Abstract

We experimentally demonstrate mode-selective excitation of laser-written dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides. The waveguide structures are fabricated by two-photon polymerization of spin-coatable epoxy-based resist on a metal covered glass slide. The waveguides are excited by illuminating the waveguide ends with a strongly focused Gaussian laser beam with a wavelength of 632.8 nm and adjustable polarization. The guiding properties are investigated in the far field by imaging the leakage radiation of the waveguide modes from the metal–substrate interface. It is observed that different TE and TM waveguide modes can be selectively excited with high precision. Simultaneous excitation of the plasmonic TM00 and TM01 modes leads to mode beating and oscillation of the guided intensity between the two sides of the waveguides. In Y-splitters, this simultaneous excitation of the first two TM modes can be used to control the splitting ratio at the exit ports of the splitter.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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2009 (4)

B. Wang, L. Aigouy, E. Bourhis, J. Gierak, J. P. Hugonin, and P. Lalanne, “Efficient generation of surface plasmon by single-nanoslit illumination under highly oblique incidence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 011114 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. B. Evlyukhin, C. Reinhardt, E. Evlyukhina, and B. N. Chichkov, “Asymmetric and symmetric local surface-plasmonpolariton excitation on chains of nanoparticles,” Opt. Lett. 34, 2237-2239 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Verhagen, M. Spasenovic', A. Polman, and L. Kuipers, “Nanowire plasmon excitation by adiabatic mode transformation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 203904 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Holmgaard, Z. Chen, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. V. Krasavin, and A. V. Zayats, “Wavelength selection by dielectric-loaded plasmonic components,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 051111 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (7)

E. Verhagen, J. A. Dionne, L. Kuipers, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Near-field visualization of strongly confined surface plasmon polaritons in metal-insulator-metal waveguides,” Nano Lett. 8, 2925-2929 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi and J. Jung, “Scaling for gap plasmon based waveguides,” Opt. Express 16, 2676-2684 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. W. Ebbesen, C. Genet, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Surface-plasmon circuitry,” Phys. Today 5, 44-50 (2008).
[Crossref]

I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, G. Brucoli, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, and A. Boltasseva, “Efficient unidirectional ridge excitation of surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 115115 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. Liu, P. Lalanne, X. Yang, and J. P. Hugonin, “Surface plasmon generation by subwavelength isolated objects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 1522-1529 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Grandidier, S. Massenot, G. Colas des Francs, A. Bouhelier, J.-C. Weeber, L. Markey, A. Dereux, J. Renger, M. U. González, and R. Quidant, “Dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides: figures of merit and mode characterization by image and Fourier plane leakage microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 245419 (2008).
[Crossref]

T. Holmgaard, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. V. Krasavin, P. Bolger, and A. V. Zayats, “Efficient excitation of dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguide modes at telecommunication wavelengths,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 165431 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (5)

S. Massenot, J. Grandidier, A. Bouhelier, G. Colas des Francs, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, A. Dereux, J. Renger, M. U. Gonzàlez, and R. Quidant, “Polymer-metal waveguides characterization by Fourier plane leakage radiation microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 243102 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. Lal, S. Link, and N. J. Halas, “Nano-optics from sensing to waveguiding,” Nat. Photonics 1, 641-648 (2007).
[Crossref]

P. Berini, R. Charbonneau, and N. Lahoud, “Long-range surface plasmons on ultrathin membranes,” Nano Lett. 7, 1376-1380 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. B. Evlyukhin, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, A. L. Stepanov, R. Kiyan, C. Reinhardt, S. Passinger, and B. N. Chichkov, “Focusing and directing of surface plasmon polaritons by curved chains of nanoparticles,” Opt. Express 15, 16667-16680 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Kiyan, C. Reinhardt, S. Passinger, A. L. Stepanov, A. Hohenau, J. R. Krenn, and B. N. Chichkov, “Rapid prototyping of optical components for surface plasmon polaritons,” Opt. Express 15, 4205-4215 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

B. Steinberger, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, A. L. Stepanov, A. Drezet, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, “Dielectric stripes on gold as surface plasmon waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 094104 (2006).
[Crossref]

C. Reinhardt, S. Passinger, B. N. Chichkov, C. Marquart, I. P. Radko, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Laser-fabricated dielectric optical components for surface plasmon polaritons,” Opt. Lett. 31, 1307-1309 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J.-Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440, 508-511 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

A. V. Zayats, I. I. Smolyaninov, and A. A. Maradudin, “Nano-optics of surface plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rep. 408, 131314 (2005).
[Crossref]

1972 (1)

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370-4379 (1972).
[Crossref]

Aigouy, L.

B. Wang, L. Aigouy, E. Bourhis, J. Gierak, J. P. Hugonin, and P. Lalanne, “Efficient generation of surface plasmon by single-nanoslit illumination under highly oblique incidence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 011114 (2009).
[Crossref]

Atwater, H. A.

E. Verhagen, J. A. Dionne, L. Kuipers, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Near-field visualization of strongly confined surface plasmon polaritons in metal-insulator-metal waveguides,” Nano Lett. 8, 2925-2929 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aussenegg, F. R.

B. Steinberger, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, A. L. Stepanov, A. Drezet, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, “Dielectric stripes on gold as surface plasmon waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 094104 (2006).
[Crossref]

Berini, P.

P. Berini, R. Charbonneau, and N. Lahoud, “Long-range surface plasmons on ultrathin membranes,” Nano Lett. 7, 1376-1380 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bolger, P.

T. Holmgaard, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. V. Krasavin, P. Bolger, and A. V. Zayats, “Efficient excitation of dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguide modes at telecommunication wavelengths,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 165431 (2008).
[Crossref]

Boltasseva, A.

I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, G. Brucoli, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, and A. Boltasseva, “Efficient unidirectional ridge excitation of surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 115115 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bouhelier, A.

J. Grandidier, S. Massenot, G. Colas des Francs, A. Bouhelier, J.-C. Weeber, L. Markey, A. Dereux, J. Renger, M. U. González, and R. Quidant, “Dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides: figures of merit and mode characterization by image and Fourier plane leakage microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 245419 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. Massenot, J. Grandidier, A. Bouhelier, G. Colas des Francs, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, A. Dereux, J. Renger, M. U. Gonzàlez, and R. Quidant, “Polymer-metal waveguides characterization by Fourier plane leakage radiation microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 243102 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bourhis, E.

B. Wang, L. Aigouy, E. Bourhis, J. Gierak, J. P. Hugonin, and P. Lalanne, “Efficient generation of surface plasmon by single-nanoslit illumination under highly oblique incidence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 011114 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

T. Holmgaard, Z. Chen, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. V. Krasavin, and A. V. Zayats, “Wavelength selection by dielectric-loaded plasmonic components,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 051111 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi and J. Jung, “Scaling for gap plasmon based waveguides,” Opt. Express 16, 2676-2684 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. W. Ebbesen, C. Genet, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Surface-plasmon circuitry,” Phys. Today 5, 44-50 (2008).
[Crossref]

I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, G. Brucoli, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, and A. Boltasseva, “Efficient unidirectional ridge excitation of surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 115115 (2008).
[Crossref]

T. Holmgaard, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. V. Krasavin, P. Bolger, and A. V. Zayats, “Efficient excitation of dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguide modes at telecommunication wavelengths,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 165431 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. B. Evlyukhin, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, A. L. Stepanov, R. Kiyan, C. Reinhardt, S. Passinger, and B. N. Chichkov, “Focusing and directing of surface plasmon polaritons by curved chains of nanoparticles,” Opt. Express 15, 16667-16680 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Reinhardt, S. Passinger, B. N. Chichkov, C. Marquart, I. P. Radko, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Laser-fabricated dielectric optical components for surface plasmon polaritons,” Opt. Lett. 31, 1307-1309 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J.-Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440, 508-511 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brucoli, G.

I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, G. Brucoli, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, and A. Boltasseva, “Efficient unidirectional ridge excitation of surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 115115 (2008).
[Crossref]

Charbonneau, R.

P. Berini, R. Charbonneau, and N. Lahoud, “Long-range surface plasmons on ultrathin membranes,” Nano Lett. 7, 1376-1380 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Z.

T. Holmgaard, Z. Chen, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. V. Krasavin, and A. V. Zayats, “Wavelength selection by dielectric-loaded plasmonic components,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 051111 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chichkov, B. N.

Christy, R. W.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370-4379 (1972).
[Crossref]

Colas des Francs, G.

J. Grandidier, S. Massenot, G. Colas des Francs, A. Bouhelier, J.-C. Weeber, L. Markey, A. Dereux, J. Renger, M. U. González, and R. Quidant, “Dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides: figures of merit and mode characterization by image and Fourier plane leakage microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 245419 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. Massenot, J. Grandidier, A. Bouhelier, G. Colas des Francs, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, A. Dereux, J. Renger, M. U. Gonzàlez, and R. Quidant, “Polymer-metal waveguides characterization by Fourier plane leakage radiation microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 243102 (2007).
[Crossref]

Dereux, A.

T. Holmgaard, Z. Chen, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. V. Krasavin, and A. V. Zayats, “Wavelength selection by dielectric-loaded plasmonic components,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 051111 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Grandidier, S. Massenot, G. Colas des Francs, A. Bouhelier, J.-C. Weeber, L. Markey, A. Dereux, J. Renger, M. U. González, and R. Quidant, “Dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides: figures of merit and mode characterization by image and Fourier plane leakage microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 245419 (2008).
[Crossref]

T. Holmgaard, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. V. Krasavin, P. Bolger, and A. V. Zayats, “Efficient excitation of dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguide modes at telecommunication wavelengths,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 165431 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. Massenot, J. Grandidier, A. Bouhelier, G. Colas des Francs, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, A. Dereux, J. Renger, M. U. Gonzàlez, and R. Quidant, “Polymer-metal waveguides characterization by Fourier plane leakage radiation microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 243102 (2007).
[Crossref]

Devaux, E.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J.-Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440, 508-511 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dionne, J. A.

E. Verhagen, J. A. Dionne, L. Kuipers, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Near-field visualization of strongly confined surface plasmon polaritons in metal-insulator-metal waveguides,” Nano Lett. 8, 2925-2929 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ditlbacher, H.

B. Steinberger, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, A. L. Stepanov, A. Drezet, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, “Dielectric stripes on gold as surface plasmon waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 094104 (2006).
[Crossref]

Drezet, A.

B. Steinberger, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, A. L. Stepanov, A. Drezet, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, “Dielectric stripes on gold as surface plasmon waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 094104 (2006).
[Crossref]

Ebbesen, T. W.

T. W. Ebbesen, C. Genet, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Surface-plasmon circuitry,” Phys. Today 5, 44-50 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J.-Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440, 508-511 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Evlyukhin, A. B.

Evlyukhina, E.

García-Vidal, F. J.

I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, G. Brucoli, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, and A. Boltasseva, “Efficient unidirectional ridge excitation of surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 115115 (2008).
[Crossref]

Genet, C.

T. W. Ebbesen, C. Genet, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Surface-plasmon circuitry,” Phys. Today 5, 44-50 (2008).
[Crossref]

Gierak, J.

B. Wang, L. Aigouy, E. Bourhis, J. Gierak, J. P. Hugonin, and P. Lalanne, “Efficient generation of surface plasmon by single-nanoslit illumination under highly oblique incidence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 011114 (2009).
[Crossref]

González, M. U.

J. Grandidier, S. Massenot, G. Colas des Francs, A. Bouhelier, J.-C. Weeber, L. Markey, A. Dereux, J. Renger, M. U. González, and R. Quidant, “Dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides: figures of merit and mode characterization by image and Fourier plane leakage microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 245419 (2008).
[Crossref]

Gonzàlez, M. U.

S. Massenot, J. Grandidier, A. Bouhelier, G. Colas des Francs, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, A. Dereux, J. Renger, M. U. Gonzàlez, and R. Quidant, “Polymer-metal waveguides characterization by Fourier plane leakage radiation microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 243102 (2007).
[Crossref]

Grandidier, J.

J. Grandidier, S. Massenot, G. Colas des Francs, A. Bouhelier, J.-C. Weeber, L. Markey, A. Dereux, J. Renger, M. U. González, and R. Quidant, “Dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides: figures of merit and mode characterization by image and Fourier plane leakage microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 245419 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. Massenot, J. Grandidier, A. Bouhelier, G. Colas des Francs, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, A. Dereux, J. Renger, M. U. Gonzàlez, and R. Quidant, “Polymer-metal waveguides characterization by Fourier plane leakage radiation microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 243102 (2007).
[Crossref]

Halas, N. J.

S. Lal, S. Link, and N. J. Halas, “Nano-optics from sensing to waveguiding,” Nat. Photonics 1, 641-648 (2007).
[Crossref]

Hohenau, A.

R. Kiyan, C. Reinhardt, S. Passinger, A. L. Stepanov, A. Hohenau, J. R. Krenn, and B. N. Chichkov, “Rapid prototyping of optical components for surface plasmon polaritons,” Opt. Express 15, 4205-4215 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Steinberger, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, A. L. Stepanov, A. Drezet, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, “Dielectric stripes on gold as surface plasmon waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 094104 (2006).
[Crossref]

Holmgaard, T.

T. Holmgaard, Z. Chen, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. V. Krasavin, and A. V. Zayats, “Wavelength selection by dielectric-loaded plasmonic components,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 051111 (2009).
[Crossref]

T. Holmgaard, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. V. Krasavin, P. Bolger, and A. V. Zayats, “Efficient excitation of dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguide modes at telecommunication wavelengths,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 165431 (2008).
[Crossref]

Hugonin, J. P.

B. Wang, L. Aigouy, E. Bourhis, J. Gierak, J. P. Hugonin, and P. Lalanne, “Efficient generation of surface plasmon by single-nanoslit illumination under highly oblique incidence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 011114 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Liu, P. Lalanne, X. Yang, and J. P. Hugonin, “Surface plasmon generation by subwavelength isolated objects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 1522-1529 (2008).
[Crossref]

Johnson, P. B.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370-4379 (1972).
[Crossref]

Jung, J.

Kiyan, R.

Krasavin, A. V.

T. Holmgaard, Z. Chen, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. V. Krasavin, and A. V. Zayats, “Wavelength selection by dielectric-loaded plasmonic components,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 051111 (2009).
[Crossref]

T. Holmgaard, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. V. Krasavin, P. Bolger, and A. V. Zayats, “Efficient excitation of dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguide modes at telecommunication wavelengths,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 165431 (2008).
[Crossref]

Krenn, J. R.

R. Kiyan, C. Reinhardt, S. Passinger, A. L. Stepanov, A. Hohenau, J. R. Krenn, and B. N. Chichkov, “Rapid prototyping of optical components for surface plasmon polaritons,” Opt. Express 15, 4205-4215 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Steinberger, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, A. L. Stepanov, A. Drezet, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, “Dielectric stripes on gold as surface plasmon waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 094104 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kuipers, L.

E. Verhagen, M. Spasenovic', A. Polman, and L. Kuipers, “Nanowire plasmon excitation by adiabatic mode transformation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 203904 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Verhagen, J. A. Dionne, L. Kuipers, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Near-field visualization of strongly confined surface plasmon polaritons in metal-insulator-metal waveguides,” Nano Lett. 8, 2925-2929 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lahoud, N.

P. Berini, R. Charbonneau, and N. Lahoud, “Long-range surface plasmons on ultrathin membranes,” Nano Lett. 7, 1376-1380 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lal, S.

S. Lal, S. Link, and N. J. Halas, “Nano-optics from sensing to waveguiding,” Nat. Photonics 1, 641-648 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lalanne, P.

B. Wang, L. Aigouy, E. Bourhis, J. Gierak, J. P. Hugonin, and P. Lalanne, “Efficient generation of surface plasmon by single-nanoslit illumination under highly oblique incidence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 011114 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Liu, P. Lalanne, X. Yang, and J. P. Hugonin, “Surface plasmon generation by subwavelength isolated objects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 1522-1529 (2008).
[Crossref]

Laluet, J.-Y.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J.-Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440, 508-511 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leitner, A.

B. Steinberger, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, A. L. Stepanov, A. Drezet, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, “Dielectric stripes on gold as surface plasmon waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 094104 (2006).
[Crossref]

Link, S.

S. Lal, S. Link, and N. J. Halas, “Nano-optics from sensing to waveguiding,” Nat. Photonics 1, 641-648 (2007).
[Crossref]

Liu, H.

H. Liu, P. Lalanne, X. Yang, and J. P. Hugonin, “Surface plasmon generation by subwavelength isolated objects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 1522-1529 (2008).
[Crossref]

Maier, S. A.

S. A. Maier, Plasmonics--Fundamentals and Applications (Springer, 2007).

Maradudin, A. A.

A. V. Zayats, I. I. Smolyaninov, and A. A. Maradudin, “Nano-optics of surface plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rep. 408, 131314 (2005).
[Crossref]

Marcuse, D.

D. Marcuse, Theory of Dielectric Optical Waveguides (Academic Press, 1991).

Markey, L.

T. Holmgaard, Z. Chen, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. V. Krasavin, and A. V. Zayats, “Wavelength selection by dielectric-loaded plasmonic components,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 051111 (2009).
[Crossref]

T. Holmgaard, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. V. Krasavin, P. Bolger, and A. V. Zayats, “Efficient excitation of dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguide modes at telecommunication wavelengths,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 165431 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Grandidier, S. Massenot, G. Colas des Francs, A. Bouhelier, J.-C. Weeber, L. Markey, A. Dereux, J. Renger, M. U. González, and R. Quidant, “Dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides: figures of merit and mode characterization by image and Fourier plane leakage microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 245419 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. Massenot, J. Grandidier, A. Bouhelier, G. Colas des Francs, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, A. Dereux, J. Renger, M. U. Gonzàlez, and R. Quidant, “Polymer-metal waveguides characterization by Fourier plane leakage radiation microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 243102 (2007).
[Crossref]

Marquart, C.

Martín-Moreno, L.

I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, G. Brucoli, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, and A. Boltasseva, “Efficient unidirectional ridge excitation of surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 115115 (2008).
[Crossref]

Massenot, S.

J. Grandidier, S. Massenot, G. Colas des Francs, A. Bouhelier, J.-C. Weeber, L. Markey, A. Dereux, J. Renger, M. U. González, and R. Quidant, “Dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides: figures of merit and mode characterization by image and Fourier plane leakage microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 245419 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. Massenot, J. Grandidier, A. Bouhelier, G. Colas des Francs, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, A. Dereux, J. Renger, M. U. Gonzàlez, and R. Quidant, “Polymer-metal waveguides characterization by Fourier plane leakage radiation microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 243102 (2007).
[Crossref]

Passinger, S.

Polman, A.

E. Verhagen, M. Spasenovic', A. Polman, and L. Kuipers, “Nanowire plasmon excitation by adiabatic mode transformation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 203904 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Verhagen, J. A. Dionne, L. Kuipers, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Near-field visualization of strongly confined surface plasmon polaritons in metal-insulator-metal waveguides,” Nano Lett. 8, 2925-2929 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Quidant, R.

J. Grandidier, S. Massenot, G. Colas des Francs, A. Bouhelier, J.-C. Weeber, L. Markey, A. Dereux, J. Renger, M. U. González, and R. Quidant, “Dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides: figures of merit and mode characterization by image and Fourier plane leakage microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 245419 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. Massenot, J. Grandidier, A. Bouhelier, G. Colas des Francs, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, A. Dereux, J. Renger, M. U. Gonzàlez, and R. Quidant, “Polymer-metal waveguides characterization by Fourier plane leakage radiation microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 243102 (2007).
[Crossref]

Radko, I. P.

I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, G. Brucoli, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, and A. Boltasseva, “Efficient unidirectional ridge excitation of surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 115115 (2008).
[Crossref]

C. Reinhardt, S. Passinger, B. N. Chichkov, C. Marquart, I. P. Radko, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Laser-fabricated dielectric optical components for surface plasmon polaritons,” Opt. Lett. 31, 1307-1309 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Raether, H.

H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth aand Rough Surfaces and on Gratings, in Tracts in Modern Physics 111 (Springer, 1988).

Reinhardt, C.

Renger, J.

J. Grandidier, S. Massenot, G. Colas des Francs, A. Bouhelier, J.-C. Weeber, L. Markey, A. Dereux, J. Renger, M. U. González, and R. Quidant, “Dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides: figures of merit and mode characterization by image and Fourier plane leakage microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 245419 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. Massenot, J. Grandidier, A. Bouhelier, G. Colas des Francs, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, A. Dereux, J. Renger, M. U. Gonzàlez, and R. Quidant, “Polymer-metal waveguides characterization by Fourier plane leakage radiation microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 243102 (2007).
[Crossref]

Smolyaninov, I. I.

A. V. Zayats, I. I. Smolyaninov, and A. A. Maradudin, “Nano-optics of surface plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rep. 408, 131314 (2005).
[Crossref]

Spasenovic', M.

E. Verhagen, M. Spasenovic', A. Polman, and L. Kuipers, “Nanowire plasmon excitation by adiabatic mode transformation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 203904 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Steinberger, B.

B. Steinberger, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, A. L. Stepanov, A. Drezet, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, “Dielectric stripes on gold as surface plasmon waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 094104 (2006).
[Crossref]

Stepanov, A. L.

Verhagen, E.

E. Verhagen, M. Spasenovic', A. Polman, and L. Kuipers, “Nanowire plasmon excitation by adiabatic mode transformation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 203904 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Verhagen, J. A. Dionne, L. Kuipers, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Near-field visualization of strongly confined surface plasmon polaritons in metal-insulator-metal waveguides,” Nano Lett. 8, 2925-2929 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Volkov, V. S.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J.-Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440, 508-511 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, B.

B. Wang, L. Aigouy, E. Bourhis, J. Gierak, J. P. Hugonin, and P. Lalanne, “Efficient generation of surface plasmon by single-nanoslit illumination under highly oblique incidence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 011114 (2009).
[Crossref]

Weeber, J.-C.

J. Grandidier, S. Massenot, G. Colas des Francs, A. Bouhelier, J.-C. Weeber, L. Markey, A. Dereux, J. Renger, M. U. González, and R. Quidant, “Dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides: figures of merit and mode characterization by image and Fourier plane leakage microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 245419 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. Massenot, J. Grandidier, A. Bouhelier, G. Colas des Francs, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, A. Dereux, J. Renger, M. U. Gonzàlez, and R. Quidant, “Polymer-metal waveguides characterization by Fourier plane leakage radiation microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 243102 (2007).
[Crossref]

Yang, X.

H. Liu, P. Lalanne, X. Yang, and J. P. Hugonin, “Surface plasmon generation by subwavelength isolated objects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 1522-1529 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zayats, A. V.

T. Holmgaard, Z. Chen, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. V. Krasavin, and A. V. Zayats, “Wavelength selection by dielectric-loaded plasmonic components,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 051111 (2009).
[Crossref]

T. Holmgaard, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. V. Krasavin, P. Bolger, and A. V. Zayats, “Efficient excitation of dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguide modes at telecommunication wavelengths,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 165431 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. V. Zayats, I. I. Smolyaninov, and A. A. Maradudin, “Nano-optics of surface plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rep. 408, 131314 (2005).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

B. Wang, L. Aigouy, E. Bourhis, J. Gierak, J. P. Hugonin, and P. Lalanne, “Efficient generation of surface plasmon by single-nanoslit illumination under highly oblique incidence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 011114 (2009).
[Crossref]

B. Steinberger, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, A. L. Stepanov, A. Drezet, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, “Dielectric stripes on gold as surface plasmon waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 094104 (2006).
[Crossref]

T. Holmgaard, Z. Chen, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. V. Krasavin, and A. V. Zayats, “Wavelength selection by dielectric-loaded plasmonic components,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 051111 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. Massenot, J. Grandidier, A. Bouhelier, G. Colas des Francs, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, A. Dereux, J. Renger, M. U. Gonzàlez, and R. Quidant, “Polymer-metal waveguides characterization by Fourier plane leakage radiation microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 243102 (2007).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

H. Liu, P. Lalanne, X. Yang, and J. P. Hugonin, “Surface plasmon generation by subwavelength isolated objects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 1522-1529 (2008).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (2)

E. Verhagen, J. A. Dionne, L. Kuipers, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Near-field visualization of strongly confined surface plasmon polaritons in metal-insulator-metal waveguides,” Nano Lett. 8, 2925-2929 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Berini, R. Charbonneau, and N. Lahoud, “Long-range surface plasmons on ultrathin membranes,” Nano Lett. 7, 1376-1380 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

S. Lal, S. Link, and N. J. Halas, “Nano-optics from sensing to waveguiding,” Nat. Photonics 1, 641-648 (2007).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J.-Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440, 508-511 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rep. (1)

A. V. Zayats, I. I. Smolyaninov, and A. A. Maradudin, “Nano-optics of surface plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rep. 408, 131314 (2005).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. B (4)

I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, G. Brucoli, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, and A. Boltasseva, “Efficient unidirectional ridge excitation of surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 115115 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Grandidier, S. Massenot, G. Colas des Francs, A. Bouhelier, J.-C. Weeber, L. Markey, A. Dereux, J. Renger, M. U. González, and R. Quidant, “Dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides: figures of merit and mode characterization by image and Fourier plane leakage microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 245419 (2008).
[Crossref]

T. Holmgaard, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. V. Krasavin, P. Bolger, and A. V. Zayats, “Efficient excitation of dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguide modes at telecommunication wavelengths,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 165431 (2008).
[Crossref]

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370-4379 (1972).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

E. Verhagen, M. Spasenovic', A. Polman, and L. Kuipers, “Nanowire plasmon excitation by adiabatic mode transformation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 203904 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Today (1)

T. W. Ebbesen, C. Genet, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Surface-plasmon circuitry,” Phys. Today 5, 44-50 (2008).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

S. A. Maier, Plasmonics--Fundamentals and Applications (Springer, 2007).

H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth aand Rough Surfaces and on Gratings, in Tracts in Modern Physics 111 (Springer, 1988).

D. Marcuse, Theory of Dielectric Optical Waveguides (Academic Press, 1991).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Principal setup for laser writing of DLSPPWs. (a), (b) SEM image of straight waveguides on the metal film with a height of 500 nm, a width of 750 nm, and lengths of 4, 8, 12, and 16 μm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Images of the leakage radiation in the Fourier (back focal) plane. (a) SPP excited on a point-like structure on the gold film. The bright disc corresponds to the numerical aperture of the focusing microscope objective. The signature of the SPP on the metal surface is indicated by the dashed circle segment. (b) Fourier image of a waveguide mode excited in a straight waveguide showing different modes with a strong TM 00 mode.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) SEM image of the 25 μm long waveguide structure. Leakage radiation images of the (b) excited TE 00 and (c) TM 00 leaky modes. The polarization and focal position of the Gaussian laser beam used for excitation is indicated in the images on the left side. The magnified images of the waveguide exit parts are shown on the right side. For the TM case an SPP exits the waveguide. The waveguide end position is indicated by a dashed vertical line.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Magnified images of the Fourier plane showing different SPP modes upon excitation with p-polarized light. (a) Fundamental TM 00 , (b) TM 01 , and (c) simultaneous excitation of TM 00 and TM 01 (see arrows). The signature of an SPP on the metal surface is indicated with a dashed circle segment. The waveguide modes are indicated by straight horizontal lines. Taking into account the radius of the focussing objective with NA =0.63, the positions of the TM 00 and TM 01 modes give the following effective indices: n e , 0 = 1.15 and n e , 1 = 1.07 .

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a)–(c) Leakage radiation images of a straight DLSPPW with a length of 25 μm. The images show the excitation of the TM 00 , TM 01 , and TM 00 + TM 01 , respectively. The corresponding Fourier plane images of these modes are shown in Fig. 4. The positions of the focal spot are given in the microscopy images on the left side of the leakage radiation images with indicated polarization of the Gaussian laser beam. For the excitation of TM modes, p-polarization is used. The TM 00 mode is excited by focusing directly onto the waveguide axis, the TM 01 is excited when the laser beam is focused onto the waveguide edge, and the superposition of TM 00 and TM 01 modes is excited when the focal spot is between the DLSPPW axis and the edge. The numerical simulation describing the modes in terms of Hermite polynomials shown in (d)–(f) for TM 00 , TM 01 , and TM 00 + TM 01 , respectively, is in good agreement with the experimental results using the measured effective indices n e , 0 = 1.15 and n e , 1 = 1.07 .

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a)–(c) Microscopy, (d)–(f) leakage radiation, and (g) SEM images of the Y-splitter written in mr-UVL 6000.5. The images (a)–(c) indicate the focus position of laser light used for the excitation of the Y-splitter (a) for transmission only into the upper arm, (b) equally into both arms, and (c) only into the lower arm. The corresponding switching of the splitter transmission is shown in (d)–(f).

Equations (1)

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1 + r d m r m a exp ( 2 i k z , m d ) = 0 ,

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