Abstract

Sputter-deposited thin films of amorphous AlN:Ho (1at.%) emits in the green (549nm) region of the visible spectrum under electron excitation. The addition of Gd (1at.%) in the film enhances the green emission linearly after thermal activation at 900°C for 40min in a nitrogen atmosphere. The luminescence enhancement saturates when the gadolinium concentration reaches four times the holmium concentration. The optical bandgap of amorphous AlN is about 210nm, so that the film is transparent in the ultraviolet, allowing us to observe the ultraviolet emission at 313nm from Gd. No significant quenching of the Gd emission is observed. Energy dispersive x-ray (EDX) spectra confirm the increasing concentration of Gd. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis shows no peaks other than those arising from the Si (111) substrate, confirming that the films are amorphous. The enhanced luminescence can be used to make high-efficiency optical devices.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. Maqbool, H. H. Richardson, P. G. Van Patten, and M. E. Kordesch, “Luminescent holmium doped amorphous AlN thin films for use as waveguides and laser cavities,” in Proceedings of Materials Research Society Symposium Y (MRS, 2003), Vol. 798, paper Y5.8.
  2. M. Maqbool, H. H. Richardson, and M. E. Kordesch, “Cathodoluminescence of praseodymium doped amorphous AlN, GaN and Turbostratic BN,” in Proceedings of Materials Research Society Symposium E (MRS, 2004), Vol. 831, paper E8.12.
  3. H. Chen, K. Gurumurugan, M. E. Kordesch, W. M. Jadwisienczak, and H. J. Lozykowski, “Visible and infrared emission of GaN:Er thin films grown by sputtering,” MRS Internet J. Nitride Semicond. Res. 5, U130-U135, Suppl. 1 (2000).
  4. M. L. Caldwell, H. H. Richardson, and M. E. Kordesch, “Optical properties of manganese doped amorphous and crystalline aluminum nitride films,” MRS Internet J. Nitride Semicond. Res. 5, U142-U147, Suppl. 1 (2000).
  5. W. M. Jadwisienczak, H. J. Lozykowski, F. Perjeru, H. Chen, M. Kordesch, and I. Brown, “Luminescence of Tb ions implanted into amorphous AlN thin films grown by sputtering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3376-3378 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  6. V. Dimitrova, P. G. Van Patten, H. H. Richardson, and M. E. Kordesch, “Visible emission from electroluminescent devices using an amorphous AlN:Er3+ thin-film phosphor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 478-479 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  7. V. Dimitrova, P. G. Van Patten, H. H. Richardson, and M. E. Kordesch, “Photo-, cathodo- and electroluminescence studies of sputter deposited AlN:Er thin films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 175-176, 481-483 (2001).
  8. M. L. Caldwell, A. L. Martin, C. M. Spalding, V. I. Dimitrova, P. G. Van Patten, M. E. Kordesch, and H. H. Richardson, “Visible emission from amorphous AlN thin--film phosphors with Cu, Mn, or Cr,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 19, 1894-97 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. L. Caldwell, A. L. Martin, V. I. Dimitrova, P. G. Van Patten, M. E. Kordesch, and H. H. Richardson, “Emission properties of an amorphous AlN:Cr3+ thin-film phosphor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1246-1248 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. L. Caldwell, P. G. Van Patten, M. E. Kordesch, and H. H. Richardson, “Visible luminescent activation of amorphous ALN:Eu thin-film phosphors with oxygen,” MRS Internet J. Nitride Semicond. Res. 6, 1-5 (2001).
  11. H. H. Richardson, P. G. Van Patten, D. R. Richardson, and M. E. Kordesch, “Thin-film electroluminescent devices grown on plastic substrates using an amorphous AlN:Tb3+ phosphor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 2207-2209 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  12. H. Chen, K. Chen, D. A. Drabold, and M. E. Kordesch, “Band gap engineering in amorphous AlxGa1−xN: Experiment and ab initio calculations,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1117-1119 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. E. Little and M. E. Kordesch, “Band-gap engineering in sputter-deposited ScxGa1−xN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2891-2892 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. Maqbool, H. H. Richardson, and M. E. Kordesch, “Luminescence from praseodymium doped AlN thin films deposited by RF magnetron sputtering and the effect of material structure and thermal annealing on the luminescence,” J. Mater. Sci. 42, 5657-5660 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  15. J. B. Gruber, B. Zandi, H. J. Lozykowski, and W. M. Jadwisienczak, “Spectroscopic properties of Sm3+(4f5) in GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 2929-2935 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  16. W. M. Jadwisienczak, H. J. Lozykowski, and I. G. Brown, “Cathodoluminescence study of GaN doped with Tb,” Mater. Sci. Eng., B 81, 140-143 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  17. U. Vetter, J. Zenneck, and H. Hofsass, “Intense ultraviolet cathodoluminescence at 318 nm from Gd3+-doped AlN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2145-2147 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  18. M. Maqbool, M. E. Kordesch, and I. Ahmad, “Electron penetration depth in amorphous AlN exploiting the luminescence of AlN:Tm/AlN:Ho bilayers,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 9, 417-421 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  19. H. J. Lozykowski, W. M. Jadwisienczak, and I. Brown, “Cathodoluminescence of GaN doped with Sm and Ho,” Solid State Commun. 110, 253-258 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  20. B. M. Walsh, N. P. Barnes, and B. D. Bartolo, “Branching ratios, cross sections, and radiative lifetimes of rare earth ions in solids: Application to Tm3+ and Ho3+ ions in LiYF4,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 2772-2787 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  21. M. Maqbool, “Luminescence from thulium and samarium doped amorphous AlN thin films deposited by RF magnetron sputtering and the effect of thermal activation on luminescence,” Eur. Phys. J.: Appl. Phys. 34, 31-34 (2006).
    [CrossRef]

2009 (1)

M. Maqbool, M. E. Kordesch, and I. Ahmad, “Electron penetration depth in amorphous AlN exploiting the luminescence of AlN:Tm/AlN:Ho bilayers,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 9, 417-421 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

M. Maqbool, H. H. Richardson, and M. E. Kordesch, “Luminescence from praseodymium doped AlN thin films deposited by RF magnetron sputtering and the effect of material structure and thermal annealing on the luminescence,” J. Mater. Sci. 42, 5657-5660 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

M. Maqbool, “Luminescence from thulium and samarium doped amorphous AlN thin films deposited by RF magnetron sputtering and the effect of thermal activation on luminescence,” Eur. Phys. J.: Appl. Phys. 34, 31-34 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

U. Vetter, J. Zenneck, and H. Hofsass, “Intense ultraviolet cathodoluminescence at 318 nm from Gd3+-doped AlN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2145-2147 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

J. B. Gruber, B. Zandi, H. J. Lozykowski, and W. M. Jadwisienczak, “Spectroscopic properties of Sm3+(4f5) in GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 2929-2935 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. H. Richardson, P. G. Van Patten, D. R. Richardson, and M. E. Kordesch, “Thin-film electroluminescent devices grown on plastic substrates using an amorphous AlN:Tb3+ phosphor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 2207-2209 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (6)

W. M. Jadwisienczak, H. J. Lozykowski, and I. G. Brown, “Cathodoluminescence study of GaN doped with Tb,” Mater. Sci. Eng., B 81, 140-143 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Little and M. E. Kordesch, “Band-gap engineering in sputter-deposited ScxGa1−xN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2891-2892 (2001).
[CrossRef]

V. Dimitrova, P. G. Van Patten, H. H. Richardson, and M. E. Kordesch, “Photo-, cathodo- and electroluminescence studies of sputter deposited AlN:Er thin films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 175-176, 481-483 (2001).

M. L. Caldwell, A. L. Martin, C. M. Spalding, V. I. Dimitrova, P. G. Van Patten, M. E. Kordesch, and H. H. Richardson, “Visible emission from amorphous AlN thin--film phosphors with Cu, Mn, or Cr,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 19, 1894-97 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Caldwell, A. L. Martin, V. I. Dimitrova, P. G. Van Patten, M. E. Kordesch, and H. H. Richardson, “Emission properties of an amorphous AlN:Cr3+ thin-film phosphor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1246-1248 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Caldwell, P. G. Van Patten, M. E. Kordesch, and H. H. Richardson, “Visible luminescent activation of amorphous ALN:Eu thin-film phosphors with oxygen,” MRS Internet J. Nitride Semicond. Res. 6, 1-5 (2001).

2000 (5)

H. Chen, K. Gurumurugan, M. E. Kordesch, W. M. Jadwisienczak, and H. J. Lozykowski, “Visible and infrared emission of GaN:Er thin films grown by sputtering,” MRS Internet J. Nitride Semicond. Res. 5, U130-U135, Suppl. 1 (2000).

M. L. Caldwell, H. H. Richardson, and M. E. Kordesch, “Optical properties of manganese doped amorphous and crystalline aluminum nitride films,” MRS Internet J. Nitride Semicond. Res. 5, U142-U147, Suppl. 1 (2000).

W. M. Jadwisienczak, H. J. Lozykowski, F. Perjeru, H. Chen, M. Kordesch, and I. Brown, “Luminescence of Tb ions implanted into amorphous AlN thin films grown by sputtering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3376-3378 (2000).
[CrossRef]

V. Dimitrova, P. G. Van Patten, H. H. Richardson, and M. E. Kordesch, “Visible emission from electroluminescent devices using an amorphous AlN:Er3+ thin-film phosphor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 478-479 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Chen, K. Chen, D. A. Drabold, and M. E. Kordesch, “Band gap engineering in amorphous AlxGa1−xN: Experiment and ab initio calculations,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1117-1119 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

H. J. Lozykowski, W. M. Jadwisienczak, and I. Brown, “Cathodoluminescence of GaN doped with Sm and Ho,” Solid State Commun. 110, 253-258 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

B. M. Walsh, N. P. Barnes, and B. D. Bartolo, “Branching ratios, cross sections, and radiative lifetimes of rare earth ions in solids: Application to Tm3+ and Ho3+ ions in LiYF4,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 2772-2787 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ahmad, I.

M. Maqbool, M. E. Kordesch, and I. Ahmad, “Electron penetration depth in amorphous AlN exploiting the luminescence of AlN:Tm/AlN:Ho bilayers,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 9, 417-421 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, N. P.

B. M. Walsh, N. P. Barnes, and B. D. Bartolo, “Branching ratios, cross sections, and radiative lifetimes of rare earth ions in solids: Application to Tm3+ and Ho3+ ions in LiYF4,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 2772-2787 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bartolo, B. D.

B. M. Walsh, N. P. Barnes, and B. D. Bartolo, “Branching ratios, cross sections, and radiative lifetimes of rare earth ions in solids: Application to Tm3+ and Ho3+ ions in LiYF4,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 2772-2787 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Brown, I.

W. M. Jadwisienczak, H. J. Lozykowski, F. Perjeru, H. Chen, M. Kordesch, and I. Brown, “Luminescence of Tb ions implanted into amorphous AlN thin films grown by sputtering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3376-3378 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Lozykowski, W. M. Jadwisienczak, and I. Brown, “Cathodoluminescence of GaN doped with Sm and Ho,” Solid State Commun. 110, 253-258 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Brown, I. G.

W. M. Jadwisienczak, H. J. Lozykowski, and I. G. Brown, “Cathodoluminescence study of GaN doped with Tb,” Mater. Sci. Eng., B 81, 140-143 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Caldwell, M. L.

M. L. Caldwell, P. G. Van Patten, M. E. Kordesch, and H. H. Richardson, “Visible luminescent activation of amorphous ALN:Eu thin-film phosphors with oxygen,” MRS Internet J. Nitride Semicond. Res. 6, 1-5 (2001).

M. L. Caldwell, A. L. Martin, C. M. Spalding, V. I. Dimitrova, P. G. Van Patten, M. E. Kordesch, and H. H. Richardson, “Visible emission from amorphous AlN thin--film phosphors with Cu, Mn, or Cr,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 19, 1894-97 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Caldwell, A. L. Martin, V. I. Dimitrova, P. G. Van Patten, M. E. Kordesch, and H. H. Richardson, “Emission properties of an amorphous AlN:Cr3+ thin-film phosphor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1246-1248 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Caldwell, H. H. Richardson, and M. E. Kordesch, “Optical properties of manganese doped amorphous and crystalline aluminum nitride films,” MRS Internet J. Nitride Semicond. Res. 5, U142-U147, Suppl. 1 (2000).

Chen, H.

W. M. Jadwisienczak, H. J. Lozykowski, F. Perjeru, H. Chen, M. Kordesch, and I. Brown, “Luminescence of Tb ions implanted into amorphous AlN thin films grown by sputtering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3376-3378 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Chen, K. Gurumurugan, M. E. Kordesch, W. M. Jadwisienczak, and H. J. Lozykowski, “Visible and infrared emission of GaN:Er thin films grown by sputtering,” MRS Internet J. Nitride Semicond. Res. 5, U130-U135, Suppl. 1 (2000).

H. Chen, K. Chen, D. A. Drabold, and M. E. Kordesch, “Band gap engineering in amorphous AlxGa1−xN: Experiment and ab initio calculations,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1117-1119 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chen, K.

H. Chen, K. Chen, D. A. Drabold, and M. E. Kordesch, “Band gap engineering in amorphous AlxGa1−xN: Experiment and ab initio calculations,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1117-1119 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dimitrova, V.

V. Dimitrova, P. G. Van Patten, H. H. Richardson, and M. E. Kordesch, “Photo-, cathodo- and electroluminescence studies of sputter deposited AlN:Er thin films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 175-176, 481-483 (2001).

V. Dimitrova, P. G. Van Patten, H. H. Richardson, and M. E. Kordesch, “Visible emission from electroluminescent devices using an amorphous AlN:Er3+ thin-film phosphor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 478-479 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dimitrova, V. I.

M. L. Caldwell, A. L. Martin, C. M. Spalding, V. I. Dimitrova, P. G. Van Patten, M. E. Kordesch, and H. H. Richardson, “Visible emission from amorphous AlN thin--film phosphors with Cu, Mn, or Cr,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 19, 1894-97 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Caldwell, A. L. Martin, V. I. Dimitrova, P. G. Van Patten, M. E. Kordesch, and H. H. Richardson, “Emission properties of an amorphous AlN:Cr3+ thin-film phosphor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1246-1248 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Drabold, D. A.

H. Chen, K. Chen, D. A. Drabold, and M. E. Kordesch, “Band gap engineering in amorphous AlxGa1−xN: Experiment and ab initio calculations,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1117-1119 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gruber, J. B.

J. B. Gruber, B. Zandi, H. J. Lozykowski, and W. M. Jadwisienczak, “Spectroscopic properties of Sm3+(4f5) in GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 2929-2935 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gurumurugan, K.

H. Chen, K. Gurumurugan, M. E. Kordesch, W. M. Jadwisienczak, and H. J. Lozykowski, “Visible and infrared emission of GaN:Er thin films grown by sputtering,” MRS Internet J. Nitride Semicond. Res. 5, U130-U135, Suppl. 1 (2000).

Hofsass, H.

U. Vetter, J. Zenneck, and H. Hofsass, “Intense ultraviolet cathodoluminescence at 318 nm from Gd3+-doped AlN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2145-2147 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jadwisienczak, W. M.

J. B. Gruber, B. Zandi, H. J. Lozykowski, and W. M. Jadwisienczak, “Spectroscopic properties of Sm3+(4f5) in GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 2929-2935 (2002).
[CrossRef]

W. M. Jadwisienczak, H. J. Lozykowski, and I. G. Brown, “Cathodoluminescence study of GaN doped with Tb,” Mater. Sci. Eng., B 81, 140-143 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Chen, K. Gurumurugan, M. E. Kordesch, W. M. Jadwisienczak, and H. J. Lozykowski, “Visible and infrared emission of GaN:Er thin films grown by sputtering,” MRS Internet J. Nitride Semicond. Res. 5, U130-U135, Suppl. 1 (2000).

W. M. Jadwisienczak, H. J. Lozykowski, F. Perjeru, H. Chen, M. Kordesch, and I. Brown, “Luminescence of Tb ions implanted into amorphous AlN thin films grown by sputtering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3376-3378 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Lozykowski, W. M. Jadwisienczak, and I. Brown, “Cathodoluminescence of GaN doped with Sm and Ho,” Solid State Commun. 110, 253-258 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kordesch, M.

W. M. Jadwisienczak, H. J. Lozykowski, F. Perjeru, H. Chen, M. Kordesch, and I. Brown, “Luminescence of Tb ions implanted into amorphous AlN thin films grown by sputtering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3376-3378 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kordesch, M. E.

M. Maqbool, M. E. Kordesch, and I. Ahmad, “Electron penetration depth in amorphous AlN exploiting the luminescence of AlN:Tm/AlN:Ho bilayers,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 9, 417-421 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Maqbool, H. H. Richardson, and M. E. Kordesch, “Luminescence from praseodymium doped AlN thin films deposited by RF magnetron sputtering and the effect of material structure and thermal annealing on the luminescence,” J. Mater. Sci. 42, 5657-5660 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. H. Richardson, P. G. Van Patten, D. R. Richardson, and M. E. Kordesch, “Thin-film electroluminescent devices grown on plastic substrates using an amorphous AlN:Tb3+ phosphor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 2207-2209 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Caldwell, A. L. Martin, V. I. Dimitrova, P. G. Van Patten, M. E. Kordesch, and H. H. Richardson, “Emission properties of an amorphous AlN:Cr3+ thin-film phosphor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1246-1248 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Caldwell, P. G. Van Patten, M. E. Kordesch, and H. H. Richardson, “Visible luminescent activation of amorphous ALN:Eu thin-film phosphors with oxygen,” MRS Internet J. Nitride Semicond. Res. 6, 1-5 (2001).

M. E. Little and M. E. Kordesch, “Band-gap engineering in sputter-deposited ScxGa1−xN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2891-2892 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Caldwell, A. L. Martin, C. M. Spalding, V. I. Dimitrova, P. G. Van Patten, M. E. Kordesch, and H. H. Richardson, “Visible emission from amorphous AlN thin--film phosphors with Cu, Mn, or Cr,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 19, 1894-97 (2001).
[CrossRef]

V. Dimitrova, P. G. Van Patten, H. H. Richardson, and M. E. Kordesch, “Photo-, cathodo- and electroluminescence studies of sputter deposited AlN:Er thin films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 175-176, 481-483 (2001).

V. Dimitrova, P. G. Van Patten, H. H. Richardson, and M. E. Kordesch, “Visible emission from electroluminescent devices using an amorphous AlN:Er3+ thin-film phosphor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 478-479 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Caldwell, H. H. Richardson, and M. E. Kordesch, “Optical properties of manganese doped amorphous and crystalline aluminum nitride films,” MRS Internet J. Nitride Semicond. Res. 5, U142-U147, Suppl. 1 (2000).

H. Chen, K. Gurumurugan, M. E. Kordesch, W. M. Jadwisienczak, and H. J. Lozykowski, “Visible and infrared emission of GaN:Er thin films grown by sputtering,” MRS Internet J. Nitride Semicond. Res. 5, U130-U135, Suppl. 1 (2000).

H. Chen, K. Chen, D. A. Drabold, and M. E. Kordesch, “Band gap engineering in amorphous AlxGa1−xN: Experiment and ab initio calculations,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1117-1119 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Maqbool, H. H. Richardson, P. G. Van Patten, and M. E. Kordesch, “Luminescent holmium doped amorphous AlN thin films for use as waveguides and laser cavities,” in Proceedings of Materials Research Society Symposium Y (MRS, 2003), Vol. 798, paper Y5.8.

M. Maqbool, H. H. Richardson, and M. E. Kordesch, “Cathodoluminescence of praseodymium doped amorphous AlN, GaN and Turbostratic BN,” in Proceedings of Materials Research Society Symposium E (MRS, 2004), Vol. 831, paper E8.12.

Little, M. E.

M. E. Little and M. E. Kordesch, “Band-gap engineering in sputter-deposited ScxGa1−xN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2891-2892 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lozykowski, H. J.

J. B. Gruber, B. Zandi, H. J. Lozykowski, and W. M. Jadwisienczak, “Spectroscopic properties of Sm3+(4f5) in GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 2929-2935 (2002).
[CrossRef]

W. M. Jadwisienczak, H. J. Lozykowski, and I. G. Brown, “Cathodoluminescence study of GaN doped with Tb,” Mater. Sci. Eng., B 81, 140-143 (2001).
[CrossRef]

W. M. Jadwisienczak, H. J. Lozykowski, F. Perjeru, H. Chen, M. Kordesch, and I. Brown, “Luminescence of Tb ions implanted into amorphous AlN thin films grown by sputtering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3376-3378 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Chen, K. Gurumurugan, M. E. Kordesch, W. M. Jadwisienczak, and H. J. Lozykowski, “Visible and infrared emission of GaN:Er thin films grown by sputtering,” MRS Internet J. Nitride Semicond. Res. 5, U130-U135, Suppl. 1 (2000).

H. J. Lozykowski, W. M. Jadwisienczak, and I. Brown, “Cathodoluminescence of GaN doped with Sm and Ho,” Solid State Commun. 110, 253-258 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Maqbool, M.

M. Maqbool, M. E. Kordesch, and I. Ahmad, “Electron penetration depth in amorphous AlN exploiting the luminescence of AlN:Tm/AlN:Ho bilayers,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 9, 417-421 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Maqbool, H. H. Richardson, and M. E. Kordesch, “Luminescence from praseodymium doped AlN thin films deposited by RF magnetron sputtering and the effect of material structure and thermal annealing on the luminescence,” J. Mater. Sci. 42, 5657-5660 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Maqbool, “Luminescence from thulium and samarium doped amorphous AlN thin films deposited by RF magnetron sputtering and the effect of thermal activation on luminescence,” Eur. Phys. J.: Appl. Phys. 34, 31-34 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Maqbool, H. H. Richardson, and M. E. Kordesch, “Cathodoluminescence of praseodymium doped amorphous AlN, GaN and Turbostratic BN,” in Proceedings of Materials Research Society Symposium E (MRS, 2004), Vol. 831, paper E8.12.

M. Maqbool, H. H. Richardson, P. G. Van Patten, and M. E. Kordesch, “Luminescent holmium doped amorphous AlN thin films for use as waveguides and laser cavities,” in Proceedings of Materials Research Society Symposium Y (MRS, 2003), Vol. 798, paper Y5.8.

Martin, A. L.

M. L. Caldwell, A. L. Martin, V. I. Dimitrova, P. G. Van Patten, M. E. Kordesch, and H. H. Richardson, “Emission properties of an amorphous AlN:Cr3+ thin-film phosphor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1246-1248 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Caldwell, A. L. Martin, C. M. Spalding, V. I. Dimitrova, P. G. Van Patten, M. E. Kordesch, and H. H. Richardson, “Visible emission from amorphous AlN thin--film phosphors with Cu, Mn, or Cr,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 19, 1894-97 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Perjeru, F.

W. M. Jadwisienczak, H. J. Lozykowski, F. Perjeru, H. Chen, M. Kordesch, and I. Brown, “Luminescence of Tb ions implanted into amorphous AlN thin films grown by sputtering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3376-3378 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, D. R.

H. H. Richardson, P. G. Van Patten, D. R. Richardson, and M. E. Kordesch, “Thin-film electroluminescent devices grown on plastic substrates using an amorphous AlN:Tb3+ phosphor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 2207-2209 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, H. H.

M. Maqbool, H. H. Richardson, and M. E. Kordesch, “Luminescence from praseodymium doped AlN thin films deposited by RF magnetron sputtering and the effect of material structure and thermal annealing on the luminescence,” J. Mater. Sci. 42, 5657-5660 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. H. Richardson, P. G. Van Patten, D. R. Richardson, and M. E. Kordesch, “Thin-film electroluminescent devices grown on plastic substrates using an amorphous AlN:Tb3+ phosphor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 2207-2209 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Caldwell, P. G. Van Patten, M. E. Kordesch, and H. H. Richardson, “Visible luminescent activation of amorphous ALN:Eu thin-film phosphors with oxygen,” MRS Internet J. Nitride Semicond. Res. 6, 1-5 (2001).

M. L. Caldwell, A. L. Martin, V. I. Dimitrova, P. G. Van Patten, M. E. Kordesch, and H. H. Richardson, “Emission properties of an amorphous AlN:Cr3+ thin-film phosphor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1246-1248 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Caldwell, A. L. Martin, C. M. Spalding, V. I. Dimitrova, P. G. Van Patten, M. E. Kordesch, and H. H. Richardson, “Visible emission from amorphous AlN thin--film phosphors with Cu, Mn, or Cr,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 19, 1894-97 (2001).
[CrossRef]

V. Dimitrova, P. G. Van Patten, H. H. Richardson, and M. E. Kordesch, “Photo-, cathodo- and electroluminescence studies of sputter deposited AlN:Er thin films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 175-176, 481-483 (2001).

V. Dimitrova, P. G. Van Patten, H. H. Richardson, and M. E. Kordesch, “Visible emission from electroluminescent devices using an amorphous AlN:Er3+ thin-film phosphor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 478-479 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Caldwell, H. H. Richardson, and M. E. Kordesch, “Optical properties of manganese doped amorphous and crystalline aluminum nitride films,” MRS Internet J. Nitride Semicond. Res. 5, U142-U147, Suppl. 1 (2000).

M. Maqbool, H. H. Richardson, P. G. Van Patten, and M. E. Kordesch, “Luminescent holmium doped amorphous AlN thin films for use as waveguides and laser cavities,” in Proceedings of Materials Research Society Symposium Y (MRS, 2003), Vol. 798, paper Y5.8.

M. Maqbool, H. H. Richardson, and M. E. Kordesch, “Cathodoluminescence of praseodymium doped amorphous AlN, GaN and Turbostratic BN,” in Proceedings of Materials Research Society Symposium E (MRS, 2004), Vol. 831, paper E8.12.

Spalding, C. M.

M. L. Caldwell, A. L. Martin, C. M. Spalding, V. I. Dimitrova, P. G. Van Patten, M. E. Kordesch, and H. H. Richardson, “Visible emission from amorphous AlN thin--film phosphors with Cu, Mn, or Cr,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 19, 1894-97 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Van Patten, P. G.

H. H. Richardson, P. G. Van Patten, D. R. Richardson, and M. E. Kordesch, “Thin-film electroluminescent devices grown on plastic substrates using an amorphous AlN:Tb3+ phosphor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 2207-2209 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Caldwell, A. L. Martin, V. I. Dimitrova, P. G. Van Patten, M. E. Kordesch, and H. H. Richardson, “Emission properties of an amorphous AlN:Cr3+ thin-film phosphor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1246-1248 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Caldwell, P. G. Van Patten, M. E. Kordesch, and H. H. Richardson, “Visible luminescent activation of amorphous ALN:Eu thin-film phosphors with oxygen,” MRS Internet J. Nitride Semicond. Res. 6, 1-5 (2001).

M. L. Caldwell, A. L. Martin, C. M. Spalding, V. I. Dimitrova, P. G. Van Patten, M. E. Kordesch, and H. H. Richardson, “Visible emission from amorphous AlN thin--film phosphors with Cu, Mn, or Cr,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 19, 1894-97 (2001).
[CrossRef]

V. Dimitrova, P. G. Van Patten, H. H. Richardson, and M. E. Kordesch, “Photo-, cathodo- and electroluminescence studies of sputter deposited AlN:Er thin films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 175-176, 481-483 (2001).

V. Dimitrova, P. G. Van Patten, H. H. Richardson, and M. E. Kordesch, “Visible emission from electroluminescent devices using an amorphous AlN:Er3+ thin-film phosphor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 478-479 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Maqbool, H. H. Richardson, P. G. Van Patten, and M. E. Kordesch, “Luminescent holmium doped amorphous AlN thin films for use as waveguides and laser cavities,” in Proceedings of Materials Research Society Symposium Y (MRS, 2003), Vol. 798, paper Y5.8.

Vetter, U.

U. Vetter, J. Zenneck, and H. Hofsass, “Intense ultraviolet cathodoluminescence at 318 nm from Gd3+-doped AlN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2145-2147 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Walsh, B. M.

B. M. Walsh, N. P. Barnes, and B. D. Bartolo, “Branching ratios, cross sections, and radiative lifetimes of rare earth ions in solids: Application to Tm3+ and Ho3+ ions in LiYF4,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 2772-2787 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zandi, B.

J. B. Gruber, B. Zandi, H. J. Lozykowski, and W. M. Jadwisienczak, “Spectroscopic properties of Sm3+(4f5) in GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 2929-2935 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zenneck, J.

U. Vetter, J. Zenneck, and H. Hofsass, “Intense ultraviolet cathodoluminescence at 318 nm from Gd3+-doped AlN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2145-2147 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (7)

W. M. Jadwisienczak, H. J. Lozykowski, F. Perjeru, H. Chen, M. Kordesch, and I. Brown, “Luminescence of Tb ions implanted into amorphous AlN thin films grown by sputtering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3376-3378 (2000).
[CrossRef]

V. Dimitrova, P. G. Van Patten, H. H. Richardson, and M. E. Kordesch, “Visible emission from electroluminescent devices using an amorphous AlN:Er3+ thin-film phosphor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 478-479 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. H. Richardson, P. G. Van Patten, D. R. Richardson, and M. E. Kordesch, “Thin-film electroluminescent devices grown on plastic substrates using an amorphous AlN:Tb3+ phosphor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 2207-2209 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Chen, K. Chen, D. A. Drabold, and M. E. Kordesch, “Band gap engineering in amorphous AlxGa1−xN: Experiment and ab initio calculations,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1117-1119 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Little and M. E. Kordesch, “Band-gap engineering in sputter-deposited ScxGa1−xN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2891-2892 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Caldwell, A. L. Martin, V. I. Dimitrova, P. G. Van Patten, M. E. Kordesch, and H. H. Richardson, “Emission properties of an amorphous AlN:Cr3+ thin-film phosphor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1246-1248 (2001).
[CrossRef]

U. Vetter, J. Zenneck, and H. Hofsass, “Intense ultraviolet cathodoluminescence at 318 nm from Gd3+-doped AlN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2145-2147 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Surf. Sci. (1)

V. Dimitrova, P. G. Van Patten, H. H. Richardson, and M. E. Kordesch, “Photo-, cathodo- and electroluminescence studies of sputter deposited AlN:Er thin films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 175-176, 481-483 (2001).

Curr. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. Maqbool, M. E. Kordesch, and I. Ahmad, “Electron penetration depth in amorphous AlN exploiting the luminescence of AlN:Tm/AlN:Ho bilayers,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 9, 417-421 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Eur. Phys. J.: Appl. Phys. (1)

M. Maqbool, “Luminescence from thulium and samarium doped amorphous AlN thin films deposited by RF magnetron sputtering and the effect of thermal activation on luminescence,” Eur. Phys. J.: Appl. Phys. 34, 31-34 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

B. M. Walsh, N. P. Barnes, and B. D. Bartolo, “Branching ratios, cross sections, and radiative lifetimes of rare earth ions in solids: Application to Tm3+ and Ho3+ ions in LiYF4,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 2772-2787 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Gruber, B. Zandi, H. J. Lozykowski, and W. M. Jadwisienczak, “Spectroscopic properties of Sm3+(4f5) in GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 2929-2935 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Sci. (1)

M. Maqbool, H. H. Richardson, and M. E. Kordesch, “Luminescence from praseodymium doped AlN thin films deposited by RF magnetron sputtering and the effect of material structure and thermal annealing on the luminescence,” J. Mater. Sci. 42, 5657-5660 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A (1)

M. L. Caldwell, A. L. Martin, C. M. Spalding, V. I. Dimitrova, P. G. Van Patten, M. E. Kordesch, and H. H. Richardson, “Visible emission from amorphous AlN thin--film phosphors with Cu, Mn, or Cr,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 19, 1894-97 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Sci. Eng., B (1)

W. M. Jadwisienczak, H. J. Lozykowski, and I. G. Brown, “Cathodoluminescence study of GaN doped with Tb,” Mater. Sci. Eng., B 81, 140-143 (2001).
[CrossRef]

MRS Internet J. Nitride Semicond. Res. (3)

M. L. Caldwell, P. G. Van Patten, M. E. Kordesch, and H. H. Richardson, “Visible luminescent activation of amorphous ALN:Eu thin-film phosphors with oxygen,” MRS Internet J. Nitride Semicond. Res. 6, 1-5 (2001).

H. Chen, K. Gurumurugan, M. E. Kordesch, W. M. Jadwisienczak, and H. J. Lozykowski, “Visible and infrared emission of GaN:Er thin films grown by sputtering,” MRS Internet J. Nitride Semicond. Res. 5, U130-U135, Suppl. 1 (2000).

M. L. Caldwell, H. H. Richardson, and M. E. Kordesch, “Optical properties of manganese doped amorphous and crystalline aluminum nitride films,” MRS Internet J. Nitride Semicond. Res. 5, U142-U147, Suppl. 1 (2000).

Solid State Commun. (1)

H. J. Lozykowski, W. M. Jadwisienczak, and I. Brown, “Cathodoluminescence of GaN doped with Sm and Ho,” Solid State Commun. 110, 253-258 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

M. Maqbool, H. H. Richardson, P. G. Van Patten, and M. E. Kordesch, “Luminescent holmium doped amorphous AlN thin films for use as waveguides and laser cavities,” in Proceedings of Materials Research Society Symposium Y (MRS, 2003), Vol. 798, paper Y5.8.

M. Maqbool, H. H. Richardson, and M. E. Kordesch, “Cathodoluminescence of praseodymium doped amorphous AlN, GaN and Turbostratic BN,” in Proceedings of Materials Research Society Symposium E (MRS, 2004), Vol. 831, paper E8.12.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Emission from patterned Al N : Ho Al N : Ho Gd film deposited on silicon substrate. The wide stripes show AlN:1Ho6Gd and the narrow stripes show AlN:Ho.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Effect of Gd concentration on Ho luminescence.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Increasing pattern of Ho luminescence with Gd concentration.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

EDX analysis of the Al N : 1 Ho n Gd films.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Summary of Ho 3 + and Gd + 3 Ions Emission from AlN:Ho and AlN:HoGd

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