Abstract

The Z-scan and thermal-lens techniques have been used to obtain the energy transfer upconversion parameter in Nd3+-doped materials. A comparison between these methods is done, showing that they are independent and provide similar results. Moreover, the advantages and applicability of each one are also discussed. The results point to these approaches as valuable alternative methods because of their sensitivity, which allows measurements to be performed in a pump-power regime without causing damage to the investigated material.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. Wisdom, M. Digonnet, and R. L. Byer, “Ceramic lasers: Ready for action,” Photonics Spectra 38(2) (2004), p. 50.
  2. C. Jacinto, S. L. Oliveira, T. Catunda, A. A. Andrade, J. D. Myers, and M. J. Myers, “Upconversion effect on fluorescence quantum efficiency and heat generation in Nd3+-doped materials,” Opt. Express 13, 2040-2046 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. C. Jacinto, T. Catunda, D. Jaque, and J. G. Sole, “Fluorescence quantum efficiency and Auger upconversion losses of the stoichiometric laser crystal NdAl3(BO3)4,” Phys. Rev. B 72, 235111 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  4. V. Pilla, T. Catunda, H. P. Jenssen, and A. Cassanho, “Fluorescence quantum efficiency measurements in the presence of Auger upconversion by the thermal lens method,” Opt. Lett. 28, 239-241 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. F. Lahoz and M. A. Hassan, “Upconversion rate in Nd-doped Ta2O5 waveguides and influence on the cw laser performance,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 426, 135-140 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. L. Doualan, C. Maunier, D. Descamps, J. Landais, and R. Moncorge, “Excited-state absorption and up-conversion losses in the Nd-doped glasses for high-power lasers,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 4459-4463 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Pollnau, P. J. Hardman, M. A. Kern, W. A. Clarkson, and D. C. Hanna, “Upconversion-induced heat generation and thermal lensing in Nd: YLF and Nd: YAG,” Phys. Rev. B 58, 16076-16092 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Y. Guyot, H. Manaa, J. Y. Rivoire, R. Moncorge, N. Garnier, E. Descroix, M. Bon, and P. Laporte, “Excited-state-absorption and up-conversion studies of Nd3+-doped-single crystals Y3Al5O12, YLiF4, and Lamgal11O19,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 784-799 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. A. Payne, G. D. Wilke, L. K. Smith, and W. F. Krupke, “Auger up-conversion losses in Nd-Doped laser glasses,” Opt. Commun. 111, 263-268 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  10. H. J. Eichler, A. Haase, R. Menzel, and A. Siemoneit, “Thermal lensing and depolarization in a highly pumped Nd-Yag laser-amplifier,” J. Phys. D 26, 1884-1891 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. A. Andrade, E. Tenorio, T. Catunda, M. L. Baesso, A. Cassanho, and H. P. Jenssen, “Discrimination between electronic and thermal contributions to the nonlinear refractive index of SrAlF5:Cr+3,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 395-400 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  12. D. N. Messias, A. A. Andrade, and T. Catunda are preparing a paper to be called “Determination of Auger upconversion parameter by Z-scan measurements.”
  13. C. Jacinto, T. Catunda, D. Jaque, L. E. Bausa, and J. Garcia-Sole, “Thermal lens and heat generation of Nd: YAG lasers operating at 1.064 and 1.34μm,” Opt. Express 16, 6317-6323 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. C. Jacinto, D. N. Messias, A. A. Andrade, S. M. Lima, M. L. Baesso, and T. Catunda, “Thermal lens and Z-scan measurements: thermal and optical properties of laser glasses--A review,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352, 3582-3597 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. L. Baesso, J. Shen, and R. D. Snook, “Mode-mismatched thermal lens determination of temperature-coefficient of optical-path length in soda lime glass at different wavelengths,” J. Appl. Phys. 75, 3732-3737 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  16. N. G. C. Astrath, J. H. Rohling, A. C. Bento, M. L. Baesso, C. Jacinto, S. M. Lima, L. A. O. Nunes, and T. Catunda, “Fluorescence quantum efficiency in Nd2O3-doped aluminosilicate glasses by multiwavelength thermal lens method,” J. Phys. IV 125, 185-187 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  17. C. Jacinto, T. Catunda, D. Jaque, and J. G. Sole, “Fluorescence quantum efficiency and Auger upconversion losses of the stoichiometric laser crystal NdAl3(BO3)(4),” Phys. Rev. B 72, 235111 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  18. M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, and E. W. V. Stryland, “High sensitivity, single-beam n2 measurements,” Opt. Lett. 14, 955-958 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. T. Xia, D. J. Hagan, M. Sheikbahae, and E. W. VanStryland, “Eclipsing Z-scan measurement of λ/104 wave-front distortion,” Opt. Lett. 19, 317-319 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. L. C. Oliveira and S. C. Zilio, “Single-Beam Time-Resolved Z-Scan Measurements of Slow Absorbers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 2121-2123 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  21. A. Rodenas, C. Jacinto, L. R. Freitas, D. Jaque, and T. Catunda, “Nonlinear refraction and absorption through phase transition in a Nd:SBN laser crystal,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 033108 (2009).
    [CrossRef]

2009 (1)

A. Rodenas, C. Jacinto, L. R. Freitas, D. Jaque, and T. Catunda, “Nonlinear refraction and absorption through phase transition in a Nd:SBN laser crystal,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 033108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2006 (2)

C. Jacinto, D. N. Messias, A. A. Andrade, S. M. Lima, M. L. Baesso, and T. Catunda, “Thermal lens and Z-scan measurements: thermal and optical properties of laser glasses--A review,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352, 3582-3597 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Lahoz and M. A. Hassan, “Upconversion rate in Nd-doped Ta2O5 waveguides and influence on the cw laser performance,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 426, 135-140 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (4)

C. Jacinto, S. L. Oliveira, T. Catunda, A. A. Andrade, J. D. Myers, and M. J. Myers, “Upconversion effect on fluorescence quantum efficiency and heat generation in Nd3+-doped materials,” Opt. Express 13, 2040-2046 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Jacinto, T. Catunda, D. Jaque, and J. G. Sole, “Fluorescence quantum efficiency and Auger upconversion losses of the stoichiometric laser crystal NdAl3(BO3)4,” Phys. Rev. B 72, 235111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. G. C. Astrath, J. H. Rohling, A. C. Bento, M. L. Baesso, C. Jacinto, S. M. Lima, L. A. O. Nunes, and T. Catunda, “Fluorescence quantum efficiency in Nd2O3-doped aluminosilicate glasses by multiwavelength thermal lens method,” J. Phys. IV 125, 185-187 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Jacinto, T. Catunda, D. Jaque, and J. G. Sole, “Fluorescence quantum efficiency and Auger upconversion losses of the stoichiometric laser crystal NdAl3(BO3)(4),” Phys. Rev. B 72, 235111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

2000 (1)

J. L. Doualan, C. Maunier, D. Descamps, J. Landais, and R. Moncorge, “Excited-state absorption and up-conversion losses in the Nd-doped glasses for high-power lasers,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 4459-4463 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1998 (1)

M. Pollnau, P. J. Hardman, M. A. Kern, W. A. Clarkson, and D. C. Hanna, “Upconversion-induced heat generation and thermal lensing in Nd: YLF and Nd: YAG,” Phys. Rev. B 58, 16076-16092 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

Y. Guyot, H. Manaa, J. Y. Rivoire, R. Moncorge, N. Garnier, E. Descroix, M. Bon, and P. Laporte, “Excited-state-absorption and up-conversion studies of Nd3+-doped-single crystals Y3Al5O12, YLiF4, and Lamgal11O19,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 784-799 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (4)

S. A. Payne, G. D. Wilke, L. K. Smith, and W. F. Krupke, “Auger up-conversion losses in Nd-Doped laser glasses,” Opt. Commun. 111, 263-268 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Baesso, J. Shen, and R. D. Snook, “Mode-mismatched thermal lens determination of temperature-coefficient of optical-path length in soda lime glass at different wavelengths,” J. Appl. Phys. 75, 3732-3737 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. Xia, D. J. Hagan, M. Sheikbahae, and E. W. VanStryland, “Eclipsing Z-scan measurement of λ/104 wave-front distortion,” Opt. Lett. 19, 317-319 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. C. Oliveira and S. C. Zilio, “Single-Beam Time-Resolved Z-Scan Measurements of Slow Absorbers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 2121-2123 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

H. J. Eichler, A. Haase, R. Menzel, and A. Siemoneit, “Thermal lensing and depolarization in a highly pumped Nd-Yag laser-amplifier,” J. Phys. D 26, 1884-1891 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

Andrade, A. A.

C. Jacinto, D. N. Messias, A. A. Andrade, S. M. Lima, M. L. Baesso, and T. Catunda, “Thermal lens and Z-scan measurements: thermal and optical properties of laser glasses--A review,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352, 3582-3597 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Jacinto, S. L. Oliveira, T. Catunda, A. A. Andrade, J. D. Myers, and M. J. Myers, “Upconversion effect on fluorescence quantum efficiency and heat generation in Nd3+-doped materials,” Opt. Express 13, 2040-2046 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Andrade, E. Tenorio, T. Catunda, M. L. Baesso, A. Cassanho, and H. P. Jenssen, “Discrimination between electronic and thermal contributions to the nonlinear refractive index of SrAlF5:Cr+3,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 395-400 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Messias, A. A. Andrade, and T. Catunda are preparing a paper to be called “Determination of Auger upconversion parameter by Z-scan measurements.”

Astrath, N. G. C.

N. G. C. Astrath, J. H. Rohling, A. C. Bento, M. L. Baesso, C. Jacinto, S. M. Lima, L. A. O. Nunes, and T. Catunda, “Fluorescence quantum efficiency in Nd2O3-doped aluminosilicate glasses by multiwavelength thermal lens method,” J. Phys. IV 125, 185-187 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Baesso, M. L.

C. Jacinto, D. N. Messias, A. A. Andrade, S. M. Lima, M. L. Baesso, and T. Catunda, “Thermal lens and Z-scan measurements: thermal and optical properties of laser glasses--A review,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352, 3582-3597 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. G. C. Astrath, J. H. Rohling, A. C. Bento, M. L. Baesso, C. Jacinto, S. M. Lima, L. A. O. Nunes, and T. Catunda, “Fluorescence quantum efficiency in Nd2O3-doped aluminosilicate glasses by multiwavelength thermal lens method,” J. Phys. IV 125, 185-187 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Andrade, E. Tenorio, T. Catunda, M. L. Baesso, A. Cassanho, and H. P. Jenssen, “Discrimination between electronic and thermal contributions to the nonlinear refractive index of SrAlF5:Cr+3,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 395-400 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Baesso, J. Shen, and R. D. Snook, “Mode-mismatched thermal lens determination of temperature-coefficient of optical-path length in soda lime glass at different wavelengths,” J. Appl. Phys. 75, 3732-3737 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bausa, L. E.

Bento, A. C.

N. G. C. Astrath, J. H. Rohling, A. C. Bento, M. L. Baesso, C. Jacinto, S. M. Lima, L. A. O. Nunes, and T. Catunda, “Fluorescence quantum efficiency in Nd2O3-doped aluminosilicate glasses by multiwavelength thermal lens method,” J. Phys. IV 125, 185-187 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bon, M.

Y. Guyot, H. Manaa, J. Y. Rivoire, R. Moncorge, N. Garnier, E. Descroix, M. Bon, and P. Laporte, “Excited-state-absorption and up-conversion studies of Nd3+-doped-single crystals Y3Al5O12, YLiF4, and Lamgal11O19,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 784-799 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Byer, R. L.

J. Wisdom, M. Digonnet, and R. L. Byer, “Ceramic lasers: Ready for action,” Photonics Spectra 38(2) (2004), p. 50.

Cassanho, A.

Catunda, T.

A. Rodenas, C. Jacinto, L. R. Freitas, D. Jaque, and T. Catunda, “Nonlinear refraction and absorption through phase transition in a Nd:SBN laser crystal,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 033108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Jacinto, T. Catunda, D. Jaque, L. E. Bausa, and J. Garcia-Sole, “Thermal lens and heat generation of Nd: YAG lasers operating at 1.064 and 1.34μm,” Opt. Express 16, 6317-6323 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Jacinto, D. N. Messias, A. A. Andrade, S. M. Lima, M. L. Baesso, and T. Catunda, “Thermal lens and Z-scan measurements: thermal and optical properties of laser glasses--A review,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352, 3582-3597 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Jacinto, T. Catunda, D. Jaque, and J. G. Sole, “Fluorescence quantum efficiency and Auger upconversion losses of the stoichiometric laser crystal NdAl3(BO3)4,” Phys. Rev. B 72, 235111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Jacinto, S. L. Oliveira, T. Catunda, A. A. Andrade, J. D. Myers, and M. J. Myers, “Upconversion effect on fluorescence quantum efficiency and heat generation in Nd3+-doped materials,” Opt. Express 13, 2040-2046 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. G. C. Astrath, J. H. Rohling, A. C. Bento, M. L. Baesso, C. Jacinto, S. M. Lima, L. A. O. Nunes, and T. Catunda, “Fluorescence quantum efficiency in Nd2O3-doped aluminosilicate glasses by multiwavelength thermal lens method,” J. Phys. IV 125, 185-187 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Jacinto, T. Catunda, D. Jaque, and J. G. Sole, “Fluorescence quantum efficiency and Auger upconversion losses of the stoichiometric laser crystal NdAl3(BO3)(4),” Phys. Rev. B 72, 235111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. Pilla, T. Catunda, H. P. Jenssen, and A. Cassanho, “Fluorescence quantum efficiency measurements in the presence of Auger upconversion by the thermal lens method,” Opt. Lett. 28, 239-241 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Andrade, E. Tenorio, T. Catunda, M. L. Baesso, A. Cassanho, and H. P. Jenssen, “Discrimination between electronic and thermal contributions to the nonlinear refractive index of SrAlF5:Cr+3,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 395-400 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Messias, A. A. Andrade, and T. Catunda are preparing a paper to be called “Determination of Auger upconversion parameter by Z-scan measurements.”

Clarkson, W. A.

M. Pollnau, P. J. Hardman, M. A. Kern, W. A. Clarkson, and D. C. Hanna, “Upconversion-induced heat generation and thermal lensing in Nd: YLF and Nd: YAG,” Phys. Rev. B 58, 16076-16092 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Descamps, D.

J. L. Doualan, C. Maunier, D. Descamps, J. Landais, and R. Moncorge, “Excited-state absorption and up-conversion losses in the Nd-doped glasses for high-power lasers,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 4459-4463 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Descroix, E.

Y. Guyot, H. Manaa, J. Y. Rivoire, R. Moncorge, N. Garnier, E. Descroix, M. Bon, and P. Laporte, “Excited-state-absorption and up-conversion studies of Nd3+-doped-single crystals Y3Al5O12, YLiF4, and Lamgal11O19,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 784-799 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Digonnet, M.

J. Wisdom, M. Digonnet, and R. L. Byer, “Ceramic lasers: Ready for action,” Photonics Spectra 38(2) (2004), p. 50.

Doualan, J. L.

J. L. Doualan, C. Maunier, D. Descamps, J. Landais, and R. Moncorge, “Excited-state absorption and up-conversion losses in the Nd-doped glasses for high-power lasers,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 4459-4463 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Eichler, H. J.

H. J. Eichler, A. Haase, R. Menzel, and A. Siemoneit, “Thermal lensing and depolarization in a highly pumped Nd-Yag laser-amplifier,” J. Phys. D 26, 1884-1891 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Freitas, L. R.

A. Rodenas, C. Jacinto, L. R. Freitas, D. Jaque, and T. Catunda, “Nonlinear refraction and absorption through phase transition in a Nd:SBN laser crystal,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 033108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Garcia-Sole, J.

Garnier, N.

Y. Guyot, H. Manaa, J. Y. Rivoire, R. Moncorge, N. Garnier, E. Descroix, M. Bon, and P. Laporte, “Excited-state-absorption and up-conversion studies of Nd3+-doped-single crystals Y3Al5O12, YLiF4, and Lamgal11O19,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 784-799 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Guyot, Y.

Y. Guyot, H. Manaa, J. Y. Rivoire, R. Moncorge, N. Garnier, E. Descroix, M. Bon, and P. Laporte, “Excited-state-absorption and up-conversion studies of Nd3+-doped-single crystals Y3Al5O12, YLiF4, and Lamgal11O19,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 784-799 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Haase, A.

H. J. Eichler, A. Haase, R. Menzel, and A. Siemoneit, “Thermal lensing and depolarization in a highly pumped Nd-Yag laser-amplifier,” J. Phys. D 26, 1884-1891 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hagan, D. J.

Hanna, D. C.

M. Pollnau, P. J. Hardman, M. A. Kern, W. A. Clarkson, and D. C. Hanna, “Upconversion-induced heat generation and thermal lensing in Nd: YLF and Nd: YAG,” Phys. Rev. B 58, 16076-16092 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hardman, P. J.

M. Pollnau, P. J. Hardman, M. A. Kern, W. A. Clarkson, and D. C. Hanna, “Upconversion-induced heat generation and thermal lensing in Nd: YLF and Nd: YAG,” Phys. Rev. B 58, 16076-16092 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hassan, M. A.

F. Lahoz and M. A. Hassan, “Upconversion rate in Nd-doped Ta2O5 waveguides and influence on the cw laser performance,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 426, 135-140 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jacinto, C.

A. Rodenas, C. Jacinto, L. R. Freitas, D. Jaque, and T. Catunda, “Nonlinear refraction and absorption through phase transition in a Nd:SBN laser crystal,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 033108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Jacinto, T. Catunda, D. Jaque, L. E. Bausa, and J. Garcia-Sole, “Thermal lens and heat generation of Nd: YAG lasers operating at 1.064 and 1.34μm,” Opt. Express 16, 6317-6323 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Jacinto, D. N. Messias, A. A. Andrade, S. M. Lima, M. L. Baesso, and T. Catunda, “Thermal lens and Z-scan measurements: thermal and optical properties of laser glasses--A review,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352, 3582-3597 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Jacinto, S. L. Oliveira, T. Catunda, A. A. Andrade, J. D. Myers, and M. J. Myers, “Upconversion effect on fluorescence quantum efficiency and heat generation in Nd3+-doped materials,” Opt. Express 13, 2040-2046 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Jacinto, T. Catunda, D. Jaque, and J. G. Sole, “Fluorescence quantum efficiency and Auger upconversion losses of the stoichiometric laser crystal NdAl3(BO3)4,” Phys. Rev. B 72, 235111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Jacinto, T. Catunda, D. Jaque, and J. G. Sole, “Fluorescence quantum efficiency and Auger upconversion losses of the stoichiometric laser crystal NdAl3(BO3)(4),” Phys. Rev. B 72, 235111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. G. C. Astrath, J. H. Rohling, A. C. Bento, M. L. Baesso, C. Jacinto, S. M. Lima, L. A. O. Nunes, and T. Catunda, “Fluorescence quantum efficiency in Nd2O3-doped aluminosilicate glasses by multiwavelength thermal lens method,” J. Phys. IV 125, 185-187 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jaque, D.

A. Rodenas, C. Jacinto, L. R. Freitas, D. Jaque, and T. Catunda, “Nonlinear refraction and absorption through phase transition in a Nd:SBN laser crystal,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 033108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Jacinto, T. Catunda, D. Jaque, L. E. Bausa, and J. Garcia-Sole, “Thermal lens and heat generation of Nd: YAG lasers operating at 1.064 and 1.34μm,” Opt. Express 16, 6317-6323 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Jacinto, T. Catunda, D. Jaque, and J. G. Sole, “Fluorescence quantum efficiency and Auger upconversion losses of the stoichiometric laser crystal NdAl3(BO3)4,” Phys. Rev. B 72, 235111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Jacinto, T. Catunda, D. Jaque, and J. G. Sole, “Fluorescence quantum efficiency and Auger upconversion losses of the stoichiometric laser crystal NdAl3(BO3)(4),” Phys. Rev. B 72, 235111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jenssen, H. P.

Kern, M. A.

M. Pollnau, P. J. Hardman, M. A. Kern, W. A. Clarkson, and D. C. Hanna, “Upconversion-induced heat generation and thermal lensing in Nd: YLF and Nd: YAG,” Phys. Rev. B 58, 16076-16092 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Krupke, W. F.

S. A. Payne, G. D. Wilke, L. K. Smith, and W. F. Krupke, “Auger up-conversion losses in Nd-Doped laser glasses,” Opt. Commun. 111, 263-268 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lahoz, F.

F. Lahoz and M. A. Hassan, “Upconversion rate in Nd-doped Ta2O5 waveguides and influence on the cw laser performance,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 426, 135-140 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Landais, J.

J. L. Doualan, C. Maunier, D. Descamps, J. Landais, and R. Moncorge, “Excited-state absorption and up-conversion losses in the Nd-doped glasses for high-power lasers,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 4459-4463 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Laporte, P.

Y. Guyot, H. Manaa, J. Y. Rivoire, R. Moncorge, N. Garnier, E. Descroix, M. Bon, and P. Laporte, “Excited-state-absorption and up-conversion studies of Nd3+-doped-single crystals Y3Al5O12, YLiF4, and Lamgal11O19,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 784-799 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lima, S. M.

C. Jacinto, D. N. Messias, A. A. Andrade, S. M. Lima, M. L. Baesso, and T. Catunda, “Thermal lens and Z-scan measurements: thermal and optical properties of laser glasses--A review,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352, 3582-3597 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. G. C. Astrath, J. H. Rohling, A. C. Bento, M. L. Baesso, C. Jacinto, S. M. Lima, L. A. O. Nunes, and T. Catunda, “Fluorescence quantum efficiency in Nd2O3-doped aluminosilicate glasses by multiwavelength thermal lens method,” J. Phys. IV 125, 185-187 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Manaa, H.

Y. Guyot, H. Manaa, J. Y. Rivoire, R. Moncorge, N. Garnier, E. Descroix, M. Bon, and P. Laporte, “Excited-state-absorption and up-conversion studies of Nd3+-doped-single crystals Y3Al5O12, YLiF4, and Lamgal11O19,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 784-799 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Maunier, C.

J. L. Doualan, C. Maunier, D. Descamps, J. Landais, and R. Moncorge, “Excited-state absorption and up-conversion losses in the Nd-doped glasses for high-power lasers,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 4459-4463 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Menzel, R.

H. J. Eichler, A. Haase, R. Menzel, and A. Siemoneit, “Thermal lensing and depolarization in a highly pumped Nd-Yag laser-amplifier,” J. Phys. D 26, 1884-1891 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Messias, D. N.

C. Jacinto, D. N. Messias, A. A. Andrade, S. M. Lima, M. L. Baesso, and T. Catunda, “Thermal lens and Z-scan measurements: thermal and optical properties of laser glasses--A review,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352, 3582-3597 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Messias, A. A. Andrade, and T. Catunda are preparing a paper to be called “Determination of Auger upconversion parameter by Z-scan measurements.”

Moncorge, R.

J. L. Doualan, C. Maunier, D. Descamps, J. Landais, and R. Moncorge, “Excited-state absorption and up-conversion losses in the Nd-doped glasses for high-power lasers,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 4459-4463 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. Guyot, H. Manaa, J. Y. Rivoire, R. Moncorge, N. Garnier, E. Descroix, M. Bon, and P. Laporte, “Excited-state-absorption and up-conversion studies of Nd3+-doped-single crystals Y3Al5O12, YLiF4, and Lamgal11O19,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 784-799 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Myers, J. D.

Myers, M. J.

Nunes, L. A. O.

N. G. C. Astrath, J. H. Rohling, A. C. Bento, M. L. Baesso, C. Jacinto, S. M. Lima, L. A. O. Nunes, and T. Catunda, “Fluorescence quantum efficiency in Nd2O3-doped aluminosilicate glasses by multiwavelength thermal lens method,” J. Phys. IV 125, 185-187 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Oliveira, L. C.

L. C. Oliveira and S. C. Zilio, “Single-Beam Time-Resolved Z-Scan Measurements of Slow Absorbers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 2121-2123 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Oliveira, S. L.

Payne, S. A.

S. A. Payne, G. D. Wilke, L. K. Smith, and W. F. Krupke, “Auger up-conversion losses in Nd-Doped laser glasses,” Opt. Commun. 111, 263-268 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Pilla, V.

Pollnau, M.

M. Pollnau, P. J. Hardman, M. A. Kern, W. A. Clarkson, and D. C. Hanna, “Upconversion-induced heat generation and thermal lensing in Nd: YLF and Nd: YAG,” Phys. Rev. B 58, 16076-16092 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rivoire, J. Y.

Y. Guyot, H. Manaa, J. Y. Rivoire, R. Moncorge, N. Garnier, E. Descroix, M. Bon, and P. Laporte, “Excited-state-absorption and up-conversion studies of Nd3+-doped-single crystals Y3Al5O12, YLiF4, and Lamgal11O19,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 784-799 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Rodenas, A.

A. Rodenas, C. Jacinto, L. R. Freitas, D. Jaque, and T. Catunda, “Nonlinear refraction and absorption through phase transition in a Nd:SBN laser crystal,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 033108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rohling, J. H.

N. G. C. Astrath, J. H. Rohling, A. C. Bento, M. L. Baesso, C. Jacinto, S. M. Lima, L. A. O. Nunes, and T. Catunda, “Fluorescence quantum efficiency in Nd2O3-doped aluminosilicate glasses by multiwavelength thermal lens method,” J. Phys. IV 125, 185-187 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Said, A. A.

Sheikbahae, M.

Sheik-Bahae, M.

Shen, J.

M. L. Baesso, J. Shen, and R. D. Snook, “Mode-mismatched thermal lens determination of temperature-coefficient of optical-path length in soda lime glass at different wavelengths,” J. Appl. Phys. 75, 3732-3737 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Siemoneit, A.

H. J. Eichler, A. Haase, R. Menzel, and A. Siemoneit, “Thermal lensing and depolarization in a highly pumped Nd-Yag laser-amplifier,” J. Phys. D 26, 1884-1891 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Smith, L. K.

S. A. Payne, G. D. Wilke, L. K. Smith, and W. F. Krupke, “Auger up-conversion losses in Nd-Doped laser glasses,” Opt. Commun. 111, 263-268 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Snook, R. D.

M. L. Baesso, J. Shen, and R. D. Snook, “Mode-mismatched thermal lens determination of temperature-coefficient of optical-path length in soda lime glass at different wavelengths,” J. Appl. Phys. 75, 3732-3737 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sole, J. G.

C. Jacinto, T. Catunda, D. Jaque, and J. G. Sole, “Fluorescence quantum efficiency and Auger upconversion losses of the stoichiometric laser crystal NdAl3(BO3)4,” Phys. Rev. B 72, 235111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Jacinto, T. Catunda, D. Jaque, and J. G. Sole, “Fluorescence quantum efficiency and Auger upconversion losses of the stoichiometric laser crystal NdAl3(BO3)(4),” Phys. Rev. B 72, 235111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Stryland, E. W. V.

Tenorio, E.

VanStryland, E. W.

Wilke, G. D.

S. A. Payne, G. D. Wilke, L. K. Smith, and W. F. Krupke, “Auger up-conversion losses in Nd-Doped laser glasses,” Opt. Commun. 111, 263-268 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wisdom, J.

J. Wisdom, M. Digonnet, and R. L. Byer, “Ceramic lasers: Ready for action,” Photonics Spectra 38(2) (2004), p. 50.

Xia, T.

Zilio, S. C.

L. C. Oliveira and S. C. Zilio, “Single-Beam Time-Resolved Z-Scan Measurements of Slow Absorbers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 2121-2123 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

L. C. Oliveira and S. C. Zilio, “Single-Beam Time-Resolved Z-Scan Measurements of Slow Absorbers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 2121-2123 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

F. Lahoz and M. A. Hassan, “Upconversion rate in Nd-doped Ta2O5 waveguides and influence on the cw laser performance,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 426, 135-140 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. L. Baesso, J. Shen, and R. D. Snook, “Mode-mismatched thermal lens determination of temperature-coefficient of optical-path length in soda lime glass at different wavelengths,” J. Appl. Phys. 75, 3732-3737 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (1)

C. Jacinto, D. N. Messias, A. A. Andrade, S. M. Lima, M. L. Baesso, and T. Catunda, “Thermal lens and Z-scan measurements: thermal and optical properties of laser glasses--A review,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352, 3582-3597 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. D (1)

H. J. Eichler, A. Haase, R. Menzel, and A. Siemoneit, “Thermal lensing and depolarization in a highly pumped Nd-Yag laser-amplifier,” J. Phys. D 26, 1884-1891 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. IV (1)

N. G. C. Astrath, J. H. Rohling, A. C. Bento, M. L. Baesso, C. Jacinto, S. M. Lima, L. A. O. Nunes, and T. Catunda, “Fluorescence quantum efficiency in Nd2O3-doped aluminosilicate glasses by multiwavelength thermal lens method,” J. Phys. IV 125, 185-187 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

S. A. Payne, G. D. Wilke, L. K. Smith, and W. F. Krupke, “Auger up-conversion losses in Nd-Doped laser glasses,” Opt. Commun. 111, 263-268 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. B (6)

A. Rodenas, C. Jacinto, L. R. Freitas, D. Jaque, and T. Catunda, “Nonlinear refraction and absorption through phase transition in a Nd:SBN laser crystal,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 033108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Jacinto, T. Catunda, D. Jaque, and J. G. Sole, “Fluorescence quantum efficiency and Auger upconversion losses of the stoichiometric laser crystal NdAl3(BO3)4,” Phys. Rev. B 72, 235111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Doualan, C. Maunier, D. Descamps, J. Landais, and R. Moncorge, “Excited-state absorption and up-conversion losses in the Nd-doped glasses for high-power lasers,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 4459-4463 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Pollnau, P. J. Hardman, M. A. Kern, W. A. Clarkson, and D. C. Hanna, “Upconversion-induced heat generation and thermal lensing in Nd: YLF and Nd: YAG,” Phys. Rev. B 58, 16076-16092 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. Guyot, H. Manaa, J. Y. Rivoire, R. Moncorge, N. Garnier, E. Descroix, M. Bon, and P. Laporte, “Excited-state-absorption and up-conversion studies of Nd3+-doped-single crystals Y3Al5O12, YLiF4, and Lamgal11O19,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 784-799 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. Jacinto, T. Catunda, D. Jaque, and J. G. Sole, “Fluorescence quantum efficiency and Auger upconversion losses of the stoichiometric laser crystal NdAl3(BO3)(4),” Phys. Rev. B 72, 235111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

D. N. Messias, A. A. Andrade, and T. Catunda are preparing a paper to be called “Determination of Auger upconversion parameter by Z-scan measurements.”

J. Wisdom, M. Digonnet, and R. L. Byer, “Ceramic lasers: Ready for action,” Photonics Spectra 38(2) (2004), p. 50.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

TL signal amplitude ( θ ) as a function of the saturation parameter (S). The nonlinear behavior indicates extra heating. The dashed curve is only a guide showing the nonlinearity.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

TL normalized signal Θ versus S at λ ex = 801.6 nm . For the 1.1 × 10 20   ions cm 3 , the fit gave us β = 1.54 .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Z-scan open-aperture transmittance variation Δ T versus S. For the 1.1 × 10 20   ions cm 3 , we found β = 1.60 . The dashed curve represents the case β = 0 for comparison.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Normalized fluorescence quantum efficiency η η 0 and thermal loading ϕ as a function of the saturation parameter S.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Parameters Used in the TL and Z-Scan Fit

Tables Icon

Table 2 Upconversion Parameters Found for Studied Samples

Equations (7)

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d N e d t = R p N g N e τ γ N e 2 ,
N e = N t ( 1 + S ) 2 + 4 β S ( 1 + S ) 2 β ,
θ = P abs K λ p ϕ d s d T ,
ϕ = 1 η λ ex λ em 1 ,
η = η o 1 + β n e ,
Θ = θ P abs = C [ 1 ( η o 1 + β n e ) λ exc λ em 1 ] ,
Δ T = Δ σ L N e .

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