie, and X.-C. Zhang, “Detection of broadband terahertz waves with a laser-induced plasma in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 103903-103906 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kress, T. Loffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dorner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrosp, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, “Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 2, 327-331 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. Xie, J. Dai, and X.-C. Zhang, “Coherent control of THz wave generation in ambient air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 0750051-0750054 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

2004

M. Kress, T. Löffler, S. Eden, M. Thomson, and H. G. Roskos, “Terahertz-pulse generation by photoionization of air with laser pulses composed of both fundamental and second-harmonic waves,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1120-1122 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-G. Beyer, M. Olhofer, and B. Sendhoff, “On the impact of systematic noise on the evolutionary optimization performance--a sphere module analysis,” Genetic Programming and Evolvable Machines 5, 327-360 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Shuang and H. Rabitz, “Cooperating or fighting with control noise in the optimal manipulation of quantum dynamics,” J. Chem. Phys. 121, 9270-9278 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

T. Feurer, J. C. Vaughan, and K. A. Nelson, “Spatiotemporal coherent control of lattice vibrational waves,” Science 299, 374-377 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

J. Y. Sohn, Y. H. Ahn, D. J. Park, E. Oh, and D. S. Kim, “Tunable terahertz generation using femtosecond pulse shaping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 13-15 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

C. Rangan and P. H. Bucksbaum, “Optimally shaped terahertz pulses for phase retrieval in a Rydberg-atom data register,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 0334171-0334171 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. S. Lee, T. Meade, T. B. Norris, and A. Galvanauskas, “Tunable narrow-band terahertz generation from periodically poled lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3583-3585 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

1998

Agrawal, G. P.

Ahn, Y. H.

J. Y. Sohn, Y. H. Ahn, D. J. Park, E. Oh, and D. S. Kim, “Tunable terahertz generation using femtosecond pulse shaping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 13-15 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Backus, S.

E. Zeek, R. Bartels, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, S. Backus, and G. Vdovin, “Adaptive pulse compression for transform-limited 15-fs high-energy pulse generation,” Opt. Lett. 25, 587-589 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Bartels, S. Backus, E. Zeek, L. Misoguti, G. Vdovin, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Shaped-pulse optimization of coherent emission of high-harmonic soft X-rays,” Nature (London) 406, 164-166 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bartel, T.

Bartels, R.

E. Zeek, R. Bartels, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, S. Backus, and G. Vdovin, “Adaptive pulse compression for transform-limited 15-fs high-energy pulse generation,” Opt. Lett. 25, 587-589 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Bartels, S. Backus, E. Zeek, L. Misoguti, G. Vdovin, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Shaped-pulse optimization of coherent emission of high-harmonic soft X-rays,” Nature (London) 406, 164-166 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Beyer, H.-G.

H.-G. Beyer, M. Olhofer, and B. Sendhoff, “On the impact of systematic noise on the evolutionary optimization performance--a sphere module analysis,” Genetic Programming and Evolvable Machines 5, 327-360 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bromage, J.

Bucksbaum, P. H.

C. Rangan and P. H. Bucksbaum, “Optimally shaped terahertz pulses for phase retrieval in a Rydberg-atom data register,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 0334171-0334171 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.

N. E. Karpowicz, J. Chen, T. Tongue, and X. C. Zhang, “Coherent millimeter wave to mid-infrared measurements with continuous bandwidth reaching 40 THz,” Electron. Lett. 44, 544-545 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X. Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X.-C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, C. Fletcher, O. Mamer, A. Lesimple, and K. Johnson, “Coherent heterodyne time-domain spectrometry covering the entire 'terahertz gap',” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011131-011133 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, M. Wang, and X.-C. Zhang, “Terahertz pulse generation from noble gases,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 251116-251118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Christov, I. P.

R. Bartels, S. Backus, E. Zeek, L. Misoguti, G. Vdovin, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Shaped-pulse optimization of coherent emission of high-harmonic soft X-rays,” Nature (London) 406, 164-166 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cook, D. J.

Dai, J.

N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X. Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X.-C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, C. Fletcher, O. Mamer, A. Lesimple, and K. Johnson, “Coherent heterodyne time-domain spectrometry covering the entire 'terahertz gap',” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011131-011133 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. Xie, J. Dai, M. Yamaguchi, and X.-C. Zhang, “Ambient air used as the nonlinear media for THz wave generation,” Int. J. High Speed Electron. Syst. 17, 69-78 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Xie, J. Dai, and X.-C. Zhang, “Coherent control of THz wave generation in ambient air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 0750051-0750054 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Dai, X. Xie, and X.-C. Zhang, “Detection of broadband terahertz waves with a laser-induced plasma in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 103903-103906 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D'Amico, C.

Degert, J.

Dorner, R.

M. Kress, T. Loffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dorner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrosp, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, “Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 2, 327-331 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Eden, S.

Elsaesser, T.

Ergler, T.

M. Kress, T. Loffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dorner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrosp, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, “Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 2, 327-331 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fauchet, P. M.

Feurer, T.

T. Feurer, J. C. Vaughan, and K. A. Nelson, “Spatiotemporal coherent control of lattice vibrational waves,” Science 299, 374-377 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fletcher, C.

N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X. Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X.-C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, C. Fletcher, O. Mamer, A. Lesimple, and K. Johnson, “Coherent heterodyne time-domain spectrometry covering the entire 'terahertz gap',” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011131-011133 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Freysz, E.

Gaal, P.

Galvanauskas, A.

Y. S. Lee, T. Meade, T. B. Norris, and A. Galvanauskas, “Tunable narrow-band terahertz generation from periodically poled lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3583-3585 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gimpel, H.

M. Kress, T. Loffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dorner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrosp, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, “Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 2, 327-331 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Glownia, J. H.

Gruebele, M.

D. Weidinger and M. Gruebele, “Simulations of quantum computation with a molecular ion,” Chem. Phys. 350, 139-144 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hochstrasser, R. M.

Johnson, K.

N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X. Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X.-C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, C. Fletcher, O. Mamer, A. Lesimple, and K. Johnson, “Coherent heterodyne time-domain spectrometry covering the entire 'terahertz gap',” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011131-011133 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kapteyn, H. C.

R. Bartels, S. Backus, E. Zeek, L. Misoguti, G. Vdovin, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Shaped-pulse optimization of coherent emission of high-harmonic soft X-rays,” Nature (London) 406, 164-166 (2000).
[CrossRef]

E. Zeek, R. Bartels, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, S. Backus, and G. Vdovin, “Adaptive pulse compression for transform-limited 15-fs high-energy pulse generation,” Opt. Lett. 25, 587-589 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Karpowicz, N.

N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X. Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X.-C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, C. Fletcher, O. Mamer, A. Lesimple, and K. Johnson, “Coherent heterodyne time-domain spectrometry covering the entire 'terahertz gap',” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011131-011133 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Karpowicz, N. E.

N. E. Karpowicz, J. Chen, T. Tongue, and X. C. Zhang, “Coherent millimeter wave to mid-infrared measurements with continuous bandwidth reaching 40 THz,” Electron. Lett. 44, 544-545 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D. S.

J. Y. Sohn, Y. H. Ahn, D. J. Park, E. Oh, and D. S. Kim, “Tunable terahertz generation using femtosecond pulse shaping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 13-15 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K. Y.

Kreß, M.

M. D. Thomson, M. Kreß, T. Löffler, and H. G. Roskos, “Broadband THz emission from gas plasmas induced by femtosecond optical pulses: from fundamentals to applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 1, 349-368 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kress, M.

M. Kress, T. Loffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dorner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrosp, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, “Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 2, 327-331 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Kress, T. Löffler, S. Eden, M. Thomson, and H. G. Roskos, “Terahertz-pulse generation by photoionization of air with laser pulses composed of both fundamental and second-harmonic waves,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1120-1122 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, Y. S.

Y. S. Lee, T. Meade, T. B. Norris, and A. Galvanauskas, “Tunable narrow-band terahertz generation from periodically poled lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3583-3585 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lesimple, A.

N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X. Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X.-C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, C. Fletcher, O. Mamer, A. Lesimple, and K. Johnson, “Coherent heterodyne time-domain spectrometry covering the entire 'terahertz gap',” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011131-011133 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Loffler, T.

M. Kress, T. Loffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dorner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrosp, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, “Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 2, 327-331 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Löffler, T.

M. D. Thomson, M. Kreß, T. Löffler, and H. G. Roskos, “Broadband THz emission from gas plasmas induced by femtosecond optical pulses: from fundamentals to applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 1, 349-368 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Kress, T. Löffler, S. Eden, M. Thomson, and H. G. Roskos, “Terahertz-pulse generation by photoionization of air with laser pulses composed of both fundamental and second-harmonic waves,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1120-1122 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lu, X.

N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X. Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X.-C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, C. Fletcher, O. Mamer, A. Lesimple, and K. Johnson, “Coherent heterodyne time-domain spectrometry covering the entire 'terahertz gap',” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011131-011133 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mamer, O.

N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X. Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X.-C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, C. Fletcher, O. Mamer, A. Lesimple, and K. Johnson, “Coherent heterodyne time-domain spectrometry covering the entire 'terahertz gap',” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011131-011133 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Meade, T.

Y. S. Lee, T. Meade, T. B. Norris, and A. Galvanauskas, “Tunable narrow-band terahertz generation from periodically poled lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3583-3585 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Meshulach, D.

D. Meshulach and Y. Silberberg, “Coherent quantum control of two-photon transitions by a femtosecond laser pulse,” Nature (London) 396, 239-242 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Misoguti, L.

R. Bartels, S. Backus, E. Zeek, L. Misoguti, G. Vdovin, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Shaped-pulse optimization of coherent emission of high-harmonic soft X-rays,” Nature (London) 406, 164-166 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Morgner, U.

M. Kress, T. Loffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dorner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrosp, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, “Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 2, 327-331 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Moshammer, R.

M. Kress, T. Loffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dorner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrosp, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, “Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 2, 327-331 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Murnane, M. M.

R. Bartels, S. Backus, E. Zeek, L. Misoguti, G. Vdovin, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Shaped-pulse optimization of coherent emission of high-harmonic soft X-rays,” Nature (London) 406, 164-166 (2000).
[CrossRef]

E. Zeek, R. Bartels, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, S. Backus, and G. Vdovin, “Adaptive pulse compression for transform-limited 15-fs high-energy pulse generation,” Opt. Lett. 25, 587-589 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, K. A.

T. Feurer, J. C. Vaughan, and K. A. Nelson, “Spatiotemporal coherent control of lattice vibrational waves,” Science 299, 374-377 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Norris, T. B.

Y. S. Lee, T. Meade, T. B. Norris, and A. Galvanauskas, “Tunable narrow-band terahertz generation from periodically poled lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3583-3585 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Oh, E.

J. Y. Sohn, Y. H. Ahn, D. J. Park, E. Oh, and D. S. Kim, “Tunable terahertz generation using femtosecond pulse shaping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 13-15 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Olhofer, M.

H.-G. Beyer, M. Olhofer, and B. Sendhoff, “On the impact of systematic noise on the evolutionary optimization performance--a sphere module analysis,” Genetic Programming and Evolvable Machines 5, 327-360 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Park, D. J.

J. Y. Sohn, Y. H. Ahn, D. J. Park, E. Oh, and D. S. Kim, “Tunable terahertz generation using femtosecond pulse shaping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 13-15 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Price-Gallagher, M.

N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X. Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X.-C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, C. Fletcher, O. Mamer, A. Lesimple, and K. Johnson, “Coherent heterodyne time-domain spectrometry covering the entire 'terahertz gap',” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011131-011133 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rabitz, H.

F. Shuang and H. Rabitz, “Cooperating or fighting with control noise in the optimal manipulation of quantum dynamics,” J. Chem. Phys. 121, 9270-9278 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Radic, S.

Rangan, C.

C. Rangan and P. H. Bucksbaum, “Optimally shaped terahertz pulses for phase retrieval in a Rydberg-atom data register,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 0334171-0334171 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Reimann, K.

Rodriguez, G.

Roskos, H. G.

M. D. Thomson, M. Kreß, T. Löffler, and H. G. Roskos, “Broadband THz emission from gas plasmas induced by femtosecond optical pulses: from fundamentals to applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 1, 349-368 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Kress, T. Loffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dorner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrosp, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, “Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 2, 327-331 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Kress, T. Löffler, S. Eden, M. Thomson, and H. G. Roskos, “Terahertz-pulse generation by photoionization of air with laser pulses composed of both fundamental and second-harmonic waves,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1120-1122 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sendhoff, B.

H.-G. Beyer, M. Olhofer, and B. Sendhoff, “On the impact of systematic noise on the evolutionary optimization performance--a sphere module analysis,” Genetic Programming and Evolvable Machines 5, 327-360 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shuang, F.

F. Shuang and H. Rabitz, “Cooperating or fighting with control noise in the optimal manipulation of quantum dynamics,” J. Chem. Phys. 121, 9270-9278 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Silberberg, Y.

D. Meshulach and Y. Silberberg, “Coherent quantum control of two-photon transitions by a femtosecond laser pulse,” Nature (London) 396, 239-242 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sobolewski, R.

Sohn, J. Y.

J. Y. Sohn, Y. H. Ahn, D. J. Park, E. Oh, and D. S. Kim, “Tunable terahertz generation using femtosecond pulse shaping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 13-15 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Stroud, J. C. R.

Taylor, A. J.

Thomson, M.

Thomson, M. D.

M. D. Thomson, M. Kreß, T. Löffler, and H. G. Roskos, “Broadband THz emission from gas plasmas induced by femtosecond optical pulses: from fundamentals to applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 1, 349-368 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Kress, T. Loffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dorner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrosp, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, “Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 2, 327-331 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tondusson, M.

Tongue, T.

N. E. Karpowicz, J. Chen, T. Tongue, and X. C. Zhang, “Coherent millimeter wave to mid-infrared measurements with continuous bandwidth reaching 40 THz,” Electron. Lett. 44, 544-545 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ullrich, J.

M. Kress, T. Loffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dorner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrosp, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, “Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 2, 327-331 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vaughan, J. C.

T. Feurer, J. C. Vaughan, and K. A. Nelson, “Spatiotemporal coherent control of lattice vibrational waves,” Science 299, 374-377 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vdovin, G.

E. Zeek, R. Bartels, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, S. Backus, and G. Vdovin, “Adaptive pulse compression for transform-limited 15-fs high-energy pulse generation,” Opt. Lett. 25, 587-589 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Bartels, S. Backus, E. Zeek, L. Misoguti, G. Vdovin, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Shaped-pulse optimization of coherent emission of high-harmonic soft X-rays,” Nature (London) 406, 164-166 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wang, M.

Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, M. Wang, and X.-C. Zhang, “Terahertz pulse generation from noble gases,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 251116-251118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Weidinger, D.

D. Weidinger and M. Gruebele, “Simulations of quantum computation with a molecular ion,” Chem. Phys. 350, 139-144 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Woerner, M.

Xie, X.

X. Xie, J. Dai, M. Yamaguchi, and X.-C. Zhang, “Ambient air used as the nonlinear media for THz wave generation,” Int. J. High Speed Electron. Syst. 17, 69-78 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Dai, X. Xie, and X.-C. Zhang, “Detection of broadband terahertz waves with a laser-induced plasma in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 103903-103906 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Xie, J. Dai, and X.-C. Zhang, “Coherent control of THz wave generation in ambient air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 0750051-0750054 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yamaguchi, M.

N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X. Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X.-C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, C. Fletcher, O. Mamer, A. Lesimple, and K. Johnson, “Coherent heterodyne time-domain spectrometry covering the entire 'terahertz gap',” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011131-011133 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. Xie, J. Dai, M. Yamaguchi, and X.-C. Zhang, “Ambient air used as the nonlinear media for THz wave generation,” Int. J. High Speed Electron. Syst. 17, 69-78 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, M. Wang, and X.-C. Zhang, “Terahertz pulse generation from noble gases,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 251116-251118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zeek, E.

R. Bartels, S. Backus, E. Zeek, L. Misoguti, G. Vdovin, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Shaped-pulse optimization of coherent emission of high-harmonic soft X-rays,” Nature (London) 406, 164-166 (2000).
[CrossRef]

E. Zeek, R. Bartels, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, S. Backus, and G. Vdovin, “Adaptive pulse compression for transform-limited 15-fs high-energy pulse generation,” Opt. Lett. 25, 587-589 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, C.

N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X. Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X.-C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, C. Fletcher, O. Mamer, A. Lesimple, and K. Johnson, “Coherent heterodyne time-domain spectrometry covering the entire 'terahertz gap',” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011131-011133 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X. Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X.-C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, C. Fletcher, O. Mamer, A. Lesimple, and K. Johnson, “Coherent heterodyne time-domain spectrometry covering the entire 'terahertz gap',” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011131-011133 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X. C.

N. E. Karpowicz, J. Chen, T. Tongue, and X. C. Zhang, “Coherent millimeter wave to mid-infrared measurements with continuous bandwidth reaching 40 THz,” Electron. Lett. 44, 544-545 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.-C.

N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X. Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X.-C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, C. Fletcher, O. Mamer, A. Lesimple, and K. Johnson, “Coherent heterodyne time-domain spectrometry covering the entire 'terahertz gap',” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011131-011133 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. Xie, J. Dai, M. Yamaguchi, and X.-C. Zhang, “Ambient air used as the nonlinear media for THz wave generation,” Int. J. High Speed Electron. Syst. 17, 69-78 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, M. Wang, and X.-C. Zhang, “Terahertz pulse generation from noble gases,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 251116-251118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Dai, X. Xie, and X.-C. Zhang, “Detection of broadband terahertz waves with a laser-induced plasma in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 103903-103906 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Xie, J. Dai, and X.-C. Zhang, “Coherent control of THz wave generation in ambient air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 0750051-0750054 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, H.

N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X. Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X.-C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, C. Fletcher, O. Mamer, A. Lesimple, and K. Johnson, “Coherent heterodyne time-domain spectrometry covering the entire 'terahertz gap',” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011131-011133 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zrosp, K.

M. Kress, T. Loffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dorner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrosp, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, “Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 2, 327-331 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

J. Y. Sohn, Y. H. Ahn, D. J. Park, E. Oh, and D. S. Kim, “Tunable terahertz generation using femtosecond pulse shaping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 13-15 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. S. Lee, T. Meade, T. B. Norris, and A. Galvanauskas, “Tunable narrow-band terahertz generation from periodically poled lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3583-3585 (2001).
[CrossRef]

N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X. Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X.-C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, C. Fletcher, O. Mamer, A. Lesimple, and K. Johnson, “Coherent heterodyne time-domain spectrometry covering the entire 'terahertz gap',” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011131-011133 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, M. Wang, and X.-C. Zhang, “Terahertz pulse generation from noble gases,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 251116-251118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys.

D. Weidinger and M. Gruebele, “Simulations of quantum computation with a molecular ion,” Chem. Phys. 350, 139-144 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

N. E. Karpowicz, J. Chen, T. Tongue, and X. C. Zhang, “Coherent millimeter wave to mid-infrared measurements with continuous bandwidth reaching 40 THz,” Electron. Lett. 44, 544-545 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Genetic Programming and Evolvable Machines

H.-G. Beyer, M. Olhofer, and B. Sendhoff, “On the impact of systematic noise on the evolutionary optimization performance--a sphere module analysis,” Genetic Programming and Evolvable Machines 5, 327-360 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. High Speed Electron. Syst.

X. Xie, J. Dai, M. Yamaguchi, and X.-C. Zhang, “Ambient air used as the nonlinear media for THz wave generation,” Int. J. High Speed Electron. Syst. 17, 69-78 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys.

F. Shuang and H. Rabitz, “Cooperating or fighting with control noise in the optimal manipulation of quantum dynamics,” J. Chem. Phys. 121, 9270-9278 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Laser Photonics Rev.

M. D. Thomson, M. Kreß, T. Löffler, and H. G. Roskos, “Broadband THz emission from gas plasmas induced by femtosecond optical pulses: from fundamentals to applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 1, 349-368 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Phys.

M. Kress, T. Loffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dorner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrosp, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, “Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 2, 327-331 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nature (London)

D. Meshulach and Y. Silberberg, “Coherent quantum control of two-photon transitions by a femtosecond laser pulse,” Nature (London) 396, 239-242 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Bartels, S. Backus, E. Zeek, L. Misoguti, G. Vdovin, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Shaped-pulse optimization of coherent emission of high-harmonic soft X-rays,” Nature (London) 406, 164-166 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. A

C. Rangan and P. H. Bucksbaum, “Optimally shaped terahertz pulses for phase retrieval in a Rydberg-atom data register,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 0334171-0334171 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

J. Dai, X. Xie, and X.-C. Zhang, “Detection of broadband terahertz waves with a laser-induced plasma in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 103903-103906 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Xie, J. Dai, and X.-C. Zhang, “Coherent control of THz wave generation in ambient air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 0750051-0750054 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Science

T. Feurer, J. C. Vaughan, and K. A. Nelson, “Spatiotemporal coherent control of lattice vibrational waves,” Science 299, 374-377 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

Introduction to Genetic Algorithms(2008), http://www.obitko.com/tutorials/genetic-algorithms/.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup for THz wave generation from nitrogen gas with pulse shaper. The pulse shaper is placed between the Ti-sapphire oscillator and the regenerative laser amplifier. Abbreviations are: GM, gold mirror; CL, cylindrical lens; G, grating; SLM, spatial light modulator; M, mirror; BS, THz beam splitter; F, Si filter; BBO, beta barium borate crystal; PC, personal computer; PM, parabolic mirror. The SLM is controlled by a PC.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Optimized THz waveform measured by Michelson interferometer and (b) its Fourier power spectrum.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Optimization of THz power using the genetic optimization algorithm. (a) Direct optimization by using THz power measured by a pyroelectric detector as a fitness function for the optimization procedure. Solid and open dots are different runs of the optimization process. (b) Indirect optimization using second harmonics intensity as a fitness function. Solid and open dots are different runs of the optimization process. (c) Autocorrelation signal of the optical excitation pulse before and after optimization using THz power as a fitness function.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

THz waveform control with a periodically alternated phase in Fourier space. (a) Phase configuration given to the SLM. The modulation depths of the rectangular phases are 1.34 π , and the periods the rectangular phases are infinite (constant phase), 1.2 nm , 1.0 nm , and 0.7 nm for A, B, C, and D, respectively. (b) Experimentally measured autocorrelation signal of optical excitation pulses with the phases given in (a). (c) Experimentally measured THz waveform generated by the excitation pulses given in (b). (d) Fourier spectrum of THz waveforms in (c). Traces marked A, B, C, and D in (b), (c) and (d) have optical phases given in (a) with the same character.

Equations (1)

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E THz ( Ω ) = χ ( 3 ) ( Ω ; ω , ω , 2 ω ) E ( ω ) E ( ω ) E * ( 2 ω ) × cos [ 2 ( ω ω ) t + 2 ( ϕ SLM ( ω ) ϕ SLM ( ω ) ) + Δ θ ] ,

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