Abstract

We are proposing our original 2D-plasmon-resonant microchip emitter as a new terahertz light source. The structure is based on a high-electron-mobility transistor and features interdigitated dual-grating gates. The dual-grating gates can alternately modulate the 2D electron densities to periodically distribute the plasmonic cavities along the channel, acting as an antenna. The die fabricated in a 70μm square with a double-deck InGaPInGaAsGaAs material system can emit 0.56.5THz radiation with microwatt power even at room temperature from self-oscillating 2D plasmons under the DC-biased conditions. The microchip emitter was introduced into a Fourier-transformed far-infrared spectrometer as a light source. Its applicability to broadband terahertz spectroscopy was verified through real measurements for atmospheric water vapor and several sugar groups.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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2008 (4)

V. Ryzhii, A. Satou, M. Ryzhii, T. Otsuji, and M. S. Shur, “Mechanism of self-excitation of terahertz plasma oscillations in periodically double-gated electron channels,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 20, 384207 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. M. Meziani, M. Hanabe, T. Otsuji, and E. Sano, “Bolometric detection of terahertz radiation from new grating gates device,” Phys. Status Solidi C 5, 282-285 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. M. Meziani, H. Handa, W. Knap., T. Otsuji, E. Sano, V. V. Popov, G. M. Tsymbalov, D. Coquillat, and F. Teppe, “Room temperature terahertz emission from grating coupled two-dimensional plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 201108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Otsuji, Y. M. Meziani, T. Nishimura, T. Suemitsu, W. Knap, E. Sano, T. Asano, and V. V. Popov, “Emission of terahertz radiation from dual-grating-gates plasmon-resonant emitters fabricated with InGaP/InGaAs/GaAs material systems,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 20, 384206 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (4)

Y. M. Meziani, Y. Otsuji, M. Hanabe, T. Ishibashi, T. Uno, and E. Sano, “Room temperature generation of terahertz radiation from a grating-bicoupled device: size effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 061105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. M. Meziani, T. Otsuji, M. Hanabe, and E. Sano, “Threshold behavior of photoinduced plasmon-resonant self-oscillation in a new interdigitated grating gates device,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 46, 2409-2412 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Otsuji, Y. M. Meziani, M. Hanabe, T. Nishimura, and E. Sano, “Emission of terahertz radiation from InGaP/InGaAs/GaAs grating-bicoupled plasmon-resonant emitter,” Solid-State Electron. 51, 1319-1327 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Tonouchi, “Cutting-edge terahertz technology,” Nat. Photonics . 1, 97-105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (5)

V. Ryzhii, A. Satou, and M. Shur, “Plasma instability and terahertz generation in HEMTs due to electron transit-time effect,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E89-C, 1012-1019 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. El Fatimy, F. Teppe, N. Dyakonova, W. Knap, D. Seliuta, G. Valusis, A. Shchepetov, Y. Roelens, S. Bollaert, A. Cappy, and S. Rumyantsev, “Resonant and voltage-tunable terahertz detection in InGaAs/InP nanometer transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 131926 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Otsuji, M. Hanabe, T. Nishimura, and E. Sano, “A grating-bicoupled plasma-wave photomixer with resonant-cavity enhanced structure,” Opt. Express 14, 4815-4825 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hanabe, T. Nishimura, M. Miyamoto, T. Otsuji, and E. Sano, “Structure-sensitive design for wider tunable operation of terahertz plasmon-resonant photomixer,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E89-C, 985-992 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Otsuji, Y. M. Meziani, M. Hanabe, T. Ishibashi, T. Uno, and E. Sano, “Grating-bicoupled plasmon-resonant terahertz emitter fabricated with GaAs-based heterostructure material systems,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 263502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (4)

F. Teppe, W. Knap, D. Veksler, and M. S. Shur, “Room-temperature plasma waves resonant detection of sub-terahertz radiation by nanometer field-effect transistor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 052107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Tredicucci, R. Kohler, L. Mahler, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, and D. A. Ritchie, “Terahertz quantum cascade lasers--first demonstration and novel concepts,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S222-S227 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Lusakowski, W. Knap, N. Dyakonova, and L. Varani, “Voltage tunable terahertz emission from a ballistic nanometer InGaAs/InAlAs transistor,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 064307 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. Dyakonova, F. Teppe, J. Lusakowski, W. Knap, M. Levinshtein, A. P. Dmitriev, M. S. Shur, S. Bollaert, and A. Cappy, “Magnetic field effect on the terahertz emission from nanometer InGaAs/AlInAs high electron mobility transistors,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 114313 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

W. Knap, J. Lusakowski, T. Parenty, S. Bollaert, A. Cappy, V. V. Popov, and M. S. Shur, “Terahertz emission by plasma waves in 60 nm gate high electron mobility transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2331 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Otsuji, M. Hanabe, and O. Ogawara, “Terahertz plasma wave resonance of two-dimensional electrons in InGaP/InGaAs/GaAs high-electron-mobility transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2119 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

W. Knap, Y. Deng, S. Rumyantsev, and M. S. Shur, “Resonant detection of subterahertz and terahertz radiation by plasma waves in submicron field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4637 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

R. Colombelli, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, A. Tredicucci, M. C. Wanke, A. M. Sergent, and A. Y. Cho, “Far-infrared surface-plasmon quantum-cascade lasers at 21.5 μm and 24 μm wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2620 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

P. Bakshi, K. Kempa, A. Scorupsky, C. G. Du, G. Feng, R. Zobl, G. Strasser, C. Rauch, Ch. Pacher, K. Unterrainer, and E. Gornik, “Plasmon-based terahertz emission from quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1685 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

S. A. Mikhailov, “Plasma instability and amplification of electromagnetic waves in low-dimensional electron systems,” Phys. Rev. B 58, 1517-1532 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

K. Hirakawa, K. Yamanaka, M. Grayson, and D. C. Tsui, “Far-infrared emission spectroscopy of hot two-dimensional plasmons in Al0.3Ga0.7As/GaAs heterojunctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2326 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

M. Dyakonov and M. Shur, “Shallow water analogy for a ballistic field effect transistor: New mechanism of plasma wave generation by dc current,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 2465-2468 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

R. J. Wilkinson, C. D. Ager, T. Duffield, H. P. Hughes, D. G. Hasko, H. Armed, J. E. F. Frost, D. C. Peacock, D. A. Ritchie, A. C. Jones, C. R. Whitehouse, and N. Apsley, “Plasmon excitation and self-coupling in a bi-periodically modulated two-dimensional electron gas,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 6049-6061 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

N. Okisu, Y. Sambe, and T. Kobayashi, “Far-infrared emission from two-dimensional plasmons in AlGaAs/GaAs heterointerfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 776-778 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

V. Ryzhii, N. A. Bannov, and V. A. Fedirko, “Ballistic and quasiballistic transport in semiconductor structures (review),” Sov. Phys. Semicond. 18, 481-491 (1984).

1982 (2)

R. Hopfel, G. Lindemann, E. Gornik, G. Stangl, A. C. Gossard, and W. Wiegmann, “Cyclotron and plasmon emission from two-dimensional electrons in GaAs,” Surf. Sci. 113, 118-123 (1982).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Hopfel, E. Vass, and E. Gornik, “Thermal excitation of two-dimensional plasma oscillations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 49, 1667-1671 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

D. C. Tsui, E. Gornik, and R. A. Logan, “Far infrared emission from plasma oscillations of Si inversion layers,” Solid State Commun. 35, 875-877 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Ager, C. D.

R. J. Wilkinson, C. D. Ager, T. Duffield, H. P. Hughes, D. G. Hasko, H. Armed, J. E. F. Frost, D. C. Peacock, D. A. Ritchie, A. C. Jones, C. R. Whitehouse, and N. Apsley, “Plasmon excitation and self-coupling in a bi-periodically modulated two-dimensional electron gas,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 6049-6061 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Apsley, N.

R. J. Wilkinson, C. D. Ager, T. Duffield, H. P. Hughes, D. G. Hasko, H. Armed, J. E. F. Frost, D. C. Peacock, D. A. Ritchie, A. C. Jones, C. R. Whitehouse, and N. Apsley, “Plasmon excitation and self-coupling in a bi-periodically modulated two-dimensional electron gas,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 6049-6061 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Armed, H.

R. J. Wilkinson, C. D. Ager, T. Duffield, H. P. Hughes, D. G. Hasko, H. Armed, J. E. F. Frost, D. C. Peacock, D. A. Ritchie, A. C. Jones, C. R. Whitehouse, and N. Apsley, “Plasmon excitation and self-coupling in a bi-periodically modulated two-dimensional electron gas,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 6049-6061 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Asano, T.

T. Otsuji, Y. M. Meziani, T. Nishimura, T. Suemitsu, W. Knap, E. Sano, T. Asano, and V. V. Popov, “Emission of terahertz radiation from dual-grating-gates plasmon-resonant emitters fabricated with InGaP/InGaAs/GaAs material systems,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 20, 384206 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bakshi, P.

P. Bakshi, K. Kempa, A. Scorupsky, C. G. Du, G. Feng, R. Zobl, G. Strasser, C. Rauch, Ch. Pacher, K. Unterrainer, and E. Gornik, “Plasmon-based terahertz emission from quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1685 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bannov, N. A.

V. Ryzhii, N. A. Bannov, and V. A. Fedirko, “Ballistic and quasiballistic transport in semiconductor structures (review),” Sov. Phys. Semicond. 18, 481-491 (1984).

Beere, H. E.

A. Tredicucci, R. Kohler, L. Mahler, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, and D. A. Ritchie, “Terahertz quantum cascade lasers--first demonstration and novel concepts,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S222-S227 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bollaert, S.

A. El Fatimy, F. Teppe, N. Dyakonova, W. Knap, D. Seliuta, G. Valusis, A. Shchepetov, Y. Roelens, S. Bollaert, A. Cappy, and S. Rumyantsev, “Resonant and voltage-tunable terahertz detection in InGaAs/InP nanometer transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 131926 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Dyakonova, F. Teppe, J. Lusakowski, W. Knap, M. Levinshtein, A. P. Dmitriev, M. S. Shur, S. Bollaert, and A. Cappy, “Magnetic field effect on the terahertz emission from nanometer InGaAs/AlInAs high electron mobility transistors,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 114313 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. Knap, J. Lusakowski, T. Parenty, S. Bollaert, A. Cappy, V. V. Popov, and M. S. Shur, “Terahertz emission by plasma waves in 60 nm gate high electron mobility transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2331 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Capasso, F.

R. Colombelli, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, A. Tredicucci, M. C. Wanke, A. M. Sergent, and A. Y. Cho, “Far-infrared surface-plasmon quantum-cascade lasers at 21.5 μm and 24 μm wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2620 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cappy, A.

A. El Fatimy, F. Teppe, N. Dyakonova, W. Knap, D. Seliuta, G. Valusis, A. Shchepetov, Y. Roelens, S. Bollaert, A. Cappy, and S. Rumyantsev, “Resonant and voltage-tunable terahertz detection in InGaAs/InP nanometer transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 131926 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Dyakonova, F. Teppe, J. Lusakowski, W. Knap, M. Levinshtein, A. P. Dmitriev, M. S. Shur, S. Bollaert, and A. Cappy, “Magnetic field effect on the terahertz emission from nanometer InGaAs/AlInAs high electron mobility transistors,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 114313 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. Knap, J. Lusakowski, T. Parenty, S. Bollaert, A. Cappy, V. V. Popov, and M. S. Shur, “Terahertz emission by plasma waves in 60 nm gate high electron mobility transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2331 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cho, A. Y.

R. Colombelli, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, A. Tredicucci, M. C. Wanke, A. M. Sergent, and A. Y. Cho, “Far-infrared surface-plasmon quantum-cascade lasers at 21.5 μm and 24 μm wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2620 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Colombelli, R.

R. Colombelli, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, A. Tredicucci, M. C. Wanke, A. M. Sergent, and A. Y. Cho, “Far-infrared surface-plasmon quantum-cascade lasers at 21.5 μm and 24 μm wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2620 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Coquillat, D.

Y. M. Meziani, H. Handa, W. Knap., T. Otsuji, E. Sano, V. V. Popov, G. M. Tsymbalov, D. Coquillat, and F. Teppe, “Room temperature terahertz emission from grating coupled two-dimensional plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 201108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Nishimura, H. Handa, H. Tsuda, T. Suemitsu, Y. M. Meziani, W. Knap, T. Otsuji, E. Sano, V. Ryzhii, A. Satou, V. V. Popov, D. Coquillat, and F. Teppe, “Broadband terahertz emission from dual-grating gate HEMT's--mechanism and emission spectral profile,” in 65th Annual Device Research Conference (IEEE, 2007), pp. 263-264.

Deng, Y.

W. Knap, Y. Deng, S. Rumyantsev, and M. S. Shur, “Resonant detection of subterahertz and terahertz radiation by plasma waves in submicron field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4637 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dmitriev, A. P.

N. Dyakonova, F. Teppe, J. Lusakowski, W. Knap, M. Levinshtein, A. P. Dmitriev, M. S. Shur, S. Bollaert, and A. Cappy, “Magnetic field effect on the terahertz emission from nanometer InGaAs/AlInAs high electron mobility transistors,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 114313 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Du, C. G.

P. Bakshi, K. Kempa, A. Scorupsky, C. G. Du, G. Feng, R. Zobl, G. Strasser, C. Rauch, Ch. Pacher, K. Unterrainer, and E. Gornik, “Plasmon-based terahertz emission from quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1685 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Duffield, T.

R. J. Wilkinson, C. D. Ager, T. Duffield, H. P. Hughes, D. G. Hasko, H. Armed, J. E. F. Frost, D. C. Peacock, D. A. Ritchie, A. C. Jones, C. R. Whitehouse, and N. Apsley, “Plasmon excitation and self-coupling in a bi-periodically modulated two-dimensional electron gas,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 6049-6061 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Dyakonov, M.

M. Dyakonov and M. Shur, “Shallow water analogy for a ballistic field effect transistor: New mechanism of plasma wave generation by dc current,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 2465-2468 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dyakonova, N.

A. El Fatimy, F. Teppe, N. Dyakonova, W. Knap, D. Seliuta, G. Valusis, A. Shchepetov, Y. Roelens, S. Bollaert, A. Cappy, and S. Rumyantsev, “Resonant and voltage-tunable terahertz detection in InGaAs/InP nanometer transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 131926 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Dyakonova, F. Teppe, J. Lusakowski, W. Knap, M. Levinshtein, A. P. Dmitriev, M. S. Shur, S. Bollaert, and A. Cappy, “Magnetic field effect on the terahertz emission from nanometer InGaAs/AlInAs high electron mobility transistors,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 114313 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Lusakowski, W. Knap, N. Dyakonova, and L. Varani, “Voltage tunable terahertz emission from a ballistic nanometer InGaAs/InAlAs transistor,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 064307 (2005).
[CrossRef]

El Fatimy, A.

A. El Fatimy, F. Teppe, N. Dyakonova, W. Knap, D. Seliuta, G. Valusis, A. Shchepetov, Y. Roelens, S. Bollaert, A. Cappy, and S. Rumyantsev, “Resonant and voltage-tunable terahertz detection in InGaAs/InP nanometer transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 131926 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fedirko, V. A.

V. Ryzhii, N. A. Bannov, and V. A. Fedirko, “Ballistic and quasiballistic transport in semiconductor structures (review),” Sov. Phys. Semicond. 18, 481-491 (1984).

Feng, G.

P. Bakshi, K. Kempa, A. Scorupsky, C. G. Du, G. Feng, R. Zobl, G. Strasser, C. Rauch, Ch. Pacher, K. Unterrainer, and E. Gornik, “Plasmon-based terahertz emission from quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1685 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Frost, J. E. F.

R. J. Wilkinson, C. D. Ager, T. Duffield, H. P. Hughes, D. G. Hasko, H. Armed, J. E. F. Frost, D. C. Peacock, D. A. Ritchie, A. C. Jones, C. R. Whitehouse, and N. Apsley, “Plasmon excitation and self-coupling in a bi-periodically modulated two-dimensional electron gas,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 6049-6061 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Gmachl, C.

R. Colombelli, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, A. Tredicucci, M. C. Wanke, A. M. Sergent, and A. Y. Cho, “Far-infrared surface-plasmon quantum-cascade lasers at 21.5 μm and 24 μm wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2620 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gornik, E.

P. Bakshi, K. Kempa, A. Scorupsky, C. G. Du, G. Feng, R. Zobl, G. Strasser, C. Rauch, Ch. Pacher, K. Unterrainer, and E. Gornik, “Plasmon-based terahertz emission from quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1685 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Hopfel, E. Vass, and E. Gornik, “Thermal excitation of two-dimensional plasma oscillations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 49, 1667-1671 (1982).
[CrossRef]

R. Hopfel, G. Lindemann, E. Gornik, G. Stangl, A. C. Gossard, and W. Wiegmann, “Cyclotron and plasmon emission from two-dimensional electrons in GaAs,” Surf. Sci. 113, 118-123 (1982).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Tsui, E. Gornik, and R. A. Logan, “Far infrared emission from plasma oscillations of Si inversion layers,” Solid State Commun. 35, 875-877 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Gossard, A. C.

R. Hopfel, G. Lindemann, E. Gornik, G. Stangl, A. C. Gossard, and W. Wiegmann, “Cyclotron and plasmon emission from two-dimensional electrons in GaAs,” Surf. Sci. 113, 118-123 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Grayson, M.

K. Hirakawa, K. Yamanaka, M. Grayson, and D. C. Tsui, “Far-infrared emission spectroscopy of hot two-dimensional plasmons in Al0.3Ga0.7As/GaAs heterojunctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2326 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hanabe, M.

Y. M. Meziani, M. Hanabe, T. Otsuji, and E. Sano, “Bolometric detection of terahertz radiation from new grating gates device,” Phys. Status Solidi C 5, 282-285 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. M. Meziani, Y. Otsuji, M. Hanabe, T. Ishibashi, T. Uno, and E. Sano, “Room temperature generation of terahertz radiation from a grating-bicoupled device: size effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 061105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. M. Meziani, T. Otsuji, M. Hanabe, and E. Sano, “Threshold behavior of photoinduced plasmon-resonant self-oscillation in a new interdigitated grating gates device,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 46, 2409-2412 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Otsuji, Y. M. Meziani, M. Hanabe, T. Nishimura, and E. Sano, “Emission of terahertz radiation from InGaP/InGaAs/GaAs grating-bicoupled plasmon-resonant emitter,” Solid-State Electron. 51, 1319-1327 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Otsuji, M. Hanabe, T. Nishimura, and E. Sano, “A grating-bicoupled plasma-wave photomixer with resonant-cavity enhanced structure,” Opt. Express 14, 4815-4825 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hanabe, T. Nishimura, M. Miyamoto, T. Otsuji, and E. Sano, “Structure-sensitive design for wider tunable operation of terahertz plasmon-resonant photomixer,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E89-C, 985-992 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Otsuji, Y. M. Meziani, M. Hanabe, T. Ishibashi, T. Uno, and E. Sano, “Grating-bicoupled plasmon-resonant terahertz emitter fabricated with GaAs-based heterostructure material systems,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 263502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Otsuji, M. Hanabe, and O. Ogawara, “Terahertz plasma wave resonance of two-dimensional electrons in InGaP/InGaAs/GaAs high-electron-mobility transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2119 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Suemitsu, Yahya M. Meziani, Y. Hosono, M. Hanabe, T. Otsuji, and E. Sano, “Novel plasmon-resonant terahertz-wave emitter using a double-decked HEMT structure,” in 65th Annual Device Research Conference (IEEE, 2007), pp. 157-158.
[CrossRef]

Handa, H.

Y. M. Meziani, H. Handa, W. Knap., T. Otsuji, E. Sano, V. V. Popov, G. M. Tsymbalov, D. Coquillat, and F. Teppe, “Room temperature terahertz emission from grating coupled two-dimensional plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 201108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Nishimura, H. Handa, H. Tsuda, T. Suemitsu, Y. M. Meziani, W. Knap, T. Otsuji, E. Sano, V. Ryzhii, A. Satou, V. V. Popov, D. Coquillat, and F. Teppe, “Broadband terahertz emission from dual-grating gate HEMT's--mechanism and emission spectral profile,” in 65th Annual Device Research Conference (IEEE, 2007), pp. 263-264.

Hasko, D. G.

R. J. Wilkinson, C. D. Ager, T. Duffield, H. P. Hughes, D. G. Hasko, H. Armed, J. E. F. Frost, D. C. Peacock, D. A. Ritchie, A. C. Jones, C. R. Whitehouse, and N. Apsley, “Plasmon excitation and self-coupling in a bi-periodically modulated two-dimensional electron gas,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 6049-6061 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hirakawa, K.

K. Hirakawa, K. Yamanaka, M. Grayson, and D. C. Tsui, “Far-infrared emission spectroscopy of hot two-dimensional plasmons in Al0.3Ga0.7As/GaAs heterojunctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2326 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hopfel, R.

R. Hopfel, G. Lindemann, E. Gornik, G. Stangl, A. C. Gossard, and W. Wiegmann, “Cyclotron and plasmon emission from two-dimensional electrons in GaAs,” Surf. Sci. 113, 118-123 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Hopfel, R. A.

R. A. Hopfel, E. Vass, and E. Gornik, “Thermal excitation of two-dimensional plasma oscillations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 49, 1667-1671 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Hosono, Y.

T. Suemitsu, Yahya M. Meziani, Y. Hosono, M. Hanabe, T. Otsuji, and E. Sano, “Novel plasmon-resonant terahertz-wave emitter using a double-decked HEMT structure,” in 65th Annual Device Research Conference (IEEE, 2007), pp. 157-158.
[CrossRef]

Hughes, H. P.

R. J. Wilkinson, C. D. Ager, T. Duffield, H. P. Hughes, D. G. Hasko, H. Armed, J. E. F. Frost, D. C. Peacock, D. A. Ritchie, A. C. Jones, C. R. Whitehouse, and N. Apsley, “Plasmon excitation and self-coupling in a bi-periodically modulated two-dimensional electron gas,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 6049-6061 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hutchinson, A. L.

R. Colombelli, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, A. Tredicucci, M. C. Wanke, A. M. Sergent, and A. Y. Cho, “Far-infrared surface-plasmon quantum-cascade lasers at 21.5 μm and 24 μm wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2620 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ishibashi, T.

Y. M. Meziani, Y. Otsuji, M. Hanabe, T. Ishibashi, T. Uno, and E. Sano, “Room temperature generation of terahertz radiation from a grating-bicoupled device: size effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 061105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Otsuji, Y. M. Meziani, M. Hanabe, T. Ishibashi, T. Uno, and E. Sano, “Grating-bicoupled plasmon-resonant terahertz emitter fabricated with GaAs-based heterostructure material systems,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 263502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jones, A. C.

R. J. Wilkinson, C. D. Ager, T. Duffield, H. P. Hughes, D. G. Hasko, H. Armed, J. E. F. Frost, D. C. Peacock, D. A. Ritchie, A. C. Jones, C. R. Whitehouse, and N. Apsley, “Plasmon excitation and self-coupling in a bi-periodically modulated two-dimensional electron gas,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 6049-6061 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kempa, K.

P. Bakshi, K. Kempa, A. Scorupsky, C. G. Du, G. Feng, R. Zobl, G. Strasser, C. Rauch, Ch. Pacher, K. Unterrainer, and E. Gornik, “Plasmon-based terahertz emission from quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1685 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Knap, W.

T. Otsuji, Y. M. Meziani, T. Nishimura, T. Suemitsu, W. Knap, E. Sano, T. Asano, and V. V. Popov, “Emission of terahertz radiation from dual-grating-gates plasmon-resonant emitters fabricated with InGaP/InGaAs/GaAs material systems,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 20, 384206 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. El Fatimy, F. Teppe, N. Dyakonova, W. Knap, D. Seliuta, G. Valusis, A. Shchepetov, Y. Roelens, S. Bollaert, A. Cappy, and S. Rumyantsev, “Resonant and voltage-tunable terahertz detection in InGaAs/InP nanometer transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 131926 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Teppe, W. Knap, D. Veksler, and M. S. Shur, “Room-temperature plasma waves resonant detection of sub-terahertz radiation by nanometer field-effect transistor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 052107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Lusakowski, W. Knap, N. Dyakonova, and L. Varani, “Voltage tunable terahertz emission from a ballistic nanometer InGaAs/InAlAs transistor,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 064307 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. Dyakonova, F. Teppe, J. Lusakowski, W. Knap, M. Levinshtein, A. P. Dmitriev, M. S. Shur, S. Bollaert, and A. Cappy, “Magnetic field effect on the terahertz emission from nanometer InGaAs/AlInAs high electron mobility transistors,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 114313 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. Knap, J. Lusakowski, T. Parenty, S. Bollaert, A. Cappy, V. V. Popov, and M. S. Shur, “Terahertz emission by plasma waves in 60 nm gate high electron mobility transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2331 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. Knap, Y. Deng, S. Rumyantsev, and M. S. Shur, “Resonant detection of subterahertz and terahertz radiation by plasma waves in submicron field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4637 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Nishimura, H. Handa, H. Tsuda, T. Suemitsu, Y. M. Meziani, W. Knap, T. Otsuji, E. Sano, V. Ryzhii, A. Satou, V. V. Popov, D. Coquillat, and F. Teppe, “Broadband terahertz emission from dual-grating gate HEMT's--mechanism and emission spectral profile,” in 65th Annual Device Research Conference (IEEE, 2007), pp. 263-264.

Knap., W.

Y. M. Meziani, H. Handa, W. Knap., T. Otsuji, E. Sano, V. V. Popov, G. M. Tsymbalov, D. Coquillat, and F. Teppe, “Room temperature terahertz emission from grating coupled two-dimensional plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 201108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, T.

N. Okisu, Y. Sambe, and T. Kobayashi, “Far-infrared emission from two-dimensional plasmons in AlGaAs/GaAs heterointerfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 776-778 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Kohler, R.

A. Tredicucci, R. Kohler, L. Mahler, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, and D. A. Ritchie, “Terahertz quantum cascade lasers--first demonstration and novel concepts,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S222-S227 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Levinshtein, M.

N. Dyakonova, F. Teppe, J. Lusakowski, W. Knap, M. Levinshtein, A. P. Dmitriev, M. S. Shur, S. Bollaert, and A. Cappy, “Magnetic field effect on the terahertz emission from nanometer InGaAs/AlInAs high electron mobility transistors,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 114313 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lindemann, G.

R. Hopfel, G. Lindemann, E. Gornik, G. Stangl, A. C. Gossard, and W. Wiegmann, “Cyclotron and plasmon emission from two-dimensional electrons in GaAs,” Surf. Sci. 113, 118-123 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Linfield, E. H.

A. Tredicucci, R. Kohler, L. Mahler, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, and D. A. Ritchie, “Terahertz quantum cascade lasers--first demonstration and novel concepts,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S222-S227 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Logan, R. A.

D. C. Tsui, E. Gornik, and R. A. Logan, “Far infrared emission from plasma oscillations of Si inversion layers,” Solid State Commun. 35, 875-877 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Lusakowski, J.

N. Dyakonova, F. Teppe, J. Lusakowski, W. Knap, M. Levinshtein, A. P. Dmitriev, M. S. Shur, S. Bollaert, and A. Cappy, “Magnetic field effect on the terahertz emission from nanometer InGaAs/AlInAs high electron mobility transistors,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 114313 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Lusakowski, W. Knap, N. Dyakonova, and L. Varani, “Voltage tunable terahertz emission from a ballistic nanometer InGaAs/InAlAs transistor,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 064307 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. Knap, J. Lusakowski, T. Parenty, S. Bollaert, A. Cappy, V. V. Popov, and M. S. Shur, “Terahertz emission by plasma waves in 60 nm gate high electron mobility transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2331 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mahler, L.

A. Tredicucci, R. Kohler, L. Mahler, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, and D. A. Ritchie, “Terahertz quantum cascade lasers--first demonstration and novel concepts,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S222-S227 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Meziani, Y. M.

Y. M. Meziani, M. Hanabe, T. Otsuji, and E. Sano, “Bolometric detection of terahertz radiation from new grating gates device,” Phys. Status Solidi C 5, 282-285 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. M. Meziani, H. Handa, W. Knap., T. Otsuji, E. Sano, V. V. Popov, G. M. Tsymbalov, D. Coquillat, and F. Teppe, “Room temperature terahertz emission from grating coupled two-dimensional plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 201108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Otsuji, Y. M. Meziani, T. Nishimura, T. Suemitsu, W. Knap, E. Sano, T. Asano, and V. V. Popov, “Emission of terahertz radiation from dual-grating-gates plasmon-resonant emitters fabricated with InGaP/InGaAs/GaAs material systems,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 20, 384206 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. M. Meziani, Y. Otsuji, M. Hanabe, T. Ishibashi, T. Uno, and E. Sano, “Room temperature generation of terahertz radiation from a grating-bicoupled device: size effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 061105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. M. Meziani, T. Otsuji, M. Hanabe, and E. Sano, “Threshold behavior of photoinduced plasmon-resonant self-oscillation in a new interdigitated grating gates device,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 46, 2409-2412 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Otsuji, Y. M. Meziani, M. Hanabe, T. Nishimura, and E. Sano, “Emission of terahertz radiation from InGaP/InGaAs/GaAs grating-bicoupled plasmon-resonant emitter,” Solid-State Electron. 51, 1319-1327 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Otsuji, Y. M. Meziani, M. Hanabe, T. Ishibashi, T. Uno, and E. Sano, “Grating-bicoupled plasmon-resonant terahertz emitter fabricated with GaAs-based heterostructure material systems,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 263502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Nishimura, H. Handa, H. Tsuda, T. Suemitsu, Y. M. Meziani, W. Knap, T. Otsuji, E. Sano, V. Ryzhii, A. Satou, V. V. Popov, D. Coquillat, and F. Teppe, “Broadband terahertz emission from dual-grating gate HEMT's--mechanism and emission spectral profile,” in 65th Annual Device Research Conference (IEEE, 2007), pp. 263-264.

Meziani, Yahya M.

T. Suemitsu, Yahya M. Meziani, Y. Hosono, M. Hanabe, T. Otsuji, and E. Sano, “Novel plasmon-resonant terahertz-wave emitter using a double-decked HEMT structure,” in 65th Annual Device Research Conference (IEEE, 2007), pp. 157-158.
[CrossRef]

Mikhailov, S. A.

S. A. Mikhailov, “Plasma instability and amplification of electromagnetic waves in low-dimensional electron systems,” Phys. Rev. B 58, 1517-1532 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Miyamoto, M.

M. Hanabe, T. Nishimura, M. Miyamoto, T. Otsuji, and E. Sano, “Structure-sensitive design for wider tunable operation of terahertz plasmon-resonant photomixer,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E89-C, 985-992 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nishimura, T.

T. Otsuji, Y. M. Meziani, T. Nishimura, T. Suemitsu, W. Knap, E. Sano, T. Asano, and V. V. Popov, “Emission of terahertz radiation from dual-grating-gates plasmon-resonant emitters fabricated with InGaP/InGaAs/GaAs material systems,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 20, 384206 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Otsuji, Y. M. Meziani, M. Hanabe, T. Nishimura, and E. Sano, “Emission of terahertz radiation from InGaP/InGaAs/GaAs grating-bicoupled plasmon-resonant emitter,” Solid-State Electron. 51, 1319-1327 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Hanabe, T. Nishimura, M. Miyamoto, T. Otsuji, and E. Sano, “Structure-sensitive design for wider tunable operation of terahertz plasmon-resonant photomixer,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E89-C, 985-992 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Otsuji, M. Hanabe, T. Nishimura, and E. Sano, “A grating-bicoupled plasma-wave photomixer with resonant-cavity enhanced structure,” Opt. Express 14, 4815-4825 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Nishimura, H. Handa, H. Tsuda, T. Suemitsu, Y. M. Meziani, W. Knap, T. Otsuji, E. Sano, V. Ryzhii, A. Satou, V. V. Popov, D. Coquillat, and F. Teppe, “Broadband terahertz emission from dual-grating gate HEMT's--mechanism and emission spectral profile,” in 65th Annual Device Research Conference (IEEE, 2007), pp. 263-264.

Ogawara, O.

T. Otsuji, M. Hanabe, and O. Ogawara, “Terahertz plasma wave resonance of two-dimensional electrons in InGaP/InGaAs/GaAs high-electron-mobility transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2119 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Okisu, N.

N. Okisu, Y. Sambe, and T. Kobayashi, “Far-infrared emission from two-dimensional plasmons in AlGaAs/GaAs heterointerfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 776-778 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Otsuji, T.

V. Ryzhii, A. Satou, M. Ryzhii, T. Otsuji, and M. S. Shur, “Mechanism of self-excitation of terahertz plasma oscillations in periodically double-gated electron channels,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 20, 384207 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. M. Meziani, M. Hanabe, T. Otsuji, and E. Sano, “Bolometric detection of terahertz radiation from new grating gates device,” Phys. Status Solidi C 5, 282-285 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. M. Meziani, H. Handa, W. Knap., T. Otsuji, E. Sano, V. V. Popov, G. M. Tsymbalov, D. Coquillat, and F. Teppe, “Room temperature terahertz emission from grating coupled two-dimensional plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 201108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Otsuji, Y. M. Meziani, T. Nishimura, T. Suemitsu, W. Knap, E. Sano, T. Asano, and V. V. Popov, “Emission of terahertz radiation from dual-grating-gates plasmon-resonant emitters fabricated with InGaP/InGaAs/GaAs material systems,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 20, 384206 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Otsuji, Y. M. Meziani, M. Hanabe, T. Nishimura, and E. Sano, “Emission of terahertz radiation from InGaP/InGaAs/GaAs grating-bicoupled plasmon-resonant emitter,” Solid-State Electron. 51, 1319-1327 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. M. Meziani, T. Otsuji, M. Hanabe, and E. Sano, “Threshold behavior of photoinduced plasmon-resonant self-oscillation in a new interdigitated grating gates device,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 46, 2409-2412 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Otsuji, M. Hanabe, T. Nishimura, and E. Sano, “A grating-bicoupled plasma-wave photomixer with resonant-cavity enhanced structure,” Opt. Express 14, 4815-4825 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hanabe, T. Nishimura, M. Miyamoto, T. Otsuji, and E. Sano, “Structure-sensitive design for wider tunable operation of terahertz plasmon-resonant photomixer,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E89-C, 985-992 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Otsuji, Y. M. Meziani, M. Hanabe, T. Ishibashi, T. Uno, and E. Sano, “Grating-bicoupled plasmon-resonant terahertz emitter fabricated with GaAs-based heterostructure material systems,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 263502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Otsuji, M. Hanabe, and O. Ogawara, “Terahertz plasma wave resonance of two-dimensional electrons in InGaP/InGaAs/GaAs high-electron-mobility transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2119 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Suemitsu, Yahya M. Meziani, Y. Hosono, M. Hanabe, T. Otsuji, and E. Sano, “Novel plasmon-resonant terahertz-wave emitter using a double-decked HEMT structure,” in 65th Annual Device Research Conference (IEEE, 2007), pp. 157-158.
[CrossRef]

T. Nishimura, H. Handa, H. Tsuda, T. Suemitsu, Y. M. Meziani, W. Knap, T. Otsuji, E. Sano, V. Ryzhii, A. Satou, V. V. Popov, D. Coquillat, and F. Teppe, “Broadband terahertz emission from dual-grating gate HEMT's--mechanism and emission spectral profile,” in 65th Annual Device Research Conference (IEEE, 2007), pp. 263-264.

Otsuji, Y.

Y. M. Meziani, Y. Otsuji, M. Hanabe, T. Ishibashi, T. Uno, and E. Sano, “Room temperature generation of terahertz radiation from a grating-bicoupled device: size effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 061105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pacher, Ch.

P. Bakshi, K. Kempa, A. Scorupsky, C. G. Du, G. Feng, R. Zobl, G. Strasser, C. Rauch, Ch. Pacher, K. Unterrainer, and E. Gornik, “Plasmon-based terahertz emission from quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1685 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Parenty, T.

W. Knap, J. Lusakowski, T. Parenty, S. Bollaert, A. Cappy, V. V. Popov, and M. S. Shur, “Terahertz emission by plasma waves in 60 nm gate high electron mobility transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2331 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Peacock, D. C.

R. J. Wilkinson, C. D. Ager, T. Duffield, H. P. Hughes, D. G. Hasko, H. Armed, J. E. F. Frost, D. C. Peacock, D. A. Ritchie, A. C. Jones, C. R. Whitehouse, and N. Apsley, “Plasmon excitation and self-coupling in a bi-periodically modulated two-dimensional electron gas,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 6049-6061 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Popov, V. V.

T. Otsuji, Y. M. Meziani, T. Nishimura, T. Suemitsu, W. Knap, E. Sano, T. Asano, and V. V. Popov, “Emission of terahertz radiation from dual-grating-gates plasmon-resonant emitters fabricated with InGaP/InGaAs/GaAs material systems,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 20, 384206 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. M. Meziani, H. Handa, W. Knap., T. Otsuji, E. Sano, V. V. Popov, G. M. Tsymbalov, D. Coquillat, and F. Teppe, “Room temperature terahertz emission from grating coupled two-dimensional plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 201108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. Knap, J. Lusakowski, T. Parenty, S. Bollaert, A. Cappy, V. V. Popov, and M. S. Shur, “Terahertz emission by plasma waves in 60 nm gate high electron mobility transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2331 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Nishimura, H. Handa, H. Tsuda, T. Suemitsu, Y. M. Meziani, W. Knap, T. Otsuji, E. Sano, V. Ryzhii, A. Satou, V. V. Popov, D. Coquillat, and F. Teppe, “Broadband terahertz emission from dual-grating gate HEMT's--mechanism and emission spectral profile,” in 65th Annual Device Research Conference (IEEE, 2007), pp. 263-264.

Rauch, C.

P. Bakshi, K. Kempa, A. Scorupsky, C. G. Du, G. Feng, R. Zobl, G. Strasser, C. Rauch, Ch. Pacher, K. Unterrainer, and E. Gornik, “Plasmon-based terahertz emission from quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1685 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ritchie, D. A.

A. Tredicucci, R. Kohler, L. Mahler, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, and D. A. Ritchie, “Terahertz quantum cascade lasers--first demonstration and novel concepts,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S222-S227 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Wilkinson, C. D. Ager, T. Duffield, H. P. Hughes, D. G. Hasko, H. Armed, J. E. F. Frost, D. C. Peacock, D. A. Ritchie, A. C. Jones, C. R. Whitehouse, and N. Apsley, “Plasmon excitation and self-coupling in a bi-periodically modulated two-dimensional electron gas,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 6049-6061 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Roelens, Y.

A. El Fatimy, F. Teppe, N. Dyakonova, W. Knap, D. Seliuta, G. Valusis, A. Shchepetov, Y. Roelens, S. Bollaert, A. Cappy, and S. Rumyantsev, “Resonant and voltage-tunable terahertz detection in InGaAs/InP nanometer transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 131926 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rumyantsev, S.

A. El Fatimy, F. Teppe, N. Dyakonova, W. Knap, D. Seliuta, G. Valusis, A. Shchepetov, Y. Roelens, S. Bollaert, A. Cappy, and S. Rumyantsev, “Resonant and voltage-tunable terahertz detection in InGaAs/InP nanometer transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 131926 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. Knap, Y. Deng, S. Rumyantsev, and M. S. Shur, “Resonant detection of subterahertz and terahertz radiation by plasma waves in submicron field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4637 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ryzhii, M.

V. Ryzhii, A. Satou, M. Ryzhii, T. Otsuji, and M. S. Shur, “Mechanism of self-excitation of terahertz plasma oscillations in periodically double-gated electron channels,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 20, 384207 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ryzhii, V.

V. Ryzhii, A. Satou, M. Ryzhii, T. Otsuji, and M. S. Shur, “Mechanism of self-excitation of terahertz plasma oscillations in periodically double-gated electron channels,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 20, 384207 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Ryzhii, A. Satou, and M. Shur, “Plasma instability and terahertz generation in HEMTs due to electron transit-time effect,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E89-C, 1012-1019 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. Ryzhii, N. A. Bannov, and V. A. Fedirko, “Ballistic and quasiballistic transport in semiconductor structures (review),” Sov. Phys. Semicond. 18, 481-491 (1984).

T. Nishimura, H. Handa, H. Tsuda, T. Suemitsu, Y. M. Meziani, W. Knap, T. Otsuji, E. Sano, V. Ryzhii, A. Satou, V. V. Popov, D. Coquillat, and F. Teppe, “Broadband terahertz emission from dual-grating gate HEMT's--mechanism and emission spectral profile,” in 65th Annual Device Research Conference (IEEE, 2007), pp. 263-264.

Sambe, Y.

N. Okisu, Y. Sambe, and T. Kobayashi, “Far-infrared emission from two-dimensional plasmons in AlGaAs/GaAs heterointerfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 776-778 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Sano, E.

T. Otsuji, Y. M. Meziani, T. Nishimura, T. Suemitsu, W. Knap, E. Sano, T. Asano, and V. V. Popov, “Emission of terahertz radiation from dual-grating-gates plasmon-resonant emitters fabricated with InGaP/InGaAs/GaAs material systems,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 20, 384206 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. M. Meziani, H. Handa, W. Knap., T. Otsuji, E. Sano, V. V. Popov, G. M. Tsymbalov, D. Coquillat, and F. Teppe, “Room temperature terahertz emission from grating coupled two-dimensional plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 201108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. M. Meziani, M. Hanabe, T. Otsuji, and E. Sano, “Bolometric detection of terahertz radiation from new grating gates device,” Phys. Status Solidi C 5, 282-285 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Otsuji, Y. M. Meziani, M. Hanabe, T. Nishimura, and E. Sano, “Emission of terahertz radiation from InGaP/InGaAs/GaAs grating-bicoupled plasmon-resonant emitter,” Solid-State Electron. 51, 1319-1327 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. M. Meziani, T. Otsuji, M. Hanabe, and E. Sano, “Threshold behavior of photoinduced plasmon-resonant self-oscillation in a new interdigitated grating gates device,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 46, 2409-2412 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. M. Meziani, Y. Otsuji, M. Hanabe, T. Ishibashi, T. Uno, and E. Sano, “Room temperature generation of terahertz radiation from a grating-bicoupled device: size effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 061105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Otsuji, Y. M. Meziani, M. Hanabe, T. Ishibashi, T. Uno, and E. Sano, “Grating-bicoupled plasmon-resonant terahertz emitter fabricated with GaAs-based heterostructure material systems,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 263502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Otsuji, M. Hanabe, T. Nishimura, and E. Sano, “A grating-bicoupled plasma-wave photomixer with resonant-cavity enhanced structure,” Opt. Express 14, 4815-4825 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hanabe, T. Nishimura, M. Miyamoto, T. Otsuji, and E. Sano, “Structure-sensitive design for wider tunable operation of terahertz plasmon-resonant photomixer,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E89-C, 985-992 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Suemitsu, Yahya M. Meziani, Y. Hosono, M. Hanabe, T. Otsuji, and E. Sano, “Novel plasmon-resonant terahertz-wave emitter using a double-decked HEMT structure,” in 65th Annual Device Research Conference (IEEE, 2007), pp. 157-158.
[CrossRef]

T. Nishimura, H. Handa, H. Tsuda, T. Suemitsu, Y. M. Meziani, W. Knap, T. Otsuji, E. Sano, V. Ryzhii, A. Satou, V. V. Popov, D. Coquillat, and F. Teppe, “Broadband terahertz emission from dual-grating gate HEMT's--mechanism and emission spectral profile,” in 65th Annual Device Research Conference (IEEE, 2007), pp. 263-264.

Satou, A.

V. Ryzhii, A. Satou, M. Ryzhii, T. Otsuji, and M. S. Shur, “Mechanism of self-excitation of terahertz plasma oscillations in periodically double-gated electron channels,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 20, 384207 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Ryzhii, A. Satou, and M. Shur, “Plasma instability and terahertz generation in HEMTs due to electron transit-time effect,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E89-C, 1012-1019 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Nishimura, H. Handa, H. Tsuda, T. Suemitsu, Y. M. Meziani, W. Knap, T. Otsuji, E. Sano, V. Ryzhii, A. Satou, V. V. Popov, D. Coquillat, and F. Teppe, “Broadband terahertz emission from dual-grating gate HEMT's--mechanism and emission spectral profile,” in 65th Annual Device Research Conference (IEEE, 2007), pp. 263-264.

Scorupsky, A.

P. Bakshi, K. Kempa, A. Scorupsky, C. G. Du, G. Feng, R. Zobl, G. Strasser, C. Rauch, Ch. Pacher, K. Unterrainer, and E. Gornik, “Plasmon-based terahertz emission from quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1685 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Seliuta, D.

A. El Fatimy, F. Teppe, N. Dyakonova, W. Knap, D. Seliuta, G. Valusis, A. Shchepetov, Y. Roelens, S. Bollaert, A. Cappy, and S. Rumyantsev, “Resonant and voltage-tunable terahertz detection in InGaAs/InP nanometer transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 131926 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sergent, A. M.

R. Colombelli, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, A. Tredicucci, M. C. Wanke, A. M. Sergent, and A. Y. Cho, “Far-infrared surface-plasmon quantum-cascade lasers at 21.5 μm and 24 μm wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2620 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shchepetov, A.

A. El Fatimy, F. Teppe, N. Dyakonova, W. Knap, D. Seliuta, G. Valusis, A. Shchepetov, Y. Roelens, S. Bollaert, A. Cappy, and S. Rumyantsev, “Resonant and voltage-tunable terahertz detection in InGaAs/InP nanometer transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 131926 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shur, M.

V. Ryzhii, A. Satou, and M. Shur, “Plasma instability and terahertz generation in HEMTs due to electron transit-time effect,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E89-C, 1012-1019 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Dyakonov and M. Shur, “Shallow water analogy for a ballistic field effect transistor: New mechanism of plasma wave generation by dc current,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 2465-2468 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shur, M. S.

V. Ryzhii, A. Satou, M. Ryzhii, T. Otsuji, and M. S. Shur, “Mechanism of self-excitation of terahertz plasma oscillations in periodically double-gated electron channels,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 20, 384207 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Teppe, W. Knap, D. Veksler, and M. S. Shur, “Room-temperature plasma waves resonant detection of sub-terahertz radiation by nanometer field-effect transistor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 052107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. Dyakonova, F. Teppe, J. Lusakowski, W. Knap, M. Levinshtein, A. P. Dmitriev, M. S. Shur, S. Bollaert, and A. Cappy, “Magnetic field effect on the terahertz emission from nanometer InGaAs/AlInAs high electron mobility transistors,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 114313 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. Knap, J. Lusakowski, T. Parenty, S. Bollaert, A. Cappy, V. V. Popov, and M. S. Shur, “Terahertz emission by plasma waves in 60 nm gate high electron mobility transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2331 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. Knap, Y. Deng, S. Rumyantsev, and M. S. Shur, “Resonant detection of subterahertz and terahertz radiation by plasma waves in submicron field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4637 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sivco, D. L.

R. Colombelli, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, A. Tredicucci, M. C. Wanke, A. M. Sergent, and A. Y. Cho, “Far-infrared surface-plasmon quantum-cascade lasers at 21.5 μm and 24 μm wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2620 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Stangl, G.

R. Hopfel, G. Lindemann, E. Gornik, G. Stangl, A. C. Gossard, and W. Wiegmann, “Cyclotron and plasmon emission from two-dimensional electrons in GaAs,” Surf. Sci. 113, 118-123 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Strasser, G.

P. Bakshi, K. Kempa, A. Scorupsky, C. G. Du, G. Feng, R. Zobl, G. Strasser, C. Rauch, Ch. Pacher, K. Unterrainer, and E. Gornik, “Plasmon-based terahertz emission from quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1685 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Suemitsu, T.

T. Otsuji, Y. M. Meziani, T. Nishimura, T. Suemitsu, W. Knap, E. Sano, T. Asano, and V. V. Popov, “Emission of terahertz radiation from dual-grating-gates plasmon-resonant emitters fabricated with InGaP/InGaAs/GaAs material systems,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 20, 384206 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Nishimura, H. Handa, H. Tsuda, T. Suemitsu, Y. M. Meziani, W. Knap, T. Otsuji, E. Sano, V. Ryzhii, A. Satou, V. V. Popov, D. Coquillat, and F. Teppe, “Broadband terahertz emission from dual-grating gate HEMT's--mechanism and emission spectral profile,” in 65th Annual Device Research Conference (IEEE, 2007), pp. 263-264.

T. Suemitsu, Yahya M. Meziani, Y. Hosono, M. Hanabe, T. Otsuji, and E. Sano, “Novel plasmon-resonant terahertz-wave emitter using a double-decked HEMT structure,” in 65th Annual Device Research Conference (IEEE, 2007), pp. 157-158.
[CrossRef]

Teppe, F.

Y. M. Meziani, H. Handa, W. Knap., T. Otsuji, E. Sano, V. V. Popov, G. M. Tsymbalov, D. Coquillat, and F. Teppe, “Room temperature terahertz emission from grating coupled two-dimensional plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 201108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. El Fatimy, F. Teppe, N. Dyakonova, W. Knap, D. Seliuta, G. Valusis, A. Shchepetov, Y. Roelens, S. Bollaert, A. Cappy, and S. Rumyantsev, “Resonant and voltage-tunable terahertz detection in InGaAs/InP nanometer transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 131926 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Teppe, W. Knap, D. Veksler, and M. S. Shur, “Room-temperature plasma waves resonant detection of sub-terahertz radiation by nanometer field-effect transistor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 052107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. Dyakonova, F. Teppe, J. Lusakowski, W. Knap, M. Levinshtein, A. P. Dmitriev, M. S. Shur, S. Bollaert, and A. Cappy, “Magnetic field effect on the terahertz emission from nanometer InGaAs/AlInAs high electron mobility transistors,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 114313 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Nishimura, H. Handa, H. Tsuda, T. Suemitsu, Y. M. Meziani, W. Knap, T. Otsuji, E. Sano, V. Ryzhii, A. Satou, V. V. Popov, D. Coquillat, and F. Teppe, “Broadband terahertz emission from dual-grating gate HEMT's--mechanism and emission spectral profile,” in 65th Annual Device Research Conference (IEEE, 2007), pp. 263-264.

Tonouchi, M.

M. Tonouchi, “Cutting-edge terahertz technology,” Nat. Photonics . 1, 97-105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tredicucci, A.

A. Tredicucci, R. Kohler, L. Mahler, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, and D. A. Ritchie, “Terahertz quantum cascade lasers--first demonstration and novel concepts,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S222-S227 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Colombelli, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, A. Tredicucci, M. C. Wanke, A. M. Sergent, and A. Y. Cho, “Far-infrared surface-plasmon quantum-cascade lasers at 21.5 μm and 24 μm wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2620 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tsuda, H.

T. Nishimura, H. Handa, H. Tsuda, T. Suemitsu, Y. M. Meziani, W. Knap, T. Otsuji, E. Sano, V. Ryzhii, A. Satou, V. V. Popov, D. Coquillat, and F. Teppe, “Broadband terahertz emission from dual-grating gate HEMT's--mechanism and emission spectral profile,” in 65th Annual Device Research Conference (IEEE, 2007), pp. 263-264.

Tsui, D. C.

K. Hirakawa, K. Yamanaka, M. Grayson, and D. C. Tsui, “Far-infrared emission spectroscopy of hot two-dimensional plasmons in Al0.3Ga0.7As/GaAs heterojunctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2326 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Tsui, E. Gornik, and R. A. Logan, “Far infrared emission from plasma oscillations of Si inversion layers,” Solid State Commun. 35, 875-877 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Tsymbalov, G. M.

Y. M. Meziani, H. Handa, W. Knap., T. Otsuji, E. Sano, V. V. Popov, G. M. Tsymbalov, D. Coquillat, and F. Teppe, “Room temperature terahertz emission from grating coupled two-dimensional plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 201108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Uno, T.

Y. M. Meziani, Y. Otsuji, M. Hanabe, T. Ishibashi, T. Uno, and E. Sano, “Room temperature generation of terahertz radiation from a grating-bicoupled device: size effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 061105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Otsuji, Y. M. Meziani, M. Hanabe, T. Ishibashi, T. Uno, and E. Sano, “Grating-bicoupled plasmon-resonant terahertz emitter fabricated with GaAs-based heterostructure material systems,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 263502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Unterrainer, K.

P. Bakshi, K. Kempa, A. Scorupsky, C. G. Du, G. Feng, R. Zobl, G. Strasser, C. Rauch, Ch. Pacher, K. Unterrainer, and E. Gornik, “Plasmon-based terahertz emission from quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1685 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Valusis, G.

A. El Fatimy, F. Teppe, N. Dyakonova, W. Knap, D. Seliuta, G. Valusis, A. Shchepetov, Y. Roelens, S. Bollaert, A. Cappy, and S. Rumyantsev, “Resonant and voltage-tunable terahertz detection in InGaAs/InP nanometer transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 131926 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Varani, L.

J. Lusakowski, W. Knap, N. Dyakonova, and L. Varani, “Voltage tunable terahertz emission from a ballistic nanometer InGaAs/InAlAs transistor,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 064307 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Vass, E.

R. A. Hopfel, E. Vass, and E. Gornik, “Thermal excitation of two-dimensional plasma oscillations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 49, 1667-1671 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Veksler, D.

F. Teppe, W. Knap, D. Veksler, and M. S. Shur, “Room-temperature plasma waves resonant detection of sub-terahertz radiation by nanometer field-effect transistor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 052107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wanke, M. C.

R. Colombelli, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, A. Tredicucci, M. C. Wanke, A. M. Sergent, and A. Y. Cho, “Far-infrared surface-plasmon quantum-cascade lasers at 21.5 μm and 24 μm wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2620 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Whitehouse, C. R.

R. J. Wilkinson, C. D. Ager, T. Duffield, H. P. Hughes, D. G. Hasko, H. Armed, J. E. F. Frost, D. C. Peacock, D. A. Ritchie, A. C. Jones, C. R. Whitehouse, and N. Apsley, “Plasmon excitation and self-coupling in a bi-periodically modulated two-dimensional electron gas,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 6049-6061 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Wiegmann, W.

R. Hopfel, G. Lindemann, E. Gornik, G. Stangl, A. C. Gossard, and W. Wiegmann, “Cyclotron and plasmon emission from two-dimensional electrons in GaAs,” Surf. Sci. 113, 118-123 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Wilkinson, R. J.

R. J. Wilkinson, C. D. Ager, T. Duffield, H. P. Hughes, D. G. Hasko, H. Armed, J. E. F. Frost, D. C. Peacock, D. A. Ritchie, A. C. Jones, C. R. Whitehouse, and N. Apsley, “Plasmon excitation and self-coupling in a bi-periodically modulated two-dimensional electron gas,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 6049-6061 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Yamanaka, K.

K. Hirakawa, K. Yamanaka, M. Grayson, and D. C. Tsui, “Far-infrared emission spectroscopy of hot two-dimensional plasmons in Al0.3Ga0.7As/GaAs heterojunctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2326 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zobl, R.

P. Bakshi, K. Kempa, A. Scorupsky, C. G. Du, G. Feng, R. Zobl, G. Strasser, C. Rauch, Ch. Pacher, K. Unterrainer, and E. Gornik, “Plasmon-based terahertz emission from quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1685 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (12)

N. Okisu, Y. Sambe, and T. Kobayashi, “Far-infrared emission from two-dimensional plasmons in AlGaAs/GaAs heterointerfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 776-778 (1986).
[CrossRef]

W. Knap, J. Lusakowski, T. Parenty, S. Bollaert, A. Cappy, V. V. Popov, and M. S. Shur, “Terahertz emission by plasma waves in 60 nm gate high electron mobility transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2331 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Hirakawa, K. Yamanaka, M. Grayson, and D. C. Tsui, “Far-infrared emission spectroscopy of hot two-dimensional plasmons in Al0.3Ga0.7As/GaAs heterojunctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2326 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. Bakshi, K. Kempa, A. Scorupsky, C. G. Du, G. Feng, R. Zobl, G. Strasser, C. Rauch, Ch. Pacher, K. Unterrainer, and E. Gornik, “Plasmon-based terahertz emission from quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1685 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Colombelli, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, A. Tredicucci, M. C. Wanke, A. M. Sergent, and A. Y. Cho, “Far-infrared surface-plasmon quantum-cascade lasers at 21.5 μm and 24 μm wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2620 (2001).
[CrossRef]

W. Knap, Y. Deng, S. Rumyantsev, and M. S. Shur, “Resonant detection of subterahertz and terahertz radiation by plasma waves in submicron field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4637 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Otsuji, M. Hanabe, and O. Ogawara, “Terahertz plasma wave resonance of two-dimensional electrons in InGaP/InGaAs/GaAs high-electron-mobility transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2119 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Teppe, W. Knap, D. Veksler, and M. S. Shur, “Room-temperature plasma waves resonant detection of sub-terahertz radiation by nanometer field-effect transistor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 052107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. El Fatimy, F. Teppe, N. Dyakonova, W. Knap, D. Seliuta, G. Valusis, A. Shchepetov, Y. Roelens, S. Bollaert, A. Cappy, and S. Rumyantsev, “Resonant and voltage-tunable terahertz detection in InGaAs/InP nanometer transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 131926 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Otsuji, Y. M. Meziani, M. Hanabe, T. Ishibashi, T. Uno, and E. Sano, “Grating-bicoupled plasmon-resonant terahertz emitter fabricated with GaAs-based heterostructure material systems,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 263502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. M. Meziani, Y. Otsuji, M. Hanabe, T. Ishibashi, T. Uno, and E. Sano, “Room temperature generation of terahertz radiation from a grating-bicoupled device: size effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 061105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. M. Meziani, H. Handa, W. Knap., T. Otsuji, E. Sano, V. V. Popov, G. M. Tsymbalov, D. Coquillat, and F. Teppe, “Room temperature terahertz emission from grating coupled two-dimensional plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 201108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEICE Trans. Electron. (2)

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Device cross section for typical GaAs-based heterostructure material systems. E x , electric field (linear polarization); k THz , wave vector of electromagnetic radiation (after [29]).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic band diagram and operation mechanism.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Cross-sectional structure and SEM image of a semiconducting grating gate plasmon-resonant emitter (after [28, 33]).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental FTIR setup and microchip emitter installation. (a) Block diagram of the FTIR system, (b) emitter chip mounted on a sample holder installed in the chamber, (c) 2 mm × 10 mm die (accommodating 32 independent emitter devices) mounted on a quartz substrate. Two emitters are wire-bonded with metalized patterns on the substrate for electrical connection. B/S, beam splitter.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

FTIR measured emission spectra for a dual-grating-gate double-deck HEMT sample having L g 1 L g 2 = 150 nm 1850 nm at room temperature (after [32, 33]).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

FTIR measured emission spectra: the plasmon-resonant emitter versus a high-pressure mercury lamp.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Dual-chip operation almost doubles the emission power. V DS = 9.0 V .

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Measured absorption spectrum of atmospheric water vapor in comparison with the data provided by NASA [34].

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Transmission spectra of sugar groups measured by using a plasmon-resonant emitter (this work) and by using a high-pressure mercury lump, and their main ingredient(s) provided by RIKEN [35]. (a) Honey versus glucose and fructose; (b) maple syrup versus sucrose.

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