Abstract

Next generation THz applications require specially tailored THz pulses. Systems that use optical rectification in crystals as their THz source are susceptible to changes in the pulse envelope. Our feedback-loop system designed around a pulse shaper with a liquid crystal mask can shape the phase and amplitude of the excitation pulse and optimize the shape of the emitted THz waveform. This is demonstrated using as an example the creation of single-cycle THz pulses.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. Huber, F. Tauser, A. Brodschelm, M. Bichler, G. Abstreiter, and A. Leitenstorfer, “How many-particle interactions develop after ultrafast excitation of an electron-hole plasma,” Nature 414, 286-289 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. R. Huber, C. Kübler, S. Tübel, A. Leitenstorfer, Q. T. Vu, H. Haug, F. Köhler, and M.-C. Amann, “Femtosecond formation of coupled phonon-plasmon modes in InP: Ultrabroadband THz experiment and quantum kinetic theory,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 027401 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. R. A. Kaindl, M. A. Carnahan, D. Hägele, R. Lövenich, and D. S. Chemla, “Ultrafast terahertz probes of transient conducting and insulating phases in an electron-hole gas,” Nature 423, 734-738 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. B. Ferguson and X.-C. Zhang, “Materials for terahertz science and technology,” Nature Mater. 1, 26-33 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  5. C. Kübler, R. Huber, S. Tübel, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Ultrabroadband detection of multi-terahertz field transients with GaSe electro-optic sensors: Approaching the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3360-3362 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. T. Tanabe, K. Suto, J. Nishizawa, T. Kimura, and K. Saito, “Frequency-tunable high-power terahertz wave generation from GaP,” J. Appl. Phys. 93, 4610-4615 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Y.-S. Lee, T. Meade, V. Perlin, H. Winful, T. B. Norris, and A. Galvanauskas, “Generation of narrow-band terahertz radiation via optical rectification of femtosecond pulses in periodically poled lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2505-2507 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Y.-S. Lee, N. Amer, and W. C. Hurlbut, “Terahertz pulse shaping via optical rectification in poled lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 170-172 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. Ahn, A. Efimov, R. Averitt, and A. Taylor, “Terahertz waveform synthesis via optical rectification of shaped ultrafast laser pulses,” Opt. Express 11, 2486-2496 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. H. J. Bakker, G. C. Cho, H. Kurz, Q. Wu, and X.-C. Zhang, “Distortion of terahertz pulses in electro-optic sampling,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 1795-1801 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. M. Weiner, “Femtosecond pulse shaping using spatial light modulators,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 1929-1960 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  12. B. von Vacano and M. Motzkus, “Time-resolved two color single-beam CARS employing supercontinuum and femtosecond pulse shaping,” Opt. Commun. 264, 488-493 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  13. H. Rabitz, R. de Vivie-Riedle, M. Motzkus, and K. Kompa, “Whither the future of controlling quantum phenomena?” Science 288, 824-828 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbügel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277-3295 (1997).
    [CrossRef]

2006 (1)

B. von Vacano and M. Motzkus, “Time-resolved two color single-beam CARS employing supercontinuum and femtosecond pulse shaping,” Opt. Commun. 264, 488-493 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

R. Huber, C. Kübler, S. Tübel, A. Leitenstorfer, Q. T. Vu, H. Haug, F. Köhler, and M.-C. Amann, “Femtosecond formation of coupled phonon-plasmon modes in InP: Ultrabroadband THz experiment and quantum kinetic theory,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 027401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

C. Kübler, R. Huber, S. Tübel, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Ultrabroadband detection of multi-terahertz field transients with GaSe electro-optic sensors: Approaching the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3360-3362 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (4)

T. Tanabe, K. Suto, J. Nishizawa, T. Kimura, and K. Saito, “Frequency-tunable high-power terahertz wave generation from GaP,” J. Appl. Phys. 93, 4610-4615 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Kaindl, M. A. Carnahan, D. Hägele, R. Lövenich, and D. S. Chemla, “Ultrafast terahertz probes of transient conducting and insulating phases in an electron-hole gas,” Nature 423, 734-738 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-S. Lee, N. Amer, and W. C. Hurlbut, “Terahertz pulse shaping via optical rectification in poled lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 170-172 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Ahn, A. Efimov, R. Averitt, and A. Taylor, “Terahertz waveform synthesis via optical rectification of shaped ultrafast laser pulses,” Opt. Express 11, 2486-2496 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

B. Ferguson and X.-C. Zhang, “Materials for terahertz science and technology,” Nature Mater. 1, 26-33 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

R. Huber, F. Tauser, A. Brodschelm, M. Bichler, G. Abstreiter, and A. Leitenstorfer, “How many-particle interactions develop after ultrafast excitation of an electron-hole plasma,” Nature 414, 286-289 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (3)

A. M. Weiner, “Femtosecond pulse shaping using spatial light modulators,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 1929-1960 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y.-S. Lee, T. Meade, V. Perlin, H. Winful, T. B. Norris, and A. Galvanauskas, “Generation of narrow-band terahertz radiation via optical rectification of femtosecond pulses in periodically poled lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2505-2507 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Rabitz, R. de Vivie-Riedle, M. Motzkus, and K. Kompa, “Whither the future of controlling quantum phenomena?” Science 288, 824-828 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

1997 (1)

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbügel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277-3295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Abstreiter, G.

R. Huber, F. Tauser, A. Brodschelm, M. Bichler, G. Abstreiter, and A. Leitenstorfer, “How many-particle interactions develop after ultrafast excitation of an electron-hole plasma,” Nature 414, 286-289 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ahn, J.

Amann, M.-C.

R. Huber, C. Kübler, S. Tübel, A. Leitenstorfer, Q. T. Vu, H. Haug, F. Köhler, and M.-C. Amann, “Femtosecond formation of coupled phonon-plasmon modes in InP: Ultrabroadband THz experiment and quantum kinetic theory,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 027401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Amer, N.

Y.-S. Lee, N. Amer, and W. C. Hurlbut, “Terahertz pulse shaping via optical rectification in poled lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 170-172 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Averitt, R.

Bakker, H. J.

Bichler, M.

R. Huber, F. Tauser, A. Brodschelm, M. Bichler, G. Abstreiter, and A. Leitenstorfer, “How many-particle interactions develop after ultrafast excitation of an electron-hole plasma,” Nature 414, 286-289 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brodschelm, A.

R. Huber, F. Tauser, A. Brodschelm, M. Bichler, G. Abstreiter, and A. Leitenstorfer, “How many-particle interactions develop after ultrafast excitation of an electron-hole plasma,” Nature 414, 286-289 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carnahan, M. A.

R. A. Kaindl, M. A. Carnahan, D. Hägele, R. Lövenich, and D. S. Chemla, “Ultrafast terahertz probes of transient conducting and insulating phases in an electron-hole gas,” Nature 423, 734-738 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chemla, D. S.

R. A. Kaindl, M. A. Carnahan, D. Hägele, R. Lövenich, and D. S. Chemla, “Ultrafast terahertz probes of transient conducting and insulating phases in an electron-hole gas,” Nature 423, 734-738 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cho, G. C.

de Vivie-Riedle, R.

H. Rabitz, R. de Vivie-Riedle, M. Motzkus, and K. Kompa, “Whither the future of controlling quantum phenomena?” Science 288, 824-828 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

DeLong, K. W.

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbügel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277-3295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Efimov, A.

Ferguson, B.

B. Ferguson and X.-C. Zhang, “Materials for terahertz science and technology,” Nature Mater. 1, 26-33 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fittinghoff, D. N.

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbügel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277-3295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Galvanauskas, A.

Y.-S. Lee, T. Meade, V. Perlin, H. Winful, T. B. Norris, and A. Galvanauskas, “Generation of narrow-band terahertz radiation via optical rectification of femtosecond pulses in periodically poled lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2505-2507 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hägele, D.

R. A. Kaindl, M. A. Carnahan, D. Hägele, R. Lövenich, and D. S. Chemla, “Ultrafast terahertz probes of transient conducting and insulating phases in an electron-hole gas,” Nature 423, 734-738 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haug, H.

R. Huber, C. Kübler, S. Tübel, A. Leitenstorfer, Q. T. Vu, H. Haug, F. Köhler, and M.-C. Amann, “Femtosecond formation of coupled phonon-plasmon modes in InP: Ultrabroadband THz experiment and quantum kinetic theory,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 027401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huber, R.

R. Huber, C. Kübler, S. Tübel, A. Leitenstorfer, Q. T. Vu, H. Haug, F. Köhler, and M.-C. Amann, “Femtosecond formation of coupled phonon-plasmon modes in InP: Ultrabroadband THz experiment and quantum kinetic theory,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 027401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Kübler, R. Huber, S. Tübel, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Ultrabroadband detection of multi-terahertz field transients with GaSe electro-optic sensors: Approaching the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3360-3362 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Huber, F. Tauser, A. Brodschelm, M. Bichler, G. Abstreiter, and A. Leitenstorfer, “How many-particle interactions develop after ultrafast excitation of an electron-hole plasma,” Nature 414, 286-289 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hurlbut, W. C.

Y.-S. Lee, N. Amer, and W. C. Hurlbut, “Terahertz pulse shaping via optical rectification in poled lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 170-172 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kaindl, R. A.

R. A. Kaindl, M. A. Carnahan, D. Hägele, R. Lövenich, and D. S. Chemla, “Ultrafast terahertz probes of transient conducting and insulating phases in an electron-hole gas,” Nature 423, 734-738 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kane, D. J.

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbügel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277-3295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kimura, T.

T. Tanabe, K. Suto, J. Nishizawa, T. Kimura, and K. Saito, “Frequency-tunable high-power terahertz wave generation from GaP,” J. Appl. Phys. 93, 4610-4615 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Köhler, F.

R. Huber, C. Kübler, S. Tübel, A. Leitenstorfer, Q. T. Vu, H. Haug, F. Köhler, and M.-C. Amann, “Femtosecond formation of coupled phonon-plasmon modes in InP: Ultrabroadband THz experiment and quantum kinetic theory,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 027401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kompa, K.

H. Rabitz, R. de Vivie-Riedle, M. Motzkus, and K. Kompa, “Whither the future of controlling quantum phenomena?” Science 288, 824-828 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krumbügel, M. A.

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbügel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277-3295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kübler, C.

R. Huber, C. Kübler, S. Tübel, A. Leitenstorfer, Q. T. Vu, H. Haug, F. Köhler, and M.-C. Amann, “Femtosecond formation of coupled phonon-plasmon modes in InP: Ultrabroadband THz experiment and quantum kinetic theory,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 027401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Kübler, R. Huber, S. Tübel, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Ultrabroadband detection of multi-terahertz field transients with GaSe electro-optic sensors: Approaching the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3360-3362 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kurz, H.

Lee, Y.-S.

Y.-S. Lee, N. Amer, and W. C. Hurlbut, “Terahertz pulse shaping via optical rectification in poled lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 170-172 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y.-S. Lee, T. Meade, V. Perlin, H. Winful, T. B. Norris, and A. Galvanauskas, “Generation of narrow-band terahertz radiation via optical rectification of femtosecond pulses in periodically poled lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2505-2507 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Leitenstorfer, A.

R. Huber, C. Kübler, S. Tübel, A. Leitenstorfer, Q. T. Vu, H. Haug, F. Köhler, and M.-C. Amann, “Femtosecond formation of coupled phonon-plasmon modes in InP: Ultrabroadband THz experiment and quantum kinetic theory,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 027401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Kübler, R. Huber, S. Tübel, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Ultrabroadband detection of multi-terahertz field transients with GaSe electro-optic sensors: Approaching the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3360-3362 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Huber, F. Tauser, A. Brodschelm, M. Bichler, G. Abstreiter, and A. Leitenstorfer, “How many-particle interactions develop after ultrafast excitation of an electron-hole plasma,” Nature 414, 286-289 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lövenich, R.

R. A. Kaindl, M. A. Carnahan, D. Hägele, R. Lövenich, and D. S. Chemla, “Ultrafast terahertz probes of transient conducting and insulating phases in an electron-hole gas,” Nature 423, 734-738 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meade, T.

Y.-S. Lee, T. Meade, V. Perlin, H. Winful, T. B. Norris, and A. Galvanauskas, “Generation of narrow-band terahertz radiation via optical rectification of femtosecond pulses in periodically poled lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2505-2507 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Motzkus, M.

B. von Vacano and M. Motzkus, “Time-resolved two color single-beam CARS employing supercontinuum and femtosecond pulse shaping,” Opt. Commun. 264, 488-493 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Rabitz, R. de Vivie-Riedle, M. Motzkus, and K. Kompa, “Whither the future of controlling quantum phenomena?” Science 288, 824-828 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nishizawa, J.

T. Tanabe, K. Suto, J. Nishizawa, T. Kimura, and K. Saito, “Frequency-tunable high-power terahertz wave generation from GaP,” J. Appl. Phys. 93, 4610-4615 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Norris, T. B.

Y.-S. Lee, T. Meade, V. Perlin, H. Winful, T. B. Norris, and A. Galvanauskas, “Generation of narrow-band terahertz radiation via optical rectification of femtosecond pulses in periodically poled lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2505-2507 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Perlin, V.

Y.-S. Lee, T. Meade, V. Perlin, H. Winful, T. B. Norris, and A. Galvanauskas, “Generation of narrow-band terahertz radiation via optical rectification of femtosecond pulses in periodically poled lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2505-2507 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rabitz, H.

H. Rabitz, R. de Vivie-Riedle, M. Motzkus, and K. Kompa, “Whither the future of controlling quantum phenomena?” Science 288, 824-828 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richman, B. A.

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbügel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277-3295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Saito, K.

T. Tanabe, K. Suto, J. Nishizawa, T. Kimura, and K. Saito, “Frequency-tunable high-power terahertz wave generation from GaP,” J. Appl. Phys. 93, 4610-4615 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Suto, K.

T. Tanabe, K. Suto, J. Nishizawa, T. Kimura, and K. Saito, “Frequency-tunable high-power terahertz wave generation from GaP,” J. Appl. Phys. 93, 4610-4615 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sweetser, J. N.

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbügel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277-3295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tanabe, T.

T. Tanabe, K. Suto, J. Nishizawa, T. Kimura, and K. Saito, “Frequency-tunable high-power terahertz wave generation from GaP,” J. Appl. Phys. 93, 4610-4615 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tauser, F.

R. Huber, F. Tauser, A. Brodschelm, M. Bichler, G. Abstreiter, and A. Leitenstorfer, “How many-particle interactions develop after ultrafast excitation of an electron-hole plasma,” Nature 414, 286-289 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taylor, A.

Trebino, R.

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbügel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277-3295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tübel, S.

R. Huber, C. Kübler, S. Tübel, A. Leitenstorfer, Q. T. Vu, H. Haug, F. Köhler, and M.-C. Amann, “Femtosecond formation of coupled phonon-plasmon modes in InP: Ultrabroadband THz experiment and quantum kinetic theory,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 027401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Kübler, R. Huber, S. Tübel, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Ultrabroadband detection of multi-terahertz field transients with GaSe electro-optic sensors: Approaching the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3360-3362 (2004).
[CrossRef]

von Vacano, B.

B. von Vacano and M. Motzkus, “Time-resolved two color single-beam CARS employing supercontinuum and femtosecond pulse shaping,” Opt. Commun. 264, 488-493 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vu, Q. T.

R. Huber, C. Kübler, S. Tübel, A. Leitenstorfer, Q. T. Vu, H. Haug, F. Köhler, and M.-C. Amann, “Femtosecond formation of coupled phonon-plasmon modes in InP: Ultrabroadband THz experiment and quantum kinetic theory,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 027401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weiner, A. M.

A. M. Weiner, “Femtosecond pulse shaping using spatial light modulators,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 1929-1960 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Winful, H.

Y.-S. Lee, T. Meade, V. Perlin, H. Winful, T. B. Norris, and A. Galvanauskas, “Generation of narrow-band terahertz radiation via optical rectification of femtosecond pulses in periodically poled lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2505-2507 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Q.

Zhang, X.-C.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

C. Kübler, R. Huber, S. Tübel, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Ultrabroadband detection of multi-terahertz field transients with GaSe electro-optic sensors: Approaching the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3360-3362 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y.-S. Lee, T. Meade, V. Perlin, H. Winful, T. B. Norris, and A. Galvanauskas, “Generation of narrow-band terahertz radiation via optical rectification of femtosecond pulses in periodically poled lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2505-2507 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y.-S. Lee, N. Amer, and W. C. Hurlbut, “Terahertz pulse shaping via optical rectification in poled lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 170-172 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

T. Tanabe, K. Suto, J. Nishizawa, T. Kimura, and K. Saito, “Frequency-tunable high-power terahertz wave generation from GaP,” J. Appl. Phys. 93, 4610-4615 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Nature (2)

R. Huber, F. Tauser, A. Brodschelm, M. Bichler, G. Abstreiter, and A. Leitenstorfer, “How many-particle interactions develop after ultrafast excitation of an electron-hole plasma,” Nature 414, 286-289 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Kaindl, M. A. Carnahan, D. Hägele, R. Lövenich, and D. S. Chemla, “Ultrafast terahertz probes of transient conducting and insulating phases in an electron-hole gas,” Nature 423, 734-738 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature Mater. (1)

B. Ferguson and X.-C. Zhang, “Materials for terahertz science and technology,” Nature Mater. 1, 26-33 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

B. von Vacano and M. Motzkus, “Time-resolved two color single-beam CARS employing supercontinuum and femtosecond pulse shaping,” Opt. Commun. 264, 488-493 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

R. Huber, C. Kübler, S. Tübel, A. Leitenstorfer, Q. T. Vu, H. Haug, F. Köhler, and M.-C. Amann, “Femtosecond formation of coupled phonon-plasmon modes in InP: Ultrabroadband THz experiment and quantum kinetic theory,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 027401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (2)

A. M. Weiner, “Femtosecond pulse shaping using spatial light modulators,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 1929-1960 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbügel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277-3295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

H. Rabitz, R. de Vivie-Riedle, M. Motzkus, and K. Kompa, “Whither the future of controlling quantum phenomena?” Science 288, 824-828 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Our setup consists of the laser system, the pulse shaper, which incorporates the liquid crystal mask to manipulate the femtosecond pulse, and the THz setup. The evolutionary algorithm is fed the measured THz time-domain traces and then computes the next generation to be tested.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Temporal shape and frequency spectrum for the four pulse shapes. The reduction in the ringing is clearly visible, while the first part remains basically unchanged. The energy distribution has also been shaped, with the second peak at 2.2 THz vanishing in the optimized pulse shapes.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The FROG traces reveal the shape of the final pulses. The left trace is the unshaped reference pulse, demonstrating the bandwidth-limited properties of an ultrashort laser pulse with a spectral bandwidth of 10 nm and a temporal FWHM of 100 fs . The trace to the right corresponds to the double pulse; its bandwidth reduction is apparent. The FROG traces of the 2-color pulses (not shown) look identical to the one on the right, apart from the shift of the central wavelength.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Depicted here are the respective fitness values over time illustrating the progress of the optimization. The first data point is the reference pulse to which the valuations are normalized. The algorithm converges quickly, finding good parameters within a few generations. The ordinary double pulse centered around 800 nm gives the best results.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The top graph displays the two THz pulses for comparison; the reference pulse consists of two THz pulses with oscillatory tails that are transformed into two single-cycle THz pulses. The bottom left graph displays the progression of the fitness value over time. The bottom right graph depicts the general shape of the used phase mask.

Equations (3)

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P ( 2 ) E 1 E 2 cos [ ( ω 1 ω 2 ) t + ( k 1 k 2 ) r ] .
ϕ = a rect ( b ω + c ) .
ϕ ( ω ) = ϕ 0 + d ϕ d ω ω 0 ( ω ω 0 ) + .

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