C. Hang and G. Huang, “Ultraslow optical solitons in a four-level tripod atomic system,” Phys. Lett. A 372, 3129-3135 (2008).

[CrossRef]

H.-J. Li and G. Huang, “Two-component spatial optical solitons in a four-state ladder system via electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Lett. A 372, 4127-4134 (2008).

[CrossRef]

B. D. Clader and J. H. Eberly, “Two-pulse propagation in a partially phase-coherent medium,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 033803 (2008).

[CrossRef]

F. T. Hioe, “Adiabatic shape preservation and solitary waves in a five-level atomic medium,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 063807 (2008).

[CrossRef]

B. D. Clader and J. H. Eberly, “Two-pulse propagation in media with quantum-mixed ground states,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 053812 (2007).

[CrossRef]

G. S. Agarwal and T. N. Dey, “Fast light solitons in resonant media,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 043806 (2007).

[CrossRef]

A. A. Zabolotskii, “Solution of the reduced anisotropic Maxwell-Bloch equations by using the Riemann-Hilbert problem,” Phys. Rev. E 75, 036612 (2007).

[CrossRef]

B. D. Clader and J. H. Eberly, “Theoretical study of fast light with short sech pulses in coherent gain media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 916-921 (2007).

[CrossRef]

R. V. Chulkov, A. S. Grabtchikov, V. A. Lisinetckii, V. A. Orlovich, and O. V. Chehlov, “Generation of Raman solitons with a different relative phase by optical phase jump,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 2829-2836 (2007), and references therein.

[CrossRef]

B. D. Clader, Q-Han Park, and J. H. Eberly, “Fast light in fully coherent gain media,” Opt. Lett. 31, 2921-2923 (2006).

[CrossRef]

C. Ottaviani, S. Rebić, D. Vitali, and P. Tombesi, “Cross phase modulation in a five-level atomic medium: semiclassical theory,” Eur. Phys. J. D 40, 281-296 (2006).

[CrossRef]

C. Hang, G. Huang, and L. Deng, “Generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equation and ultraslow optical solitons in a cold four-state atomic system,” Phys. Rev. E 73, 036607 (2006).

[CrossRef]

C. Hang, G. Huang, and L. Deng, “Stable high-dimensional spatial weak-light solitons in a resonant three-state atomic system,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 046601 (2006).

[CrossRef]

G. Huang, L. Deng, and M. G. Payne, “Dynamics of ultraslow optical solitons in a cold three-state atomic system,” Phys. Rev. E 72, 016617 (2005).

[CrossRef]

L. Deng, M. G. Payne, G. Huang, and E. W. Hagley, “Formation and propagation of matched and coupled ultraslow optical soliton pairs in a four-level double-Λ system,” Phys. Rev. E 72, 055601(R) (2005).

[CrossRef]

A. V. Rybin, I. P. Vadeiko, and A. R. Bishop, “Theory of slow-light solitons,” Phys. Rev. E 72, 026613 (2005).

[CrossRef]

M. Fleischhauer, A. Imamoglu, and J. P. Marangos, “Electromagnetically induced transparency: optics in coherent media,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 77, 633-673 (2005), and references therein.

[CrossRef]

Y. Wu and L. Deng, “Ultraslow optical solitons in a cold four-state medium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 143904 (2004).

[CrossRef]

H. Kang and Y. Zhu, “Observation of large Kerr nonlinearity at low light intensities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 093601 (2003).

[CrossRef]

P. K. Panigrahi and G. S. Agarwal, “Existence of superposition solutions for pulse propagation in nonlinear resonant media,” Phys. Rev. A 67, 033817 (2003).

[CrossRef]

G. S. Agarwal and J. H. Eberly, “Continuous-probe solutions for self-similar pulses in four-level systems,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 013404 (2000).

[CrossRef]

L. V. Hau, S. E. Harris, Z. Dutton, and C. H. Behroozi, “Light speed reduction to 17 meterspersecond in an ultracold atomic gas,” Nature 397, 594-598 (1999).

[CrossRef]

M. M. Kash, V. A. Sautenkov, A. S. Zibrov, L. Hollberg, G. R. Welch, M. D. Lukin, Y. Rostovtsev, E. S. Fry, and M. O. Scully, “Ultraslow group velocity and enhanced nonlinear optical effects in a coherently driven hot atomic gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 5229-5232 (1999).

[CrossRef]

Q. Han Park and H. J. Shin, “Matched pulse propagation in a three-level system,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 4643-4653 (1998).

[CrossRef]

A. Rahman and J. H. Eberly, “Theory of shape-preserving short pulses in inhomogeneously broadened three-level media,” Phys. Rev. A 58, R805-R808 (1998).

[CrossRef]

G. Vemuri, G. S. Agarwal, and K. V. Vasavada, “Cloning, dragging, and parametric amplification of solitons in a coherently driven, nonabsorbing system,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 3889-3892 (1997).

[CrossRef]

F. T. Hioe, “Analytic solutions of some coupled nonlinear equations,” Phys. Rev. E 56, 7253-7256 (1997).

[CrossRef]

A. E. Kaplan and P. L. Shkolnikov, “Electromagnetic bubbles and shock waves: unipolar, nonoscillating EM solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 2316-2319 (1995).

[CrossRef]

R. Grobe and J. H. Eberly, “Adiabatons-new forms of induced transparency in three-level media,” Laser Phys. 5, 542-546 (1995).

A. Kasapi, M. Jain, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, “Electromagnetically induced transparency: propagation dynamics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2447-2450 (1995).

[CrossRef]

R. Grobe, F. T. Hioe, and J. H. Eberly, “Formation of shape-preserving pulses in a nonlinear adiabatically integrable system,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3183-3186 (1994).

[CrossRef]

J. H. Eberly, M. L. Pons, and H. R. Haq, “Dressed-field pulses in an absorbing medium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 56-59 (1994).

[CrossRef]

D. C. MacPherson, R. C. Swanson, and J. L. Carlsten, “Spontaneous solitons in stimulated Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. A 40, 6745-6747 (1989).

[CrossRef]

H. Steudel, “N-soliton solutions to degenerate self-induced transparency,” J. Mod. Opt. 35, 693-702 (1988).

[CrossRef]

J. C. Englund and C. M. Bowden, “Spontaneous generation of Raman solitons from quantum noise,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2661-2663 (1986).

[CrossRef]

J. R. Ackerhalt and P. W. Milonni, “Solitons and four-wave mixing,” Phys. Rev. A 33, 3185-3198 (1986).

[CrossRef]

F. T. Hioe and J. H. Eberly, “Multiple-laser excitation of multilevel atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 29, 1164-1167 (1984).

[CrossRef]

K. Drühl, R. G. Wenzel and J. L. Carlsten, “Observation of solitons in stimulated Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 1171-1174 (1983).

[CrossRef]

M. J. Konopnicki and J. H. Eberly, “Simultaneous propagation of short different-wavelength optical pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 24, 2567-2583 (1981).

[CrossRef]

G. L. Lamb, Jr., “Analytical descriptions of ultrashort optical pulse propagation in a resonant medium,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 43, 99-124 (1971).

[CrossRef]

R. K. Bullough and F. Ahmad, “Exact solutions of the self-induced transparency equations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 27, 330-333 (1971).

[CrossRef]

S. L. McCall and E. L. Hahn, “Self-induced transparency by pulsed coherent light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 18, 908-911 (1967).

[CrossRef]

J. R. Ackerhalt and P. W. Milonni, “Solitons and four-wave mixing,” Phys. Rev. A 33, 3185-3198 (1986).

[CrossRef]

G. S. Agarwal and T. N. Dey, “Fast light solitons in resonant media,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 043806 (2007).

[CrossRef]

P. K. Panigrahi and G. S. Agarwal, “Existence of superposition solutions for pulse propagation in nonlinear resonant media,” Phys. Rev. A 67, 033817 (2003).

[CrossRef]

G. S. Agarwal and J. H. Eberly, “Continuous-probe solutions for self-similar pulses in four-level systems,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 013404 (2000).

[CrossRef]

G. Vemuri, G. S. Agarwal, and K. V. Vasavada, “Cloning, dragging, and parametric amplification of solitons in a coherently driven, nonabsorbing system,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 3889-3892 (1997).

[CrossRef]

R. K. Bullough and F. Ahmad, “Exact solutions of the self-induced transparency equations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 27, 330-333 (1971).

[CrossRef]

L. Allen and J. H. Eberly, Optical Resonance and Two-Level Atoms (Dover, 1987).

L. V. Hau, S. E. Harris, Z. Dutton, and C. H. Behroozi, “Light speed reduction to 17 meterspersecond in an ultracold atomic gas,” Nature 397, 594-598 (1999).

[CrossRef]

A. V. Rybin, I. P. Vadeiko, and A. R. Bishop, “Theory of slow-light solitons,” Phys. Rev. E 72, 026613 (2005).

[CrossRef]

J. C. Englund and C. M. Bowden, “Spontaneous generation of Raman solitons from quantum noise,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2661-2663 (1986).

[CrossRef]

R. K. Bullough and F. Ahmad, “Exact solutions of the self-induced transparency equations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 27, 330-333 (1971).

[CrossRef]

D. C. MacPherson, R. C. Swanson, and J. L. Carlsten, “Spontaneous solitons in stimulated Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. A 40, 6745-6747 (1989).

[CrossRef]

K. Drühl, R. G. Wenzel and J. L. Carlsten, “Observation of solitons in stimulated Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 1171-1174 (1983).

[CrossRef]

E. Groves, B. D. Clader, and J. H. Eberly, “Multipulse quantum control: exact solutions,” Opt. Lett. 34, 2539-2541 (2009).

[CrossRef]

B. D. Clader and J. H. Eberly, “Two-pulse propagation in a partially phase-coherent medium,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 033803 (2008).

[CrossRef]

B. D. Clader and J. H. Eberly, “Theoretical study of fast light with short sech pulses in coherent gain media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 916-921 (2007).

[CrossRef]

B. D. Clader and J. H. Eberly, “Two-pulse propagation in media with quantum-mixed ground states,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 053812 (2007).

[CrossRef]

B. D. Clader, Q-Han Park, and J. H. Eberly, “Fast light in fully coherent gain media,” Opt. Lett. 31, 2921-2923 (2006).

[CrossRef]

C. Hang, G. Huang, and L. Deng, “Generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equation and ultraslow optical solitons in a cold four-state atomic system,” Phys. Rev. E 73, 036607 (2006).

[CrossRef]

C. Hang, G. Huang, and L. Deng, “Stable high-dimensional spatial weak-light solitons in a resonant three-state atomic system,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 046601 (2006).

[CrossRef]

G. Huang, L. Deng, and M. G. Payne, “Dynamics of ultraslow optical solitons in a cold three-state atomic system,” Phys. Rev. E 72, 016617 (2005).

[CrossRef]

L. Deng, M. G. Payne, G. Huang, and E. W. Hagley, “Formation and propagation of matched and coupled ultraslow optical soliton pairs in a four-level double-Λ system,” Phys. Rev. E 72, 055601(R) (2005).

[CrossRef]

Y. Wu and L. Deng, “Ultraslow optical solitons in a cold four-state medium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 143904 (2004).

[CrossRef]

G. S. Agarwal and T. N. Dey, “Fast light solitons in resonant media,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 043806 (2007).

[CrossRef]

K. Drühl, R. G. Wenzel and J. L. Carlsten, “Observation of solitons in stimulated Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 1171-1174 (1983).

[CrossRef]

L. V. Hau, S. E. Harris, Z. Dutton, and C. H. Behroozi, “Light speed reduction to 17 meterspersecond in an ultracold atomic gas,” Nature 397, 594-598 (1999).

[CrossRef]

Z. Dutton, “Ultraslow, stopped, and compressed light in Bose-Einstein condensates,” Ph.D. thesis, (Harvard Univ., 2002), pp. 312-314.

E. Groves, B. D. Clader, and J. H. Eberly, “Multipulse quantum control: exact solutions,” Opt. Lett. 34, 2539-2541 (2009).

[CrossRef]

B. D. Clader and J. H. Eberly, “Two-pulse propagation in a partially phase-coherent medium,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 033803 (2008).

[CrossRef]

B. D. Clader and J. H. Eberly, “Theoretical study of fast light with short sech pulses in coherent gain media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 916-921 (2007).

[CrossRef]

B. D. Clader and J. H. Eberly, “Two-pulse propagation in media with quantum-mixed ground states,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 053812 (2007).

[CrossRef]

B. D. Clader, Q-Han Park, and J. H. Eberly, “Fast light in fully coherent gain media,” Opt. Lett. 31, 2921-2923 (2006).

[CrossRef]

G. S. Agarwal and J. H. Eberly, “Continuous-probe solutions for self-similar pulses in four-level systems,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 013404 (2000).

[CrossRef]

A. Rahman and J. H. Eberly, “Theory of shape-preserving short pulses in inhomogeneously broadened three-level media,” Phys. Rev. A 58, R805-R808 (1998).

[CrossRef]

R. Grobe and J. H. Eberly, “Adiabatons-new forms of induced transparency in three-level media,” Laser Phys. 5, 542-546 (1995).

J. H. Eberly, M. L. Pons, and H. R. Haq, “Dressed-field pulses in an absorbing medium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 56-59 (1994).

[CrossRef]

R. Grobe, F. T. Hioe, and J. H. Eberly, “Formation of shape-preserving pulses in a nonlinear adiabatically integrable system,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3183-3186 (1994).

[CrossRef]

F. T. Hioe and J. H. Eberly, “Multiple-laser excitation of multilevel atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 29, 1164-1167 (1984).

[CrossRef]

M. J. Konopnicki and J. H. Eberly, “Simultaneous propagation of short different-wavelength optical pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 24, 2567-2583 (1981).

[CrossRef]

L. Allen and J. H. Eberly, Optical Resonance and Two-Level Atoms (Dover, 1987).

J. C. Englund and C. M. Bowden, “Spontaneous generation of Raman solitons from quantum noise,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2661-2663 (1986).

[CrossRef]

M. Fleischhauer, A. Imamoglu, and J. P. Marangos, “Electromagnetically induced transparency: optics in coherent media,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 77, 633-673 (2005), and references therein.

[CrossRef]

M. Fleischhauer and A. S. Manka, “Propagation of laser pulses and coherent population transfer in dissipative three-level systems: an adiabatic dressed-state picture,” Phys. Rev. A 54, 794-803 (1996).

[CrossRef]

M. M. Kash, V. A. Sautenkov, A. S. Zibrov, L. Hollberg, G. R. Welch, M. D. Lukin, Y. Rostovtsev, E. S. Fry, and M. O. Scully, “Ultraslow group velocity and enhanced nonlinear optical effects in a coherently driven hot atomic gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 5229-5232 (1999).

[CrossRef]

R. Grobe and J. H. Eberly, “Adiabatons-new forms of induced transparency in three-level media,” Laser Phys. 5, 542-546 (1995).

R. Grobe, F. T. Hioe, and J. H. Eberly, “Formation of shape-preserving pulses in a nonlinear adiabatically integrable system,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3183-3186 (1994).

[CrossRef]

L. Deng, M. G. Payne, G. Huang, and E. W. Hagley, “Formation and propagation of matched and coupled ultraslow optical soliton pairs in a four-level double-Λ system,” Phys. Rev. E 72, 055601(R) (2005).

[CrossRef]

S. L. McCall and E. L. Hahn, “Self-induced transparency by pulsed coherent light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 18, 908-911 (1967).

[CrossRef]

Q. Han Park and H. J. Shin, “Matched pulse propagation in a three-level system,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 4643-4653 (1998).

[CrossRef]

C. Hang and G. Huang, “Ultraslow optical solitons in a four-level tripod atomic system,” Phys. Lett. A 372, 3129-3135 (2008).

[CrossRef]

C. Hang, G. Huang, and L. Deng, “Stable high-dimensional spatial weak-light solitons in a resonant three-state atomic system,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 046601 (2006).

[CrossRef]

C. Hang, G. Huang, and L. Deng, “Generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equation and ultraslow optical solitons in a cold four-state atomic system,” Phys. Rev. E 73, 036607 (2006).

[CrossRef]

J. H. Eberly, M. L. Pons, and H. R. Haq, “Dressed-field pulses in an absorbing medium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 56-59 (1994).

[CrossRef]

L. V. Hau, S. E. Harris, Z. Dutton, and C. H. Behroozi, “Light speed reduction to 17 meterspersecond in an ultracold atomic gas,” Nature 397, 594-598 (1999).

[CrossRef]

A. Kasapi, M. Jain, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, “Electromagnetically induced transparency: propagation dynamics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2447-2450 (1995).

[CrossRef]

L. V. Hau, S. E. Harris, Z. Dutton, and C. H. Behroozi, “Light speed reduction to 17 meterspersecond in an ultracold atomic gas,” Nature 397, 594-598 (1999).

[CrossRef]

F. T. Hioe, “Adiabatic shape preservation and solitary waves in a five-level atomic medium,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 063807 (2008).

[CrossRef]

F. T. Hioe, “Analytic solutions of some coupled nonlinear equations,” Phys. Rev. E 56, 7253-7256 (1997).

[CrossRef]

R. Grobe, F. T. Hioe, and J. H. Eberly, “Formation of shape-preserving pulses in a nonlinear adiabatically integrable system,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3183-3186 (1994).

[CrossRef]

F. T. Hioe and J. H. Eberly, “Multiple-laser excitation of multilevel atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 29, 1164-1167 (1984).

[CrossRef]

M. M. Kash, V. A. Sautenkov, A. S. Zibrov, L. Hollberg, G. R. Welch, M. D. Lukin, Y. Rostovtsev, E. S. Fry, and M. O. Scully, “Ultraslow group velocity and enhanced nonlinear optical effects in a coherently driven hot atomic gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 5229-5232 (1999).

[CrossRef]

H.-J. Li and G. Huang, “Two-component spatial optical solitons in a four-state ladder system via electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Lett. A 372, 4127-4134 (2008).

[CrossRef]

C. Hang and G. Huang, “Ultraslow optical solitons in a four-level tripod atomic system,” Phys. Lett. A 372, 3129-3135 (2008).

[CrossRef]

C. Hang, G. Huang, and L. Deng, “Stable high-dimensional spatial weak-light solitons in a resonant three-state atomic system,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 046601 (2006).

[CrossRef]

C. Hang, G. Huang, and L. Deng, “Generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equation and ultraslow optical solitons in a cold four-state atomic system,” Phys. Rev. E 73, 036607 (2006).

[CrossRef]

G. Huang, L. Deng, and M. G. Payne, “Dynamics of ultraslow optical solitons in a cold three-state atomic system,” Phys. Rev. E 72, 016617 (2005).

[CrossRef]

L. Deng, M. G. Payne, G. Huang, and E. W. Hagley, “Formation and propagation of matched and coupled ultraslow optical soliton pairs in a four-level double-Λ system,” Phys. Rev. E 72, 055601(R) (2005).

[CrossRef]

A. Kasapi, M. Jain, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, “Electromagnetically induced transparency: propagation dynamics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2447-2450 (1995).

[CrossRef]

H. Kang and Y. Zhu, “Observation of large Kerr nonlinearity at low light intensities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 093601 (2003).

[CrossRef]

A. E. Kaplan and P. L. Shkolnikov, “Electromagnetic bubbles and shock waves: unipolar, nonoscillating EM solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 2316-2319 (1995).

[CrossRef]

A. Kasapi, M. Jain, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, “Electromagnetically induced transparency: propagation dynamics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2447-2450 (1995).

[CrossRef]

M. M. Kash, V. A. Sautenkov, A. S. Zibrov, L. Hollberg, G. R. Welch, M. D. Lukin, Y. Rostovtsev, E. S. Fry, and M. O. Scully, “Ultraslow group velocity and enhanced nonlinear optical effects in a coherently driven hot atomic gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 5229-5232 (1999).

[CrossRef]

M. J. Konopnicki and J. H. Eberly, “Simultaneous propagation of short different-wavelength optical pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 24, 2567-2583 (1981).

[CrossRef]

G. L. Lamb, Jr., “Analytical descriptions of ultrashort optical pulse propagation in a resonant medium,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 43, 99-124 (1971).

[CrossRef]

H.-J. Li and G. Huang, “Two-component spatial optical solitons in a four-state ladder system via electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Lett. A 372, 4127-4134 (2008).

[CrossRef]

M. M. Kash, V. A. Sautenkov, A. S. Zibrov, L. Hollberg, G. R. Welch, M. D. Lukin, Y. Rostovtsev, E. S. Fry, and M. O. Scully, “Ultraslow group velocity and enhanced nonlinear optical effects in a coherently driven hot atomic gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 5229-5232 (1999).

[CrossRef]

D. C. MacPherson, R. C. Swanson, and J. L. Carlsten, “Spontaneous solitons in stimulated Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. A 40, 6745-6747 (1989).

[CrossRef]

M. Fleischhauer and A. S. Manka, “Propagation of laser pulses and coherent population transfer in dissipative three-level systems: an adiabatic dressed-state picture,” Phys. Rev. A 54, 794-803 (1996).

[CrossRef]

M. Fleischhauer, A. Imamoglu, and J. P. Marangos, “Electromagnetically induced transparency: optics in coherent media,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 77, 633-673 (2005), and references therein.

[CrossRef]

S. L. McCall and E. L. Hahn, “Self-induced transparency by pulsed coherent light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 18, 908-911 (1967).

[CrossRef]

J. R. Ackerhalt and P. W. Milonni, “Solitons and four-wave mixing,” Phys. Rev. A 33, 3185-3198 (1986).

[CrossRef]

A. Newell and J. V. Moloney, Nonlinear Optics (Addison-Wesley, 1992).

A. Newell and J. V. Moloney, Nonlinear Optics (Addison-Wesley, 1992).

C. Ottaviani, S. Rebić, D. Vitali, and P. Tombesi, “Cross phase modulation in a five-level atomic medium: semiclassical theory,” Eur. Phys. J. D 40, 281-296 (2006).

[CrossRef]

P. K. Panigrahi and G. S. Agarwal, “Existence of superposition solutions for pulse propagation in nonlinear resonant media,” Phys. Rev. A 67, 033817 (2003).

[CrossRef]

G. Huang, L. Deng, and M. G. Payne, “Dynamics of ultraslow optical solitons in a cold three-state atomic system,” Phys. Rev. E 72, 016617 (2005).

[CrossRef]

L. Deng, M. G. Payne, G. Huang, and E. W. Hagley, “Formation and propagation of matched and coupled ultraslow optical soliton pairs in a four-level double-Λ system,” Phys. Rev. E 72, 055601(R) (2005).

[CrossRef]

J. H. Eberly, M. L. Pons, and H. R. Haq, “Dressed-field pulses in an absorbing medium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 56-59 (1994).

[CrossRef]

A. Rahman and J. H. Eberly, “Theory of shape-preserving short pulses in inhomogeneously broadened three-level media,” Phys. Rev. A 58, R805-R808 (1998).

[CrossRef]

C. Ottaviani, S. Rebić, D. Vitali, and P. Tombesi, “Cross phase modulation in a five-level atomic medium: semiclassical theory,” Eur. Phys. J. D 40, 281-296 (2006).

[CrossRef]

M. M. Kash, V. A. Sautenkov, A. S. Zibrov, L. Hollberg, G. R. Welch, M. D. Lukin, Y. Rostovtsev, E. S. Fry, and M. O. Scully, “Ultraslow group velocity and enhanced nonlinear optical effects in a coherently driven hot atomic gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 5229-5232 (1999).

[CrossRef]

A. V. Rybin, I. P. Vadeiko, and A. R. Bishop, “Theory of slow-light solitons,” Phys. Rev. E 72, 026613 (2005).

[CrossRef]

M. M. Kash, V. A. Sautenkov, A. S. Zibrov, L. Hollberg, G. R. Welch, M. D. Lukin, Y. Rostovtsev, E. S. Fry, and M. O. Scully, “Ultraslow group velocity and enhanced nonlinear optical effects in a coherently driven hot atomic gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 5229-5232 (1999).

[CrossRef]

M. M. Kash, V. A. Sautenkov, A. S. Zibrov, L. Hollberg, G. R. Welch, M. D. Lukin, Y. Rostovtsev, E. S. Fry, and M. O. Scully, “Ultraslow group velocity and enhanced nonlinear optical effects in a coherently driven hot atomic gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 5229-5232 (1999).

[CrossRef]

Q. Han Park and H. J. Shin, “Matched pulse propagation in a three-level system,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 4643-4653 (1998).

[CrossRef]

A. E. Kaplan and P. L. Shkolnikov, “Electromagnetic bubbles and shock waves: unipolar, nonoscillating EM solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 2316-2319 (1995).

[CrossRef]

B. W. Shore, The Theory of Coherent Atomic Excitations (Wiley, 1992), Chap. 22.

H. Steudel, “N-soliton solutions to degenerate self-induced transparency,” J. Mod. Opt. 35, 693-702 (1988).

[CrossRef]

D. C. MacPherson, R. C. Swanson, and J. L. Carlsten, “Spontaneous solitons in stimulated Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. A 40, 6745-6747 (1989).

[CrossRef]

C. Ottaviani, S. Rebić, D. Vitali, and P. Tombesi, “Cross phase modulation in a five-level atomic medium: semiclassical theory,” Eur. Phys. J. D 40, 281-296 (2006).

[CrossRef]

A. V. Rybin, I. P. Vadeiko, and A. R. Bishop, “Theory of slow-light solitons,” Phys. Rev. E 72, 026613 (2005).

[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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