Abstract

A detailed analysis of the x-ray spectrum emitted by laser-produced plasma of samarium (6–12 Å) is presented, using ab initio calculations with the HULLAC relativistic code and isoelectronic considerations. Resonance 3d-nf (n=4 to 7), 3p4d, 3d4p, and 3p4s transitions in Ni samarium ions and in neighboring ionization states (from Mn to Zn ions) were identified. The experiment results show changes in the fine details of the plasma spectrum for different laser intensities.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. Klapisch, P. Mandelbaum, A. Zigler, C. Bauche-Arnoult, and J. Bauche, “The unresolved 3d-4ftransitions in the x-ray spectra of highly ionized Tm and Re from laser produced plasma,” Phys. Scr. 34, 51-57 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  2. N. Tragin, J. P. Geindre, P. Monier, J. C. Gauthier, C. Chenais-Popovics, J. F. Wyart, and C. Bauche-Arnoult, “Extended analysis of the x-ray spectra of laser-irradiated elements in the sequence from tantalum to lead,” Phys. Scr. 37, 72-82 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. Zigler, M. Givon, E. Yarkoni, M. Kishinevsky, E. Goldberg, and B. Arad, “Use of unresolved transitions arrays for plasma diagnostics,” Phys. Rev. A 35, 280 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. A. Zigler, P. Mandelbaum, J. L. Schwob, and D. Mitnik, “Analysis of the x-ray emitted by laser produced plasma of highly ionized lanthanum and praseodymium in the 8.4 to 12.0 Åwavelength range,” Phys. Scr. 50, 61-97 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  5. P. Renaudin, C. A. Back, C. Chenais-Popovics, J.-P. Geindre, J.-C. Gauthier, C. Bauche-Arnoult, E. Luc-Koenig, and J.-F. Wyart, in UV and X-Ray Spectroscopy of Laboratory and Astrophysical Plasmas, edited by E.H.Silver and S.M.Kahn (Cambridge U. Press, 2004), p. 157.
  6. G. Marcus, E. Louzon, Z. Henis, S. Maman, and P. Mandelbaum, “Analysis of the x-ray spectrum emitted by laser produced plasma of dysprosium,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 1187-1192 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  7. P. G. Burkhalter, D. G. Nagel, and R. R. Whitlock, “Laser produced rare-earth x-ray spectra,” Phys. Rev. A 9, 2331-2336 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. Zhang, A. G. MacPhee, J. Lin, E. Wolfrum, R. Smith, C. Danson, M. H. Key, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Nilsen, G. J. Pert, G. J. Tallents, and J. S. Warks, “A saturated x-ray laser beam at 7 nanometers,” Science 276, 1097-1099 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. Bar-Shalom, M. Klapisch, and J. Oreg, “HULLAC, an integrated computer package for atomic processes in plasmas,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 71, 169-188 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  10. C. Bauche-Arnoult, J. Bauche, and M. Klapisch, “Variance distribution of energy levels and of the transition arrays in atomic spectra,” Phys. Rev. A 20, 2424-2439 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  11. C. Bauche-Arnoult, J. Bauche, and M. Klapisch, “Variance distribution of energy levels and of the transition arrays in atomic spectra. III. Case of spin-orbit split arrays,” Phys. Rev. A 31, 2248 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. A. H. Gabriel, “Dielectronic satellite spectra for highly charged helium ion lines,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 160, 99 (1972).

2007 (1)

2001 (1)

A. Bar-Shalom, M. Klapisch, and J. Oreg, “HULLAC, an integrated computer package for atomic processes in plasmas,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 71, 169-188 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

J. Zhang, A. G. MacPhee, J. Lin, E. Wolfrum, R. Smith, C. Danson, M. H. Key, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Nilsen, G. J. Pert, G. J. Tallents, and J. S. Warks, “A saturated x-ray laser beam at 7 nanometers,” Science 276, 1097-1099 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

A. Zigler, P. Mandelbaum, J. L. Schwob, and D. Mitnik, “Analysis of the x-ray emitted by laser produced plasma of highly ionized lanthanum and praseodymium in the 8.4 to 12.0 Åwavelength range,” Phys. Scr. 50, 61-97 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

N. Tragin, J. P. Geindre, P. Monier, J. C. Gauthier, C. Chenais-Popovics, J. F. Wyart, and C. Bauche-Arnoult, “Extended analysis of the x-ray spectra of laser-irradiated elements in the sequence from tantalum to lead,” Phys. Scr. 37, 72-82 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

A. Zigler, M. Givon, E. Yarkoni, M. Kishinevsky, E. Goldberg, and B. Arad, “Use of unresolved transitions arrays for plasma diagnostics,” Phys. Rev. A 35, 280 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

M. Klapisch, P. Mandelbaum, A. Zigler, C. Bauche-Arnoult, and J. Bauche, “The unresolved 3d-4ftransitions in the x-ray spectra of highly ionized Tm and Re from laser produced plasma,” Phys. Scr. 34, 51-57 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

C. Bauche-Arnoult, J. Bauche, and M. Klapisch, “Variance distribution of energy levels and of the transition arrays in atomic spectra. III. Case of spin-orbit split arrays,” Phys. Rev. A 31, 2248 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1979 (1)

C. Bauche-Arnoult, J. Bauche, and M. Klapisch, “Variance distribution of energy levels and of the transition arrays in atomic spectra,” Phys. Rev. A 20, 2424-2439 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

P. G. Burkhalter, D. G. Nagel, and R. R. Whitlock, “Laser produced rare-earth x-ray spectra,” Phys. Rev. A 9, 2331-2336 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

A. H. Gabriel, “Dielectronic satellite spectra for highly charged helium ion lines,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 160, 99 (1972).

Arad, B.

A. Zigler, M. Givon, E. Yarkoni, M. Kishinevsky, E. Goldberg, and B. Arad, “Use of unresolved transitions arrays for plasma diagnostics,” Phys. Rev. A 35, 280 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Back, C. A.

P. Renaudin, C. A. Back, C. Chenais-Popovics, J.-P. Geindre, J.-C. Gauthier, C. Bauche-Arnoult, E. Luc-Koenig, and J.-F. Wyart, in UV and X-Ray Spectroscopy of Laboratory and Astrophysical Plasmas, edited by E.H.Silver and S.M.Kahn (Cambridge U. Press, 2004), p. 157.

Bar-Shalom, A.

A. Bar-Shalom, M. Klapisch, and J. Oreg, “HULLAC, an integrated computer package for atomic processes in plasmas,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 71, 169-188 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bauche, J.

M. Klapisch, P. Mandelbaum, A. Zigler, C. Bauche-Arnoult, and J. Bauche, “The unresolved 3d-4ftransitions in the x-ray spectra of highly ionized Tm and Re from laser produced plasma,” Phys. Scr. 34, 51-57 (1986).
[CrossRef]

C. Bauche-Arnoult, J. Bauche, and M. Klapisch, “Variance distribution of energy levels and of the transition arrays in atomic spectra. III. Case of spin-orbit split arrays,” Phys. Rev. A 31, 2248 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Bauche-Arnoult, J. Bauche, and M. Klapisch, “Variance distribution of energy levels and of the transition arrays in atomic spectra,” Phys. Rev. A 20, 2424-2439 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Bauche-Arnoult, C.

N. Tragin, J. P. Geindre, P. Monier, J. C. Gauthier, C. Chenais-Popovics, J. F. Wyart, and C. Bauche-Arnoult, “Extended analysis of the x-ray spectra of laser-irradiated elements in the sequence from tantalum to lead,” Phys. Scr. 37, 72-82 (1988).
[CrossRef]

M. Klapisch, P. Mandelbaum, A. Zigler, C. Bauche-Arnoult, and J. Bauche, “The unresolved 3d-4ftransitions in the x-ray spectra of highly ionized Tm and Re from laser produced plasma,” Phys. Scr. 34, 51-57 (1986).
[CrossRef]

C. Bauche-Arnoult, J. Bauche, and M. Klapisch, “Variance distribution of energy levels and of the transition arrays in atomic spectra. III. Case of spin-orbit split arrays,” Phys. Rev. A 31, 2248 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Bauche-Arnoult, J. Bauche, and M. Klapisch, “Variance distribution of energy levels and of the transition arrays in atomic spectra,” Phys. Rev. A 20, 2424-2439 (1979).
[CrossRef]

P. Renaudin, C. A. Back, C. Chenais-Popovics, J.-P. Geindre, J.-C. Gauthier, C. Bauche-Arnoult, E. Luc-Koenig, and J.-F. Wyart, in UV and X-Ray Spectroscopy of Laboratory and Astrophysical Plasmas, edited by E.H.Silver and S.M.Kahn (Cambridge U. Press, 2004), p. 157.

Burkhalter, P. G.

P. G. Burkhalter, D. G. Nagel, and R. R. Whitlock, “Laser produced rare-earth x-ray spectra,” Phys. Rev. A 9, 2331-2336 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Chenais-Popovics, C.

N. Tragin, J. P. Geindre, P. Monier, J. C. Gauthier, C. Chenais-Popovics, J. F. Wyart, and C. Bauche-Arnoult, “Extended analysis of the x-ray spectra of laser-irradiated elements in the sequence from tantalum to lead,” Phys. Scr. 37, 72-82 (1988).
[CrossRef]

P. Renaudin, C. A. Back, C. Chenais-Popovics, J.-P. Geindre, J.-C. Gauthier, C. Bauche-Arnoult, E. Luc-Koenig, and J.-F. Wyart, in UV and X-Ray Spectroscopy of Laboratory and Astrophysical Plasmas, edited by E.H.Silver and S.M.Kahn (Cambridge U. Press, 2004), p. 157.

Danson, C.

J. Zhang, A. G. MacPhee, J. Lin, E. Wolfrum, R. Smith, C. Danson, M. H. Key, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Nilsen, G. J. Pert, G. J. Tallents, and J. S. Warks, “A saturated x-ray laser beam at 7 nanometers,” Science 276, 1097-1099 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gabriel, A. H.

A. H. Gabriel, “Dielectronic satellite spectra for highly charged helium ion lines,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 160, 99 (1972).

Gauthier, J. C.

N. Tragin, J. P. Geindre, P. Monier, J. C. Gauthier, C. Chenais-Popovics, J. F. Wyart, and C. Bauche-Arnoult, “Extended analysis of the x-ray spectra of laser-irradiated elements in the sequence from tantalum to lead,” Phys. Scr. 37, 72-82 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Gauthier, J. -C.

P. Renaudin, C. A. Back, C. Chenais-Popovics, J.-P. Geindre, J.-C. Gauthier, C. Bauche-Arnoult, E. Luc-Koenig, and J.-F. Wyart, in UV and X-Ray Spectroscopy of Laboratory and Astrophysical Plasmas, edited by E.H.Silver and S.M.Kahn (Cambridge U. Press, 2004), p. 157.

Geindre, J. P.

N. Tragin, J. P. Geindre, P. Monier, J. C. Gauthier, C. Chenais-Popovics, J. F. Wyart, and C. Bauche-Arnoult, “Extended analysis of the x-ray spectra of laser-irradiated elements in the sequence from tantalum to lead,” Phys. Scr. 37, 72-82 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Geindre, J. -P.

P. Renaudin, C. A. Back, C. Chenais-Popovics, J.-P. Geindre, J.-C. Gauthier, C. Bauche-Arnoult, E. Luc-Koenig, and J.-F. Wyart, in UV and X-Ray Spectroscopy of Laboratory and Astrophysical Plasmas, edited by E.H.Silver and S.M.Kahn (Cambridge U. Press, 2004), p. 157.

Givon, M.

A. Zigler, M. Givon, E. Yarkoni, M. Kishinevsky, E. Goldberg, and B. Arad, “Use of unresolved transitions arrays for plasma diagnostics,” Phys. Rev. A 35, 280 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goldberg, E.

A. Zigler, M. Givon, E. Yarkoni, M. Kishinevsky, E. Goldberg, and B. Arad, “Use of unresolved transitions arrays for plasma diagnostics,” Phys. Rev. A 35, 280 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Henis, Z.

Key, M. H.

J. Zhang, A. G. MacPhee, J. Lin, E. Wolfrum, R. Smith, C. Danson, M. H. Key, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Nilsen, G. J. Pert, G. J. Tallents, and J. S. Warks, “A saturated x-ray laser beam at 7 nanometers,” Science 276, 1097-1099 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kishinevsky, M.

A. Zigler, M. Givon, E. Yarkoni, M. Kishinevsky, E. Goldberg, and B. Arad, “Use of unresolved transitions arrays for plasma diagnostics,” Phys. Rev. A 35, 280 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Klapisch, M.

A. Bar-Shalom, M. Klapisch, and J. Oreg, “HULLAC, an integrated computer package for atomic processes in plasmas,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 71, 169-188 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Klapisch, P. Mandelbaum, A. Zigler, C. Bauche-Arnoult, and J. Bauche, “The unresolved 3d-4ftransitions in the x-ray spectra of highly ionized Tm and Re from laser produced plasma,” Phys. Scr. 34, 51-57 (1986).
[CrossRef]

C. Bauche-Arnoult, J. Bauche, and M. Klapisch, “Variance distribution of energy levels and of the transition arrays in atomic spectra. III. Case of spin-orbit split arrays,” Phys. Rev. A 31, 2248 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Bauche-Arnoult, J. Bauche, and M. Klapisch, “Variance distribution of energy levels and of the transition arrays in atomic spectra,” Phys. Rev. A 20, 2424-2439 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Lewis, C. L. S.

J. Zhang, A. G. MacPhee, J. Lin, E. Wolfrum, R. Smith, C. Danson, M. H. Key, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Nilsen, G. J. Pert, G. J. Tallents, and J. S. Warks, “A saturated x-ray laser beam at 7 nanometers,” Science 276, 1097-1099 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lin, J.

J. Zhang, A. G. MacPhee, J. Lin, E. Wolfrum, R. Smith, C. Danson, M. H. Key, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Nilsen, G. J. Pert, G. J. Tallents, and J. S. Warks, “A saturated x-ray laser beam at 7 nanometers,” Science 276, 1097-1099 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Louzon, E.

Luc-Koenig, E.

P. Renaudin, C. A. Back, C. Chenais-Popovics, J.-P. Geindre, J.-C. Gauthier, C. Bauche-Arnoult, E. Luc-Koenig, and J.-F. Wyart, in UV and X-Ray Spectroscopy of Laboratory and Astrophysical Plasmas, edited by E.H.Silver and S.M.Kahn (Cambridge U. Press, 2004), p. 157.

MacPhee, A. G.

J. Zhang, A. G. MacPhee, J. Lin, E. Wolfrum, R. Smith, C. Danson, M. H. Key, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Nilsen, G. J. Pert, G. J. Tallents, and J. S. Warks, “A saturated x-ray laser beam at 7 nanometers,” Science 276, 1097-1099 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Maman, S.

Mandelbaum, P.

G. Marcus, E. Louzon, Z. Henis, S. Maman, and P. Mandelbaum, “Analysis of the x-ray spectrum emitted by laser produced plasma of dysprosium,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 1187-1192 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Zigler, P. Mandelbaum, J. L. Schwob, and D. Mitnik, “Analysis of the x-ray emitted by laser produced plasma of highly ionized lanthanum and praseodymium in the 8.4 to 12.0 Åwavelength range,” Phys. Scr. 50, 61-97 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Klapisch, P. Mandelbaum, A. Zigler, C. Bauche-Arnoult, and J. Bauche, “The unresolved 3d-4ftransitions in the x-ray spectra of highly ionized Tm and Re from laser produced plasma,” Phys. Scr. 34, 51-57 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Marcus, G.

Mitnik, D.

A. Zigler, P. Mandelbaum, J. L. Schwob, and D. Mitnik, “Analysis of the x-ray emitted by laser produced plasma of highly ionized lanthanum and praseodymium in the 8.4 to 12.0 Åwavelength range,” Phys. Scr. 50, 61-97 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Monier, P.

N. Tragin, J. P. Geindre, P. Monier, J. C. Gauthier, C. Chenais-Popovics, J. F. Wyart, and C. Bauche-Arnoult, “Extended analysis of the x-ray spectra of laser-irradiated elements in the sequence from tantalum to lead,” Phys. Scr. 37, 72-82 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Nagel, D. G.

P. G. Burkhalter, D. G. Nagel, and R. R. Whitlock, “Laser produced rare-earth x-ray spectra,” Phys. Rev. A 9, 2331-2336 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Neely, D.

J. Zhang, A. G. MacPhee, J. Lin, E. Wolfrum, R. Smith, C. Danson, M. H. Key, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Nilsen, G. J. Pert, G. J. Tallents, and J. S. Warks, “A saturated x-ray laser beam at 7 nanometers,” Science 276, 1097-1099 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nilsen, J.

J. Zhang, A. G. MacPhee, J. Lin, E. Wolfrum, R. Smith, C. Danson, M. H. Key, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Nilsen, G. J. Pert, G. J. Tallents, and J. S. Warks, “A saturated x-ray laser beam at 7 nanometers,” Science 276, 1097-1099 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Oreg, J.

A. Bar-Shalom, M. Klapisch, and J. Oreg, “HULLAC, an integrated computer package for atomic processes in plasmas,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 71, 169-188 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pert, G. J.

J. Zhang, A. G. MacPhee, J. Lin, E. Wolfrum, R. Smith, C. Danson, M. H. Key, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Nilsen, G. J. Pert, G. J. Tallents, and J. S. Warks, “A saturated x-ray laser beam at 7 nanometers,” Science 276, 1097-1099 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Renaudin, P.

P. Renaudin, C. A. Back, C. Chenais-Popovics, J.-P. Geindre, J.-C. Gauthier, C. Bauche-Arnoult, E. Luc-Koenig, and J.-F. Wyart, in UV and X-Ray Spectroscopy of Laboratory and Astrophysical Plasmas, edited by E.H.Silver and S.M.Kahn (Cambridge U. Press, 2004), p. 157.

Schwob, J. L.

A. Zigler, P. Mandelbaum, J. L. Schwob, and D. Mitnik, “Analysis of the x-ray emitted by laser produced plasma of highly ionized lanthanum and praseodymium in the 8.4 to 12.0 Åwavelength range,” Phys. Scr. 50, 61-97 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Smith, R.

J. Zhang, A. G. MacPhee, J. Lin, E. Wolfrum, R. Smith, C. Danson, M. H. Key, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Nilsen, G. J. Pert, G. J. Tallents, and J. S. Warks, “A saturated x-ray laser beam at 7 nanometers,” Science 276, 1097-1099 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tallents, G. J.

J. Zhang, A. G. MacPhee, J. Lin, E. Wolfrum, R. Smith, C. Danson, M. H. Key, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Nilsen, G. J. Pert, G. J. Tallents, and J. S. Warks, “A saturated x-ray laser beam at 7 nanometers,” Science 276, 1097-1099 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tragin, N.

N. Tragin, J. P. Geindre, P. Monier, J. C. Gauthier, C. Chenais-Popovics, J. F. Wyart, and C. Bauche-Arnoult, “Extended analysis of the x-ray spectra of laser-irradiated elements in the sequence from tantalum to lead,” Phys. Scr. 37, 72-82 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Warks, J. S.

J. Zhang, A. G. MacPhee, J. Lin, E. Wolfrum, R. Smith, C. Danson, M. H. Key, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Nilsen, G. J. Pert, G. J. Tallents, and J. S. Warks, “A saturated x-ray laser beam at 7 nanometers,” Science 276, 1097-1099 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Whitlock, R. R.

P. G. Burkhalter, D. G. Nagel, and R. R. Whitlock, “Laser produced rare-earth x-ray spectra,” Phys. Rev. A 9, 2331-2336 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Wolfrum, E.

J. Zhang, A. G. MacPhee, J. Lin, E. Wolfrum, R. Smith, C. Danson, M. H. Key, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Nilsen, G. J. Pert, G. J. Tallents, and J. S. Warks, “A saturated x-ray laser beam at 7 nanometers,” Science 276, 1097-1099 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wyart, J. F.

N. Tragin, J. P. Geindre, P. Monier, J. C. Gauthier, C. Chenais-Popovics, J. F. Wyart, and C. Bauche-Arnoult, “Extended analysis of the x-ray spectra of laser-irradiated elements in the sequence from tantalum to lead,” Phys. Scr. 37, 72-82 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Wyart, J. -F.

P. Renaudin, C. A. Back, C. Chenais-Popovics, J.-P. Geindre, J.-C. Gauthier, C. Bauche-Arnoult, E. Luc-Koenig, and J.-F. Wyart, in UV and X-Ray Spectroscopy of Laboratory and Astrophysical Plasmas, edited by E.H.Silver and S.M.Kahn (Cambridge U. Press, 2004), p. 157.

Yarkoni, E.

A. Zigler, M. Givon, E. Yarkoni, M. Kishinevsky, E. Goldberg, and B. Arad, “Use of unresolved transitions arrays for plasma diagnostics,” Phys. Rev. A 35, 280 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, J.

J. Zhang, A. G. MacPhee, J. Lin, E. Wolfrum, R. Smith, C. Danson, M. H. Key, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Nilsen, G. J. Pert, G. J. Tallents, and J. S. Warks, “A saturated x-ray laser beam at 7 nanometers,” Science 276, 1097-1099 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zigler, A.

A. Zigler, P. Mandelbaum, J. L. Schwob, and D. Mitnik, “Analysis of the x-ray emitted by laser produced plasma of highly ionized lanthanum and praseodymium in the 8.4 to 12.0 Åwavelength range,” Phys. Scr. 50, 61-97 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. Zigler, M. Givon, E. Yarkoni, M. Kishinevsky, E. Goldberg, and B. Arad, “Use of unresolved transitions arrays for plasma diagnostics,” Phys. Rev. A 35, 280 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Klapisch, P. Mandelbaum, A. Zigler, C. Bauche-Arnoult, and J. Bauche, “The unresolved 3d-4ftransitions in the x-ray spectra of highly ionized Tm and Re from laser produced plasma,” Phys. Scr. 34, 51-57 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. (1)

A. Bar-Shalom, M. Klapisch, and J. Oreg, “HULLAC, an integrated computer package for atomic processes in plasmas,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 71, 169-188 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. (1)

A. H. Gabriel, “Dielectronic satellite spectra for highly charged helium ion lines,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 160, 99 (1972).

Phys. Rev. A (4)

C. Bauche-Arnoult, J. Bauche, and M. Klapisch, “Variance distribution of energy levels and of the transition arrays in atomic spectra,” Phys. Rev. A 20, 2424-2439 (1979).
[CrossRef]

C. Bauche-Arnoult, J. Bauche, and M. Klapisch, “Variance distribution of energy levels and of the transition arrays in atomic spectra. III. Case of spin-orbit split arrays,” Phys. Rev. A 31, 2248 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. G. Burkhalter, D. G. Nagel, and R. R. Whitlock, “Laser produced rare-earth x-ray spectra,” Phys. Rev. A 9, 2331-2336 (1974).
[CrossRef]

A. Zigler, M. Givon, E. Yarkoni, M. Kishinevsky, E. Goldberg, and B. Arad, “Use of unresolved transitions arrays for plasma diagnostics,” Phys. Rev. A 35, 280 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Scr. (3)

A. Zigler, P. Mandelbaum, J. L. Schwob, and D. Mitnik, “Analysis of the x-ray emitted by laser produced plasma of highly ionized lanthanum and praseodymium in the 8.4 to 12.0 Åwavelength range,” Phys. Scr. 50, 61-97 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Klapisch, P. Mandelbaum, A. Zigler, C. Bauche-Arnoult, and J. Bauche, “The unresolved 3d-4ftransitions in the x-ray spectra of highly ionized Tm and Re from laser produced plasma,” Phys. Scr. 34, 51-57 (1986).
[CrossRef]

N. Tragin, J. P. Geindre, P. Monier, J. C. Gauthier, C. Chenais-Popovics, J. F. Wyart, and C. Bauche-Arnoult, “Extended analysis of the x-ray spectra of laser-irradiated elements in the sequence from tantalum to lead,” Phys. Scr. 37, 72-82 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

J. Zhang, A. G. MacPhee, J. Lin, E. Wolfrum, R. Smith, C. Danson, M. H. Key, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Nilsen, G. J. Pert, G. J. Tallents, and J. S. Warks, “A saturated x-ray laser beam at 7 nanometers,” Science 276, 1097-1099 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

P. Renaudin, C. A. Back, C. Chenais-Popovics, J.-P. Geindre, J.-C. Gauthier, C. Bauche-Arnoult, E. Luc-Koenig, and J.-F. Wyart, in UV and X-Ray Spectroscopy of Laboratory and Astrophysical Plasmas, edited by E.H.Silver and S.M.Kahn (Cambridge U. Press, 2004), p. 157.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Recording of the x-ray spectrum in the (6–8) Å wavelength range emitted by samarium laser-produced plasma with laser intensity of 1.5 × 10 14   W / cm 2 . Labels refer to Table 1.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Recording of the x-ray spectrum in the (8–10) Å wavelength range emitted by samarium laser-produced plasma with laser intensity of 1.5 × 10 14   W / cm 2 . Labels refer to Table 2.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Recording of the x-ray spectrum in the (10–12) Å wavelength range emitted by samarium laser-produced plasma with laser intensity of 1.3 × 10 14   W / cm 2 . Labels refer to Table 3.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Recording of the x-ray spectrum in the (7–8) Å wavelength range emitted by samarium laser-produced plasma with laser intensity of 5 × 10 13   W / cm 2 . Labels refer to Table 1. (b) Recording of the x-ray spectrum in the (8–10) Å wavelength range emitted by samarium laser-produced plasma with laser intensity of 5 × 10 13   W / cm 2 . Labels refer to Table 2.

Tables (3)

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Table 1 Results for the Identified Transitions in the Spectrum of Samarium Laser-Produced Plasma in (6–8) Å Wavelength Range a

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Table 2 Results for the Identified Transitions in the Spectrum of Samarium Laser Produced Plasma in (8–10) Å Wavelength Range a

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Table 3 Results for the Identified Transitions in the Spectrum of Samarium Laser Produced Plasma in (10–12) Å Wavelength Range a

Equations (2)

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λ ¯ = i , j , i < j g j A j i λ j i i , j , i < j g j A j i ,
Δ λ 2 = i , j , i < j g j A j i ( λ ¯ λ j i ) 2 i , j , i < j g j A j i .

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