Abstract

We investigate the inhibited emission of light-emitters embedded in finite, three-dimensional woodpile (or stacked–striped) photonic crystals (PCs) that exhibit structural fluctuations. Finite-difference time-domain calculations reveal that the influence of the positional fluctuations of stacked rods of dielectric material depends on the total number of structural periods. For PCs with up to nine stacked layers, the inhibition of emission is principally determined by intruding free-space modes resulting from the finite nature of the structure, with little influence from fluctuations. In PCs with more periods, the modes resulting from fluctuations dominate the emission properties. The influence of these fluctuations is strongly suppressed when the positional shifts are less than ±20%.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]

2008

S. Ogawa, K. Ishizaki, T. Furukawa, and S. Noda, “Spontaneous emission control by 17 layers of three-dimensional photonic crystals,” Electron. Lett. 44, 377-378 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Aoki, D. Guimard, M. Nishioka, M. Nomura, S. Iwamoto, and Y. Arakawa, “Coupling of quantum-dot light emission with a three-dimensional photonic-crystal nanocavity,” Nat. Photonics 2, 688-692 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

S. Noda, M. Fujita, and T. Asano, “Spontaneous-emission control by photonic crystals and nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1, 449-458 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Li, B. Jia, G. Zhou, and M. Gu, “Direction-dependent spontaneous emission from near-infrared quantum dots at the angular band edges of a three-dimensional photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 254101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Hennessy, A. Badolato, M. Winger, D. Gerace, M. Atatüre, S. Gulde, S. Fält, E. L. Hu, and A. Imamoğlu, “Quantum nature of a strongly coupled single quantum dot-cavity system,” Nature 445, 896-899 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

2005

A. Kress, F. Hofbauer, N. Reinelt, M. Kaniber, H. J. Krenner, R. Meyer, G. Böhm, and J. J. Finley, “Manipulation of the spontaneous emission dynamics of quantum dots in two-dimensional photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 241304 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Fujita, S. Takahashi, Y. Tanaka, T. Asano, and S. Noda, “Simultaneous inhibition and redistribution of spontaneous light emission in photonic crystals,” Science 308, 1296-1298 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Kounoike, M. Yamaguchi, M. Fujita, T. Asano, J. Nakanishi, and S. Noda, “Investigation of spontaneous emission from quantum dots embedded in two-dimensional photonic-crystal slab,” Electron. Lett. 41, 1402-1403 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Englund, D. Fattal, E. Waks, G. Solomon, B. Zhang, T. Nakaoka, Y. Arakawa, Y. Yamamoto, and J. Vučković, “Controlling the spontaneous emission rate of single quantum dots in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 013904 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. R. C. Alencar, G. S. Maciel, C. B. de Araújo, R. Bertholdo, Y. Messaddeq, and S. J. L. Ribeiro, “Laserlike emission from silica inverse opals infiltrated with Rhodamine 6G,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 351, 1846-1849 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Caglayan, I. Bulu, and E. Ozbay, “Highly directional enhanced radiation from sources embedded inside three-dimensional photonic crystals,” Opt. Express 13, 7645-7652 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

S. Ogawa, M. Imada, S. Yoshimoto, M. Okano, and S. Noda, “Control of light emission by 3D photonic crystals,” Science 305, 227-229 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Lodahl, A. F. van Driel, I. S. Nikolaev, A. Irman, K. Overgaag, D. Vanmaekelbergh, and W. L. Vos, “Controlling the dynamics of spontaneous emission from quantum dots by photonic crystals,” Nature 430, 654-657 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, J. Hendrickson, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, G. Rupper, C. Ell, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, “Vacuum Rabi splitting with a single quantum dot in a photonic crystal nanocavity,” Nature 432, 200-203 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

2001

V. Lousse, J. P. Vigneron, X. Bouju, and J. M. Vigoureux, “Atomic radiation rates in photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 64, 201104 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

D. M. Whittaker, “Inhibited emission in photonic woodpile lattices,” Opt. Lett. 25, 779-781 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Z. Y. Li., L. L. Lin, and Z. Q. Zhang, “Spontaneous emission from photonic crystals: full vectorial calculations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4341-4344 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Xu, R. K. Lee, and A. Yariv, “Quantum analysis and the classical analysis of spontaneous emission in a microcavity,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 033807 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Lee, Y. Xu, and A. Yariv, “Modified spontaneous emission from a two-dimensional photonic bandgap crystal slab,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1438-1442 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Noda, K. Tomoda, N. Yamamoto, and A. Chutinan, “Full three-dimensional photonic bandgap crystals at near-infrared wavelengths,” Science 289, 604-606 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

A. Chutinan and S. Noda, “Effects of structural fluctuations on the photonic bandgap during fabrication of a photonic crystal,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 240-244 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Hwang, H. Y. Ryu, and Y. H. Lee, “Spontaneous emission rate of an electric dipole in a general microcavity,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 4688-4695 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

S. Y. Lin, J. G. Fleming, D. L. Hetherington, B. K. Smith, R. Biswas, K. M. Ho, M. M. Sigalas, W. Zubrzycki, S. R. Kurtz, and J. Bur, “A three-dimensional photonic crystal operating at infrared wavelengths,” Nature 394, 251-253 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996

R. Sprik, B. A. van Tiggelen, and A. Lagendijk, “Optical emission in periodic dielectrics,” Europhys. Lett. 35, 265-270 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

1994

K. M. Ho, C. T. Chan, C. M. Soukoulis, R. Biswas, and M. Sigalas, “Photonic band gaps in three dimensions: new layer-by-layer periodic structures,” Solid State Commun. 89, 413-416 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Sözüer and J. P. Dowling, “Photonic band calculations for woodpile structures,” J. Mod. Opt. 41, 231-239 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Berenger, “A perfectly matched layer for the absorption of electromagnetic waves,” J. Comput. Phys. 114, 185-200 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1987

E. Yablonovitch, “Inhibited spontaneous emission in solid-state physics and electronics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2059-2062 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1966

K. S. Yee, “Numerical solution of initial boundary value problems involving Maxwell's equations in isotropic media,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 14, 302-307 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Alencar, M. A. R. C.

M. A. R. C. Alencar, G. S. Maciel, C. B. de Araújo, R. Bertholdo, Y. Messaddeq, and S. J. L. Ribeiro, “Laserlike emission from silica inverse opals infiltrated with Rhodamine 6G,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 351, 1846-1849 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Aoki, K.

K. Aoki, D. Guimard, M. Nishioka, M. Nomura, S. Iwamoto, and Y. Arakawa, “Coupling of quantum-dot light emission with a three-dimensional photonic-crystal nanocavity,” Nat. Photonics 2, 688-692 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Arakawa, Y.

K. Aoki, D. Guimard, M. Nishioka, M. Nomura, S. Iwamoto, and Y. Arakawa, “Coupling of quantum-dot light emission with a three-dimensional photonic-crystal nanocavity,” Nat. Photonics 2, 688-692 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Englund, D. Fattal, E. Waks, G. Solomon, B. Zhang, T. Nakaoka, Y. Arakawa, Y. Yamamoto, and J. Vučković, “Controlling the spontaneous emission rate of single quantum dots in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 013904 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Asano, T.

S. Noda, M. Fujita, and T. Asano, “Spontaneous-emission control by photonic crystals and nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1, 449-458 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Fujita, S. Takahashi, Y. Tanaka, T. Asano, and S. Noda, “Simultaneous inhibition and redistribution of spontaneous light emission in photonic crystals,” Science 308, 1296-1298 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Kounoike, M. Yamaguchi, M. Fujita, T. Asano, J. Nakanishi, and S. Noda, “Investigation of spontaneous emission from quantum dots embedded in two-dimensional photonic-crystal slab,” Electron. Lett. 41, 1402-1403 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Atatüre, M.

K. Hennessy, A. Badolato, M. Winger, D. Gerace, M. Atatüre, S. Gulde, S. Fält, E. L. Hu, and A. Imamoğlu, “Quantum nature of a strongly coupled single quantum dot-cavity system,” Nature 445, 896-899 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Badolato, A.

K. Hennessy, A. Badolato, M. Winger, D. Gerace, M. Atatüre, S. Gulde, S. Fält, E. L. Hu, and A. Imamoğlu, “Quantum nature of a strongly coupled single quantum dot-cavity system,” Nature 445, 896-899 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berenger, J. P.

J. P. Berenger, “A perfectly matched layer for the absorption of electromagnetic waves,” J. Comput. Phys. 114, 185-200 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bertholdo, R.

M. A. R. C. Alencar, G. S. Maciel, C. B. de Araújo, R. Bertholdo, Y. Messaddeq, and S. J. L. Ribeiro, “Laserlike emission from silica inverse opals infiltrated with Rhodamine 6G,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 351, 1846-1849 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Biswas, R.

S. Y. Lin, J. G. Fleming, D. L. Hetherington, B. K. Smith, R. Biswas, K. M. Ho, M. M. Sigalas, W. Zubrzycki, S. R. Kurtz, and J. Bur, “A three-dimensional photonic crystal operating at infrared wavelengths,” Nature 394, 251-253 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Ho, C. T. Chan, C. M. Soukoulis, R. Biswas, and M. Sigalas, “Photonic band gaps in three dimensions: new layer-by-layer periodic structures,” Solid State Commun. 89, 413-416 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Böhm, G.

A. Kress, F. Hofbauer, N. Reinelt, M. Kaniber, H. J. Krenner, R. Meyer, G. Böhm, and J. J. Finley, “Manipulation of the spontaneous emission dynamics of quantum dots in two-dimensional photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 241304 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bouju, X.

V. Lousse, J. P. Vigneron, X. Bouju, and J. M. Vigoureux, “Atomic radiation rates in photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 64, 201104 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bulu, I.

Bur, J.

S. Y. Lin, J. G. Fleming, D. L. Hetherington, B. K. Smith, R. Biswas, K. M. Ho, M. M. Sigalas, W. Zubrzycki, S. R. Kurtz, and J. Bur, “A three-dimensional photonic crystal operating at infrared wavelengths,” Nature 394, 251-253 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Caglayan, H.

Chan, C. T.

K. M. Ho, C. T. Chan, C. M. Soukoulis, R. Biswas, and M. Sigalas, “Photonic band gaps in three dimensions: new layer-by-layer periodic structures,” Solid State Commun. 89, 413-416 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Chutinan, A.

S. Noda, K. Tomoda, N. Yamamoto, and A. Chutinan, “Full three-dimensional photonic bandgap crystals at near-infrared wavelengths,” Science 289, 604-606 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Chutinan and S. Noda, “Effects of structural fluctuations on the photonic bandgap during fabrication of a photonic crystal,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 240-244 (1999).
[CrossRef]

de Araújo, C. B.

M. A. R. C. Alencar, G. S. Maciel, C. B. de Araújo, R. Bertholdo, Y. Messaddeq, and S. J. L. Ribeiro, “Laserlike emission from silica inverse opals infiltrated with Rhodamine 6G,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 351, 1846-1849 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Deppe, D. G.

T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, J. Hendrickson, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, G. Rupper, C. Ell, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, “Vacuum Rabi splitting with a single quantum dot in a photonic crystal nanocavity,” Nature 432, 200-203 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dowling, J. P.

H. S. Sözüer and J. P. Dowling, “Photonic band calculations for woodpile structures,” J. Mod. Opt. 41, 231-239 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ell, C.

T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, J. Hendrickson, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, G. Rupper, C. Ell, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, “Vacuum Rabi splitting with a single quantum dot in a photonic crystal nanocavity,” Nature 432, 200-203 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Englund, D.

D. Englund, D. Fattal, E. Waks, G. Solomon, B. Zhang, T. Nakaoka, Y. Arakawa, Y. Yamamoto, and J. Vučković, “Controlling the spontaneous emission rate of single quantum dots in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 013904 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fält, S.

K. Hennessy, A. Badolato, M. Winger, D. Gerace, M. Atatüre, S. Gulde, S. Fält, E. L. Hu, and A. Imamoğlu, “Quantum nature of a strongly coupled single quantum dot-cavity system,” Nature 445, 896-899 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fattal, D.

D. Englund, D. Fattal, E. Waks, G. Solomon, B. Zhang, T. Nakaoka, Y. Arakawa, Y. Yamamoto, and J. Vučković, “Controlling the spontaneous emission rate of single quantum dots in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 013904 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Finley, J. J.

A. Kress, F. Hofbauer, N. Reinelt, M. Kaniber, H. J. Krenner, R. Meyer, G. Böhm, and J. J. Finley, “Manipulation of the spontaneous emission dynamics of quantum dots in two-dimensional photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 241304 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fleming, J. G.

S. Y. Lin, J. G. Fleming, D. L. Hetherington, B. K. Smith, R. Biswas, K. M. Ho, M. M. Sigalas, W. Zubrzycki, S. R. Kurtz, and J. Bur, “A three-dimensional photonic crystal operating at infrared wavelengths,” Nature 394, 251-253 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fujita, M.

S. Noda, M. Fujita, and T. Asano, “Spontaneous-emission control by photonic crystals and nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1, 449-458 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Fujita, S. Takahashi, Y. Tanaka, T. Asano, and S. Noda, “Simultaneous inhibition and redistribution of spontaneous light emission in photonic crystals,” Science 308, 1296-1298 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Kounoike, M. Yamaguchi, M. Fujita, T. Asano, J. Nakanishi, and S. Noda, “Investigation of spontaneous emission from quantum dots embedded in two-dimensional photonic-crystal slab,” Electron. Lett. 41, 1402-1403 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Furukawa, T.

S. Ogawa, K. Ishizaki, T. Furukawa, and S. Noda, “Spontaneous emission control by 17 layers of three-dimensional photonic crystals,” Electron. Lett. 44, 377-378 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gerace, D.

K. Hennessy, A. Badolato, M. Winger, D. Gerace, M. Atatüre, S. Gulde, S. Fält, E. L. Hu, and A. Imamoğlu, “Quantum nature of a strongly coupled single quantum dot-cavity system,” Nature 445, 896-899 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gibbs, H. M.

T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, J. Hendrickson, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, G. Rupper, C. Ell, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, “Vacuum Rabi splitting with a single quantum dot in a photonic crystal nanocavity,” Nature 432, 200-203 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gu, M.

J. Li, B. Jia, G. Zhou, and M. Gu, “Direction-dependent spontaneous emission from near-infrared quantum dots at the angular band edges of a three-dimensional photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 254101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Guimard, D.

K. Aoki, D. Guimard, M. Nishioka, M. Nomura, S. Iwamoto, and Y. Arakawa, “Coupling of quantum-dot light emission with a three-dimensional photonic-crystal nanocavity,” Nat. Photonics 2, 688-692 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gulde, S.

K. Hennessy, A. Badolato, M. Winger, D. Gerace, M. Atatüre, S. Gulde, S. Fält, E. L. Hu, and A. Imamoğlu, “Quantum nature of a strongly coupled single quantum dot-cavity system,” Nature 445, 896-899 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hendrickson, J.

T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, J. Hendrickson, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, G. Rupper, C. Ell, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, “Vacuum Rabi splitting with a single quantum dot in a photonic crystal nanocavity,” Nature 432, 200-203 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hennessy, K.

K. Hennessy, A. Badolato, M. Winger, D. Gerace, M. Atatüre, S. Gulde, S. Fält, E. L. Hu, and A. Imamoğlu, “Quantum nature of a strongly coupled single quantum dot-cavity system,” Nature 445, 896-899 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hermann, C.

Hess, O.

Hetherington, D. L.

S. Y. Lin, J. G. Fleming, D. L. Hetherington, B. K. Smith, R. Biswas, K. M. Ho, M. M. Sigalas, W. Zubrzycki, S. R. Kurtz, and J. Bur, “A three-dimensional photonic crystal operating at infrared wavelengths,” Nature 394, 251-253 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ho, K. M.

S. Y. Lin, J. G. Fleming, D. L. Hetherington, B. K. Smith, R. Biswas, K. M. Ho, M. M. Sigalas, W. Zubrzycki, S. R. Kurtz, and J. Bur, “A three-dimensional photonic crystal operating at infrared wavelengths,” Nature 394, 251-253 (1998).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic picture of a 3D PC with an emitter embedded in the center of the crystal. (b) Positions of the embedded dipole emitter shown in detail.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Dependence of emission rate on stacked layer count for the embedded emitter. The frequency range 0.353 0.429 c a corresponds to the full PBG.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Effect of structural fluctuations of the position of the rods that comprise the middle layer of the PC. (a) Schematic picture of the fluctuations. (b), (c) Emission rate in fluctuating-structure PCs with nine and twenty-five layers, respectively.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Dependence of the emission rate at frequency 0.385 c a on the layer count, where the center layer undergoes a fluctuation in position of δ = 0.5 a .

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Electric field of the unintended plane-defect mode inside the PBG with frequency 0.374 c a caused by a fluctuation of positional shift of δ = 0.5 a .

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Effect of distance between the layer containing the emitter and a second layer with positional shift of δ = 0.5 a .

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Schematic pictures and degree of positional shifts for two types of randomly fluctuating structure. (b) Emission rate in randomly fluctuating PCs.

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