Abstract

Spectroscopic properties of neodymium-doped yttrium orthovanadate crystals were measured in the temperature range between 5 and 350K. Crystals fabricated by different suppliers, with 0.3 and 1at% Nd3+, were compared. For each temperature, the stimulated emission cross sections of the Nd3+F324 decay to the I924, I1124, and I1324 states were obtained using the Fuchtbauer–Ladenburg and the reciprocity techniques. Nd:YVO4 shows higher absorption at room temperature and higher stimulated emission cross section with similar variation with temperature when compared with Nd:YAG. The anomalous dependence on temperature of the Nd3+F324 excited-state lifetime is discussed and an explanation is suggested.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. W. Koechner, Solid-State Laser Engineering (Springer, 1999).
  2. F. S. Ermeneux, C. Goutaudier, R. Moncorge, M. T. Cohen-Adad, M. Bettinelli, and E. Cavalli, “Comparative optical characterization of various Nd3+:YVO4 single crystals,” Opt. Mater. 13, 193-204 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  3. O. Guillot-Noël, B. Viana, B. Bellamy, D. Gourier, G. B. Zogo-Mboulou, and S. Jandl, “Spectroscopic evidence of inhomogeneous distribution of Nd3+ in YVO4, YPO4 and YAsO4 crystals,” Opt. Mater. 13, 427-437 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Kh. Bagdasarov, G. A. Bogomolova, A. A. Kaminskii, and V. I. Popov, “Absorption, luminescence and stimulated emission of YVO4-Nd3+ crystals,” Sov. Phys. Dokl. 13, 516-518 (1968).
  5. J. G. Sliney Jr., K. M. Leung, M. Birnabaum, and A. W. Tucker, “Lifetimes of the F3/24 state in Nd:YVO4,” J. Appl. Phys. 50, 3778-3779 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. R. O'Connor, “Unusual crystal-field energy levels and efficient laser properties of YVO4:Nd,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 9, 407-409 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. J. Pressley, P. V. Goedertier, and H. Weakliem, “MBT 70 laser materials research and exploratory development,” Technical Report for RCA Laboratories (Princeton, NJ, 1969).
  8. Z. Y. Zhang, K. T. V. Grattan, A. W. Palmer, and B. T. Meggitt, “Potential for temperature sensor applications of highly neodymium-doped crystals and fiber at up to approximately 1000°C,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 2759-2763 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. D. Peterson, H. P. Jenssen, and A. Cassanho, “Investigation of the spectroscopic properties of Nd:YVO4,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers (ASSL) Conference, Vol. 68 of 2002 OSA TOPS (Optical Society of America, 2002), paper TuB17.
  10. Y. Sato and T. Taira, “Spectroscopic properties of neodymium-doped yttrium orthovanadate single crystals with high-resolution measurement,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 41, 5999-6002 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Y. Sato and T. Taira, “Comparative study on the spectroscopic properties of Nd:GdVO4 and Nd:YVO4 with hybrid process,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 11, 613-620 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. W. Tucker, M. Birnbaum, and C. L. Fincher, “Stimulated emission cross sections of Nd:YVO4 and Nd:La2Be2O5(BeL),” J. Appl. Phys. 52, 3067-3068 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. W. Tucker, M. Birnbaum, C. L. Fincher, and J. W. Erler, “Stimulated-emission cross section at 1064 and 1342 nm in Nd:YVO4,” J. Appl. Phys. 48, 4907-4911 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. Di Lieto, P. Minguzzi, and V. Magni, “High-power diffraction-limited Nd:YVO4 lasers at 1.34 μm with compact resonators,” Proc. SPIE 4969, 58-69 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  15. A. Sennaroglu, “Efficient continuous-wave operation of a diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 laser at 1342 nm,” Opt. Commun. 164, 191-197 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  16. R. Zhou, B. Zhang, X. Ding, Z. Cai, W. Wen, P. Wang, and J. Yao, “Continuous-wave operation at 1386 nm in an diode-end-pumped Nd:YVO4 laser,” Opt. Express 13, 5818-5824 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. B. F. Aull and H. P. Jenssen, “Vibronic interactions in Nd:YAG resulting in nonreciprocity of absorption and stimulated emission cross sections,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 925-930 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  18. A. Brignon, G. Feugnet, J. P. Huignard, and J.-P. Pocholle, “Compact Nd:YAG and Nd:YVO4 amplifiers end-pumped by a high-brightness stacked array,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 577-585 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  19. J. Dong, A. Rapaport, M. Bass, F. Szipocs, and K. Ueda, “Temperature-dependent stimulated emission cross section and concentration quenching in highly doped Nd3+:YAG crystals,” Phys. Status Solidi A 202, 2565-2573 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  20. F. Cornacchia, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, E. Cavalli, E. Bovero, and N. Magnani, “Optical spectroscopy of SrWO4:Nd3+ single crystals,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 16, 6867-6876 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  21. T. S. Lomheim and L. G. DeShazer, “Optical-absorption intensities of trivalent neodymium in the uniaxial crystal yttrium orthovanadate,” J. Appl. Phys. 49, 5517-5522 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  22. S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and W. F. Krupke, “Infrared cross-section measurements for crystals doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2619-2630 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  23. D. K. Sardar and R. M. Yow, “Stark components of F3/24, I9/24 and I11/24 manifold energy levels and effects of the temperature on the laser transition of Nd3+ in YVO4,” Opt. Mater. 14, 5-11 (2000).
    [CrossRef]

2005

Y. Sato and T. Taira, “Comparative study on the spectroscopic properties of Nd:GdVO4 and Nd:YVO4 with hybrid process,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 11, 613-620 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Dong, A. Rapaport, M. Bass, F. Szipocs, and K. Ueda, “Temperature-dependent stimulated emission cross section and concentration quenching in highly doped Nd3+:YAG crystals,” Phys. Status Solidi A 202, 2565-2573 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Zhou, B. Zhang, X. Ding, Z. Cai, W. Wen, P. Wang, and J. Yao, “Continuous-wave operation at 1386 nm in an diode-end-pumped Nd:YVO4 laser,” Opt. Express 13, 5818-5824 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

F. Cornacchia, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, E. Cavalli, E. Bovero, and N. Magnani, “Optical spectroscopy of SrWO4:Nd3+ single crystals,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 16, 6867-6876 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

A. Di Lieto, P. Minguzzi, and V. Magni, “High-power diffraction-limited Nd:YVO4 lasers at 1.34 μm with compact resonators,” Proc. SPIE 4969, 58-69 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

Y. Sato and T. Taira, “Spectroscopic properties of neodymium-doped yttrium orthovanadate single crystals with high-resolution measurement,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 41, 5999-6002 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

D. K. Sardar and R. M. Yow, “Stark components of F3/24, I9/24 and I11/24 manifold energy levels and effects of the temperature on the laser transition of Nd3+ in YVO4,” Opt. Mater. 14, 5-11 (2000).
[CrossRef]

O. Guillot-Noël, B. Viana, B. Bellamy, D. Gourier, G. B. Zogo-Mboulou, and S. Jandl, “Spectroscopic evidence of inhomogeneous distribution of Nd3+ in YVO4, YPO4 and YAsO4 crystals,” Opt. Mater. 13, 427-437 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

F. S. Ermeneux, C. Goutaudier, R. Moncorge, M. T. Cohen-Adad, M. Bettinelli, and E. Cavalli, “Comparative optical characterization of various Nd3+:YVO4 single crystals,” Opt. Mater. 13, 193-204 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Sennaroglu, “Efficient continuous-wave operation of a diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 laser at 1342 nm,” Opt. Commun. 164, 191-197 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

A. Brignon, G. Feugnet, J. P. Huignard, and J.-P. Pocholle, “Compact Nd:YAG and Nd:YVO4 amplifiers end-pumped by a high-brightness stacked array,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 577-585 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

Z. Y. Zhang, K. T. V. Grattan, A. W. Palmer, and B. T. Meggitt, “Potential for temperature sensor applications of highly neodymium-doped crystals and fiber at up to approximately 1000°C,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 2759-2763 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1992

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and W. F. Krupke, “Infrared cross-section measurements for crystals doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2619-2630 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1982

B. F. Aull and H. P. Jenssen, “Vibronic interactions in Nd:YAG resulting in nonreciprocity of absorption and stimulated emission cross sections,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 925-930 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981

A. W. Tucker, M. Birnbaum, and C. L. Fincher, “Stimulated emission cross sections of Nd:YVO4 and Nd:La2Be2O5(BeL),” J. Appl. Phys. 52, 3067-3068 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1979

J. G. Sliney Jr., K. M. Leung, M. Birnabaum, and A. W. Tucker, “Lifetimes of the F3/24 state in Nd:YVO4,” J. Appl. Phys. 50, 3778-3779 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1978

T. S. Lomheim and L. G. DeShazer, “Optical-absorption intensities of trivalent neodymium in the uniaxial crystal yttrium orthovanadate,” J. Appl. Phys. 49, 5517-5522 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1977

A. W. Tucker, M. Birnbaum, C. L. Fincher, and J. W. Erler, “Stimulated-emission cross section at 1064 and 1342 nm in Nd:YVO4,” J. Appl. Phys. 48, 4907-4911 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1968

Kh. Bagdasarov, G. A. Bogomolova, A. A. Kaminskii, and V. I. Popov, “Absorption, luminescence and stimulated emission of YVO4-Nd3+ crystals,” Sov. Phys. Dokl. 13, 516-518 (1968).

1966

J. R. O'Connor, “Unusual crystal-field energy levels and efficient laser properties of YVO4:Nd,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 9, 407-409 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Aull, B. F.

B. F. Aull and H. P. Jenssen, “Vibronic interactions in Nd:YAG resulting in nonreciprocity of absorption and stimulated emission cross sections,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 925-930 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Bagdasarov, Kh.

Kh. Bagdasarov, G. A. Bogomolova, A. A. Kaminskii, and V. I. Popov, “Absorption, luminescence and stimulated emission of YVO4-Nd3+ crystals,” Sov. Phys. Dokl. 13, 516-518 (1968).

Bass, M.

J. Dong, A. Rapaport, M. Bass, F. Szipocs, and K. Ueda, “Temperature-dependent stimulated emission cross section and concentration quenching in highly doped Nd3+:YAG crystals,” Phys. Status Solidi A 202, 2565-2573 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bellamy, B.

O. Guillot-Noël, B. Viana, B. Bellamy, D. Gourier, G. B. Zogo-Mboulou, and S. Jandl, “Spectroscopic evidence of inhomogeneous distribution of Nd3+ in YVO4, YPO4 and YAsO4 crystals,” Opt. Mater. 13, 427-437 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bettinelli, M.

F. S. Ermeneux, C. Goutaudier, R. Moncorge, M. T. Cohen-Adad, M. Bettinelli, and E. Cavalli, “Comparative optical characterization of various Nd3+:YVO4 single crystals,” Opt. Mater. 13, 193-204 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Birnabaum, M.

J. G. Sliney Jr., K. M. Leung, M. Birnabaum, and A. W. Tucker, “Lifetimes of the F3/24 state in Nd:YVO4,” J. Appl. Phys. 50, 3778-3779 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Birnbaum, M.

A. W. Tucker, M. Birnbaum, and C. L. Fincher, “Stimulated emission cross sections of Nd:YVO4 and Nd:La2Be2O5(BeL),” J. Appl. Phys. 52, 3067-3068 (1981).
[CrossRef]

A. W. Tucker, M. Birnbaum, C. L. Fincher, and J. W. Erler, “Stimulated-emission cross section at 1064 and 1342 nm in Nd:YVO4,” J. Appl. Phys. 48, 4907-4911 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Bogomolova, G. A.

Kh. Bagdasarov, G. A. Bogomolova, A. A. Kaminskii, and V. I. Popov, “Absorption, luminescence and stimulated emission of YVO4-Nd3+ crystals,” Sov. Phys. Dokl. 13, 516-518 (1968).

Bovero, E.

F. Cornacchia, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, E. Cavalli, E. Bovero, and N. Magnani, “Optical spectroscopy of SrWO4:Nd3+ single crystals,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 16, 6867-6876 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Brignon, A.

A. Brignon, G. Feugnet, J. P. Huignard, and J.-P. Pocholle, “Compact Nd:YAG and Nd:YVO4 amplifiers end-pumped by a high-brightness stacked array,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 577-585 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cai, Z.

Cassanho, A.

R. D. Peterson, H. P. Jenssen, and A. Cassanho, “Investigation of the spectroscopic properties of Nd:YVO4,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers (ASSL) Conference, Vol. 68 of 2002 OSA TOPS (Optical Society of America, 2002), paper TuB17.

Cavalli, E.

F. Cornacchia, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, E. Cavalli, E. Bovero, and N. Magnani, “Optical spectroscopy of SrWO4:Nd3+ single crystals,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 16, 6867-6876 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. S. Ermeneux, C. Goutaudier, R. Moncorge, M. T. Cohen-Adad, M. Bettinelli, and E. Cavalli, “Comparative optical characterization of various Nd3+:YVO4 single crystals,” Opt. Mater. 13, 193-204 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chase, L. L.

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and W. F. Krupke, “Infrared cross-section measurements for crystals doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2619-2630 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Cohen-Adad, M. T.

F. S. Ermeneux, C. Goutaudier, R. Moncorge, M. T. Cohen-Adad, M. Bettinelli, and E. Cavalli, “Comparative optical characterization of various Nd3+:YVO4 single crystals,” Opt. Mater. 13, 193-204 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cornacchia, F.

F. Cornacchia, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, E. Cavalli, E. Bovero, and N. Magnani, “Optical spectroscopy of SrWO4:Nd3+ single crystals,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 16, 6867-6876 (2004).
[CrossRef]

DeShazer, L. G.

T. S. Lomheim and L. G. DeShazer, “Optical-absorption intensities of trivalent neodymium in the uniaxial crystal yttrium orthovanadate,” J. Appl. Phys. 49, 5517-5522 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Di Lieto, A.

A. Di Lieto, P. Minguzzi, and V. Magni, “High-power diffraction-limited Nd:YVO4 lasers at 1.34 μm with compact resonators,” Proc. SPIE 4969, 58-69 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ding, X.

Dong, J.

J. Dong, A. Rapaport, M. Bass, F. Szipocs, and K. Ueda, “Temperature-dependent stimulated emission cross section and concentration quenching in highly doped Nd3+:YAG crystals,” Phys. Status Solidi A 202, 2565-2573 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Erler, J. W.

A. W. Tucker, M. Birnbaum, C. L. Fincher, and J. W. Erler, “Stimulated-emission cross section at 1064 and 1342 nm in Nd:YVO4,” J. Appl. Phys. 48, 4907-4911 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Ermeneux, F. S.

F. S. Ermeneux, C. Goutaudier, R. Moncorge, M. T. Cohen-Adad, M. Bettinelli, and E. Cavalli, “Comparative optical characterization of various Nd3+:YVO4 single crystals,” Opt. Mater. 13, 193-204 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Feugnet, G.

A. Brignon, G. Feugnet, J. P. Huignard, and J.-P. Pocholle, “Compact Nd:YAG and Nd:YVO4 amplifiers end-pumped by a high-brightness stacked array,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 577-585 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fincher, C. L.

A. W. Tucker, M. Birnbaum, and C. L. Fincher, “Stimulated emission cross sections of Nd:YVO4 and Nd:La2Be2O5(BeL),” J. Appl. Phys. 52, 3067-3068 (1981).
[CrossRef]

A. W. Tucker, M. Birnbaum, C. L. Fincher, and J. W. Erler, “Stimulated-emission cross section at 1064 and 1342 nm in Nd:YVO4,” J. Appl. Phys. 48, 4907-4911 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Goedertier, P. V.

R. J. Pressley, P. V. Goedertier, and H. Weakliem, “MBT 70 laser materials research and exploratory development,” Technical Report for RCA Laboratories (Princeton, NJ, 1969).

Gourier, D.

O. Guillot-Noël, B. Viana, B. Bellamy, D. Gourier, G. B. Zogo-Mboulou, and S. Jandl, “Spectroscopic evidence of inhomogeneous distribution of Nd3+ in YVO4, YPO4 and YAsO4 crystals,” Opt. Mater. 13, 427-437 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Goutaudier, C.

F. S. Ermeneux, C. Goutaudier, R. Moncorge, M. T. Cohen-Adad, M. Bettinelli, and E. Cavalli, “Comparative optical characterization of various Nd3+:YVO4 single crystals,” Opt. Mater. 13, 193-204 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Grattan, K. T. V.

Z. Y. Zhang, K. T. V. Grattan, A. W. Palmer, and B. T. Meggitt, “Potential for temperature sensor applications of highly neodymium-doped crystals and fiber at up to approximately 1000°C,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 2759-2763 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Guillot-Noël, O.

O. Guillot-Noël, B. Viana, B. Bellamy, D. Gourier, G. B. Zogo-Mboulou, and S. Jandl, “Spectroscopic evidence of inhomogeneous distribution of Nd3+ in YVO4, YPO4 and YAsO4 crystals,” Opt. Mater. 13, 427-437 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Huignard, J. P.

A. Brignon, G. Feugnet, J. P. Huignard, and J.-P. Pocholle, “Compact Nd:YAG and Nd:YVO4 amplifiers end-pumped by a high-brightness stacked array,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 577-585 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jandl, S.

O. Guillot-Noël, B. Viana, B. Bellamy, D. Gourier, G. B. Zogo-Mboulou, and S. Jandl, “Spectroscopic evidence of inhomogeneous distribution of Nd3+ in YVO4, YPO4 and YAsO4 crystals,” Opt. Mater. 13, 427-437 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jenssen, H. P.

B. F. Aull and H. P. Jenssen, “Vibronic interactions in Nd:YAG resulting in nonreciprocity of absorption and stimulated emission cross sections,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 925-930 (1982).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Peterson, H. P. Jenssen, and A. Cassanho, “Investigation of the spectroscopic properties of Nd:YVO4,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers (ASSL) Conference, Vol. 68 of 2002 OSA TOPS (Optical Society of America, 2002), paper TuB17.

Kaminskii, A. A.

Kh. Bagdasarov, G. A. Bogomolova, A. A. Kaminskii, and V. I. Popov, “Absorption, luminescence and stimulated emission of YVO4-Nd3+ crystals,” Sov. Phys. Dokl. 13, 516-518 (1968).

Koechner, W.

W. Koechner, Solid-State Laser Engineering (Springer, 1999).

Krupke, W. F.

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and W. F. Krupke, “Infrared cross-section measurements for crystals doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2619-2630 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kway, W. L.

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and W. F. Krupke, “Infrared cross-section measurements for crystals doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2619-2630 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Leung, K. M.

J. G. Sliney Jr., K. M. Leung, M. Birnabaum, and A. W. Tucker, “Lifetimes of the F3/24 state in Nd:YVO4,” J. Appl. Phys. 50, 3778-3779 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Lomheim, T. S.

T. S. Lomheim and L. G. DeShazer, “Optical-absorption intensities of trivalent neodymium in the uniaxial crystal yttrium orthovanadate,” J. Appl. Phys. 49, 5517-5522 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Magnani, N.

F. Cornacchia, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, E. Cavalli, E. Bovero, and N. Magnani, “Optical spectroscopy of SrWO4:Nd3+ single crystals,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 16, 6867-6876 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Magni, V.

A. Di Lieto, P. Minguzzi, and V. Magni, “High-power diffraction-limited Nd:YVO4 lasers at 1.34 μm with compact resonators,” Proc. SPIE 4969, 58-69 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Meggitt, B. T.

Z. Y. Zhang, K. T. V. Grattan, A. W. Palmer, and B. T. Meggitt, “Potential for temperature sensor applications of highly neodymium-doped crystals and fiber at up to approximately 1000°C,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 2759-2763 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Minguzzi, P.

A. Di Lieto, P. Minguzzi, and V. Magni, “High-power diffraction-limited Nd:YVO4 lasers at 1.34 μm with compact resonators,” Proc. SPIE 4969, 58-69 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Moncorge, R.

F. S. Ermeneux, C. Goutaudier, R. Moncorge, M. T. Cohen-Adad, M. Bettinelli, and E. Cavalli, “Comparative optical characterization of various Nd3+:YVO4 single crystals,” Opt. Mater. 13, 193-204 (1999).
[CrossRef]

O'Connor, J. R.

J. R. O'Connor, “Unusual crystal-field energy levels and efficient laser properties of YVO4:Nd,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 9, 407-409 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Palmer, A. W.

Z. Y. Zhang, K. T. V. Grattan, A. W. Palmer, and B. T. Meggitt, “Potential for temperature sensor applications of highly neodymium-doped crystals and fiber at up to approximately 1000°C,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 2759-2763 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Payne, S. A.

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and W. F. Krupke, “Infrared cross-section measurements for crystals doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2619-2630 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Peterson, R. D.

R. D. Peterson, H. P. Jenssen, and A. Cassanho, “Investigation of the spectroscopic properties of Nd:YVO4,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers (ASSL) Conference, Vol. 68 of 2002 OSA TOPS (Optical Society of America, 2002), paper TuB17.

Pocholle, J.-P.

A. Brignon, G. Feugnet, J. P. Huignard, and J.-P. Pocholle, “Compact Nd:YAG and Nd:YVO4 amplifiers end-pumped by a high-brightness stacked array,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 577-585 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Popov, V. I.

Kh. Bagdasarov, G. A. Bogomolova, A. A. Kaminskii, and V. I. Popov, “Absorption, luminescence and stimulated emission of YVO4-Nd3+ crystals,” Sov. Phys. Dokl. 13, 516-518 (1968).

Pressley, R. J.

R. J. Pressley, P. V. Goedertier, and H. Weakliem, “MBT 70 laser materials research and exploratory development,” Technical Report for RCA Laboratories (Princeton, NJ, 1969).

Rapaport, A.

J. Dong, A. Rapaport, M. Bass, F. Szipocs, and K. Ueda, “Temperature-dependent stimulated emission cross section and concentration quenching in highly doped Nd3+:YAG crystals,” Phys. Status Solidi A 202, 2565-2573 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sardar, D. K.

D. K. Sardar and R. M. Yow, “Stark components of F3/24, I9/24 and I11/24 manifold energy levels and effects of the temperature on the laser transition of Nd3+ in YVO4,” Opt. Mater. 14, 5-11 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sato, Y.

Y. Sato and T. Taira, “Comparative study on the spectroscopic properties of Nd:GdVO4 and Nd:YVO4 with hybrid process,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 11, 613-620 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sato and T. Taira, “Spectroscopic properties of neodymium-doped yttrium orthovanadate single crystals with high-resolution measurement,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 41, 5999-6002 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sennaroglu, A.

A. Sennaroglu, “Efficient continuous-wave operation of a diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 laser at 1342 nm,” Opt. Commun. 164, 191-197 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sliney, J. G.

J. G. Sliney Jr., K. M. Leung, M. Birnabaum, and A. W. Tucker, “Lifetimes of the F3/24 state in Nd:YVO4,” J. Appl. Phys. 50, 3778-3779 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Smith, L. K.

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and W. F. Krupke, “Infrared cross-section measurements for crystals doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2619-2630 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Szipocs, F.

J. Dong, A. Rapaport, M. Bass, F. Szipocs, and K. Ueda, “Temperature-dependent stimulated emission cross section and concentration quenching in highly doped Nd3+:YAG crystals,” Phys. Status Solidi A 202, 2565-2573 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Taira, T.

Y. Sato and T. Taira, “Comparative study on the spectroscopic properties of Nd:GdVO4 and Nd:YVO4 with hybrid process,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 11, 613-620 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sato and T. Taira, “Spectroscopic properties of neodymium-doped yttrium orthovanadate single crystals with high-resolution measurement,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 41, 5999-6002 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Toncelli, A.

F. Cornacchia, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, E. Cavalli, E. Bovero, and N. Magnani, “Optical spectroscopy of SrWO4:Nd3+ single crystals,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 16, 6867-6876 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tonelli, M.

F. Cornacchia, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, E. Cavalli, E. Bovero, and N. Magnani, “Optical spectroscopy of SrWO4:Nd3+ single crystals,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 16, 6867-6876 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tucker, A. W.

A. W. Tucker, M. Birnbaum, and C. L. Fincher, “Stimulated emission cross sections of Nd:YVO4 and Nd:La2Be2O5(BeL),” J. Appl. Phys. 52, 3067-3068 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Sliney Jr., K. M. Leung, M. Birnabaum, and A. W. Tucker, “Lifetimes of the F3/24 state in Nd:YVO4,” J. Appl. Phys. 50, 3778-3779 (1979).
[CrossRef]

A. W. Tucker, M. Birnbaum, C. L. Fincher, and J. W. Erler, “Stimulated-emission cross section at 1064 and 1342 nm in Nd:YVO4,” J. Appl. Phys. 48, 4907-4911 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Ueda, K.

J. Dong, A. Rapaport, M. Bass, F. Szipocs, and K. Ueda, “Temperature-dependent stimulated emission cross section and concentration quenching in highly doped Nd3+:YAG crystals,” Phys. Status Solidi A 202, 2565-2573 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Viana, B.

O. Guillot-Noël, B. Viana, B. Bellamy, D. Gourier, G. B. Zogo-Mboulou, and S. Jandl, “Spectroscopic evidence of inhomogeneous distribution of Nd3+ in YVO4, YPO4 and YAsO4 crystals,” Opt. Mater. 13, 427-437 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wang, P.

Weakliem, H.

R. J. Pressley, P. V. Goedertier, and H. Weakliem, “MBT 70 laser materials research and exploratory development,” Technical Report for RCA Laboratories (Princeton, NJ, 1969).

Wen, W.

Yao, J.

Yow, R. M.

D. K. Sardar and R. M. Yow, “Stark components of F3/24, I9/24 and I11/24 manifold energy levels and effects of the temperature on the laser transition of Nd3+ in YVO4,” Opt. Mater. 14, 5-11 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, B.

Zhang, Z. Y.

Z. Y. Zhang, K. T. V. Grattan, A. W. Palmer, and B. T. Meggitt, “Potential for temperature sensor applications of highly neodymium-doped crystals and fiber at up to approximately 1000°C,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 2759-2763 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, R.

Zogo-Mboulou, G. B.

O. Guillot-Noël, B. Viana, B. Bellamy, D. Gourier, G. B. Zogo-Mboulou, and S. Jandl, “Spectroscopic evidence of inhomogeneous distribution of Nd3+ in YVO4, YPO4 and YAsO4 crystals,” Opt. Mater. 13, 427-437 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

J. R. O'Connor, “Unusual crystal-field energy levels and efficient laser properties of YVO4:Nd,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 9, 407-409 (1966).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

Y. Sato and T. Taira, “Comparative study on the spectroscopic properties of Nd:GdVO4 and Nd:YVO4 with hybrid process,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 11, 613-620 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. F. Aull and H. P. Jenssen, “Vibronic interactions in Nd:YAG resulting in nonreciprocity of absorption and stimulated emission cross sections,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 925-930 (1982).
[CrossRef]

A. Brignon, G. Feugnet, J. P. Huignard, and J.-P. Pocholle, “Compact Nd:YAG and Nd:YVO4 amplifiers end-pumped by a high-brightness stacked array,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 577-585 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and W. F. Krupke, “Infrared cross-section measurements for crystals doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2619-2630 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

T. S. Lomheim and L. G. DeShazer, “Optical-absorption intensities of trivalent neodymium in the uniaxial crystal yttrium orthovanadate,” J. Appl. Phys. 49, 5517-5522 (1978).
[CrossRef]

A. W. Tucker, M. Birnbaum, and C. L. Fincher, “Stimulated emission cross sections of Nd:YVO4 and Nd:La2Be2O5(BeL),” J. Appl. Phys. 52, 3067-3068 (1981).
[CrossRef]

A. W. Tucker, M. Birnbaum, C. L. Fincher, and J. W. Erler, “Stimulated-emission cross section at 1064 and 1342 nm in Nd:YVO4,” J. Appl. Phys. 48, 4907-4911 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Sliney Jr., K. M. Leung, M. Birnabaum, and A. W. Tucker, “Lifetimes of the F3/24 state in Nd:YVO4,” J. Appl. Phys. 50, 3778-3779 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Condens. Matter

F. Cornacchia, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, E. Cavalli, E. Bovero, and N. Magnani, “Optical spectroscopy of SrWO4:Nd3+ single crystals,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 16, 6867-6876 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1

Y. Sato and T. Taira, “Spectroscopic properties of neodymium-doped yttrium orthovanadate single crystals with high-resolution measurement,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 41, 5999-6002 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

A. Sennaroglu, “Efficient continuous-wave operation of a diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 laser at 1342 nm,” Opt. Commun. 164, 191-197 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Mater.

D. K. Sardar and R. M. Yow, “Stark components of F3/24, I9/24 and I11/24 manifold energy levels and effects of the temperature on the laser transition of Nd3+ in YVO4,” Opt. Mater. 14, 5-11 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. S. Ermeneux, C. Goutaudier, R. Moncorge, M. T. Cohen-Adad, M. Bettinelli, and E. Cavalli, “Comparative optical characterization of various Nd3+:YVO4 single crystals,” Opt. Mater. 13, 193-204 (1999).
[CrossRef]

O. Guillot-Noël, B. Viana, B. Bellamy, D. Gourier, G. B. Zogo-Mboulou, and S. Jandl, “Spectroscopic evidence of inhomogeneous distribution of Nd3+ in YVO4, YPO4 and YAsO4 crystals,” Opt. Mater. 13, 427-437 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi A

J. Dong, A. Rapaport, M. Bass, F. Szipocs, and K. Ueda, “Temperature-dependent stimulated emission cross section and concentration quenching in highly doped Nd3+:YAG crystals,” Phys. Status Solidi A 202, 2565-2573 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

A. Di Lieto, P. Minguzzi, and V. Magni, “High-power diffraction-limited Nd:YVO4 lasers at 1.34 μm with compact resonators,” Proc. SPIE 4969, 58-69 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

Z. Y. Zhang, K. T. V. Grattan, A. W. Palmer, and B. T. Meggitt, “Potential for temperature sensor applications of highly neodymium-doped crystals and fiber at up to approximately 1000°C,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 2759-2763 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sov. Phys. Dokl.

Kh. Bagdasarov, G. A. Bogomolova, A. A. Kaminskii, and V. I. Popov, “Absorption, luminescence and stimulated emission of YVO4-Nd3+ crystals,” Sov. Phys. Dokl. 13, 516-518 (1968).

Other

W. Koechner, Solid-State Laser Engineering (Springer, 1999).

R. D. Peterson, H. P. Jenssen, and A. Cassanho, “Investigation of the spectroscopic properties of Nd:YVO4,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers (ASSL) Conference, Vol. 68 of 2002 OSA TOPS (Optical Society of America, 2002), paper TuB17.

R. J. Pressley, P. V. Goedertier, and H. Weakliem, “MBT 70 laser materials research and exploratory development,” Technical Report for RCA Laboratories (Princeton, NJ, 1969).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Absorption cross section for π-polarized (—) and σ-polarized (--) light in 1% Nd 3 + Y V O 4 from Redoptronics.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Fluorescence lifetime versus temperature of the Nd 3 + F 3 2 4 level: 1% Nd 3 + by Redoptronics (△), the 1% Nd 3 + by VLOC (◻), and 0.3% Nd 3 + by AC Materials (○). Previously reported data are also shown: (●Sliney, 0.4% Nd 3 + ) (▲ Connor) ( * Pressley, 1% Nd 3 + ) (◼ Zhang, 3% Nd 3 + ).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Fluorescence lifetime of the Nd 3 + F 3 2 4 state versus distance of the pump from the sample edge at different temperatures (●) 35 K , (◻) 150 K , and (△) 300 K , as measured in a 1% Nd : Y V O 4 sample.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

π-polarized (top panel) and σ-polarized (bottom panel) emission cross section of the Nd 3 + F 3 2 4 I 11 2 4 transition in Y V O 4 . Samples by VLOC (…), Redoptronics (—) and ACMaterials (---).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Peak stimulated emission cross section of Nd : Y V O 4 versus temperature for π-polarization (top panel) and σ-polarization (bottom panel): 1% Nd 3 + by Redoptronics (△), 1% Nd 3 + by VLOC (◻) and 0.3% Nd 3 + by AC Materials (○).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Stimulated emission cross section of Nd : Y V O 4 versus wavelength for π-polarized (—) and σ-polarized (--) emission of the F 3 2 4 I 13 2 4 transition.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Stimulated emission cross section of Nd : Y V O 4 versus wavelength for π-polarized (bottom panel) and σ-polarized (top panel) emission of the F 3 2 4 I 9 2 4 transition estimated by the Fuchtbauer–Ladenburg technique (--) and by the reciprocity method (—).

Equations (2)

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σ EM = 2.2 × 10 18 ( cm 2 ) 4 × 10 21 ( cm 2 ° K ) T * ( ° K ) , ( π -polarization ) ,
σ EM = 1.5 × 10 18 ( cm 2 ) 3 × 10 21 ( cm 2 ° K ) T * ( ° K ) , ( σ -polarization ) .

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