Abstract

A group of virtual sources that generate a hollow Gaussian wave are determined on the basis of the superposition of beams. A closed-form expression is derived for the hollow Gaussian wave that in the appropriate limit yields the paraxial hollow Gaussian beam (HGB). From the perturbative series representation of a complex-source-point spherical wave, an infinite series nonparaxial correction expression for a HGB is derived. The infinite series expression of a HGB can provide accuracy up to any order of diffraction angle. The radiation intensity of the hollow Gaussian wave is ascertained, and the radiation intensity pattern is characterized. The total time-averaged power is evaluated. The characteristics of the quality of the paraxial beam approximation to the full hollow Gaussian wave are discussed.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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