Abstract

We introduce a Z-scan technique as a tool to characterize small phase shift (<1rad) and photodarkening, both effects induced inside photosensitive materials by light illumination. Theoretical analysis supported by experiments is presented for permanent refraction and absorption Gaussian profiles. Simple relations are derived in order to estimate the changes in the linear coefficients. Particularly, we investigate quantitatively the photo-induced modifications in the linear optical constants of As2S3 caused by subbandgap irradiation (17ps, 1064nm).

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. Zakery and S. R. Elliott, Optical Nonlinearities in Chalcogenide Glasses and their Applications (Springer, 2007).
  2. K. Tanaka, “Photo-induced phenomena in chalcogenide glass: comparison with those in oxide glass and polymer,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352, 2580-2584 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. V. Belykh, O. M. Efimov, L. B. Glebov, Yu. A. Matveev, A. M. Mekryukov, M. D. Mikhailov, and K. Richardson, “Photo-structural transformation of chalcogenide glasses under non-linear absorption of laser radiation,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 213-214, 330-335 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  4. K. Tanaka, N. Toyosawa, and H. Hisakuni, “Photoinduced Bragg gratings in As2S3 optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1976-1978 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. C. Meneghini and A. Villeneuve, “As2S3 photosensitivity by two-photon absorption: holographic gratings and self-written channel waveguides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 2946-2950 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J.-F. Viens, C. Meneghini, A. Villeneuve, T. V. Galstian, E. J. Knystautas, M. A. Duguay, K. A. Richardson, and T. Cardinal, “Fabrication and characterization of integrated optical waveguides in sulfide chalcogenide glasses,” J. Photopolym. Sci. Technol. 17, 1184-1191 (1999).
  7. T. M. Monro, D. Moss, M. Bazylenko, C. M. de Sterke, and L. Poladian, “Observation of self-trapping of light in a self-written channel in photosensitive glass,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4072-4075 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. M. Ljungstrom and T. M. Monro, “Light-induced self-writing effects in bulk chalcogenide glass,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 78-85 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  9. N. Hô, J. M. Laniel, R. Vallée, and A. Villeneuve, “Photosensitivity of As2S3 chalcogenide thin films at 1.5 μm,” Opt. Lett. 28, 965-967 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. D. A. Turnbull, J. S. Sanghera, V. Q. Nguyen, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Fabrication of waveguides in sputtered films of GeAsSe glass via photodarkening with above bandgap light,” Mater. Lett. 58, 51-54 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. Zoubir, M. Richardson, C. Rivero, A. Schulte, C. Lopez, K. Richardson, N. Hô, and R. Vallée, “Direct femtosecond laser writing of waveguides in As2S3 thin films,” Opt. Lett. 29, 748-750 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. K. M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, and K. Hirao, “Writing waveguides in glass with a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1729-1731 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. O. M. Efimov, L. B. Glebov, K. A. Richardson, E. Van Stryland, T. Cardinal, S. H. Park, M. Couzi, and J. L. Brunéel, “Waveguide writing in chalcogenide glasses by a train of femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Mater. 17, 379-386 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. C. van Popta, R. G. DeCorby, C. J. Haugen, T. Robinson, and J. N. McMullin, D. Tonchev, and S. O. Kasap, “Photoinduced refractive index change in As2Se3 by 633 nm illumination,” Opt. Express 15, 639-644 (2002).
  15. A. M. Ljungstrom, T. M. Monro, “Observation of light-induced refractive index reduction in bulk glass and application to the formation of complex waveguides,” Opt. Express 10, 230-235 (2002).
    [PubMed]
  16. M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. Hagan, and E. W. Stryland, “Sensitive measurements of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760-769 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  17. B. M. Patterson, W. R. White, T. A. Robbins, and R. J. Knize, “Linear optical effects in Z-scan measurements of thin films,” Appl. Opt. 37, 1854-1857 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  18. K. Fedus, G. Boudebs, Cid B. de Araujo, M. Cathelinaud, F. Charpentier, and V. Nazabal, “Photo-induced effects in thin films of Te20As30Se50 glass with nonlinear characterization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 061122 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  19. G. Boudebs and K. Fedus, “Linear optical characterization of transparent thin films by Z-scan technique,” Opt. Lett. 48, 4124-4129 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  20. R. E. Samad and N. D. Vieira, Jr., “Analytical description of z-scan on-axis intensity based on the Huygens-Fresnel principle,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 2742-2747 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  21. D. Wearie, B. S. Wherett, D. A. B. Miller, and S. D. Smith, “Effect of low-power nonlinear refraction on laser-beam propagation in InSb,” Opt. Lett. 9, 331-333 (1984).
  22. H. Kogelnik and T. Li, “Laser beams and resonators,” Appl. Opt. 5, 1550-1567 (1966).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

K. Fedus, G. Boudebs, Cid B. de Araujo, M. Cathelinaud, F. Charpentier, and V. Nazabal, “Photo-induced effects in thin films of Te20As30Se50 glass with nonlinear characterization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 061122 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Boudebs and K. Fedus, “Linear optical characterization of transparent thin films by Z-scan technique,” Opt. Lett. 48, 4124-4129 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

K. Tanaka, “Photo-induced phenomena in chalcogenide glass: comparison with those in oxide glass and polymer,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352, 2580-2584 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

2003 (2)

N. Hô, J. M. Laniel, R. Vallée, and A. Villeneuve, “Photosensitivity of As2S3 chalcogenide thin films at 1.5 μm,” Opt. Lett. 28, 965-967 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Turnbull, J. S. Sanghera, V. Q. Nguyen, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Fabrication of waveguides in sputtered films of GeAsSe glass via photodarkening with above bandgap light,” Mater. Lett. 58, 51-54 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

2001 (1)

O. M. Efimov, L. B. Glebov, K. A. Richardson, E. Van Stryland, T. Cardinal, S. H. Park, M. Couzi, and J. L. Brunéel, “Waveguide writing in chalcogenide glasses by a train of femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Mater. 17, 379-386 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

J.-F. Viens, C. Meneghini, A. Villeneuve, T. V. Galstian, E. J. Knystautas, M. A. Duguay, K. A. Richardson, and T. Cardinal, “Fabrication and characterization of integrated optical waveguides in sulfide chalcogenide glasses,” J. Photopolym. Sci. Technol. 17, 1184-1191 (1999).

1998 (4)

1997 (1)

A. V. Belykh, O. M. Efimov, L. B. Glebov, Yu. A. Matveev, A. M. Mekryukov, M. D. Mikhailov, and K. Richardson, “Photo-structural transformation of chalcogenide glasses under non-linear absorption of laser radiation,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 213-214, 330-335 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1995 (1)

1990 (1)

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. Hagan, and E. W. Stryland, “Sensitive measurements of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760-769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

D. Wearie, B. S. Wherett, D. A. B. Miller, and S. D. Smith, “Effect of low-power nonlinear refraction on laser-beam propagation in InSb,” Opt. Lett. 9, 331-333 (1984).

1966 (1)

Aggarwal, I. D.

D. A. Turnbull, J. S. Sanghera, V. Q. Nguyen, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Fabrication of waveguides in sputtered films of GeAsSe glass via photodarkening with above bandgap light,” Mater. Lett. 58, 51-54 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bazylenko, M.

T. M. Monro, D. Moss, M. Bazylenko, C. M. de Sterke, and L. Poladian, “Observation of self-trapping of light in a self-written channel in photosensitive glass,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4072-4075 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Belykh, A. V.

A. V. Belykh, O. M. Efimov, L. B. Glebov, Yu. A. Matveev, A. M. Mekryukov, M. D. Mikhailov, and K. Richardson, “Photo-structural transformation of chalcogenide glasses under non-linear absorption of laser radiation,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 213-214, 330-335 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Boudebs, G.

G. Boudebs and K. Fedus, “Linear optical characterization of transparent thin films by Z-scan technique,” Opt. Lett. 48, 4124-4129 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Fedus, G. Boudebs, Cid B. de Araujo, M. Cathelinaud, F. Charpentier, and V. Nazabal, “Photo-induced effects in thin films of Te20As30Se50 glass with nonlinear characterization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 061122 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Brunéel, J. L.

O. M. Efimov, L. B. Glebov, K. A. Richardson, E. Van Stryland, T. Cardinal, S. H. Park, M. Couzi, and J. L. Brunéel, “Waveguide writing in chalcogenide glasses by a train of femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Mater. 17, 379-386 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cardinal, T.

O. M. Efimov, L. B. Glebov, K. A. Richardson, E. Van Stryland, T. Cardinal, S. H. Park, M. Couzi, and J. L. Brunéel, “Waveguide writing in chalcogenide glasses by a train of femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Mater. 17, 379-386 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J.-F. Viens, C. Meneghini, A. Villeneuve, T. V. Galstian, E. J. Knystautas, M. A. Duguay, K. A. Richardson, and T. Cardinal, “Fabrication and characterization of integrated optical waveguides in sulfide chalcogenide glasses,” J. Photopolym. Sci. Technol. 17, 1184-1191 (1999).

Cathelinaud, M.

K. Fedus, G. Boudebs, Cid B. de Araujo, M. Cathelinaud, F. Charpentier, and V. Nazabal, “Photo-induced effects in thin films of Te20As30Se50 glass with nonlinear characterization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 061122 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Charpentier, F.

K. Fedus, G. Boudebs, Cid B. de Araujo, M. Cathelinaud, F. Charpentier, and V. Nazabal, “Photo-induced effects in thin films of Te20As30Se50 glass with nonlinear characterization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 061122 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Couzi, M.

O. M. Efimov, L. B. Glebov, K. A. Richardson, E. Van Stryland, T. Cardinal, S. H. Park, M. Couzi, and J. L. Brunéel, “Waveguide writing in chalcogenide glasses by a train of femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Mater. 17, 379-386 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Davis, K. M.

de Araujo, Cid B.

K. Fedus, G. Boudebs, Cid B. de Araujo, M. Cathelinaud, F. Charpentier, and V. Nazabal, “Photo-induced effects in thin films of Te20As30Se50 glass with nonlinear characterization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 061122 (2009).
[CrossRef]

de Sterke, C. M.

T. M. Monro, D. Moss, M. Bazylenko, C. M. de Sterke, and L. Poladian, “Observation of self-trapping of light in a self-written channel in photosensitive glass,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4072-4075 (1998).
[CrossRef]

DeCorby, R. G.

Duguay, M. A.

J.-F. Viens, C. Meneghini, A. Villeneuve, T. V. Galstian, E. J. Knystautas, M. A. Duguay, K. A. Richardson, and T. Cardinal, “Fabrication and characterization of integrated optical waveguides in sulfide chalcogenide glasses,” J. Photopolym. Sci. Technol. 17, 1184-1191 (1999).

Efimov, O. M.

O. M. Efimov, L. B. Glebov, K. A. Richardson, E. Van Stryland, T. Cardinal, S. H. Park, M. Couzi, and J. L. Brunéel, “Waveguide writing in chalcogenide glasses by a train of femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Mater. 17, 379-386 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Belykh, O. M. Efimov, L. B. Glebov, Yu. A. Matveev, A. M. Mekryukov, M. D. Mikhailov, and K. Richardson, “Photo-structural transformation of chalcogenide glasses under non-linear absorption of laser radiation,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 213-214, 330-335 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Elliott, S. R.

A. Zakery and S. R. Elliott, Optical Nonlinearities in Chalcogenide Glasses and their Applications (Springer, 2007).

Fedus, K.

G. Boudebs and K. Fedus, “Linear optical characterization of transparent thin films by Z-scan technique,” Opt. Lett. 48, 4124-4129 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Fedus, G. Boudebs, Cid B. de Araujo, M. Cathelinaud, F. Charpentier, and V. Nazabal, “Photo-induced effects in thin films of Te20As30Se50 glass with nonlinear characterization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 061122 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Galstian, T. V.

J.-F. Viens, C. Meneghini, A. Villeneuve, T. V. Galstian, E. J. Knystautas, M. A. Duguay, K. A. Richardson, and T. Cardinal, “Fabrication and characterization of integrated optical waveguides in sulfide chalcogenide glasses,” J. Photopolym. Sci. Technol. 17, 1184-1191 (1999).

Glebov, L. B.

O. M. Efimov, L. B. Glebov, K. A. Richardson, E. Van Stryland, T. Cardinal, S. H. Park, M. Couzi, and J. L. Brunéel, “Waveguide writing in chalcogenide glasses by a train of femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Mater. 17, 379-386 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Belykh, O. M. Efimov, L. B. Glebov, Yu. A. Matveev, A. M. Mekryukov, M. D. Mikhailov, and K. Richardson, “Photo-structural transformation of chalcogenide glasses under non-linear absorption of laser radiation,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 213-214, 330-335 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hagan, D.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. Hagan, and E. W. Stryland, “Sensitive measurements of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760-769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Haugen, C. J.

Hirao, K.

Hisakuni, H.

Hô, N.

Kasap, S. O.

Knize, R. J.

Knystautas, E. J.

J.-F. Viens, C. Meneghini, A. Villeneuve, T. V. Galstian, E. J. Knystautas, M. A. Duguay, K. A. Richardson, and T. Cardinal, “Fabrication and characterization of integrated optical waveguides in sulfide chalcogenide glasses,” J. Photopolym. Sci. Technol. 17, 1184-1191 (1999).

Kogelnik, H.

Laniel, J. M.

Li, T.

Ljungstrom, A. M.

Lopez, C.

Matveev, Yu. A.

A. V. Belykh, O. M. Efimov, L. B. Glebov, Yu. A. Matveev, A. M. Mekryukov, M. D. Mikhailov, and K. Richardson, “Photo-structural transformation of chalcogenide glasses under non-linear absorption of laser radiation,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 213-214, 330-335 (1997).
[CrossRef]

McMullin, J. N.

Mekryukov, A. M.

A. V. Belykh, O. M. Efimov, L. B. Glebov, Yu. A. Matveev, A. M. Mekryukov, M. D. Mikhailov, and K. Richardson, “Photo-structural transformation of chalcogenide glasses under non-linear absorption of laser radiation,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 213-214, 330-335 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Meneghini, C.

J.-F. Viens, C. Meneghini, A. Villeneuve, T. V. Galstian, E. J. Knystautas, M. A. Duguay, K. A. Richardson, and T. Cardinal, “Fabrication and characterization of integrated optical waveguides in sulfide chalcogenide glasses,” J. Photopolym. Sci. Technol. 17, 1184-1191 (1999).

C. Meneghini and A. Villeneuve, “As2S3 photosensitivity by two-photon absorption: holographic gratings and self-written channel waveguides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 2946-2950 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mikhailov, M. D.

A. V. Belykh, O. M. Efimov, L. B. Glebov, Yu. A. Matveev, A. M. Mekryukov, M. D. Mikhailov, and K. Richardson, “Photo-structural transformation of chalcogenide glasses under non-linear absorption of laser radiation,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 213-214, 330-335 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Miller, D. A. B.

D. Wearie, B. S. Wherett, D. A. B. Miller, and S. D. Smith, “Effect of low-power nonlinear refraction on laser-beam propagation in InSb,” Opt. Lett. 9, 331-333 (1984).

Miura, K.

Monro, T. M.

Moss, D.

T. M. Monro, D. Moss, M. Bazylenko, C. M. de Sterke, and L. Poladian, “Observation of self-trapping of light in a self-written channel in photosensitive glass,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4072-4075 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nazabal, V.

K. Fedus, G. Boudebs, Cid B. de Araujo, M. Cathelinaud, F. Charpentier, and V. Nazabal, “Photo-induced effects in thin films of Te20As30Se50 glass with nonlinear characterization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 061122 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, V. Q.

D. A. Turnbull, J. S. Sanghera, V. Q. Nguyen, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Fabrication of waveguides in sputtered films of GeAsSe glass via photodarkening with above bandgap light,” Mater. Lett. 58, 51-54 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Park, S. H.

O. M. Efimov, L. B. Glebov, K. A. Richardson, E. Van Stryland, T. Cardinal, S. H. Park, M. Couzi, and J. L. Brunéel, “Waveguide writing in chalcogenide glasses by a train of femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Mater. 17, 379-386 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Patterson, B. M.

Poladian, L.

T. M. Monro, D. Moss, M. Bazylenko, C. M. de Sterke, and L. Poladian, “Observation of self-trapping of light in a self-written channel in photosensitive glass,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4072-4075 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, K.

A. Zoubir, M. Richardson, C. Rivero, A. Schulte, C. Lopez, K. Richardson, N. Hô, and R. Vallée, “Direct femtosecond laser writing of waveguides in As2S3 thin films,” Opt. Lett. 29, 748-750 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Belykh, O. M. Efimov, L. B. Glebov, Yu. A. Matveev, A. M. Mekryukov, M. D. Mikhailov, and K. Richardson, “Photo-structural transformation of chalcogenide glasses under non-linear absorption of laser radiation,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 213-214, 330-335 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, K. A.

O. M. Efimov, L. B. Glebov, K. A. Richardson, E. Van Stryland, T. Cardinal, S. H. Park, M. Couzi, and J. L. Brunéel, “Waveguide writing in chalcogenide glasses by a train of femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Mater. 17, 379-386 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J.-F. Viens, C. Meneghini, A. Villeneuve, T. V. Galstian, E. J. Knystautas, M. A. Duguay, K. A. Richardson, and T. Cardinal, “Fabrication and characterization of integrated optical waveguides in sulfide chalcogenide glasses,” J. Photopolym. Sci. Technol. 17, 1184-1191 (1999).

Richardson, M.

Rivero, C.

Robbins, T. A.

Robinson, T.

Said, A. A.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. Hagan, and E. W. Stryland, “Sensitive measurements of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760-769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Samad, R. E.

Sanghera, J. S.

D. A. Turnbull, J. S. Sanghera, V. Q. Nguyen, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Fabrication of waveguides in sputtered films of GeAsSe glass via photodarkening with above bandgap light,” Mater. Lett. 58, 51-54 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schulte, A.

Sheik-Bahae, M.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. Hagan, and E. W. Stryland, “Sensitive measurements of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760-769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Smith, S. D.

D. Wearie, B. S. Wherett, D. A. B. Miller, and S. D. Smith, “Effect of low-power nonlinear refraction on laser-beam propagation in InSb,” Opt. Lett. 9, 331-333 (1984).

Stryland, E. W.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. Hagan, and E. W. Stryland, “Sensitive measurements of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760-769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Sugimoto, N.

Tanaka, K.

K. Tanaka, “Photo-induced phenomena in chalcogenide glass: comparison with those in oxide glass and polymer,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352, 2580-2584 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Tanaka, N. Toyosawa, and H. Hisakuni, “Photoinduced Bragg gratings in As2S3 optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1976-1978 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tonchev, D.

Toyosawa, N.

Turnbull, D. A.

D. A. Turnbull, J. S. Sanghera, V. Q. Nguyen, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Fabrication of waveguides in sputtered films of GeAsSe glass via photodarkening with above bandgap light,” Mater. Lett. 58, 51-54 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Vallée, R.

van Popta, A. C.

Van Stryland, E.

O. M. Efimov, L. B. Glebov, K. A. Richardson, E. Van Stryland, T. Cardinal, S. H. Park, M. Couzi, and J. L. Brunéel, “Waveguide writing in chalcogenide glasses by a train of femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Mater. 17, 379-386 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Vieira, N. D.

Viens, J.-F.

J.-F. Viens, C. Meneghini, A. Villeneuve, T. V. Galstian, E. J. Knystautas, M. A. Duguay, K. A. Richardson, and T. Cardinal, “Fabrication and characterization of integrated optical waveguides in sulfide chalcogenide glasses,” J. Photopolym. Sci. Technol. 17, 1184-1191 (1999).

Villeneuve, A.

N. Hô, J. M. Laniel, R. Vallée, and A. Villeneuve, “Photosensitivity of As2S3 chalcogenide thin films at 1.5 μm,” Opt. Lett. 28, 965-967 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-F. Viens, C. Meneghini, A. Villeneuve, T. V. Galstian, E. J. Knystautas, M. A. Duguay, K. A. Richardson, and T. Cardinal, “Fabrication and characterization of integrated optical waveguides in sulfide chalcogenide glasses,” J. Photopolym. Sci. Technol. 17, 1184-1191 (1999).

C. Meneghini and A. Villeneuve, “As2S3 photosensitivity by two-photon absorption: holographic gratings and self-written channel waveguides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 2946-2950 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wearie, D.

D. Wearie, B. S. Wherett, D. A. B. Miller, and S. D. Smith, “Effect of low-power nonlinear refraction on laser-beam propagation in InSb,” Opt. Lett. 9, 331-333 (1984).

Wei, T. H.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. Hagan, and E. W. Stryland, “Sensitive measurements of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760-769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Wherett, B. S.

D. Wearie, B. S. Wherett, D. A. B. Miller, and S. D. Smith, “Effect of low-power nonlinear refraction on laser-beam propagation in InSb,” Opt. Lett. 9, 331-333 (1984).

White, W. R.

Zakery, A.

A. Zakery and S. R. Elliott, Optical Nonlinearities in Chalcogenide Glasses and their Applications (Springer, 2007).

Zoubir, A.

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

K. Fedus, G. Boudebs, Cid B. de Araujo, M. Cathelinaud, F. Charpentier, and V. Nazabal, “Photo-induced effects in thin films of Te20As30Se50 glass with nonlinear characterization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 061122 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. Hagan, and E. W. Stryland, “Sensitive measurements of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760-769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (2)

K. Tanaka, “Photo-induced phenomena in chalcogenide glass: comparison with those in oxide glass and polymer,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352, 2580-2584 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Belykh, O. M. Efimov, L. B. Glebov, Yu. A. Matveev, A. M. Mekryukov, M. D. Mikhailov, and K. Richardson, “Photo-structural transformation of chalcogenide glasses under non-linear absorption of laser radiation,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 213-214, 330-335 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

J. Photopolym. Sci. Technol. (1)

J.-F. Viens, C. Meneghini, A. Villeneuve, T. V. Galstian, E. J. Knystautas, M. A. Duguay, K. A. Richardson, and T. Cardinal, “Fabrication and characterization of integrated optical waveguides in sulfide chalcogenide glasses,” J. Photopolym. Sci. Technol. 17, 1184-1191 (1999).

Mater. Lett. (1)

D. A. Turnbull, J. S. Sanghera, V. Q. Nguyen, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Fabrication of waveguides in sputtered films of GeAsSe glass via photodarkening with above bandgap light,” Mater. Lett. 58, 51-54 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (6)

Opt. Mater. (1)

O. M. Efimov, L. B. Glebov, K. A. Richardson, E. Van Stryland, T. Cardinal, S. H. Park, M. Couzi, and J. L. Brunéel, “Waveguide writing in chalcogenide glasses by a train of femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Mater. 17, 379-386 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

T. M. Monro, D. Moss, M. Bazylenko, C. M. de Sterke, and L. Poladian, “Observation of self-trapping of light in a self-written channel in photosensitive glass,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4072-4075 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

A. Zakery and S. R. Elliott, Optical Nonlinearities in Chalcogenide Glasses and their Applications (Springer, 2007).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Calculated (a) open-aperture normalized transmittance ( T o ) with Δ α 0 L = 1 ; (b) closed-aperture on-axis ( S = 0.01 ) normalized Z-scan transmittance ( T c ) for Δ Φ 0 = 0.3 with absorption Δ α 0 L = 1 (dashed curve) and without absorption Δ α 0 L = 0 (solid curve).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Calculated Δ T p v versus the on-axis phase shift for aperture transmittance S = 0.01 , 0.2 , 0.4 ; the dashed curve is described by Eq. (8).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic of the 4 f imaging system. The sample is moved around the focal region. The labels refer to lenses ( L 1 L 3 ) , mirrors ( M 1 , M 2 ) , and beam splitters ( B S 1 , B S 2 ) .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Normalized Z-scan transmittance revealing the permanent phase shift written inside 1.4 mm thick As 2 S 3 glass slab by a Gaussian beam with 3 GW cm 2 intensity and cumulative energy E c = 18 mJ . (a) Experimental (filled dots) closed-aperture normalized transmittance obtained with S = 0.4 giving Δ n 0 = 1.7 × 10 5 ( Δ Φ 0 = 0.14 ) ; the solid curve is the calculated result with the same parameters. (b) Experimental (open circles) open-aperture data showing the absence of photodarkening ( Δ α 0 = 0 ) .

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Normalized Z-scan transmittance revealing the permanent modifications in refraction and absorption written inside a 1.4 mm thick As 2 S 3 glass slab by a Gaussian beam with 6 GW cm 2 intensity and cumulative energy E c = 5 mJ . (a) Experimental (filled dots) closed-aperture data after division by open-aperture ones and calculated (solid curve) transmittance obtained with S = 0.4 and Δ n 0 = 4.3 × 10 5 ( Δ Φ 0 = 0.35 ) (b) Experimental (empty circles) open aperture data; the solid curve is a theoretical fit giving Δ α 0 = 840 m 1 .

Equations (9)

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E e ( r , z ) = E 0 ω 0 ω ( z ) exp [ r 2 ω 2 ( z ) ] exp [ i π r 2 λ R ( z ) ] ,
Δ n ( r ) = Δ n 0 exp ( 2 r 2 ω 0 2 ) ,
α ( r ) = ( α s + Δ α 0 exp ( 2 r 2 ω 0 2 ) ) ,
E out ( r , z ) = E e ( r , z ) e α s L 2 exp [ ( i Δ Φ 0 + Δ α 0 L 2 ) exp ( 2 r 2 ω 0 2 ) ] ,
T o ( z ) = m = 0 ( 1 ) m m ! ( Δ α 0 L ) m ( 1 + m ( 1 + z 2 z 0 2 ) ) .
T c ( z ) = 0 r a | E a ( z , r ) | 2 r d r S 0 | E a ( z , r , Δ Φ 0 = 0 , Δ α 0 = 0 ) | 2 r d r ,
T c ( z , S 0 ) = 1 + 4 Δ Φ 0 x 4 x 2 + 9 ,
Δ T p v = 2 3 Δ Φ 0 .
Δ T p v = 2 3 ( 1 S ) 0.56 Δ Φ 0 .

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