Abstract

We report a terahertz (THz) source continuously tunable over 20GHz with a linewidth <100MHz (close to the transform limit of 110ns pulses) and settable anywhere in the range of 13THz. The source consists of an injection-seeded intracavity THz optical parametric oscillator, which exhibits the benefits of lower threshold and enhanced efficiency and power over a similar extracavity device. Linewidth control was achieved with <1mW of seed laser power and THz pulse energies of >5nJ observed with up to 68% downconversion of the pump wave. Spectroscopy of the 1.4969THz carbon monoxide absorption line was performed to verify linewidth and demonstrate tuning capability.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. K. Kawase, M. Sato, T. Taniuchi, and H. Ito, “Coherent tunable THz wave generation from LiNbO3 with monolithic grating coupler,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2483-2485 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  2. T. Edwards, D. Walsh, M. Spurr, C. Rae, M. Dunn, and P. Browne, “Compact source of continuously and widely tuneable terahertz radiation,” Opt. Express 14, 1582-1589 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. K. Kawase, Y. Ogawa, Y. Watanabe, and H. Inoue, “Non-destructive terahertz imaging of illicit drugs using spectral fingerprints,” Opt. Express 11, 2549-2554 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. D. J. M. Stothard, T. J. Edwards, D. Walsh, C. L. Thomson, C. F. Rae, M. H. Dunn, and P. G. Browne, “Line-narrowed, compact, and coherent source of widely tuneable terahertz radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 141105 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. A. Piestrup, R. N. Fleming, and R. H. Pantell, “Continuously tunable submillimeter wave source,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 418-421 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. H. Auston and M. C. Nuss, “Electro-optical generation and detection of femtosecond electrical transients,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 184-197 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  7. X. C. Zhang, B. B. Hu, J. T. Darrow, and D. H. Auston, “Generation of femtosecond electromagnetic pulses from semiconductor surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1011-1013 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  8. E. R. Mueller, “Submillimeter wave lasers,” in Wiley Encyclopedia of Electrical and Electronics Engineering (Wiley, 1999), Vol. 20, p. 597.
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  12. R. Guo, K. Akiyama, H. Minamide, and H. Ito, “Frequency-agile terahertz-wave spectrometer for high-resolution gas sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 121127-121123 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Y. He and B. J. Orr, “Tunable single-mode operation of a pulsed optical parametric oscillator pumped by a multimode laser,” Appl. Opt. 40, 4836-4848 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  14. K. Imai, K. Kawase, H. Minamide, and H. Ito, “Achromatically injection-seeded terahertz-wave parametric generator,” Opt. Lett. 27, 2173-2175 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  15. L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, and P. Varanasi, “The hitran molecular spectroscopic database and hawks (hitran atmospheric workstation): 1996 Edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 60, 665-710 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. Shikata, K. Kawase, K. Karino, T. Taniuchi, and H. Ito, “Tunable terahertz-wave parametric oscillators using LiNbO3 and MgO:LiNbO3 crystals,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 48, 653-661 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  17. J. J. Olivero and R. L. Longbothum, “Empirical fits to the Voigt line width: a brief review,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 17, 233-236 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  18. K. Kawase, J. Shikata, K. Imai, and H. Ito, “Transform-limited, narrow-linewidth, terahertz-wave parametric generator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2819-2821 (2001).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (1)

D. J. M. Stothard, T. J. Edwards, D. Walsh, C. L. Thomson, C. F. Rae, M. H. Dunn, and P. G. Browne, “Line-narrowed, compact, and coherent source of widely tuneable terahertz radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 141105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

R. Guo, K. Akiyama, H. Minamide, and H. Ito, “Frequency-agile terahertz-wave spectrometer for high-resolution gas sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 121127-121123 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

2003 (1)

2002 (2)

2001 (3)

Y. He and B. J. Orr, “Tunable single-mode operation of a pulsed optical parametric oscillator pumped by a multimode laser,” Appl. Opt. 40, 4836-4848 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Kawase, J. Shikata, K. Imai, and H. Ito, “Transform-limited, narrow-linewidth, terahertz-wave parametric generator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2819-2821 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Imai, K. Kawase, J. Shikata, H. Minamide, and H. Ito, “Injection-seeded terahertz-wave parametric oscillator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1026-1028 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

J. Shikata, K. Kawase, K. Karino, T. Taniuchi, and H. Ito, “Tunable terahertz-wave parametric oscillators using LiNbO3 and MgO:LiNbO3 crystals,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 48, 653-661 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, and P. Varanasi, “The hitran molecular spectroscopic database and hawks (hitran atmospheric workstation): 1996 Edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 60, 665-710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

K. Kawase, M. Sato, T. Taniuchi, and H. Ito, “Coherent tunable THz wave generation from LiNbO3 with monolithic grating coupler,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2483-2485 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

X. C. Zhang, B. B. Hu, J. T. Darrow, and D. H. Auston, “Generation of femtosecond electromagnetic pulses from semiconductor surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1011-1013 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

D. H. Auston and M. C. Nuss, “Electro-optical generation and detection of femtosecond electrical transients,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 184-197 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

J. J. Olivero and R. L. Longbothum, “Empirical fits to the Voigt line width: a brief review,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 17, 233-236 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

M. A. Piestrup, R. N. Fleming, and R. H. Pantell, “Continuously tunable submillimeter wave source,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 418-421 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Akiyama, K.

R. Guo, K. Akiyama, H. Minamide, and H. Ito, “Frequency-agile terahertz-wave spectrometer for high-resolution gas sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 121127-121123 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Auston, D. H.

X. C. Zhang, B. B. Hu, J. T. Darrow, and D. H. Auston, “Generation of femtosecond electromagnetic pulses from semiconductor surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1011-1013 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Auston and M. C. Nuss, “Electro-optical generation and detection of femtosecond electrical transients,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 184-197 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Brown, L. R.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, and P. Varanasi, “The hitran molecular spectroscopic database and hawks (hitran atmospheric workstation): 1996 Edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 60, 665-710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Browne, P.

Browne, P. G.

D. J. M. Stothard, T. J. Edwards, D. Walsh, C. L. Thomson, C. F. Rae, M. H. Dunn, and P. G. Browne, “Line-narrowed, compact, and coherent source of widely tuneable terahertz radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 141105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Camy-Peyret, C.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, and P. Varanasi, “The hitran molecular spectroscopic database and hawks (hitran atmospheric workstation): 1996 Edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 60, 665-710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chance, K. V.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, and P. Varanasi, “The hitran molecular spectroscopic database and hawks (hitran atmospheric workstation): 1996 Edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 60, 665-710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dana, V.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, and P. Varanasi, “The hitran molecular spectroscopic database and hawks (hitran atmospheric workstation): 1996 Edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 60, 665-710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Darrow, J. T.

X. C. Zhang, B. B. Hu, J. T. Darrow, and D. H. Auston, “Generation of femtosecond electromagnetic pulses from semiconductor surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1011-1013 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Ding, Y. J.

Dunn, M.

Dunn, M. H.

D. J. M. Stothard, T. J. Edwards, D. Walsh, C. L. Thomson, C. F. Rae, M. H. Dunn, and P. G. Browne, “Line-narrowed, compact, and coherent source of widely tuneable terahertz radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 141105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Edwards, D. P.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, and P. Varanasi, “The hitran molecular spectroscopic database and hawks (hitran atmospheric workstation): 1996 Edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 60, 665-710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Edwards, T.

Edwards, T. J.

D. J. M. Stothard, T. J. Edwards, D. Walsh, C. L. Thomson, C. F. Rae, M. H. Dunn, and P. G. Browne, “Line-narrowed, compact, and coherent source of widely tuneable terahertz radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 141105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fernelius, N.

Flaud, J. M.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, and P. Varanasi, “The hitran molecular spectroscopic database and hawks (hitran atmospheric workstation): 1996 Edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 60, 665-710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fleming, R. N.

M. A. Piestrup, R. N. Fleming, and R. H. Pantell, “Continuously tunable submillimeter wave source,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 418-421 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Gamache, R. R.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, and P. Varanasi, “The hitran molecular spectroscopic database and hawks (hitran atmospheric workstation): 1996 Edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 60, 665-710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Goldman, A.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, and P. Varanasi, “The hitran molecular spectroscopic database and hawks (hitran atmospheric workstation): 1996 Edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 60, 665-710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Guo, R.

R. Guo, K. Akiyama, H. Minamide, and H. Ito, “Frequency-agile terahertz-wave spectrometer for high-resolution gas sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 121127-121123 (2007).
[CrossRef]

He, Y.

Hu, B. B.

X. C. Zhang, B. B. Hu, J. T. Darrow, and D. H. Auston, “Generation of femtosecond electromagnetic pulses from semiconductor surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1011-1013 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hu, Q.

Imai, K.

K. Imai, K. Kawase, H. Minamide, and H. Ito, “Achromatically injection-seeded terahertz-wave parametric generator,” Opt. Lett. 27, 2173-2175 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Kawase, J. Shikata, K. Imai, and H. Ito, “Transform-limited, narrow-linewidth, terahertz-wave parametric generator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2819-2821 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Imai, K. Kawase, J. Shikata, H. Minamide, and H. Ito, “Injection-seeded terahertz-wave parametric oscillator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1026-1028 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Inoue, H.

Ito, H.

R. Guo, K. Akiyama, H. Minamide, and H. Ito, “Frequency-agile terahertz-wave spectrometer for high-resolution gas sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 121127-121123 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Imai, K. Kawase, H. Minamide, and H. Ito, “Achromatically injection-seeded terahertz-wave parametric generator,” Opt. Lett. 27, 2173-2175 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Imai, K. Kawase, J. Shikata, H. Minamide, and H. Ito, “Injection-seeded terahertz-wave parametric oscillator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1026-1028 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Kawase, J. Shikata, K. Imai, and H. Ito, “Transform-limited, narrow-linewidth, terahertz-wave parametric generator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2819-2821 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Shikata, K. Kawase, K. Karino, T. Taniuchi, and H. Ito, “Tunable terahertz-wave parametric oscillators using LiNbO3 and MgO:LiNbO3 crystals,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 48, 653-661 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Kawase, M. Sato, T. Taniuchi, and H. Ito, “Coherent tunable THz wave generation from LiNbO3 with monolithic grating coupler,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2483-2485 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jucks, K. W.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, and P. Varanasi, “The hitran molecular spectroscopic database and hawks (hitran atmospheric workstation): 1996 Edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 60, 665-710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Karino, K.

J. Shikata, K. Kawase, K. Karino, T. Taniuchi, and H. Ito, “Tunable terahertz-wave parametric oscillators using LiNbO3 and MgO:LiNbO3 crystals,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 48, 653-661 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kawase, K.

K. Kawase, Y. Ogawa, Y. Watanabe, and H. Inoue, “Non-destructive terahertz imaging of illicit drugs using spectral fingerprints,” Opt. Express 11, 2549-2554 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Imai, K. Kawase, H. Minamide, and H. Ito, “Achromatically injection-seeded terahertz-wave parametric generator,” Opt. Lett. 27, 2173-2175 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Kawase, J. Shikata, K. Imai, and H. Ito, “Transform-limited, narrow-linewidth, terahertz-wave parametric generator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2819-2821 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Imai, K. Kawase, J. Shikata, H. Minamide, and H. Ito, “Injection-seeded terahertz-wave parametric oscillator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1026-1028 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Shikata, K. Kawase, K. Karino, T. Taniuchi, and H. Ito, “Tunable terahertz-wave parametric oscillators using LiNbO3 and MgO:LiNbO3 crystals,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 48, 653-661 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Kawase, M. Sato, T. Taniuchi, and H. Ito, “Coherent tunable THz wave generation from LiNbO3 with monolithic grating coupler,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2483-2485 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, S.

Longbothum, R. L.

J. J. Olivero and R. L. Longbothum, “Empirical fits to the Voigt line width: a brief review,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 17, 233-236 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Mandin, J. Y.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, and P. Varanasi, “The hitran molecular spectroscopic database and hawks (hitran atmospheric workstation): 1996 Edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 60, 665-710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Massie, S. T.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, and P. Varanasi, “The hitran molecular spectroscopic database and hawks (hitran atmospheric workstation): 1996 Edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 60, 665-710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

McCann, A.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, and P. Varanasi, “The hitran molecular spectroscopic database and hawks (hitran atmospheric workstation): 1996 Edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 60, 665-710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Minamide, H.

R. Guo, K. Akiyama, H. Minamide, and H. Ito, “Frequency-agile terahertz-wave spectrometer for high-resolution gas sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 121127-121123 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Imai, K. Kawase, H. Minamide, and H. Ito, “Achromatically injection-seeded terahertz-wave parametric generator,” Opt. Lett. 27, 2173-2175 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Imai, K. Kawase, J. Shikata, H. Minamide, and H. Ito, “Injection-seeded terahertz-wave parametric oscillator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1026-1028 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mueller, E. R.

E. R. Mueller, “Submillimeter wave lasers,” in Wiley Encyclopedia of Electrical and Electronics Engineering (Wiley, 1999), Vol. 20, p. 597.

Nemtchinov, V.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, and P. Varanasi, “The hitran molecular spectroscopic database and hawks (hitran atmospheric workstation): 1996 Edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 60, 665-710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nuss, M. C.

D. H. Auston and M. C. Nuss, “Electro-optical generation and detection of femtosecond electrical transients,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 184-197 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Ogawa, Y.

Olivero, J. J.

J. J. Olivero and R. L. Longbothum, “Empirical fits to the Voigt line width: a brief review,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 17, 233-236 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Orr, B. J.

Pantell, R. H.

M. A. Piestrup, R. N. Fleming, and R. H. Pantell, “Continuously tunable submillimeter wave source,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 418-421 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Perrin, A.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, and P. Varanasi, “The hitran molecular spectroscopic database and hawks (hitran atmospheric workstation): 1996 Edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 60, 665-710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Piestrup, M. A.

M. A. Piestrup, R. N. Fleming, and R. H. Pantell, “Continuously tunable submillimeter wave source,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 418-421 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Rae, C.

Rae, C. F.

D. J. M. Stothard, T. J. Edwards, D. Walsh, C. L. Thomson, C. F. Rae, M. H. Dunn, and P. G. Browne, “Line-narrowed, compact, and coherent source of widely tuneable terahertz radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 141105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Reno, J.

Rinsland, C. P.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, and P. Varanasi, “The hitran molecular spectroscopic database and hawks (hitran atmospheric workstation): 1996 Edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 60, 665-710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rothman, L. S.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, and P. Varanasi, “The hitran molecular spectroscopic database and hawks (hitran atmospheric workstation): 1996 Edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 60, 665-710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sato, M.

K. Kawase, M. Sato, T. Taniuchi, and H. Ito, “Coherent tunable THz wave generation from LiNbO3 with monolithic grating coupler,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2483-2485 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Schroeder, J.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, and P. Varanasi, “The hitran molecular spectroscopic database and hawks (hitran atmospheric workstation): 1996 Edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 60, 665-710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shi, W.

Shikata, J.

K. Kawase, J. Shikata, K. Imai, and H. Ito, “Transform-limited, narrow-linewidth, terahertz-wave parametric generator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2819-2821 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Imai, K. Kawase, J. Shikata, H. Minamide, and H. Ito, “Injection-seeded terahertz-wave parametric oscillator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1026-1028 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Shikata, K. Kawase, K. Karino, T. Taniuchi, and H. Ito, “Tunable terahertz-wave parametric oscillators using LiNbO3 and MgO:LiNbO3 crystals,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 48, 653-661 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Spurr, M.

Stothard, D. J. M.

D. J. M. Stothard, T. J. Edwards, D. Walsh, C. L. Thomson, C. F. Rae, M. H. Dunn, and P. G. Browne, “Line-narrowed, compact, and coherent source of widely tuneable terahertz radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 141105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Taniuchi, T.

J. Shikata, K. Kawase, K. Karino, T. Taniuchi, and H. Ito, “Tunable terahertz-wave parametric oscillators using LiNbO3 and MgO:LiNbO3 crystals,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 48, 653-661 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Kawase, M. Sato, T. Taniuchi, and H. Ito, “Coherent tunable THz wave generation from LiNbO3 with monolithic grating coupler,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2483-2485 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Thomson, C. L.

D. J. M. Stothard, T. J. Edwards, D. Walsh, C. L. Thomson, C. F. Rae, M. H. Dunn, and P. G. Browne, “Line-narrowed, compact, and coherent source of widely tuneable terahertz radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 141105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Varanasi, P.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, and P. Varanasi, “The hitran molecular spectroscopic database and hawks (hitran atmospheric workstation): 1996 Edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 60, 665-710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Vodopyanov, K.

Walsh, D.

D. J. M. Stothard, T. J. Edwards, D. Walsh, C. L. Thomson, C. F. Rae, M. H. Dunn, and P. G. Browne, “Line-narrowed, compact, and coherent source of widely tuneable terahertz radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 141105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Edwards, D. Walsh, M. Spurr, C. Rae, M. Dunn, and P. Browne, “Compact source of continuously and widely tuneable terahertz radiation,” Opt. Express 14, 1582-1589 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Watanabe, Y.

Wattson, R. B.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, and P. Varanasi, “The hitran molecular spectroscopic database and hawks (hitran atmospheric workstation): 1996 Edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 60, 665-710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Williams, B.

Yoshino, K.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, and P. Varanasi, “The hitran molecular spectroscopic database and hawks (hitran atmospheric workstation): 1996 Edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 60, 665-710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

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X. C. Zhang, B. B. Hu, J. T. Darrow, and D. H. Auston, “Generation of femtosecond electromagnetic pulses from semiconductor surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1011-1013 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (7)

K. Imai, K. Kawase, J. Shikata, H. Minamide, and H. Ito, “Injection-seeded terahertz-wave parametric oscillator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1026-1028 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Guo, K. Akiyama, H. Minamide, and H. Ito, “Frequency-agile terahertz-wave spectrometer for high-resolution gas sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 121127-121123 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Kawase, J. Shikata, K. Imai, and H. Ito, “Transform-limited, narrow-linewidth, terahertz-wave parametric generator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2819-2821 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Kawase, M. Sato, T. Taniuchi, and H. Ito, “Coherent tunable THz wave generation from LiNbO3 with monolithic grating coupler,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2483-2485 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. J. M. Stothard, T. J. Edwards, D. Walsh, C. L. Thomson, C. F. Rae, M. H. Dunn, and P. G. Browne, “Line-narrowed, compact, and coherent source of widely tuneable terahertz radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 141105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Piestrup, R. N. Fleming, and R. H. Pantell, “Continuously tunable submillimeter wave source,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 418-421 (1975).
[CrossRef]

X. C. Zhang, B. B. Hu, J. T. Darrow, and D. H. Auston, “Generation of femtosecond electromagnetic pulses from semiconductor surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1011-1013 (1990).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

D. H. Auston and M. C. Nuss, “Electro-optical generation and detection of femtosecond electrical transients,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 184-197 (1988).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. (1)

J. Shikata, K. Kawase, K. Karino, T. Taniuchi, and H. Ito, “Tunable terahertz-wave parametric oscillators using LiNbO3 and MgO:LiNbO3 crystals,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 48, 653-661 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. (2)

J. J. Olivero and R. L. Longbothum, “Empirical fits to the Voigt line width: a brief review,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 17, 233-236 (1977).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, and P. Varanasi, “The hitran molecular spectroscopic database and hawks (hitran atmospheric workstation): 1996 Edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 60, 665-710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (1)

E. R. Mueller, “Submillimeter wave lasers,” in Wiley Encyclopedia of Electrical and Electronics Engineering (Wiley, 1999), Vol. 20, p. 597.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the injection-seeded intracavity THz OPO. The section in the lower callout box is almost identical to the intracavity device we previously reported [2]. (Pound-Drever electronics are not included for clarity).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Graphical comparison of idler pulse energies generated with various parametric generation schemes by a non-line-narrowed THz OPO (no etalons or seeding). Measuring downconverted idler energy gives a convenient way to monitor OPO operation, as it is proportional to the THz energy generated. The graph shows that both parametric oscillators perform significantly better in terms of power, threshold, and efficiency than either single- or double-pass generator configurations.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Plot showing the energy characteristic of the laser (with an intracavity etalon for linewidth control) with and without parametric downconversion (achieved by physically blocking the OPO cavity). The characteristic clamping of the laser power by the OPO above operation threshold is clearly visible. The maximum average THz pulse energy was measured to be 4 nJ at the highest input energy, and energies are extrapolated back to threshold using the downconversion proportion. This data was recorded in the nonseeded condition.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Series of confocal interferometer scans of pump and idler waves showing the spectral development from the unseeded device where the idler spectrum is wider than the free spectral range of the interferometer (a) and (b), through injection seeding the source when operating with a multimode pump where sidebands on the idler are evident and match the mode spacing in the pump (c) and (d), and down to single longitudinal mode operation of the pump and idler (and therefore THz) waves where the generated THz radiation will also be single frequency (e) and (f). The sidebands induced on the idler are clearly visible in (d), and it can be seen that the frequency separation matches those of the multimode pump in (c).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Comparison of multi- and single longitudinal mode pump pulse temporal profiles. (a) Deep modulation of the pump pulse is observed due to mode beating of multiple longitudinal modes of the laser cavity. (b) This modulation is removed when single-mode operation is induced via prelasing and a swifter build up time is also evident. The residual noise on the signal is caused by the Q-switching electronics.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Graph illustrating the effect of locking the idler cavity to the seed frequency while tuning. The dashed line shows the seed frequency as measured by wavemeter and the solid line the THz energy recorded by composite silicon bolometer. The common axis depicts the reading number of the seed frequency–terahertz energy data pair. The prelocking data (to the left of the graph) exhibits strong modulation at the idler cavity free spectral range that is not present once the cavity is locked (to the right of the graph).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Graph showing temporal profiles of the pump pulse under different operating conditions. The difference in area under the curve (proportional to pulse energy) from undepleted (OPO cavity blocked) to depleted (OPO operational but no seeding) indicates a 50% downconversion of pump energy. The profiles also exhibit an optimal temporal profile, with the circulating energy reaching its maximum and then immediately being cavity dumped into the idler and THz waves. Also shown are the effects of seeding with idler cavity off and on resonance, increasing the downconversion to 60% and 68%, respectively.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Plot showing the experimental scan of the 1.4969 THz carbon monoxide absorption line recorded at 5 mBar . The THz frequency scale is referenced to the absorption line frequency of 1.4969 THz , the relative frequency being directly obtained from the idler frequency. The linewidth is a convolution of the source linewidth with absorption linewidth, and was measured to be 108 MHz at full width at half-maximum. This indicates that a sub 108 MHz THz linewidth must have been produced.

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