Abstract

We study nonlinear excitations in a lifetime-broadened Λ-type three-level atomic system with a configuration of electromagnetically induced transparency. Different from previous works, we show that a significant depletion of the control field may occur during the formation and propagation of ultraslow optical solitons for the probe field. We demonstrate that ultraslow optical solitons predicted in previous works correspond to the limits of weak dispersion and weak nonlinearity, adiabatons correspond to the limits of stronger dispersion and stronger nonlinearity, and simultons correspond to the limits of strong dispersion and strong nonlinearity. Between these different limits the system also yields solitonlike nonlinear excitations with different levels of depletion of the control field. The results provided here are useful not only for a deep understanding of the interrelation between ultraslow optical solitons, adiabatons, and simultons, but also for potential applications in optical information processing and transmission.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  3. H. Kang and Y. Zhu, “Observation of large Kerr nonlinearity at low light intensities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 093601 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
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  5. M. M. Kash, V. A. Sautenkov, A. S. Zibrov, L. Hollberg, G. R. Welch, M. D. Lukin, Y. Rostovtsev, E. S. Fry, and M. O. Scully, “Ultraslow group velocity and enhanced nonlinear optical effects in a coherently driven hot atomic gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 5229-5232 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Y. Wu and L. Deng, “Ultraslow optical solitons in a cold four-state medium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 143904 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. G. Huang, L. Deng, and M. G. Payne, “Dynamics of ultraslow optical solitons in a cold three-state atomic system,” Phys. Rev. E 72, 016617 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  8. L. Deng, M. G. Payne, G. Huang, and E. W. Hagley, “Formation and propagation of matched and coupled ultraslow optical soliton pairs in a four-level double-Λ system,” Phys. Rev. E 72, 055601(R) (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  9. C. Hang, G. Huang, and L. Deng, “Generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equation and ultraslow optical solitons in a cold four-state atomic system,” Phys. Rev. E 73, 036607 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  10. C. Hang, G. Huang, and L. Deng, “Stable high-dimensional spatial weak-light solitons in a resonant three-state atomic system,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 046601 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  11. C. Hang and G. Huang, “Ultraslow optical solitons in a four-level tripod atomic system,” Phys. Lett. A 372, 3129-3135 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  12. H.-J. Li and G. Huang, “Two-component spatial optical solitons in a four-state ladder system via electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Lett. A 372, 4127-4134 (2008).
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  19. F. T. Hioe and J. H. Eberly, “Multiple-laser excitation of multilevel atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 29, 1164-1167 (1984).
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  20. H. Steudel, “N-soliton solutions to degenerate self-induced transparency,” J. Mod. Opt. 35, 693-702 (1988).
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  21. R. Grobe, F. T. Hioe, and J. H. Eberly, “Formation of shape-preserving pulses in a nonlinear adiabatically integrable system,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3183-3186 (1994).
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  22. J. H. Eberly, M. L. Pons, and H. R. Haq, “Dressed-field pulses in an absorbing medium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 56-59 (1994).
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  23. A. E. Kaplan and P. L. Shkolnikov, “Electromagnetic bubbles and shock waves: unipolar, nonoscillating EM solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 2316-2319 (1995).
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  24. R. Grobe and J. H. Eberly, “Adiabatons-new forms of induced transparency in three-level media,” Laser Phys. 5, 542-546 (1995).
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    [CrossRef]
  26. M. Fleischhauer and A. S. Manka, “Propagation of laser pulses and coherent population transfer in dissipative three-level systems: an adiabatic dressed-state picture,” Phys. Rev. A 54, 794-803 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  27. G. Vemuri, G. S. Agarwal, and K. V. Vasavada, “Cloning, dragging, and parametric amplification of solitons in a coherently driven, nonabsorbing system,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 3889-3892 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  28. F. T. Hioe, “Analytic solutions of some coupled nonlinear equations,” Phys. Rev. E 56, 7253-7256 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  29. Q. Han Park and H. J. Shin, “Matched pulse propagation in a three-level system,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 4643-4653 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  30. A. Rahman and J. H. Eberly, “Theory of shape-preserving short pulses in inhomogeneously broadened three-level media,” Phys. Rev. A 58, R805-R808 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  31. G. S. Agarwal and J. H. Eberly, “Continuous-probe solutions for self-similar pulses in four-level systems,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 013404 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  32. P. K. Panigrahi and G. S. Agarwal, “Existence of superposition solutions for pulse propagation in nonlinear resonant media,” Phys. Rev. A 67, 033817 (2003).
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  33. A. V. Rybin, I. P. Vadeiko, and A. R. Bishop, “Theory of slow-light solitons,” Phys. Rev. E 72, 026613 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  34. B. D. Clader, Q-Han Park, and J. H. Eberly, “Fast light in fully coherent gain media,” Opt. Lett. 31, 2921-2923 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  35. B. D. Clader and J. H. Eberly, “Theoretical study of fast light with short sech pulses in coherent gain media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 916-921 (2007).
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  36. B. D. Clader and J. H. Eberly, “Two-pulse propagation in media with quantum-mixed ground states,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 053812 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  37. G. S. Agarwal and T. N. Dey, “Fast light solitons in resonant media,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 043806 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  38. A. A. Zabolotskii, “Solution of the reduced anisotropic Maxwell-Bloch equations by using the Riemann-Hilbert problem,” Phys. Rev. E 75, 036612 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  39. B. D. Clader and J. H. Eberly, “Two-pulse propagation in a partially phase-coherent medium,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 033803 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  40. F. T. Hioe, “Adiabatic shape preservation and solitary waves in a five-level atomic medium,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 063807 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  41. E. Groves, B. D. Clader, and J. H. Eberly, “Multipulse quantum control: exact solutions,” Opt. Lett. 34, 2539-2541 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  42. K. Drühl, R. G. Wenzel and J. L. Carlsten, “Observation of solitons in stimulated Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 1171-1174 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  43. J. C. Englund and C. M. Bowden, “Spontaneous generation of Raman solitons from quantum noise,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2661-2663 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  44. D. C. MacPherson, R. C. Swanson, and J. L. Carlsten, “Spontaneous solitons in stimulated Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. A 40, 6745-6747 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  45. R. V. Chulkov, A. S. Grabtchikov, V. A. Lisinetckii, V. A. Orlovich, and O. V. Chehlov, “Generation of Raman solitons with a different relative phase by optical phase jump,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 2829-2836 (2007), and references therein.
    [CrossRef]
  46. J. R. Ackerhalt and P. W. Milonni, “Solitons and four-wave mixing,” Phys. Rev. A 33, 3185-3198 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  47. Z. Dutton, “Ultraslow, stopped, and compressed light in Bose-Einstein condensates,” Ph.D. thesis, (Harvard Univ., 2002), pp. 312-314.
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    [CrossRef]
  49. B. W. Shore, The Theory of Coherent Atomic Excitations (Wiley, 1992), Chap. 22.

2009 (1)

2008 (4)

C. Hang and G. Huang, “Ultraslow optical solitons in a four-level tripod atomic system,” Phys. Lett. A 372, 3129-3135 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H.-J. Li and G. Huang, “Two-component spatial optical solitons in a four-state ladder system via electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Lett. A 372, 4127-4134 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. D. Clader and J. H. Eberly, “Two-pulse propagation in a partially phase-coherent medium,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 033803 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. T. Hioe, “Adiabatic shape preservation and solitary waves in a five-level atomic medium,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 063807 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (5)

B. D. Clader and J. H. Eberly, “Two-pulse propagation in media with quantum-mixed ground states,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 053812 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Agarwal and T. N. Dey, “Fast light solitons in resonant media,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 043806 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Zabolotskii, “Solution of the reduced anisotropic Maxwell-Bloch equations by using the Riemann-Hilbert problem,” Phys. Rev. E 75, 036612 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. D. Clader and J. H. Eberly, “Theoretical study of fast light with short sech pulses in coherent gain media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 916-921 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. V. Chulkov, A. S. Grabtchikov, V. A. Lisinetckii, V. A. Orlovich, and O. V. Chehlov, “Generation of Raman solitons with a different relative phase by optical phase jump,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 2829-2836 (2007), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

2006 (4)

B. D. Clader, Q-Han Park, and J. H. Eberly, “Fast light in fully coherent gain media,” Opt. Lett. 31, 2921-2923 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Ottaviani, S. Rebić, D. Vitali, and P. Tombesi, “Cross phase modulation in a five-level atomic medium: semiclassical theory,” Eur. Phys. J. D 40, 281-296 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Hang, G. Huang, and L. Deng, “Generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equation and ultraslow optical solitons in a cold four-state atomic system,” Phys. Rev. E 73, 036607 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Hang, G. Huang, and L. Deng, “Stable high-dimensional spatial weak-light solitons in a resonant three-state atomic system,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 046601 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (4)

G. Huang, L. Deng, and M. G. Payne, “Dynamics of ultraslow optical solitons in a cold three-state atomic system,” Phys. Rev. E 72, 016617 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Deng, M. G. Payne, G. Huang, and E. W. Hagley, “Formation and propagation of matched and coupled ultraslow optical soliton pairs in a four-level double-Λ system,” Phys. Rev. E 72, 055601(R) (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Rybin, I. P. Vadeiko, and A. R. Bishop, “Theory of slow-light solitons,” Phys. Rev. E 72, 026613 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Fleischhauer, A. Imamoglu, and J. P. Marangos, “Electromagnetically induced transparency: optics in coherent media,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 77, 633-673 (2005), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

Y. Wu and L. Deng, “Ultraslow optical solitons in a cold four-state medium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 143904 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

H. Kang and Y. Zhu, “Observation of large Kerr nonlinearity at low light intensities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 093601 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. K. Panigrahi and G. S. Agarwal, “Existence of superposition solutions for pulse propagation in nonlinear resonant media,” Phys. Rev. A 67, 033817 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

G. S. Agarwal and J. H. Eberly, “Continuous-probe solutions for self-similar pulses in four-level systems,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 013404 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

L. V. Hau, S. E. Harris, Z. Dutton, and C. H. Behroozi, “Light speed reduction to 17 meterspersecond in an ultracold atomic gas,” Nature 397, 594-598 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Kash, V. A. Sautenkov, A. S. Zibrov, L. Hollberg, G. R. Welch, M. D. Lukin, Y. Rostovtsev, E. S. Fry, and M. O. Scully, “Ultraslow group velocity and enhanced nonlinear optical effects in a coherently driven hot atomic gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 5229-5232 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

Q. Han Park and H. J. Shin, “Matched pulse propagation in a three-level system,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 4643-4653 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Rahman and J. H. Eberly, “Theory of shape-preserving short pulses in inhomogeneously broadened three-level media,” Phys. Rev. A 58, R805-R808 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

G. Vemuri, G. S. Agarwal, and K. V. Vasavada, “Cloning, dragging, and parametric amplification of solitons in a coherently driven, nonabsorbing system,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 3889-3892 (1997).
[CrossRef]

F. T. Hioe, “Analytic solutions of some coupled nonlinear equations,” Phys. Rev. E 56, 7253-7256 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

M. Fleischhauer and A. S. Manka, “Propagation of laser pulses and coherent population transfer in dissipative three-level systems: an adiabatic dressed-state picture,” Phys. Rev. A 54, 794-803 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. Schmidt and A. Imamoglu, “Giant Kerr nonlinearities obtained by electromagnetically induced transparency,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1936-1938 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (3)

A. E. Kaplan and P. L. Shkolnikov, “Electromagnetic bubbles and shock waves: unipolar, nonoscillating EM solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 2316-2319 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. Grobe and J. H. Eberly, “Adiabatons-new forms of induced transparency in three-level media,” Laser Phys. 5, 542-546 (1995).

A. Kasapi, M. Jain, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, “Electromagnetically induced transparency: propagation dynamics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2447-2450 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

R. Grobe, F. T. Hioe, and J. H. Eberly, “Formation of shape-preserving pulses in a nonlinear adiabatically integrable system,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3183-3186 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Eberly, M. L. Pons, and H. R. Haq, “Dressed-field pulses in an absorbing medium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 56-59 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

D. C. MacPherson, R. C. Swanson, and J. L. Carlsten, “Spontaneous solitons in stimulated Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. A 40, 6745-6747 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

H. Steudel, “N-soliton solutions to degenerate self-induced transparency,” J. Mod. Opt. 35, 693-702 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1986 (2)

J. C. Englund and C. M. Bowden, “Spontaneous generation of Raman solitons from quantum noise,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2661-2663 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Ackerhalt and P. W. Milonni, “Solitons and four-wave mixing,” Phys. Rev. A 33, 3185-3198 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

F. T. Hioe and J. H. Eberly, “Multiple-laser excitation of multilevel atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 29, 1164-1167 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

K. Drühl, R. G. Wenzel and J. L. Carlsten, “Observation of solitons in stimulated Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 1171-1174 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

M. J. Konopnicki and J. H. Eberly, “Simultaneous propagation of short different-wavelength optical pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 24, 2567-2583 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1971 (2)

G. L. Lamb, Jr., “Analytical descriptions of ultrashort optical pulse propagation in a resonant medium,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 43, 99-124 (1971).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Bullough and F. Ahmad, “Exact solutions of the self-induced transparency equations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 27, 330-333 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1967 (1)

S. L. McCall and E. L. Hahn, “Self-induced transparency by pulsed coherent light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 18, 908-911 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Ackerhalt, J. R.

J. R. Ackerhalt and P. W. Milonni, “Solitons and four-wave mixing,” Phys. Rev. A 33, 3185-3198 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Agarwal, G. S.

G. S. Agarwal and T. N. Dey, “Fast light solitons in resonant media,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 043806 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. K. Panigrahi and G. S. Agarwal, “Existence of superposition solutions for pulse propagation in nonlinear resonant media,” Phys. Rev. A 67, 033817 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Agarwal and J. H. Eberly, “Continuous-probe solutions for self-similar pulses in four-level systems,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 013404 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Vemuri, G. S. Agarwal, and K. V. Vasavada, “Cloning, dragging, and parametric amplification of solitons in a coherently driven, nonabsorbing system,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 3889-3892 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ahmad, F.

R. K. Bullough and F. Ahmad, “Exact solutions of the self-induced transparency equations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 27, 330-333 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Allen, L.

L. Allen and J. H. Eberly, Optical Resonance and Two-Level Atoms (Dover, 1987).

Behroozi, C. H.

L. V. Hau, S. E. Harris, Z. Dutton, and C. H. Behroozi, “Light speed reduction to 17 meterspersecond in an ultracold atomic gas,” Nature 397, 594-598 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bishop, A. R.

A. V. Rybin, I. P. Vadeiko, and A. R. Bishop, “Theory of slow-light solitons,” Phys. Rev. E 72, 026613 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bowden, C. M.

J. C. Englund and C. M. Bowden, “Spontaneous generation of Raman solitons from quantum noise,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2661-2663 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Bullough, R. K.

R. K. Bullough and F. Ahmad, “Exact solutions of the self-induced transparency equations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 27, 330-333 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Carlsten, J. L.

D. C. MacPherson, R. C. Swanson, and J. L. Carlsten, “Spontaneous solitons in stimulated Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. A 40, 6745-6747 (1989).
[CrossRef]

K. Drühl, R. G. Wenzel and J. L. Carlsten, “Observation of solitons in stimulated Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 1171-1174 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Chehlov, O. V.

Chulkov, R. V.

Clader, B. D.

Deng, L.

C. Hang, G. Huang, and L. Deng, “Generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equation and ultraslow optical solitons in a cold four-state atomic system,” Phys. Rev. E 73, 036607 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Hang, G. Huang, and L. Deng, “Stable high-dimensional spatial weak-light solitons in a resonant three-state atomic system,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 046601 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Huang, L. Deng, and M. G. Payne, “Dynamics of ultraslow optical solitons in a cold three-state atomic system,” Phys. Rev. E 72, 016617 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Deng, M. G. Payne, G. Huang, and E. W. Hagley, “Formation and propagation of matched and coupled ultraslow optical soliton pairs in a four-level double-Λ system,” Phys. Rev. E 72, 055601(R) (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wu and L. Deng, “Ultraslow optical solitons in a cold four-state medium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 143904 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dey, T. N.

G. S. Agarwal and T. N. Dey, “Fast light solitons in resonant media,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 043806 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Drühl, K.

K. Drühl, R. G. Wenzel and J. L. Carlsten, “Observation of solitons in stimulated Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 1171-1174 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Dutton, Z.

L. V. Hau, S. E. Harris, Z. Dutton, and C. H. Behroozi, “Light speed reduction to 17 meterspersecond in an ultracold atomic gas,” Nature 397, 594-598 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Z. Dutton, “Ultraslow, stopped, and compressed light in Bose-Einstein condensates,” Ph.D. thesis, (Harvard Univ., 2002), pp. 312-314.

Eberly, J. H.

E. Groves, B. D. Clader, and J. H. Eberly, “Multipulse quantum control: exact solutions,” Opt. Lett. 34, 2539-2541 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. D. Clader and J. H. Eberly, “Two-pulse propagation in a partially phase-coherent medium,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 033803 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. D. Clader and J. H. Eberly, “Theoretical study of fast light with short sech pulses in coherent gain media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 916-921 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. D. Clader and J. H. Eberly, “Two-pulse propagation in media with quantum-mixed ground states,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 053812 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. D. Clader, Q-Han Park, and J. H. Eberly, “Fast light in fully coherent gain media,” Opt. Lett. 31, 2921-2923 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Agarwal and J. H. Eberly, “Continuous-probe solutions for self-similar pulses in four-level systems,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 013404 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Rahman and J. H. Eberly, “Theory of shape-preserving short pulses in inhomogeneously broadened three-level media,” Phys. Rev. A 58, R805-R808 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Grobe and J. H. Eberly, “Adiabatons-new forms of induced transparency in three-level media,” Laser Phys. 5, 542-546 (1995).

J. H. Eberly, M. L. Pons, and H. R. Haq, “Dressed-field pulses in an absorbing medium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 56-59 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. Grobe, F. T. Hioe, and J. H. Eberly, “Formation of shape-preserving pulses in a nonlinear adiabatically integrable system,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3183-3186 (1994).
[CrossRef]

F. T. Hioe and J. H. Eberly, “Multiple-laser excitation of multilevel atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 29, 1164-1167 (1984).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Konopnicki and J. H. Eberly, “Simultaneous propagation of short different-wavelength optical pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 24, 2567-2583 (1981).
[CrossRef]

L. Allen and J. H. Eberly, Optical Resonance and Two-Level Atoms (Dover, 1987).

Englund, J. C.

J. C. Englund and C. M. Bowden, “Spontaneous generation of Raman solitons from quantum noise,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2661-2663 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Fleischhauer, M.

M. Fleischhauer, A. Imamoglu, and J. P. Marangos, “Electromagnetically induced transparency: optics in coherent media,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 77, 633-673 (2005), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

M. Fleischhauer and A. S. Manka, “Propagation of laser pulses and coherent population transfer in dissipative three-level systems: an adiabatic dressed-state picture,” Phys. Rev. A 54, 794-803 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fry, E. S.

M. M. Kash, V. A. Sautenkov, A. S. Zibrov, L. Hollberg, G. R. Welch, M. D. Lukin, Y. Rostovtsev, E. S. Fry, and M. O. Scully, “Ultraslow group velocity and enhanced nonlinear optical effects in a coherently driven hot atomic gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 5229-5232 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Grabtchikov, A. S.

Grobe, R.

R. Grobe and J. H. Eberly, “Adiabatons-new forms of induced transparency in three-level media,” Laser Phys. 5, 542-546 (1995).

R. Grobe, F. T. Hioe, and J. H. Eberly, “Formation of shape-preserving pulses in a nonlinear adiabatically integrable system,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3183-3186 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Groves, E.

Hagley, E. W.

L. Deng, M. G. Payne, G. Huang, and E. W. Hagley, “Formation and propagation of matched and coupled ultraslow optical soliton pairs in a four-level double-Λ system,” Phys. Rev. E 72, 055601(R) (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hahn, E. L.

S. L. McCall and E. L. Hahn, “Self-induced transparency by pulsed coherent light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 18, 908-911 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Han Park, Q.

Q. Han Park and H. J. Shin, “Matched pulse propagation in a three-level system,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 4643-4653 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hang, C.

C. Hang and G. Huang, “Ultraslow optical solitons in a four-level tripod atomic system,” Phys. Lett. A 372, 3129-3135 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Hang, G. Huang, and L. Deng, “Stable high-dimensional spatial weak-light solitons in a resonant three-state atomic system,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 046601 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Hang, G. Huang, and L. Deng, “Generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equation and ultraslow optical solitons in a cold four-state atomic system,” Phys. Rev. E 73, 036607 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Haq, H. R.

J. H. Eberly, M. L. Pons, and H. R. Haq, “Dressed-field pulses in an absorbing medium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 56-59 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Harris, S. E.

L. V. Hau, S. E. Harris, Z. Dutton, and C. H. Behroozi, “Light speed reduction to 17 meterspersecond in an ultracold atomic gas,” Nature 397, 594-598 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Kasapi, M. Jain, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, “Electromagnetically induced transparency: propagation dynamics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2447-2450 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hau, L. V.

L. V. Hau, S. E. Harris, Z. Dutton, and C. H. Behroozi, “Light speed reduction to 17 meterspersecond in an ultracold atomic gas,” Nature 397, 594-598 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hioe, F. T.

F. T. Hioe, “Adiabatic shape preservation and solitary waves in a five-level atomic medium,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 063807 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. T. Hioe, “Analytic solutions of some coupled nonlinear equations,” Phys. Rev. E 56, 7253-7256 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Grobe, F. T. Hioe, and J. H. Eberly, “Formation of shape-preserving pulses in a nonlinear adiabatically integrable system,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3183-3186 (1994).
[CrossRef]

F. T. Hioe and J. H. Eberly, “Multiple-laser excitation of multilevel atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 29, 1164-1167 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Hollberg, L.

M. M. Kash, V. A. Sautenkov, A. S. Zibrov, L. Hollberg, G. R. Welch, M. D. Lukin, Y. Rostovtsev, E. S. Fry, and M. O. Scully, “Ultraslow group velocity and enhanced nonlinear optical effects in a coherently driven hot atomic gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 5229-5232 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Huang, G.

H.-J. Li and G. Huang, “Two-component spatial optical solitons in a four-state ladder system via electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Lett. A 372, 4127-4134 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Hang and G. Huang, “Ultraslow optical solitons in a four-level tripod atomic system,” Phys. Lett. A 372, 3129-3135 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Hang, G. Huang, and L. Deng, “Stable high-dimensional spatial weak-light solitons in a resonant three-state atomic system,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 046601 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Hang, G. Huang, and L. Deng, “Generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equation and ultraslow optical solitons in a cold four-state atomic system,” Phys. Rev. E 73, 036607 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Huang, L. Deng, and M. G. Payne, “Dynamics of ultraslow optical solitons in a cold three-state atomic system,” Phys. Rev. E 72, 016617 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Deng, M. G. Payne, G. Huang, and E. W. Hagley, “Formation and propagation of matched and coupled ultraslow optical soliton pairs in a four-level double-Λ system,” Phys. Rev. E 72, 055601(R) (2005).
[CrossRef]

Imamoglu, A.

M. Fleischhauer, A. Imamoglu, and J. P. Marangos, “Electromagnetically induced transparency: optics in coherent media,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 77, 633-673 (2005), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

H. Schmidt and A. Imamoglu, “Giant Kerr nonlinearities obtained by electromagnetically induced transparency,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1936-1938 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jain, M.

A. Kasapi, M. Jain, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, “Electromagnetically induced transparency: propagation dynamics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2447-2450 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kang, H.

H. Kang and Y. Zhu, “Observation of large Kerr nonlinearity at low light intensities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 093601 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kaplan, A. E.

A. E. Kaplan and P. L. Shkolnikov, “Electromagnetic bubbles and shock waves: unipolar, nonoscillating EM solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 2316-2319 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kasapi, A.

A. Kasapi, M. Jain, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, “Electromagnetically induced transparency: propagation dynamics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2447-2450 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kash, M. M.

M. M. Kash, V. A. Sautenkov, A. S. Zibrov, L. Hollberg, G. R. Welch, M. D. Lukin, Y. Rostovtsev, E. S. Fry, and M. O. Scully, “Ultraslow group velocity and enhanced nonlinear optical effects in a coherently driven hot atomic gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 5229-5232 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Konopnicki, M. J.

M. J. Konopnicki and J. H. Eberly, “Simultaneous propagation of short different-wavelength optical pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 24, 2567-2583 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Lamb, G. L.

G. L. Lamb, Jr., “Analytical descriptions of ultrashort optical pulse propagation in a resonant medium,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 43, 99-124 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Li, H.-J.

H.-J. Li and G. Huang, “Two-component spatial optical solitons in a four-state ladder system via electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Lett. A 372, 4127-4134 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lisinetckii, V. A.

Lukin, M. D.

M. M. Kash, V. A. Sautenkov, A. S. Zibrov, L. Hollberg, G. R. Welch, M. D. Lukin, Y. Rostovtsev, E. S. Fry, and M. O. Scully, “Ultraslow group velocity and enhanced nonlinear optical effects in a coherently driven hot atomic gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 5229-5232 (1999).
[CrossRef]

MacPherson, D. C.

D. C. MacPherson, R. C. Swanson, and J. L. Carlsten, “Spontaneous solitons in stimulated Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. A 40, 6745-6747 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Manka, A. S.

M. Fleischhauer and A. S. Manka, “Propagation of laser pulses and coherent population transfer in dissipative three-level systems: an adiabatic dressed-state picture,” Phys. Rev. A 54, 794-803 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Marangos, J. P.

M. Fleischhauer, A. Imamoglu, and J. P. Marangos, “Electromagnetically induced transparency: optics in coherent media,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 77, 633-673 (2005), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

McCall, S. L.

S. L. McCall and E. L. Hahn, “Self-induced transparency by pulsed coherent light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 18, 908-911 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Milonni, P. W.

J. R. Ackerhalt and P. W. Milonni, “Solitons and four-wave mixing,” Phys. Rev. A 33, 3185-3198 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Moloney, J. V.

A. Newell and J. V. Moloney, Nonlinear Optics (Addison-Wesley, 1992).

Newell, A.

A. Newell and J. V. Moloney, Nonlinear Optics (Addison-Wesley, 1992).

Orlovich, V. A.

Ottaviani, C.

C. Ottaviani, S. Rebić, D. Vitali, and P. Tombesi, “Cross phase modulation in a five-level atomic medium: semiclassical theory,” Eur. Phys. J. D 40, 281-296 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Panigrahi, P. K.

P. K. Panigrahi and G. S. Agarwal, “Existence of superposition solutions for pulse propagation in nonlinear resonant media,” Phys. Rev. A 67, 033817 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Park, Q-Han

Payne, M. G.

G. Huang, L. Deng, and M. G. Payne, “Dynamics of ultraslow optical solitons in a cold three-state atomic system,” Phys. Rev. E 72, 016617 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Deng, M. G. Payne, G. Huang, and E. W. Hagley, “Formation and propagation of matched and coupled ultraslow optical soliton pairs in a four-level double-Λ system,” Phys. Rev. E 72, 055601(R) (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pons, M. L.

J. H. Eberly, M. L. Pons, and H. R. Haq, “Dressed-field pulses in an absorbing medium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 56-59 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Rahman, A.

A. Rahman and J. H. Eberly, “Theory of shape-preserving short pulses in inhomogeneously broadened three-level media,” Phys. Rev. A 58, R805-R808 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rebic, S.

C. Ottaviani, S. Rebić, D. Vitali, and P. Tombesi, “Cross phase modulation in a five-level atomic medium: semiclassical theory,” Eur. Phys. J. D 40, 281-296 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rostovtsev, Y.

M. M. Kash, V. A. Sautenkov, A. S. Zibrov, L. Hollberg, G. R. Welch, M. D. Lukin, Y. Rostovtsev, E. S. Fry, and M. O. Scully, “Ultraslow group velocity and enhanced nonlinear optical effects in a coherently driven hot atomic gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 5229-5232 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rybin, A. V.

A. V. Rybin, I. P. Vadeiko, and A. R. Bishop, “Theory of slow-light solitons,” Phys. Rev. E 72, 026613 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sautenkov, V. A.

M. M. Kash, V. A. Sautenkov, A. S. Zibrov, L. Hollberg, G. R. Welch, M. D. Lukin, Y. Rostovtsev, E. S. Fry, and M. O. Scully, “Ultraslow group velocity and enhanced nonlinear optical effects in a coherently driven hot atomic gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 5229-5232 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, H.

Scully, M. O.

M. M. Kash, V. A. Sautenkov, A. S. Zibrov, L. Hollberg, G. R. Welch, M. D. Lukin, Y. Rostovtsev, E. S. Fry, and M. O. Scully, “Ultraslow group velocity and enhanced nonlinear optical effects in a coherently driven hot atomic gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 5229-5232 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Shin, H. J.

Q. Han Park and H. J. Shin, “Matched pulse propagation in a three-level system,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 4643-4653 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shkolnikov, P. L.

A. E. Kaplan and P. L. Shkolnikov, “Electromagnetic bubbles and shock waves: unipolar, nonoscillating EM solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 2316-2319 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Shore, B. W.

B. W. Shore, The Theory of Coherent Atomic Excitations (Wiley, 1992), Chap. 22.

Steudel, H.

H. Steudel, “N-soliton solutions to degenerate self-induced transparency,” J. Mod. Opt. 35, 693-702 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Swanson, R. C.

D. C. MacPherson, R. C. Swanson, and J. L. Carlsten, “Spontaneous solitons in stimulated Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. A 40, 6745-6747 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Tombesi, P.

C. Ottaviani, S. Rebić, D. Vitali, and P. Tombesi, “Cross phase modulation in a five-level atomic medium: semiclassical theory,” Eur. Phys. J. D 40, 281-296 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vadeiko, I. P.

A. V. Rybin, I. P. Vadeiko, and A. R. Bishop, “Theory of slow-light solitons,” Phys. Rev. E 72, 026613 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Vasavada, K. V.

G. Vemuri, G. S. Agarwal, and K. V. Vasavada, “Cloning, dragging, and parametric amplification of solitons in a coherently driven, nonabsorbing system,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 3889-3892 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Vemuri, G.

G. Vemuri, G. S. Agarwal, and K. V. Vasavada, “Cloning, dragging, and parametric amplification of solitons in a coherently driven, nonabsorbing system,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 3889-3892 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Vitali, D.

C. Ottaviani, S. Rebić, D. Vitali, and P. Tombesi, “Cross phase modulation in a five-level atomic medium: semiclassical theory,” Eur. Phys. J. D 40, 281-296 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Welch, G. R.

M. M. Kash, V. A. Sautenkov, A. S. Zibrov, L. Hollberg, G. R. Welch, M. D. Lukin, Y. Rostovtsev, E. S. Fry, and M. O. Scully, “Ultraslow group velocity and enhanced nonlinear optical effects in a coherently driven hot atomic gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 5229-5232 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wenzel, R. G.

K. Drühl, R. G. Wenzel and J. L. Carlsten, “Observation of solitons in stimulated Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 1171-1174 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Y.

Y. Wu and L. Deng, “Ultraslow optical solitons in a cold four-state medium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 143904 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yin, G. Y.

A. Kasapi, M. Jain, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, “Electromagnetically induced transparency: propagation dynamics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2447-2450 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zabolotskii, A. A.

A. A. Zabolotskii, “Solution of the reduced anisotropic Maxwell-Bloch equations by using the Riemann-Hilbert problem,” Phys. Rev. E 75, 036612 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, Y.

H. Kang and Y. Zhu, “Observation of large Kerr nonlinearity at low light intensities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 093601 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zibrov, A. S.

M. M. Kash, V. A. Sautenkov, A. S. Zibrov, L. Hollberg, G. R. Welch, M. D. Lukin, Y. Rostovtsev, E. S. Fry, and M. O. Scully, “Ultraslow group velocity and enhanced nonlinear optical effects in a coherently driven hot atomic gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 5229-5232 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Eur. Phys. J. D (1)

C. Ottaviani, S. Rebić, D. Vitali, and P. Tombesi, “Cross phase modulation in a five-level atomic medium: semiclassical theory,” Eur. Phys. J. D 40, 281-296 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

H. Steudel, “N-soliton solutions to degenerate self-induced transparency,” J. Mod. Opt. 35, 693-702 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Laser Phys. (1)

R. Grobe and J. H. Eberly, “Adiabatons-new forms of induced transparency in three-level media,” Laser Phys. 5, 542-546 (1995).

Nature (1)

L. V. Hau, S. E. Harris, Z. Dutton, and C. H. Behroozi, “Light speed reduction to 17 meterspersecond in an ultracold atomic gas,” Nature 397, 594-598 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Lett. A (2)

C. Hang and G. Huang, “Ultraslow optical solitons in a four-level tripod atomic system,” Phys. Lett. A 372, 3129-3135 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H.-J. Li and G. Huang, “Two-component spatial optical solitons in a four-state ladder system via electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Lett. A 372, 4127-4134 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (13)

M. J. Konopnicki and J. H. Eberly, “Simultaneous propagation of short different-wavelength optical pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 24, 2567-2583 (1981).
[CrossRef]

F. T. Hioe and J. H. Eberly, “Multiple-laser excitation of multilevel atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 29, 1164-1167 (1984).
[CrossRef]

M. Fleischhauer and A. S. Manka, “Propagation of laser pulses and coherent population transfer in dissipative three-level systems: an adiabatic dressed-state picture,” Phys. Rev. A 54, 794-803 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Q. Han Park and H. J. Shin, “Matched pulse propagation in a three-level system,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 4643-4653 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Rahman and J. H. Eberly, “Theory of shape-preserving short pulses in inhomogeneously broadened three-level media,” Phys. Rev. A 58, R805-R808 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Agarwal and J. H. Eberly, “Continuous-probe solutions for self-similar pulses in four-level systems,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 013404 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. K. Panigrahi and G. S. Agarwal, “Existence of superposition solutions for pulse propagation in nonlinear resonant media,” Phys. Rev. A 67, 033817 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. D. Clader and J. H. Eberly, “Two-pulse propagation in a partially phase-coherent medium,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 033803 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. T. Hioe, “Adiabatic shape preservation and solitary waves in a five-level atomic medium,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 063807 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. D. Clader and J. H. Eberly, “Two-pulse propagation in media with quantum-mixed ground states,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 053812 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Agarwal and T. N. Dey, “Fast light solitons in resonant media,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 043806 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. C. MacPherson, R. C. Swanson, and J. L. Carlsten, “Spontaneous solitons in stimulated Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. A 40, 6745-6747 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Ackerhalt and P. W. Milonni, “Solitons and four-wave mixing,” Phys. Rev. A 33, 3185-3198 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E (7)

A. A. Zabolotskii, “Solution of the reduced anisotropic Maxwell-Bloch equations by using the Riemann-Hilbert problem,” Phys. Rev. E 75, 036612 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. T. Hioe, “Analytic solutions of some coupled nonlinear equations,” Phys. Rev. E 56, 7253-7256 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Rybin, I. P. Vadeiko, and A. R. Bishop, “Theory of slow-light solitons,” Phys. Rev. E 72, 026613 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Huang, L. Deng, and M. G. Payne, “Dynamics of ultraslow optical solitons in a cold three-state atomic system,” Phys. Rev. E 72, 016617 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Deng, M. G. Payne, G. Huang, and E. W. Hagley, “Formation and propagation of matched and coupled ultraslow optical soliton pairs in a four-level double-Λ system,” Phys. Rev. E 72, 055601(R) (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Hang, G. Huang, and L. Deng, “Generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equation and ultraslow optical solitons in a cold four-state atomic system,” Phys. Rev. E 73, 036607 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Hang, G. Huang, and L. Deng, “Stable high-dimensional spatial weak-light solitons in a resonant three-state atomic system,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 046601 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (12)

S. L. McCall and E. L. Hahn, “Self-induced transparency by pulsed coherent light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 18, 908-911 (1967).
[CrossRef]

H. Kang and Y. Zhu, “Observation of large Kerr nonlinearity at low light intensities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 093601 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Bullough and F. Ahmad, “Exact solutions of the self-induced transparency equations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 27, 330-333 (1971).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Kash, V. A. Sautenkov, A. S. Zibrov, L. Hollberg, G. R. Welch, M. D. Lukin, Y. Rostovtsev, E. S. Fry, and M. O. Scully, “Ultraslow group velocity and enhanced nonlinear optical effects in a coherently driven hot atomic gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 5229-5232 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wu and L. Deng, “Ultraslow optical solitons in a cold four-state medium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 143904 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Drühl, R. G. Wenzel and J. L. Carlsten, “Observation of solitons in stimulated Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 1171-1174 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Englund and C. M. Bowden, “Spontaneous generation of Raman solitons from quantum noise,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2661-2663 (1986).
[CrossRef]

G. Vemuri, G. S. Agarwal, and K. V. Vasavada, “Cloning, dragging, and parametric amplification of solitons in a coherently driven, nonabsorbing system,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 3889-3892 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Kasapi, M. Jain, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, “Electromagnetically induced transparency: propagation dynamics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2447-2450 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. Grobe, F. T. Hioe, and J. H. Eberly, “Formation of shape-preserving pulses in a nonlinear adiabatically integrable system,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3183-3186 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Eberly, M. L. Pons, and H. R. Haq, “Dressed-field pulses in an absorbing medium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 56-59 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Kaplan and P. L. Shkolnikov, “Electromagnetic bubbles and shock waves: unipolar, nonoscillating EM solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 2316-2319 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (2)

G. L. Lamb, Jr., “Analytical descriptions of ultrashort optical pulse propagation in a resonant medium,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 43, 99-124 (1971).
[CrossRef]

M. Fleischhauer, A. Imamoglu, and J. P. Marangos, “Electromagnetically induced transparency: optics in coherent media,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 77, 633-673 (2005), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

B. W. Shore, The Theory of Coherent Atomic Excitations (Wiley, 1992), Chap. 22.

Z. Dutton, “Ultraslow, stopped, and compressed light in Bose-Einstein condensates,” Ph.D. thesis, (Harvard Univ., 2002), pp. 312-314.

A. Newell and J. V. Moloney, Nonlinear Optics (Addison-Wesley, 1992).

L. Allen and J. H. Eberly, Optical Resonance and Two-Level Atoms (Dover, 1987).

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