Abstract

We have proposed and demonstrated a fiber ring laser with single-polarization output using an intracavity 45°-tilted fiber grating (45°-TFG). The properties of the 45°-TFG have been investigated both theoretically and experimentally. The fiber ring laser incorporating the 45°-TFG has been systematically characterized, showing a significant improvement in the polarization extinction ratio (PER) and achieving a PER of >30dB. The slope efficiencies of the ring laser with and without the 45°-TFG have been measured. This laser shows a very stable polarized output with a PER variation of less than 2dB for 5  hours at laboratory conditions. In addition, we also demonstrated the tunability of the laser.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. T. Lin and W. A. Gambling, “Polarization effects in fiber lasers: phenomena, theory, and applications,” in Proc. SPIE 1373, (1991), pp. 42-53.
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. Pureur, M. Douay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, and J. F. Bayon, “Single-polarization fiber using Bragg gratings in Hi-Bi fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 350-355 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. S. Kurkov, S. A. Vasil'ev, I. G. Korolev, O. I. Medvedkov, and E. M. Dianov, “Fiber laser with an intracavity polarizer based on a long-period fiber grating,” Quantum Electron. 31, 421-423 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  4. F. McNeillie, E. Riis, J. Broeng, J. Folkenberg, A. Petersson, H. Simonsen, and C. Jacobsen, “Highly polarized photonic crystal fiber laser,” Opt. Express 12, 3981-3987 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. M. Delgado-Pinar, A. Díez, J. L. Cruz, and M. V. Andrés, “Linearly polarized all-fiber laser using a short section of highly polarizing microstructured fiber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 5, 135-138 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  6. K. Zhou, G. Simpson, X. F. Chen, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “High extinction ratio in-fiber polarizers based on 45° tilted fiber Bragg gratings,” Opt. Lett. 30, 1285-1287 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. E. Hecht, Optics, intl. ed. (Addison Wesley, 2002).
  8. O. Xu, S. Lu, Y. Liu, B. Li, X. Dong, L. Pei, and S. Jian, “Analysis of spectral characteristics for reflective tilted fiber gratings of uniform periods,” Opt. Commun. 281, 3990-3995 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. Lu, O. Xu, S. Feng, and S. Jian, “Analysis of radiation-mode coupling in reflective and transmissive titled fiber Bragg gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 26, 91-98 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Y. Li, M. Froggatt, and T. Erdogan, “Volume current method for analysis of tilted fiber gratings,” J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 1580-1591 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Y. W. Song, S. A. Havstad, D. Starodubov, Y. Xie, A. E. Willner, and J. Feinberg, “40-nm-wide tunable fiber ring laser with single-mode operation using a highly stretchable FBG,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 13, 1167-1169 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  12. Y. Cheng, J. T. Kringlebotn, W. H. Loh, R. I. Laming, and D. N. Payne, “Stable single-frequency traveling-wave fiber loop laser with integral saturable-absorber-based tracking narrow-band filter,” Opt. Lett. 19, 875-877 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  13. X. Chen, J. Yao, F. Zeng, and Z. Deng, “Single-longitudinal-mode fiber ring laser employing an equivalent phase-shifted fiber Bragg grating,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 1390-1392 (2005).
    [CrossRef]

2009 (1)

2008 (2)

M. Delgado-Pinar, A. Díez, J. L. Cruz, and M. V. Andrés, “Linearly polarized all-fiber laser using a short section of highly polarizing microstructured fiber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 5, 135-138 (2008).
[CrossRef]

O. Xu, S. Lu, Y. Liu, B. Li, X. Dong, L. Pei, and S. Jian, “Analysis of spectral characteristics for reflective tilted fiber gratings of uniform periods,” Opt. Commun. 281, 3990-3995 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

X. Chen, J. Yao, F. Zeng, and Z. Deng, “Single-longitudinal-mode fiber ring laser employing an equivalent phase-shifted fiber Bragg grating,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 1390-1392 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Zhou, G. Simpson, X. F. Chen, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “High extinction ratio in-fiber polarizers based on 45° tilted fiber Bragg gratings,” Opt. Lett. 30, 1285-1287 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

2001 (3)

A. S. Kurkov, S. A. Vasil'ev, I. G. Korolev, O. I. Medvedkov, and E. M. Dianov, “Fiber laser with an intracavity polarizer based on a long-period fiber grating,” Quantum Electron. 31, 421-423 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. Li, M. Froggatt, and T. Erdogan, “Volume current method for analysis of tilted fiber gratings,” J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 1580-1591 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. W. Song, S. A. Havstad, D. Starodubov, Y. Xie, A. E. Willner, and J. Feinberg, “40-nm-wide tunable fiber ring laser with single-mode operation using a highly stretchable FBG,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 13, 1167-1169 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

Y. Cheng, J. T. Kringlebotn, W. H. Loh, R. I. Laming, and D. N. Payne, “Stable single-frequency traveling-wave fiber loop laser with integral saturable-absorber-based tracking narrow-band filter,” Opt. Lett. 19, 875-877 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. Pureur, M. Douay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, and J. F. Bayon, “Single-polarization fiber using Bragg gratings in Hi-Bi fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 350-355 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

J. T. Lin and W. A. Gambling, “Polarization effects in fiber lasers: phenomena, theory, and applications,” in Proc. SPIE 1373, (1991), pp. 42-53.
[CrossRef]

Andrés, M. V.

M. Delgado-Pinar, A. Díez, J. L. Cruz, and M. V. Andrés, “Linearly polarized all-fiber laser using a short section of highly polarizing microstructured fiber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 5, 135-138 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bayon, J. F.

D. Pureur, M. Douay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, and J. F. Bayon, “Single-polarization fiber using Bragg gratings in Hi-Bi fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 350-355 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bennion, I.

Bernage, P.

D. Pureur, M. Douay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, and J. F. Bayon, “Single-polarization fiber using Bragg gratings in Hi-Bi fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 350-355 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Broeng, J.

Chen, X.

X. Chen, J. Yao, F. Zeng, and Z. Deng, “Single-longitudinal-mode fiber ring laser employing an equivalent phase-shifted fiber Bragg grating,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 1390-1392 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X. F.

Cheng, Y.

Y. Cheng, J. T. Kringlebotn, W. H. Loh, R. I. Laming, and D. N. Payne, “Stable single-frequency traveling-wave fiber loop laser with integral saturable-absorber-based tracking narrow-band filter,” Opt. Lett. 19, 875-877 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Cruz, J. L.

M. Delgado-Pinar, A. Díez, J. L. Cruz, and M. V. Andrés, “Linearly polarized all-fiber laser using a short section of highly polarizing microstructured fiber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 5, 135-138 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Delgado-Pinar, M.

M. Delgado-Pinar, A. Díez, J. L. Cruz, and M. V. Andrés, “Linearly polarized all-fiber laser using a short section of highly polarizing microstructured fiber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 5, 135-138 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Deng, Z.

X. Chen, J. Yao, F. Zeng, and Z. Deng, “Single-longitudinal-mode fiber ring laser employing an equivalent phase-shifted fiber Bragg grating,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 1390-1392 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dianov, E. M.

A. S. Kurkov, S. A. Vasil'ev, I. G. Korolev, O. I. Medvedkov, and E. M. Dianov, “Fiber laser with an intracavity polarizer based on a long-period fiber grating,” Quantum Electron. 31, 421-423 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Díez, A.

M. Delgado-Pinar, A. Díez, J. L. Cruz, and M. V. Andrés, “Linearly polarized all-fiber laser using a short section of highly polarizing microstructured fiber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 5, 135-138 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dong, X.

O. Xu, S. Lu, Y. Liu, B. Li, X. Dong, L. Pei, and S. Jian, “Analysis of spectral characteristics for reflective tilted fiber gratings of uniform periods,” Opt. Commun. 281, 3990-3995 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Douay, M.

D. Pureur, M. Douay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, and J. F. Bayon, “Single-polarization fiber using Bragg gratings in Hi-Bi fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 350-355 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Erdogan, T.

Feinberg, J.

Y. W. Song, S. A. Havstad, D. Starodubov, Y. Xie, A. E. Willner, and J. Feinberg, “40-nm-wide tunable fiber ring laser with single-mode operation using a highly stretchable FBG,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 13, 1167-1169 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Feng, S.

Folkenberg, J.

Froggatt, M.

Gambling, W. A.

J. T. Lin and W. A. Gambling, “Polarization effects in fiber lasers: phenomena, theory, and applications,” in Proc. SPIE 1373, (1991), pp. 42-53.
[CrossRef]

Havstad, S. A.

Y. W. Song, S. A. Havstad, D. Starodubov, Y. Xie, A. E. Willner, and J. Feinberg, “40-nm-wide tunable fiber ring laser with single-mode operation using a highly stretchable FBG,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 13, 1167-1169 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hecht, E.

E. Hecht, Optics, intl. ed. (Addison Wesley, 2002).

Jacobsen, C.

Jian, S.

S. Lu, O. Xu, S. Feng, and S. Jian, “Analysis of radiation-mode coupling in reflective and transmissive titled fiber Bragg gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 26, 91-98 (2009).
[CrossRef]

O. Xu, S. Lu, Y. Liu, B. Li, X. Dong, L. Pei, and S. Jian, “Analysis of spectral characteristics for reflective tilted fiber gratings of uniform periods,” Opt. Commun. 281, 3990-3995 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Korolev, I. G.

A. S. Kurkov, S. A. Vasil'ev, I. G. Korolev, O. I. Medvedkov, and E. M. Dianov, “Fiber laser with an intracavity polarizer based on a long-period fiber grating,” Quantum Electron. 31, 421-423 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kringlebotn, J. T.

Y. Cheng, J. T. Kringlebotn, W. H. Loh, R. I. Laming, and D. N. Payne, “Stable single-frequency traveling-wave fiber loop laser with integral saturable-absorber-based tracking narrow-band filter,” Opt. Lett. 19, 875-877 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kurkov, A. S.

A. S. Kurkov, S. A. Vasil'ev, I. G. Korolev, O. I. Medvedkov, and E. M. Dianov, “Fiber laser with an intracavity polarizer based on a long-period fiber grating,” Quantum Electron. 31, 421-423 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Laming, R. I.

Y. Cheng, J. T. Kringlebotn, W. H. Loh, R. I. Laming, and D. N. Payne, “Stable single-frequency traveling-wave fiber loop laser with integral saturable-absorber-based tracking narrow-band filter,” Opt. Lett. 19, 875-877 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Li, B.

O. Xu, S. Lu, Y. Liu, B. Li, X. Dong, L. Pei, and S. Jian, “Analysis of spectral characteristics for reflective tilted fiber gratings of uniform periods,” Opt. Commun. 281, 3990-3995 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

Lin, J. T.

J. T. Lin and W. A. Gambling, “Polarization effects in fiber lasers: phenomena, theory, and applications,” in Proc. SPIE 1373, (1991), pp. 42-53.
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

O. Xu, S. Lu, Y. Liu, B. Li, X. Dong, L. Pei, and S. Jian, “Analysis of spectral characteristics for reflective tilted fiber gratings of uniform periods,” Opt. Commun. 281, 3990-3995 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Loh, W. H.

Y. Cheng, J. T. Kringlebotn, W. H. Loh, R. I. Laming, and D. N. Payne, “Stable single-frequency traveling-wave fiber loop laser with integral saturable-absorber-based tracking narrow-band filter,” Opt. Lett. 19, 875-877 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lu, S.

S. Lu, O. Xu, S. Feng, and S. Jian, “Analysis of radiation-mode coupling in reflective and transmissive titled fiber Bragg gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 26, 91-98 (2009).
[CrossRef]

O. Xu, S. Lu, Y. Liu, B. Li, X. Dong, L. Pei, and S. Jian, “Analysis of spectral characteristics for reflective tilted fiber gratings of uniform periods,” Opt. Commun. 281, 3990-3995 (2008).
[CrossRef]

McNeillie, F.

Medvedkov, O. I.

A. S. Kurkov, S. A. Vasil'ev, I. G. Korolev, O. I. Medvedkov, and E. M. Dianov, “Fiber laser with an intracavity polarizer based on a long-period fiber grating,” Quantum Electron. 31, 421-423 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Niay, P.

D. Pureur, M. Douay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, and J. F. Bayon, “Single-polarization fiber using Bragg gratings in Hi-Bi fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 350-355 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Payne, D. N.

Y. Cheng, J. T. Kringlebotn, W. H. Loh, R. I. Laming, and D. N. Payne, “Stable single-frequency traveling-wave fiber loop laser with integral saturable-absorber-based tracking narrow-band filter,” Opt. Lett. 19, 875-877 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Pei, L.

O. Xu, S. Lu, Y. Liu, B. Li, X. Dong, L. Pei, and S. Jian, “Analysis of spectral characteristics for reflective tilted fiber gratings of uniform periods,” Opt. Commun. 281, 3990-3995 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Petersson, A.

Pureur, D.

D. Pureur, M. Douay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, and J. F. Bayon, “Single-polarization fiber using Bragg gratings in Hi-Bi fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 350-355 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Riis, E.

Simonsen, H.

Simpson, G.

Song, Y. W.

Y. W. Song, S. A. Havstad, D. Starodubov, Y. Xie, A. E. Willner, and J. Feinberg, “40-nm-wide tunable fiber ring laser with single-mode operation using a highly stretchable FBG,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 13, 1167-1169 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Starodubov, D.

Y. W. Song, S. A. Havstad, D. Starodubov, Y. Xie, A. E. Willner, and J. Feinberg, “40-nm-wide tunable fiber ring laser with single-mode operation using a highly stretchable FBG,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 13, 1167-1169 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Vasil'ev, S. A.

A. S. Kurkov, S. A. Vasil'ev, I. G. Korolev, O. I. Medvedkov, and E. M. Dianov, “Fiber laser with an intracavity polarizer based on a long-period fiber grating,” Quantum Electron. 31, 421-423 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Willner, A. E.

Y. W. Song, S. A. Havstad, D. Starodubov, Y. Xie, A. E. Willner, and J. Feinberg, “40-nm-wide tunable fiber ring laser with single-mode operation using a highly stretchable FBG,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 13, 1167-1169 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Xie, Y.

Y. W. Song, S. A. Havstad, D. Starodubov, Y. Xie, A. E. Willner, and J. Feinberg, “40-nm-wide tunable fiber ring laser with single-mode operation using a highly stretchable FBG,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 13, 1167-1169 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Xu, O.

S. Lu, O. Xu, S. Feng, and S. Jian, “Analysis of radiation-mode coupling in reflective and transmissive titled fiber Bragg gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 26, 91-98 (2009).
[CrossRef]

O. Xu, S. Lu, Y. Liu, B. Li, X. Dong, L. Pei, and S. Jian, “Analysis of spectral characteristics for reflective tilted fiber gratings of uniform periods,” Opt. Commun. 281, 3990-3995 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yao, J.

X. Chen, J. Yao, F. Zeng, and Z. Deng, “Single-longitudinal-mode fiber ring laser employing an equivalent phase-shifted fiber Bragg grating,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 1390-1392 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zeng, F.

X. Chen, J. Yao, F. Zeng, and Z. Deng, “Single-longitudinal-mode fiber ring laser employing an equivalent phase-shifted fiber Bragg grating,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 1390-1392 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

Zhou, K.

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (2)

Y. W. Song, S. A. Havstad, D. Starodubov, Y. Xie, A. E. Willner, and J. Feinberg, “40-nm-wide tunable fiber ring laser with single-mode operation using a highly stretchable FBG,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 13, 1167-1169 (2001).
[CrossRef]

X. Chen, J. Yao, F. Zeng, and Z. Deng, “Single-longitudinal-mode fiber ring laser employing an equivalent phase-shifted fiber Bragg grating,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 1390-1392 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

Y. Li, M. Froggatt, and T. Erdogan, “Volume current method for analysis of tilted fiber gratings,” J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 1580-1591 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Pureur, M. Douay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, and J. F. Bayon, “Single-polarization fiber using Bragg gratings in Hi-Bi fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 350-355 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Laser Phys. Lett. (1)

M. Delgado-Pinar, A. Díez, J. L. Cruz, and M. V. Andrés, “Linearly polarized all-fiber laser using a short section of highly polarizing microstructured fiber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 5, 135-138 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

O. Xu, S. Lu, Y. Liu, B. Li, X. Dong, L. Pei, and S. Jian, “Analysis of spectral characteristics for reflective tilted fiber gratings of uniform periods,” Opt. Commun. 281, 3990-3995 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

K. Zhou, G. Simpson, X. F. Chen, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “High extinction ratio in-fiber polarizers based on 45° tilted fiber Bragg gratings,” Opt. Lett. 30, 1285-1287 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Cheng, J. T. Kringlebotn, W. H. Loh, R. I. Laming, and D. N. Payne, “Stable single-frequency traveling-wave fiber loop laser with integral saturable-absorber-based tracking narrow-band filter,” Opt. Lett. 19, 875-877 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

J. T. Lin and W. A. Gambling, “Polarization effects in fiber lasers: phenomena, theory, and applications,” in Proc. SPIE 1373, (1991), pp. 42-53.
[CrossRef]

Quantum Electron. (1)

A. S. Kurkov, S. A. Vasil'ev, I. G. Korolev, O. I. Medvedkov, and E. M. Dianov, “Fiber laser with an intracavity polarizer based on a long-period fiber grating,” Quantum Electron. 31, 421-423 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

E. Hecht, Optics, intl. ed. (Addison Wesley, 2002).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic description of in-fiber 45°-TFG.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Transmission loss against the tilted angles for p-light (solid line) and s-light (dashed line) of the 45°-TFGs with length (a) 35 mm and (b) 50 mm .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Microscope image of a typical 45°-TFG examined by a 100 × oil immersion microscopic lens.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Schematic of PDL measurement system employing a BBS; measured normalized PDLs for (b) TFG1 and (c) TFG2.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Schematic diagram of measurement system using tunable laser and normalized PDLs at 1550 nm for (b) TFG1 and (c) TFG2. Note that as the laser was set at 1550 nm , only the section between the two dotted lines in the plot is the corresponding PDL.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Schematic of full PDL response characterization system setup; measured full PDL responses for (b) TFG1 and (c) TFG2.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Schematic diagram of the fiber ring laser structure. The polarization degree of the laser output is measured using the setup shown in the dashed line box. (b) Typical output spectrum of the fiber laser.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Slope efficiency of the fiber ring laser before (|) and after (●) applying the intracavity.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

DOP stability measurement over 5   hours at laboratory conditions.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Output wavelength tuning through stretching the seeding FBG.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

β = k 0 3 Δ n 2 4 n ( 1 + ( p q ) 2 ) K 1 2 ( a q ) K 0 2 ( a q ) I ,
I = 0 2 π [ 1 ( sin ( φ ) cos ( Δ σ ) ) 2 ] × [ K s J 0 ( a p ) J 1 ( a K s ) p J 0 ( a K s ) J 1 ( a p ) K s 2 p 2 ] 2 d r ,
Polarization Extinction Ratio ( PER ) = 10 × Log ( I min I max ) .

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