Abstract

We present three techniques of calibrating frequency and spectral profile measurements of terahertz time-domain spectrometers. The first utilizes the etalon effect generated by multiple reflections in thin nonabsorbing samples. The second employs a CO gas cell to provide multiple narrow absorption lines at known frequencies. The third aims to use a grating monochromator to produce an independently measured comparable spectrum.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  5. D. F. Williams, A. Lewandowski, T. S. Clement, J. C. M. Wang, P. D. Hale, J. M. Morgan, D. A. Keenan, and A. Dienstfrey, “Covariance-based uncertainty analysis of the NIST electro-optic sampling system,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 54, 481-491 (2006).
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  13. R. Guenther, Modern Optics (Wiley, 1990).
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    [CrossRef]
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2009 (1)

2007 (1)

M. Naftaly and R. E. Miles, “A method for removing etalon oscillations from THz time-domain spectra,” Opt. Commun. 280, 291-295 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

W. Withayachumnankul and B. Ferguson, “Direct Fabry-Perot effect removal,” Fluct. Noise Lett. 6, L227-L239 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. Xin, H. Altan, A. Saint, D. Matten, and R. R. Alfano, “Terahertz absorption spectrum of para and ortho water vapors at different humidities at room temperature,” J. Appl. Phys. 100, 094905 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. F. Williams, A. Lewandowski, T. S. Clement, J. C. M. Wang, P. D. Hale, J. M. Morgan, D. A. Keenan, and A. Dienstfrey, “Covariance-based uncertainty analysis of the NIST electro-optic sampling system,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 54, 481-491 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

G. Zhao, R. N. Schouten, N. van der Valk, W. Th. Wenckebach, and P. C. M. Planken, “Design and performance of a THz emission and detection setup based on a semi-insulating GaAs emitter,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1715-1719 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Beard, G. M. Turner, and C. A. Schmuttenmaer, “Terahertz spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B 106, 7146-7159 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Hangyo, T. Nagashima, and S. Nashima, “Spectroscopy by pulsed terahertz radiation,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 1727-1738 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

P. Y. Han and X.-C. Zhang, “Free-space coherent broadband terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 1747-1756 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. D. Dorney, R. G. Baraniuk, and D. M. Mittleman, “Material parameter estimation with terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 1562-1571 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

H. J. Barker, G. C. Cho, H. Kurz, Q. Wu, and X.-C. Zhang, “Distortion of terahertz pulses in electro-optic sampling,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 1795-1801 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Mittleman, R. H. Jacobsen, R. Neelmani, R. G. Baraniuk, and M. C. Nuss, “Gas sensing using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 379-390 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

A. J. A. Smith, A. G. Roddie, and D. Henderson, “Electro-optic sampling of low temperature GaAs pulse generators for oscilloscope calibration,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 28, 933-943 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

E. N. Grossman and D. G. McDonald, “Partially coherent transmittance of dielectric lamellae,” Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 34, 1289-1295 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

T. D. Varberg and K. M. Evenson, “Laser spectroscopy of carbon monoxide: a frequency reference for the far infrared,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 42, 412-414 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

1965 (1)

Abbott, D.

S. Mickan, J. Xu, J. Munch, X.-C. Zhang, and D. Abbott, “The limit of spectral resolution in THz time-domain spectroscopy,” Proc. SPIE 5277, doi:.
[CrossRef]

Alfano, R. R.

X. Xin, H. Altan, A. Saint, D. Matten, and R. R. Alfano, “Terahertz absorption spectrum of para and ortho water vapors at different humidities at room temperature,” J. Appl. Phys. 100, 094905 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Allman, R. E.

R. J. Foltynowicz and R. E. Allman, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of atmospheric water vapor from 0.4to2.7 THz,” Sandia Report, SND2005-5709, 2005.

Altan, H.

X. Xin, H. Altan, A. Saint, D. Matten, and R. R. Alfano, “Terahertz absorption spectrum of para and ortho water vapors at different humidities at room temperature,” J. Appl. Phys. 100, 094905 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Auwera, J. Vander

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Baraniuk, R. G.

T. D. Dorney, R. G. Baraniuk, and D. M. Mittleman, “Material parameter estimation with terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 1562-1571 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Mittleman, R. H. Jacobsen, R. Neelmani, R. G. Baraniuk, and M. C. Nuss, “Gas sensing using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 379-390 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Barbe, A.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Barker, H. J.

Beard, M. C.

M. C. Beard, G. M. Turner, and C. A. Schmuttenmaer, “Terahertz spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B 106, 7146-7159 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Benner, D. Chris

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Birk, M.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Brown, L. R.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Carleer, M. R.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chackerian, C.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chance, K.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cho, G. C.

Clement, T. S.

D. F. Williams, A. Lewandowski, T. S. Clement, J. C. M. Wang, P. D. Hale, J. M. Morgan, D. A. Keenan, and A. Dienstfrey, “Covariance-based uncertainty analysis of the NIST electro-optic sampling system,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 54, 481-491 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Coudert, L. H.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dana, V.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Devi, V. M.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dienstfrey, A.

D. F. Williams, A. Lewandowski, T. S. Clement, J. C. M. Wang, P. D. Hale, J. M. Morgan, D. A. Keenan, and A. Dienstfrey, “Covariance-based uncertainty analysis of the NIST electro-optic sampling system,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 54, 481-491 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dorney, T. D.

Dudley, R.

Evenson, K. M.

T. D. Varberg and K. M. Evenson, “Laser spectroscopy of carbon monoxide: a frequency reference for the far infrared,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 42, 412-414 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Fattinger, Ch.

Ferguson, B.

W. Withayachumnankul and B. Ferguson, “Direct Fabry-Perot effect removal,” Fluct. Noise Lett. 6, L227-L239 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Flaud, J.-M.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Foltynowicz, R. J.

R. J. Foltynowicz and R. E. Allman, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of atmospheric water vapor from 0.4to2.7 THz,” Sandia Report, SND2005-5709, 2005.

Gamache, R. R.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Goldman, A.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Grischkowsy, D.

Grossman, E. N.

E. N. Grossman and D. G. McDonald, “Partially coherent transmittance of dielectric lamellae,” Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 34, 1289-1295 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Guenther, R.

R. Guenther, Modern Optics (Wiley, 1990).

Hale, P. D.

D. F. Williams, A. Lewandowski, T. S. Clement, J. C. M. Wang, P. D. Hale, J. M. Morgan, D. A. Keenan, and A. Dienstfrey, “Covariance-based uncertainty analysis of the NIST electro-optic sampling system,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 54, 481-491 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Han, P. Y.

P. Y. Han and X.-C. Zhang, “Free-space coherent broadband terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 1747-1756 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hangyo, M.

M. Hangyo, T. Nagashima, and S. Nashima, “Spectroscopy by pulsed terahertz radiation,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 1727-1738 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hartmann, J.-M.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Henderson, D.

A. J. A. Smith, A. G. Roddie, and D. Henderson, “Electro-optic sampling of low temperature GaAs pulse generators for oscilloscope calibration,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 28, 933-943 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jacobsen, R. H.

D. M. Mittleman, R. H. Jacobsen, R. Neelmani, R. G. Baraniuk, and M. C. Nuss, “Gas sensing using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 379-390 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jacquemart, D.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jucks, K. W.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Keenan, D. A.

D. F. Williams, A. Lewandowski, T. S. Clement, J. C. M. Wang, P. D. Hale, J. M. Morgan, D. A. Keenan, and A. Dienstfrey, “Covariance-based uncertainty analysis of the NIST electro-optic sampling system,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 54, 481-491 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Keiding, S.

Kurz, H.

Lerner, J. M.

J. M. Lerner and A. Thevenon, “The optics of spectroscopy,” Horiba-Jobin-Yvon tutorial: http://www.spexjobinyvon.com/SiteResources/Data/Templates/1divisional.asp?DocID=566&v1ID=&lang=

Lewandowski, A.

D. F. Williams, A. Lewandowski, T. S. Clement, J. C. M. Wang, P. D. Hale, J. M. Morgan, D. A. Keenan, and A. Dienstfrey, “Covariance-based uncertainty analysis of the NIST electro-optic sampling system,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 54, 481-491 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Maki, A. G.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mandin, J.-Y.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Massie, S. T.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Matten, D.

X. Xin, H. Altan, A. Saint, D. Matten, and R. R. Alfano, “Terahertz absorption spectrum of para and ortho water vapors at different humidities at room temperature,” J. Appl. Phys. 100, 094905 (2006).
[CrossRef]

McDonald, D. G.

E. N. Grossman and D. G. McDonald, “Partially coherent transmittance of dielectric lamellae,” Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 34, 1289-1295 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Mickan, S.

S. Mickan, J. Xu, J. Munch, X.-C. Zhang, and D. Abbott, “The limit of spectral resolution in THz time-domain spectroscopy,” Proc. SPIE 5277, doi:.
[CrossRef]

Miles, R. E.

M. Naftaly and R. E. Miles, “A method for removing etalon oscillations from THz time-domain spectra,” Opt. Commun. 280, 291-295 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mittleman, D. M.

T. D. Dorney, R. G. Baraniuk, and D. M. Mittleman, “Material parameter estimation with terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 1562-1571 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Mittleman, R. H. Jacobsen, R. Neelmani, R. G. Baraniuk, and M. C. Nuss, “Gas sensing using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 379-390 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Morgan, J. M.

D. F. Williams, A. Lewandowski, T. S. Clement, J. C. M. Wang, P. D. Hale, J. M. Morgan, D. A. Keenan, and A. Dienstfrey, “Covariance-based uncertainty analysis of the NIST electro-optic sampling system,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 54, 481-491 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Munch, J.

S. Mickan, J. Xu, J. Munch, X.-C. Zhang, and D. Abbott, “The limit of spectral resolution in THz time-domain spectroscopy,” Proc. SPIE 5277, doi:.
[CrossRef]

Naftaly, M.

M. Naftaly and R. Dudley, “Linearity calibration of amplitude and power measurements in terahertz systems and detectors,” Opt. Lett. 34, 674-676 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Naftaly and R. E. Miles, “A method for removing etalon oscillations from THz time-domain spectra,” Opt. Commun. 280, 291-295 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nagashima, T.

M. Hangyo, T. Nagashima, and S. Nashima, “Spectroscopy by pulsed terahertz radiation,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 1727-1738 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nashima, S.

M. Hangyo, T. Nagashima, and S. Nashima, “Spectroscopy by pulsed terahertz radiation,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 1727-1738 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Neelmani, R.

D. M. Mittleman, R. H. Jacobsen, R. Neelmani, R. G. Baraniuk, and M. C. Nuss, “Gas sensing using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 379-390 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nuss, M. C.

D. M. Mittleman, R. H. Jacobsen, R. Neelmani, R. G. Baraniuk, and M. C. Nuss, “Gas sensing using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 379-390 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Orphal, J.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Perrin, A.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Planken, P. C. M.

G. Zhao, R. N. Schouten, N. van der Valk, W. Th. Wenckebach, and P. C. M. Planken, “Design and performance of a THz emission and detection setup based on a semi-insulating GaAs emitter,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1715-1719 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rinsland, C. P.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Roddie, A. G.

A. J. A. Smith, A. G. Roddie, and D. Henderson, “Electro-optic sampling of low temperature GaAs pulse generators for oscilloscope calibration,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 28, 933-943 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rothman, L. S.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Russell, J. W.

Saint, A.

X. Xin, H. Altan, A. Saint, D. Matten, and R. R. Alfano, “Terahertz absorption spectrum of para and ortho water vapors at different humidities at room temperature,” J. Appl. Phys. 100, 094905 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schmuttenmaer, C. A.

M. C. Beard, G. M. Turner, and C. A. Schmuttenmaer, “Terahertz spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B 106, 7146-7159 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schouten, R. N.

G. Zhao, R. N. Schouten, N. van der Valk, W. Th. Wenckebach, and P. C. M. Planken, “Design and performance of a THz emission and detection setup based on a semi-insulating GaAs emitter,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1715-1719 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Smith, A. J. A.

A. J. A. Smith, A. G. Roddie, and D. Henderson, “Electro-optic sampling of low temperature GaAs pulse generators for oscilloscope calibration,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 28, 933-943 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Smith, M. A. H.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Strauss, H. L.

Tennyson, J.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Thevenon, A.

J. M. Lerner and A. Thevenon, “The optics of spectroscopy,” Horiba-Jobin-Yvon tutorial: http://www.spexjobinyvon.com/SiteResources/Data/Templates/1divisional.asp?DocID=566&v1ID=&lang=

Tolchenov, R. N.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Toth, R. A.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Turner, G. M.

M. C. Beard, G. M. Turner, and C. A. Schmuttenmaer, “Terahertz spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B 106, 7146-7159 (2002).
[CrossRef]

van der Valk, N.

G. Zhao, R. N. Schouten, N. van der Valk, W. Th. Wenckebach, and P. C. M. Planken, “Design and performance of a THz emission and detection setup based on a semi-insulating GaAs emitter,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1715-1719 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Van Exter, M.

Varanasi, P.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Varberg, T. D.

T. D. Varberg and K. M. Evenson, “Laser spectroscopy of carbon monoxide: a frequency reference for the far infrared,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 42, 412-414 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wagner, G.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J. C. M.

D. F. Williams, A. Lewandowski, T. S. Clement, J. C. M. Wang, P. D. Hale, J. M. Morgan, D. A. Keenan, and A. Dienstfrey, “Covariance-based uncertainty analysis of the NIST electro-optic sampling system,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 54, 481-491 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wenckebach, W. Th.

G. Zhao, R. N. Schouten, N. van der Valk, W. Th. Wenckebach, and P. C. M. Planken, “Design and performance of a THz emission and detection setup based on a semi-insulating GaAs emitter,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1715-1719 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Western, C. M.

PGOPHER, a Program for Simulating Rotational Structure, C. M. Western, University of Bristol, http://pgopher.chm.bris.ac.uk

Williams, D. F.

D. F. Williams, A. Lewandowski, T. S. Clement, J. C. M. Wang, P. D. Hale, J. M. Morgan, D. A. Keenan, and A. Dienstfrey, “Covariance-based uncertainty analysis of the NIST electro-optic sampling system,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 54, 481-491 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Withayachumnankul, W.

W. Withayachumnankul and B. Ferguson, “Direct Fabry-Perot effect removal,” Fluct. Noise Lett. 6, L227-L239 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Q.

Xin, X.

X. Xin, H. Altan, A. Saint, D. Matten, and R. R. Alfano, “Terahertz absorption spectrum of para and ortho water vapors at different humidities at room temperature,” J. Appl. Phys. 100, 094905 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Xu, J.

S. Mickan, J. Xu, J. Munch, X.-C. Zhang, and D. Abbott, “The limit of spectral resolution in THz time-domain spectroscopy,” Proc. SPIE 5277, doi:.
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.-C.

P. Y. Han and X.-C. Zhang, “Free-space coherent broadband terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 1747-1756 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Barker, G. C. Cho, H. Kurz, Q. Wu, and X.-C. Zhang, “Distortion of terahertz pulses in electro-optic sampling,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 1795-1801 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Mickan, J. Xu, J. Munch, X.-C. Zhang, and D. Abbott, “The limit of spectral resolution in THz time-domain spectroscopy,” Proc. SPIE 5277, doi:.
[CrossRef]

Zhao, G.

G. Zhao, R. N. Schouten, N. van der Valk, W. Th. Wenckebach, and P. C. M. Planken, “Design and performance of a THz emission and detection setup based on a semi-insulating GaAs emitter,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1715-1719 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

D. M. Mittleman, R. H. Jacobsen, R. Neelmani, R. G. Baraniuk, and M. C. Nuss, “Gas sensing using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 379-390 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fluct. Noise Lett. (1)

W. Withayachumnankul and B. Ferguson, “Direct Fabry-Perot effect removal,” Fluct. Noise Lett. 6, L227-L239 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. (1)

T. D. Varberg and K. M. Evenson, “Laser spectroscopy of carbon monoxide: a frequency reference for the far infrared,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 42, 412-414 (1993).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. (1)

D. F. Williams, A. Lewandowski, T. S. Clement, J. C. M. Wang, P. D. Hale, J. M. Morgan, D. A. Keenan, and A. Dienstfrey, “Covariance-based uncertainty analysis of the NIST electro-optic sampling system,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 54, 481-491 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

X. Xin, H. Altan, A. Saint, D. Matten, and R. R. Alfano, “Terahertz absorption spectrum of para and ortho water vapors at different humidities at room temperature,” J. Appl. Phys. 100, 094905 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

M. C. Beard, G. M. Turner, and C. A. Schmuttenmaer, “Terahertz spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B 106, 7146-7159 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. (1)

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (2)

M. Hangyo, T. Nagashima, and S. Nashima, “Spectroscopy by pulsed terahertz radiation,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 1727-1738 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. Y. Han and X.-C. Zhang, “Free-space coherent broadband terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 1747-1756 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

M. Naftaly and R. E. Miles, “A method for removing etalon oscillations from THz time-domain spectra,” Opt. Commun. 280, 291-295 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) (1)

E. N. Grossman and D. G. McDonald, “Partially coherent transmittance of dielectric lamellae,” Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 34, 1289-1295 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

A. J. A. Smith, A. G. Roddie, and D. Henderson, “Electro-optic sampling of low temperature GaAs pulse generators for oscilloscope calibration,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 28, 933-943 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

S. Mickan, J. Xu, J. Munch, X.-C. Zhang, and D. Abbott, “The limit of spectral resolution in THz time-domain spectroscopy,” Proc. SPIE 5277, doi:.
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

G. Zhao, R. N. Schouten, N. van der Valk, W. Th. Wenckebach, and P. C. M. Planken, “Design and performance of a THz emission and detection setup based on a semi-insulating GaAs emitter,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1715-1719 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

R. Guenther, Modern Optics (Wiley, 1990).

R. J. Foltynowicz and R. E. Allman, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of atmospheric water vapor from 0.4to2.7 THz,” Sandia Report, SND2005-5709, 2005.

PGOPHER, a Program for Simulating Rotational Structure, C. M. Western, University of Bristol, http://pgopher.chm.bris.ac.uk

J. M. Lerner and A. Thevenon, “The optics of spectroscopy,” Horiba-Jobin-Yvon tutorial: http://www.spexjobinyvon.com/SiteResources/Data/Templates/1divisional.asp?DocID=566&v1ID=&lang=

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The measured transmission spectrum of a GaAs wafer and the Fabry–Perot etalon model.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Difference between the measured and calculated transmission values, as shown in Fig. 1.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Frequency differences between the measured etalon peaks/troughs and the calculated values.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Transmission spectrum of carbon monoxide measured by TDS. Peak positions from [20] are indicated by vertical lines.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Left ordinate: CO absorption line frequencies as a function of the upper transition level J , showing a constant spacing of 114 GHz . Right ordinate: Frequency differences between the measured peaks and those given in [20].

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Comparison of CO absorption lines measured by the TDS and the monochromator. Peak positions given by [20] are indicated by vertical lines

Equations (8)

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f N = c 2 n l N , ( peaks ) ,
f N + 1 2 = c 2 n l ( N + 1 2 ) , ( troughs ) ,
T = ( 1 + F sin 2 δ 2 ) 1 ,
F = 4 R ( 1 R ) 2 ,
R = ( n 1 n + 1 ) 2 ,
δ = 4 π n l f c .
f ( α ) = k c 2 p sin ( α 2 ) cos ( δ 2 ) ,
d f d x = f 2 p c F B cos 1 2 ( α + δ ) ,

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