Abstract

We present a model of an infrared metamaterial absorber composed of metal dendritic resonators, dielectric substrate, and continuous metal film. Numerical simulation confirms an absorptivity of 98.6% at the infrared wavelength of 2.79μm. The proposed metamaterial absorber has an excellence of two-dimensional isotropy, and it could be fabricated with a chemical double-template technique. Our simulation shows it could be operated for a wide range of incident angles. The optical metamaterial absorber proposed in this paper has potential applications such as in infrared imaging devices, thermal bolometers, and wavelength-selective radiators.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. V. G. Vesalago, “Electrodynamics of substances with simultaneously negative values of ε and μ,” Sov. Phys. Usp. 10, 509-514 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292, 77-79 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, W. J. Stewart, and I. Youngs, “Extremely low frequency plasmons in metallic mesostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4773-4776 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, “Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075-2084 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. S. Chen, L. X. Ran, J. T. Huangfu, X. M. Zhang, K. S. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, and J. A. Kong, “Left-handed materials composed of only S-shaped resonators,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 057605 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. S. Chen, L. X. Ran, J. T. Huangfu, X. M. Zhang, K. S. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, and J. A. Kong, “Negative refraction of a combined double S-shaped metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 151909 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  7. V. M. Shalaev, W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, H. K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, V. P. Drachev, and A. V. Kildishev, “Negative index of refraction in optical metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 30, 3356-3358 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  8. X. Zhou and X. P. Zhao, “Resonant condition of unitary dendritic structure with overlapping negative permittivity and permeability,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 181908 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  9. W. R. Zhu, X. P. Zhao, and J. Q. Guo, “Multibands of negative refractive indexes in the left-handed metamaterials with multiple dendritic structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 241116 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. Kafesaki, I. Tsiapa, N. Katsarakis, Th. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. N. Economou, “Left-handed metamaterials: the fishnet structure and its variations,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 235114 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  11. G. Dolling, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, “Negative-index metamaterial at 780 nm wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 32, 53-55 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  12. D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314, 977-980 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 207402 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. D. J. Kern and D. H. Werner, “A genetic algorithm approach to the design of ultra-thin electromagnetic bandgap absorbers,” Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 38, 61-64 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  15. H. Tao, N. I. Landy, C. M. Bingham, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and W. J. Padilla, “A metamaterial absorber for the terahertz regime: design, fabrication, and characterization,” Opt. Express 16, 7181-7188 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. H. Tao, C. M. Bingham, A. C. Strikwerda, D. Pilon, D. Shrekenhamer, N. I. Landy, K. Fan, X. Zhang, W. J. Padilla, and R. D. Averitt, “Highly flexible wide angle of incidence terahertz metamaterial absorber: design, fabrication, and characterization,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 241103(R) (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  17. Y. Avitzour, Y. A. Urzhumov, and G. Shvets, “Wide-angle infrared absorber based on a negative-index plasmonic metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 045131 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  18. H. Liu, X. P. Zhao, Y. Yang, Q. W. Li, and J. Lv, “Fabrication of infrared left-handed metamaterials via double template-assisted electrochemical deposition,” Adv. Mater. 20, 2050-2054 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  19. D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, and D. R. Smith, “Electric-field-coupled resonators for negative permittivity metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 041109 (2006).
    [CrossRef]

2009 (1)

Y. Avitzour, Y. A. Urzhumov, and G. Shvets, “Wide-angle infrared absorber based on a negative-index plasmonic metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 045131 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (5)

H. Liu, X. P. Zhao, Y. Yang, Q. W. Li, and J. Lv, “Fabrication of infrared left-handed metamaterials via double template-assisted electrochemical deposition,” Adv. Mater. 20, 2050-2054 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. R. Zhu, X. P. Zhao, and J. Q. Guo, “Multibands of negative refractive indexes in the left-handed metamaterials with multiple dendritic structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 241116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 207402 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Tao, N. I. Landy, C. M. Bingham, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and W. J. Padilla, “A metamaterial absorber for the terahertz regime: design, fabrication, and characterization,” Opt. Express 16, 7181-7188 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Tao, C. M. Bingham, A. C. Strikwerda, D. Pilon, D. Shrekenhamer, N. I. Landy, K. Fan, X. Zhang, W. J. Padilla, and R. D. Averitt, “Highly flexible wide angle of incidence terahertz metamaterial absorber: design, fabrication, and characterization,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 241103(R) (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

M. Kafesaki, I. Tsiapa, N. Katsarakis, Th. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. N. Economou, “Left-handed metamaterials: the fishnet structure and its variations,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 235114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Dolling, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, “Negative-index metamaterial at 780 nm wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 32, 53-55 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhou and X. P. Zhao, “Resonant condition of unitary dendritic structure with overlapping negative permittivity and permeability,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 181908 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314, 977-980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, and D. R. Smith, “Electric-field-coupled resonators for negative permittivity metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 041109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

H. S. Chen, L. X. Ran, J. T. Huangfu, X. M. Zhang, K. S. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, and J. A. Kong, “Negative refraction of a combined double S-shaped metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 151909 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. M. Shalaev, W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, H. K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, V. P. Drachev, and A. V. Kildishev, “Negative index of refraction in optical metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 30, 3356-3358 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

H. S. Chen, L. X. Ran, J. T. Huangfu, X. M. Zhang, K. S. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, and J. A. Kong, “Left-handed materials composed of only S-shaped resonators,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 057605 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

D. J. Kern and D. H. Werner, “A genetic algorithm approach to the design of ultra-thin electromagnetic bandgap absorbers,” Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 38, 61-64 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292, 77-79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, “Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075-2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, W. J. Stewart, and I. Youngs, “Extremely low frequency plasmons in metallic mesostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4773-4776 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1968 (1)

V. G. Vesalago, “Electrodynamics of substances with simultaneously negative values of ε and μ,” Sov. Phys. Usp. 10, 509-514 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Averitt, R. D.

H. Tao, N. I. Landy, C. M. Bingham, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and W. J. Padilla, “A metamaterial absorber for the terahertz regime: design, fabrication, and characterization,” Opt. Express 16, 7181-7188 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Tao, C. M. Bingham, A. C. Strikwerda, D. Pilon, D. Shrekenhamer, N. I. Landy, K. Fan, X. Zhang, W. J. Padilla, and R. D. Averitt, “Highly flexible wide angle of incidence terahertz metamaterial absorber: design, fabrication, and characterization,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 241103(R) (2008).
[CrossRef]

Avitzour, Y.

Y. Avitzour, Y. A. Urzhumov, and G. Shvets, “Wide-angle infrared absorber based on a negative-index plasmonic metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 045131 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bingham, C. M.

H. Tao, N. I. Landy, C. M. Bingham, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and W. J. Padilla, “A metamaterial absorber for the terahertz regime: design, fabrication, and characterization,” Opt. Express 16, 7181-7188 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Tao, C. M. Bingham, A. C. Strikwerda, D. Pilon, D. Shrekenhamer, N. I. Landy, K. Fan, X. Zhang, W. J. Padilla, and R. D. Averitt, “Highly flexible wide angle of incidence terahertz metamaterial absorber: design, fabrication, and characterization,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 241103(R) (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cai, W.

Chen, H. S.

H. S. Chen, L. X. Ran, J. T. Huangfu, X. M. Zhang, K. S. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, and J. A. Kong, “Negative refraction of a combined double S-shaped metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 151909 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Chen, L. X. Ran, J. T. Huangfu, X. M. Zhang, K. S. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, and J. A. Kong, “Left-handed materials composed of only S-shaped resonators,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 057605 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, K. S.

H. S. Chen, L. X. Ran, J. T. Huangfu, X. M. Zhang, K. S. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, and J. A. Kong, “Negative refraction of a combined double S-shaped metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 151909 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Chen, L. X. Ran, J. T. Huangfu, X. M. Zhang, K. S. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, and J. A. Kong, “Left-handed materials composed of only S-shaped resonators,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 057605 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chettiar, U. K.

Cummer, S. A.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314, 977-980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dolling, G.

Drachev, V. P.

Economou, E. N.

M. Kafesaki, I. Tsiapa, N. Katsarakis, Th. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. N. Economou, “Left-handed metamaterials: the fishnet structure and its variations,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 235114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fan, K.

H. Tao, C. M. Bingham, A. C. Strikwerda, D. Pilon, D. Shrekenhamer, N. I. Landy, K. Fan, X. Zhang, W. J. Padilla, and R. D. Averitt, “Highly flexible wide angle of incidence terahertz metamaterial absorber: design, fabrication, and characterization,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 241103(R) (2008).
[CrossRef]

Grzegorczyk, T. M.

H. S. Chen, L. X. Ran, J. T. Huangfu, X. M. Zhang, K. S. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, and J. A. Kong, “Negative refraction of a combined double S-shaped metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 151909 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Chen, L. X. Ran, J. T. Huangfu, X. M. Zhang, K. S. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, and J. A. Kong, “Left-handed materials composed of only S-shaped resonators,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 057605 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Guo, J. Q.

W. R. Zhu, X. P. Zhao, and J. Q. Guo, “Multibands of negative refractive indexes in the left-handed metamaterials with multiple dendritic structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 241116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Holden, A. J.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, “Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075-2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, W. J. Stewart, and I. Youngs, “Extremely low frequency plasmons in metallic mesostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4773-4776 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huangfu, J. T.

H. S. Chen, L. X. Ran, J. T. Huangfu, X. M. Zhang, K. S. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, and J. A. Kong, “Negative refraction of a combined double S-shaped metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 151909 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Chen, L. X. Ran, J. T. Huangfu, X. M. Zhang, K. S. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, and J. A. Kong, “Left-handed materials composed of only S-shaped resonators,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 057605 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Justice, B. J.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314, 977-980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kafesaki, M.

M. Kafesaki, I. Tsiapa, N. Katsarakis, Th. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. N. Economou, “Left-handed metamaterials: the fishnet structure and its variations,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 235114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Katsarakis, N.

M. Kafesaki, I. Tsiapa, N. Katsarakis, Th. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. N. Economou, “Left-handed metamaterials: the fishnet structure and its variations,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 235114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kern, D. J.

D. J. Kern and D. H. Werner, “A genetic algorithm approach to the design of ultra-thin electromagnetic bandgap absorbers,” Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 38, 61-64 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kildishev, A. V.

Kong, J. A.

H. S. Chen, L. X. Ran, J. T. Huangfu, X. M. Zhang, K. S. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, and J. A. Kong, “Negative refraction of a combined double S-shaped metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 151909 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Chen, L. X. Ran, J. T. Huangfu, X. M. Zhang, K. S. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, and J. A. Kong, “Left-handed materials composed of only S-shaped resonators,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 057605 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Koschny, Th.

M. Kafesaki, I. Tsiapa, N. Katsarakis, Th. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. N. Economou, “Left-handed metamaterials: the fishnet structure and its variations,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 235114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Landy, N. I.

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 207402 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Tao, N. I. Landy, C. M. Bingham, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and W. J. Padilla, “A metamaterial absorber for the terahertz regime: design, fabrication, and characterization,” Opt. Express 16, 7181-7188 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Tao, C. M. Bingham, A. C. Strikwerda, D. Pilon, D. Shrekenhamer, N. I. Landy, K. Fan, X. Zhang, W. J. Padilla, and R. D. Averitt, “Highly flexible wide angle of incidence terahertz metamaterial absorber: design, fabrication, and characterization,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 241103(R) (2008).
[CrossRef]

Li, Q. W.

H. Liu, X. P. Zhao, Y. Yang, Q. W. Li, and J. Lv, “Fabrication of infrared left-handed metamaterials via double template-assisted electrochemical deposition,” Adv. Mater. 20, 2050-2054 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Linden, S.

Liu, H.

H. Liu, X. P. Zhao, Y. Yang, Q. W. Li, and J. Lv, “Fabrication of infrared left-handed metamaterials via double template-assisted electrochemical deposition,” Adv. Mater. 20, 2050-2054 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lv, J.

H. Liu, X. P. Zhao, Y. Yang, Q. W. Li, and J. Lv, “Fabrication of infrared left-handed metamaterials via double template-assisted electrochemical deposition,” Adv. Mater. 20, 2050-2054 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mock, J. J.

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 207402 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314, 977-980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, and D. R. Smith, “Electric-field-coupled resonators for negative permittivity metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 041109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Padilla, W. J.

H. Tao, C. M. Bingham, A. C. Strikwerda, D. Pilon, D. Shrekenhamer, N. I. Landy, K. Fan, X. Zhang, W. J. Padilla, and R. D. Averitt, “Highly flexible wide angle of incidence terahertz metamaterial absorber: design, fabrication, and characterization,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 241103(R) (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 207402 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Tao, N. I. Landy, C. M. Bingham, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and W. J. Padilla, “A metamaterial absorber for the terahertz regime: design, fabrication, and characterization,” Opt. Express 16, 7181-7188 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pendry, J. B.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314, 977-980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, “Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075-2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, W. J. Stewart, and I. Youngs, “Extremely low frequency plasmons in metallic mesostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4773-4776 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pilon, D.

H. Tao, C. M. Bingham, A. C. Strikwerda, D. Pilon, D. Shrekenhamer, N. I. Landy, K. Fan, X. Zhang, W. J. Padilla, and R. D. Averitt, “Highly flexible wide angle of incidence terahertz metamaterial absorber: design, fabrication, and characterization,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 241103(R) (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ran, L. X.

H. S. Chen, L. X. Ran, J. T. Huangfu, X. M. Zhang, K. S. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, and J. A. Kong, “Negative refraction of a combined double S-shaped metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 151909 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Chen, L. X. Ran, J. T. Huangfu, X. M. Zhang, K. S. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, and J. A. Kong, “Left-handed materials composed of only S-shaped resonators,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 057605 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Robbins, D. J.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, “Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075-2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sajuyigbe, S.

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 207402 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sarychev, A. K.

Schultz, S.

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292, 77-79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schurig, D.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314, 977-980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, and D. R. Smith, “Electric-field-coupled resonators for negative permittivity metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 041109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shalaev, V. M.

Shelby, R. A.

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292, 77-79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shrekenhamer, D.

H. Tao, C. M. Bingham, A. C. Strikwerda, D. Pilon, D. Shrekenhamer, N. I. Landy, K. Fan, X. Zhang, W. J. Padilla, and R. D. Averitt, “Highly flexible wide angle of incidence terahertz metamaterial absorber: design, fabrication, and characterization,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 241103(R) (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shvets, G.

Y. Avitzour, Y. A. Urzhumov, and G. Shvets, “Wide-angle infrared absorber based on a negative-index plasmonic metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 045131 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D. R.

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 207402 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314, 977-980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, and D. R. Smith, “Electric-field-coupled resonators for negative permittivity metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 041109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292, 77-79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soukoulis, C. M.

M. Kafesaki, I. Tsiapa, N. Katsarakis, Th. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. N. Economou, “Left-handed metamaterials: the fishnet structure and its variations,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 235114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Dolling, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, “Negative-index metamaterial at 780 nm wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 32, 53-55 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Starr, A. F.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314, 977-980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stewart, W. J.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, “Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075-2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, W. J. Stewart, and I. Youngs, “Extremely low frequency plasmons in metallic mesostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4773-4776 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Strikwerda, A. C.

H. Tao, C. M. Bingham, A. C. Strikwerda, D. Pilon, D. Shrekenhamer, N. I. Landy, K. Fan, X. Zhang, W. J. Padilla, and R. D. Averitt, “Highly flexible wide angle of incidence terahertz metamaterial absorber: design, fabrication, and characterization,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 241103(R) (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tao, H.

H. Tao, C. M. Bingham, A. C. Strikwerda, D. Pilon, D. Shrekenhamer, N. I. Landy, K. Fan, X. Zhang, W. J. Padilla, and R. D. Averitt, “Highly flexible wide angle of incidence terahertz metamaterial absorber: design, fabrication, and characterization,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 241103(R) (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Tao, N. I. Landy, C. M. Bingham, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and W. J. Padilla, “A metamaterial absorber for the terahertz regime: design, fabrication, and characterization,” Opt. Express 16, 7181-7188 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsiapa, I.

M. Kafesaki, I. Tsiapa, N. Katsarakis, Th. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. N. Economou, “Left-handed metamaterials: the fishnet structure and its variations,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 235114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Urzhumov, Y. A.

Y. Avitzour, Y. A. Urzhumov, and G. Shvets, “Wide-angle infrared absorber based on a negative-index plasmonic metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 045131 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vesalago, V. G.

V. G. Vesalago, “Electrodynamics of substances with simultaneously negative values of ε and μ,” Sov. Phys. Usp. 10, 509-514 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Wegener, M.

Werner, D. H.

D. J. Kern and D. H. Werner, “A genetic algorithm approach to the design of ultra-thin electromagnetic bandgap absorbers,” Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 38, 61-64 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Y.

H. Liu, X. P. Zhao, Y. Yang, Q. W. Li, and J. Lv, “Fabrication of infrared left-handed metamaterials via double template-assisted electrochemical deposition,” Adv. Mater. 20, 2050-2054 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Youngs, I.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, W. J. Stewart, and I. Youngs, “Extremely low frequency plasmons in metallic mesostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4773-4776 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yuan, H. K.

Zhang, X.

H. Tao, N. I. Landy, C. M. Bingham, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and W. J. Padilla, “A metamaterial absorber for the terahertz regime: design, fabrication, and characterization,” Opt. Express 16, 7181-7188 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Tao, C. M. Bingham, A. C. Strikwerda, D. Pilon, D. Shrekenhamer, N. I. Landy, K. Fan, X. Zhang, W. J. Padilla, and R. D. Averitt, “Highly flexible wide angle of incidence terahertz metamaterial absorber: design, fabrication, and characterization,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 241103(R) (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X. M.

H. S. Chen, L. X. Ran, J. T. Huangfu, X. M. Zhang, K. S. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, and J. A. Kong, “Negative refraction of a combined double S-shaped metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 151909 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Chen, L. X. Ran, J. T. Huangfu, X. M. Zhang, K. S. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, and J. A. Kong, “Left-handed materials composed of only S-shaped resonators,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 057605 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, X. P.

W. R. Zhu, X. P. Zhao, and J. Q. Guo, “Multibands of negative refractive indexes in the left-handed metamaterials with multiple dendritic structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 241116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Liu, X. P. Zhao, Y. Yang, Q. W. Li, and J. Lv, “Fabrication of infrared left-handed metamaterials via double template-assisted electrochemical deposition,” Adv. Mater. 20, 2050-2054 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhou and X. P. Zhao, “Resonant condition of unitary dendritic structure with overlapping negative permittivity and permeability,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 181908 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, X.

X. Zhou and X. P. Zhao, “Resonant condition of unitary dendritic structure with overlapping negative permittivity and permeability,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 181908 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, W. R.

W. R. Zhu, X. P. Zhao, and J. Q. Guo, “Multibands of negative refractive indexes in the left-handed metamaterials with multiple dendritic structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 241116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (1)

H. Liu, X. P. Zhao, Y. Yang, Q. W. Li, and J. Lv, “Fabrication of infrared left-handed metamaterials via double template-assisted electrochemical deposition,” Adv. Mater. 20, 2050-2054 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, and D. R. Smith, “Electric-field-coupled resonators for negative permittivity metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 041109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Chen, L. X. Ran, J. T. Huangfu, X. M. Zhang, K. S. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, and J. A. Kong, “Negative refraction of a combined double S-shaped metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 151909 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhou and X. P. Zhao, “Resonant condition of unitary dendritic structure with overlapping negative permittivity and permeability,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 181908 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. R. Zhu, X. P. Zhao, and J. Q. Guo, “Multibands of negative refractive indexes in the left-handed metamaterials with multiple dendritic structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 241116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. (1)

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, “Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075-2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. (1)

D. J. Kern and D. H. Werner, “A genetic algorithm approach to the design of ultra-thin electromagnetic bandgap absorbers,” Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 38, 61-64 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. B (3)

M. Kafesaki, I. Tsiapa, N. Katsarakis, Th. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. N. Economou, “Left-handed metamaterials: the fishnet structure and its variations,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 235114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Tao, C. M. Bingham, A. C. Strikwerda, D. Pilon, D. Shrekenhamer, N. I. Landy, K. Fan, X. Zhang, W. J. Padilla, and R. D. Averitt, “Highly flexible wide angle of incidence terahertz metamaterial absorber: design, fabrication, and characterization,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 241103(R) (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Avitzour, Y. A. Urzhumov, and G. Shvets, “Wide-angle infrared absorber based on a negative-index plasmonic metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 045131 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E (1)

H. S. Chen, L. X. Ran, J. T. Huangfu, X. M. Zhang, K. S. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, and J. A. Kong, “Left-handed materials composed of only S-shaped resonators,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 057605 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, W. J. Stewart, and I. Youngs, “Extremely low frequency plasmons in metallic mesostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4773-4776 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 207402 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (2)

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314, 977-980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292, 77-79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sov. Phys. Usp. (1)

V. G. Vesalago, “Electrodynamics of substances with simultaneously negative values of ε and μ,” Sov. Phys. Usp. 10, 509-514 (1968).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Scheme of single unit cell of the metamaterial absorber (left); the geometrical parameters are defined as show on the right.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) S 11 and (b) absorptivity from simulations and microwave experiments.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

S parameter and absorptivity of the infrared metamaterial absorber from simulations.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Current density distribution for the metamaterial absorber at wavelength of 2.79 μ m .

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Angular dependence of the absorptivity of the metamaterial absorber for (a) TE incidence and (b) TM incidence.

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