Abstract

We have proposed an ultracompact all-optical photonic crystal AND gate based on nonlinear ring resonators, consisting of two Kerr nonlinear photonic crystal ring resonators inserted between three parallel line defects. We have employed a Si nanocrystal as the nonlinear material for its appropriate nonlinear properties. The gate has been simulated and analyzed by finite difference time domain and plane wave expansion methods. The proposed logic gate can operate with a bit rate of about 120Gbitss.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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2008 (11)

K. Igarashi and K. Kikuchi, “Optical signal processing by phase modulation and subsequent spectral filtering aiming at applications to ultrafast optical communication systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 551-565 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, J. Sun, Q. Sun, D. Wang, X. Zhang, D. Huang, and M. M. Fejer, “PPLN-based flexible optical logic AND gate,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 211-213 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, J. Sun, X. Zhang, D. Liu, and D. Huang, “Proposal and simulation for all-optical format conversion between differential phase-shift keying signals based on cascaded second-order nonlinearities,” Opt. Commun. 281, 5019-5024 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, J. Sun, X. Zhang, and D. Huang, “PPLN-based all-optical 40 Gbit/s three-input logic AND gate for both NRZ and RZ signals,” Electron. Lett. 44, 413-414 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Hernández, P. Pellegrino, A. Martínez, Y. Lebour, B. Garrido, R. Spano, M. Cazzanelli, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, E. Jordana, and J. M. Fedeli, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of Si nano crystals in SiO2 deposited by plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 064309 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y.-D. Wu, T.-T. Shih, and M.-H. Chen, “New all-optical logic gates based on the local nonlinear Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” Opt. Express 16, 248-257 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Zou, G. Q. Liang, and H. Z. Wang, “Efficient all-optical dual channel switches, logic gates, half-adder, and half subtracter in one-dimensional photonic crystal heterostructure,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, 351-360 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Ogusu and K. Takayama, “Optical bistability in photonic crystal microrings with nonlinear dielectric materials,” Opt. Express 16, 7525-7539 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Djavid, A. Ghaffari, F. Monifi, and M. S. Abrishamian, “Photonic crystal power dividers using L-shaped based on ring resonators,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, 1231-1235 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Novistisky and S. Y. Mikhnevich, “Bistable behavior of reflection and transmission of a one-dimensional photonic crystal with a dense resonant medium as defect,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, 1362-1370 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, J. Sun, D. Wang, X. Zhang, D. Huang, and M. M. Fejer, “Optical phase erasure and its application to format conversion through cascaded second-order processes in periodically poled lithium niobate,” Opt. Lett. 33, 1804-1806 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (10)

J. Wang, J. Sun, and Q. Sun, “Single-PPLN-based simultaneous half-adder, half-subtracter, and OR logic gate: proposal and simulation,” Opt. Express 15, 1690-1699 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Qiang, W. Z. Richard, and A. Soref, “Optical add-drop filters based on photonic crystal ring resonators,” Opt. Express 15, 1823-1831 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Koos, L. Jacome, C. Poulton, J. Leuthold, and W. Freude, “Nonlinear silicon-on-insulator waveguides for all-optical signal processing,” Opt. Express 15, 5976-5990 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Jeong, N. Yamamoto, J. Sugisaka, M. Okano, and K. Komori, “GaAs-based two-dimensional photonic crystal slab ring resonator consisting of a directional coupler and bent waveguides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 1951-1959 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. C. Mägi, L. B. Fu, H. C. Nguyen, M. R. E. Lamont, D. I. Yeom, and B. J. Eggleton, “Enhanced Kerr nonlinearity in sub-wavelength diameter As2Se3 chalcogenide fiber tapers,” Opt. Express 15, 10324-10329 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Abad, A. Rodriguez, P. Bermel, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, and M. Soljaciić, “Enhanced nonlinear optics in photonic-crystal microcavities,” Opt. Express 15, 16161-16176 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Notomi, T. Tanabe, A. Shinya, E. Kuramochi, H. Taniyama, S. Mitsugi, and M. Morita, “Nonlinear and adiabatic control of high-Q photonic crystal nanocavities,” Opt. Express 15, 17458-17481 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wang, J. Sun, and Q. Sun, “Proposal for all-optical switchable OR/XOR logic gates using sum-frequency generation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 541-543 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, J. Sun, Q. Sun, D. Wang, M. Zhou, X. Zhang, D. Huang, and M. M. Fejer, “Dual-channel-output all-optical logic AND gate at 20 Gbit/s based on cascaded second-order nonlinearity in PPLN waveguide,” Electron. Lett. 43, 940-941 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Ikeda and Y. Fainman, “Material and structural criteria for ultra-fast Kerr nonlinear switching in optical resonant cavities,” Solid-State Electron. 51, 1376-1380 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (16)

W. B. Fraga, J. W. M. Menezes, M. G. da Silva, C. S. Sobrinho, and A. S. B. Sombra, “All optical logic gates based on an asymmetric nonlinear directional coupler,” Opt. Commun. 262, 32-37 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. F. Mingaleev, A. E. Miroshnichenko, Y. S. Kivshar, and K. Busch, “All-optical switching, bistability, and slow light transmission in photonic crystal waveguide-resonator structures,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 046603 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Xiao and D. Yao, “Optical limitation in two-dimensional nonlinear photonic crystal with triangular lattice,” Phys. Lett. A 359, 723-727 (2006).
[CrossRef]

I. S. Maksymov, L. F. Marsal and J. Pallarès, “An FDTD analysis of nonlinear photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 38, 149-160 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Stomeo, V. Errico, A. Salhi, A. Passaseo, R. Cingolani, A. D'Orazio, M. De Sario, V. Marrocco, V. Petruzzelli, F. Prudenzano, and M. De Vittorio, “Design and fabrication of active and passive photonic crystal resonators,” Microelectron. Eng. 83, 1823-1825 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Chen and E. Towe, “Design of high-Q microcavities for proposed two-dimensional electrically pumped photonic crystal lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 117-123 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Q. Liu, X. Zhao, F. Gan, J. Mi, and S. Qian, “Femtosecond optical Kerr effect study of amorphous chalcogenide films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352, 2351-2354 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Grillet, C. Smith, D. Freeman, S. Madden, B. Luther-Davies, E. C. Magi, D. J. Moss, and B. J. Eggleton, “Efficient coupling to chalcogenide glass photonic crystal waveguides via silica optical fiber nanowires,” Opt. Express 14, 1070-1078 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Shinya, S. Mitsugi, T. Tanabe, M. Notomi, I. Yokohama, H. Takara, and S. Kawanishi, “All-optical flip-flop circuit composed of coupled two-port resonant tunneling filter in two dimensional photonic crystal slab,” Opt. Express 14, 1230-1235 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Reinke, A. Jafarpour, B. Momeni, M. Soltani, S. Khorasani, A. Adibi, Y. Xu, and R. K. Lee, “Nonlinear finite-difference time-domain method for the simulation of anisotropic, χ(2), and χ(3) optical effects,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 624-634 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Z.-H. Zhu, W.-M. Ye, J.-R. Ji, X.-D. Yuan, and C. Zen, “High-contrast light-by-light switching and AND gate based on nonlinear photonic crystals,” Opt. Express 14, 1783-1788 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Fujisawa and M. Koshiba, “All-optical logic gates based on nonlinear slot-waveguide couplers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23, 684-691 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, J. Sun, and Q. Sun, “Experimental observation of a 1.5 μm band wavelength conversion and logic NOT gate at 40 Gbit/s based on sum-frequency generation,” Opt. Lett. 31, 1711-1713 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Dumeige, L. Ghisa, P. Féron, and Y. Dumeige, “Integrated all-optical pulse restoration with coupled nonlinear microring resonators,” Opt. Lett. 31, 2187-2189 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Greene and A. Taflove, “General vector auxiliary differential equation finite-difference time-domain method for nonlinear optics,” Opt. Express 14, 8305-8310 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Reinke, A. Jafarpour, B. Momeni, M. Soltani, S. Khorasani, A. Adibi, Y. Xu, and R. K. Lee, “Design of highly efficient optical diodes based on the dynamics of nonlinear photonic crystal molecules,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23, 2434-2440 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (4)

2004 (8)

2003 (8)

S. Pereira, P. Chak, and J. E. Sipe, “All-optical AND gate by use of a Kerr nonlinear microresonator structure,” Opt. Lett. 28, 444-446 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. N. Ye, L. Brzozowski, E. H. Sargent, and D. Pelinovsky, “Stable all-optical limiting in nonlinear periodic structures. III. Nonsolitonic pulse propagation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 695-705 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Yanik and S. Fan, “All-optical transistor action with bistable switching in a photonic crystal cross-waveguide geometry,” Opt. Lett. 28, 2506-2508 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-H. Kim and Y.-H. Lee, “Symmetry relations of two-dimensional photonic crystal cavity modes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 1081-1085 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L.-X. Chena and D. Kimb, “A bistable switching of two-dimensional photonic crystal with Kerr point defect,” Opt. Commun. 218, 19-26 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. P. Kosmidou and T. D. Tsiboukis, “An FDTD analysis of photonic crystal waveguides comprising third-order nonlinear materials,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 35, 931-946 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Rostami and G. Rostami, “Full optical analog to digital (A/D) converter based on Kerr-like nonlinear ring resonator,” Opt. Commun. 228, 39-48 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Yanik and S. Fana, “High-contrast all-optical bistable switching in photonic crystal microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2739-2741 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (9)

C. Lixue, D. Xiaoxu, D. Weiqiang, C. Liangcai, and L. Shutian, “Finite-difference time-domain analysis of optical bistability with low threshold in one-dimensional nonlinear photonic crystal with Kerr medium,” Opt. Commun. 209, 491-500 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Soljacic, M. Ibanescu, S. G. Johnson, Y. Fink, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Optimal bistable switching in nonlinear photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. E 66, 055601 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Mookherjea and A. Yariv, “Kerr-stabilized super-resonant modes in coupled-resonator optical waveguides,” Phys. Rev. E 66, 046610 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Pelinovsky, J. Sears, L. Brzozowski, and E. H. Sargent, “Stable all-optical limiting in nonlinear periodic structures. I. Analysis,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 43-53 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Pelinovsky and E. H. Sargent, “Stable all-optical limiting in nonlinear periodic structures. II. Computations,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 1873-1889 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Banaee, A. R. Cowan, and J. F. Young, “Third-order nonlinear influence on the specular reflectivity of two-dimensional waveguide-based photonic crystal,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 2224-2231 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. F. Mingaleev and Y. S. Kivshar, “Nonlinear transmission and light localization in photonic-crystal waveguides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 2241-2249 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Vijaya Prakash, M. Cazzanelli, Z. Gaburro, L. Pavesi, G. Franzo, F. Priolo, and F. Iacona, “Nonlinear optical properties of silicon nanocrystals grown by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 4607-4610 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Vijaya Prakash, M. Cazzanelli, Z. Gaburro, L. Pavesi, F. Iacona, G. Franzò, and F. Priolo, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of plasma-enhanced chemical-vapour deposition grown silicon nanocrystals,” J. Mod. Opt. 49, 719-730 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

Abad, J. B.

Abrishamian, M. S.

Adibi, A.

Allevi, A.

Amarnath, K.

Andreoni, A.

Bahl, M.

Banaee, M. G.

Barrios, C. A.

C. A. Barrios, “High-performance all-optical silicon microswitch,” Electron. Lett. 40, 862-863 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bermel, P.

Bondani, M.

Boyd, R. W.

Brzozowski, L.

Busch, K.

S. F. Mingaleev, A. E. Miroshnichenko, Y. S. Kivshar, and K. Busch, “All-optical switching, bistability, and slow light transmission in photonic crystal waveguide-resonator structures,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 046603 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cazzanelli, M.

S. Hernández, P. Pellegrino, A. Martínez, Y. Lebour, B. Garrido, R. Spano, M. Cazzanelli, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, E. Jordana, and J. M. Fedeli, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of Si nano crystals in SiO2 deposited by plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 064309 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Vijaya Prakash, M. Cazzanelli, Z. Gaburro, L. Pavesi, G. Franzo, F. Priolo, and F. Iacona, “Nonlinear optical properties of silicon nanocrystals grown by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 4607-4610 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Vijaya Prakash, M. Cazzanelli, Z. Gaburro, L. Pavesi, F. Iacona, G. Franzò, and F. Priolo, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of plasma-enhanced chemical-vapour deposition grown silicon nanocrystals,” J. Mod. Opt. 49, 719-730 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chak, P.

Chen, L.

L. Chen and E. Towe, “Design of high-Q microcavities for proposed two-dimensional electrically pumped photonic crystal lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 117-123 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, M.-H.

Chen, Z.

Chena, L.-X.

L.-X. Chena and D. Kimb, “A bistable switching of two-dimensional photonic crystal with Kerr point defect,” Opt. Commun. 218, 19-26 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chow, E.

Cingolani, R.

T. Stomeo, V. Errico, A. Salhi, A. Passaseo, R. Cingolani, A. D'Orazio, M. De Sario, V. Marrocco, V. Petruzzelli, F. Prudenzano, and M. De Vittorio, “Design and fabrication of active and passive photonic crystal resonators,” Microelectron. Eng. 83, 1823-1825 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cowan, A. R.

da Silva, M. G.

W. B. Fraga, J. W. M. Menezes, M. G. da Silva, C. S. Sobrinho, and A. S. B. Sombra, “All optical logic gates based on an asymmetric nonlinear directional coupler,” Opt. Commun. 262, 32-37 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Daldosso, N.

S. Hernández, P. Pellegrino, A. Martínez, Y. Lebour, B. Garrido, R. Spano, M. Cazzanelli, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, E. Jordana, and J. M. Fedeli, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of Si nano crystals in SiO2 deposited by plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 064309 (2008).
[CrossRef]

De Sario, M.

T. Stomeo, V. Errico, A. Salhi, A. Passaseo, R. Cingolani, A. D'Orazio, M. De Sario, V. Marrocco, V. Petruzzelli, F. Prudenzano, and M. De Vittorio, “Design and fabrication of active and passive photonic crystal resonators,” Microelectron. Eng. 83, 1823-1825 (2006).
[CrossRef]

De Vittorio, M.

T. Stomeo, V. Errico, A. Salhi, A. Passaseo, R. Cingolani, A. D'Orazio, M. De Sario, V. Marrocco, V. Petruzzelli, F. Prudenzano, and M. De Vittorio, “Design and fabrication of active and passive photonic crystal resonators,” Microelectron. Eng. 83, 1823-1825 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Djavid, M.

D'Orazio, A.

T. Stomeo, V. Errico, A. Salhi, A. Passaseo, R. Cingolani, A. D'Orazio, M. De Sario, V. Marrocco, V. Petruzzelli, F. Prudenzano, and M. De Vittorio, “Design and fabrication of active and passive photonic crystal resonators,” Microelectron. Eng. 83, 1823-1825 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dumeige, Y.

Eggleton, B. J.

Errico, V.

T. Stomeo, V. Errico, A. Salhi, A. Passaseo, R. Cingolani, A. D'Orazio, M. De Sario, V. Marrocco, V. Petruzzelli, F. Prudenzano, and M. De Vittorio, “Design and fabrication of active and passive photonic crystal resonators,” Microelectron. Eng. 83, 1823-1825 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fainman, Y.

K. Ikeda and Y. Fainman, “Material and structural criteria for ultra-fast Kerr nonlinear switching in optical resonant cavities,” Solid-State Electron. 51, 1376-1380 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fan, S.

Fana, S.

M. F. Yanik and S. Fana, “High-contrast all-optical bistable switching in photonic crystal microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2739-2741 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fedeli, J. M.

S. Hernández, P. Pellegrino, A. Martínez, Y. Lebour, B. Garrido, R. Spano, M. Cazzanelli, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, E. Jordana, and J. M. Fedeli, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of Si nano crystals in SiO2 deposited by plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 064309 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fejer, M. M.

J. Wang, J. Sun, D. Wang, X. Zhang, D. Huang, and M. M. Fejer, “Optical phase erasure and its application to format conversion through cascaded second-order processes in periodically poled lithium niobate,” Opt. Lett. 33, 1804-1806 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wang, J. Sun, Q. Sun, D. Wang, X. Zhang, D. Huang, and M. M. Fejer, “PPLN-based flexible optical logic AND gate,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 211-213 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, J. Sun, Q. Sun, D. Wang, M. Zhou, X. Zhang, D. Huang, and M. M. Fejer, “Dual-channel-output all-optical logic AND gate at 20 Gbit/s based on cascaded second-order nonlinearity in PPLN waveguide,” Electron. Lett. 43, 940-941 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Féron, P.

Fink, Y.

M. Soljacic, M. Ibanescu, S. G. Johnson, Y. Fink, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Optimal bistable switching in nonlinear photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. E 66, 055601 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fraga, W. B.

W. B. Fraga, J. W. M. Menezes, M. G. da Silva, C. S. Sobrinho, and A. S. B. Sombra, “All optical logic gates based on an asymmetric nonlinear directional coupler,” Opt. Commun. 262, 32-37 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Franzo, G.

G. Vijaya Prakash, M. Cazzanelli, Z. Gaburro, L. Pavesi, G. Franzo, F. Priolo, and F. Iacona, “Nonlinear optical properties of silicon nanocrystals grown by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 4607-4610 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Franzò, G.

G. Vijaya Prakash, M. Cazzanelli, Z. Gaburro, L. Pavesi, F. Iacona, G. Franzò, and F. Priolo, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of plasma-enhanced chemical-vapour deposition grown silicon nanocrystals,” J. Mod. Opt. 49, 719-730 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Freeman, D.

Freude, W.

Fu, L. B.

Fujisawa, T.

Gaburro, Z.

G. Vijaya Prakash, M. Cazzanelli, Z. Gaburro, L. Pavesi, F. Iacona, G. Franzò, and F. Priolo, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of plasma-enhanced chemical-vapour deposition grown silicon nanocrystals,” J. Mod. Opt. 49, 719-730 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Vijaya Prakash, M. Cazzanelli, Z. Gaburro, L. Pavesi, G. Franzo, F. Priolo, and F. Iacona, “Nonlinear optical properties of silicon nanocrystals grown by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 4607-4610 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gan, F.

Q. Liu, X. Zhao, F. Gan, J. Mi, and S. Qian, “Femtosecond optical Kerr effect study of amorphous chalcogenide films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352, 2351-2354 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Garrido, B.

S. Hernández, P. Pellegrino, A. Martínez, Y. Lebour, B. Garrido, R. Spano, M. Cazzanelli, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, E. Jordana, and J. M. Fedeli, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of Si nano crystals in SiO2 deposited by plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 064309 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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Ghisa, L.

Greene, J. H.

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Grover, R.

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A. Taflov and S. C. Hagness, Computational Electrodynamics: The Finite-Difference Time Domain Method, 2nd ed. (Artech House, 2000).

Heebner, J.

Hernández, S.

S. Hernández, P. Pellegrino, A. Martínez, Y. Lebour, B. Garrido, R. Spano, M. Cazzanelli, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, E. Jordana, and J. M. Fedeli, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of Si nano crystals in SiO2 deposited by plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 064309 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ho, P.-T.

Huang, D.

J. Wang, J. Sun, Q. Sun, D. Wang, X. Zhang, D. Huang, and M. M. Fejer, “PPLN-based flexible optical logic AND gate,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 211-213 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, J. Sun, X. Zhang, D. Liu, and D. Huang, “Proposal and simulation for all-optical format conversion between differential phase-shift keying signals based on cascaded second-order nonlinearities,” Opt. Commun. 281, 5019-5024 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, J. Sun, D. Wang, X. Zhang, D. Huang, and M. M. Fejer, “Optical phase erasure and its application to format conversion through cascaded second-order processes in periodically poled lithium niobate,” Opt. Lett. 33, 1804-1806 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wang, J. Sun, X. Zhang, and D. Huang, “PPLN-based all-optical 40 Gbit/s three-input logic AND gate for both NRZ and RZ signals,” Electron. Lett. 44, 413-414 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, J. Sun, Q. Sun, D. Wang, M. Zhou, X. Zhang, D. Huang, and M. M. Fejer, “Dual-channel-output all-optical logic AND gate at 20 Gbit/s based on cascaded second-order nonlinearity in PPLN waveguide,” Electron. Lett. 43, 940-941 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Iacona, F.

G. Vijaya Prakash, M. Cazzanelli, Z. Gaburro, L. Pavesi, G. Franzo, F. Priolo, and F. Iacona, “Nonlinear optical properties of silicon nanocrystals grown by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 4607-4610 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Vijaya Prakash, M. Cazzanelli, Z. Gaburro, L. Pavesi, F. Iacona, G. Franzò, and F. Priolo, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of plasma-enhanced chemical-vapour deposition grown silicon nanocrystals,” J. Mod. Opt. 49, 719-730 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ibanescu, M.

M. Soljacic, M. Ibanescu, S. G. Johnson, Y. Fink, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Optimal bistable switching in nonlinear photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. E 66, 055601 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ibrahim, T. A.

Igarashi, K.

K. Igarashi and K. Kikuchi, “Optical signal processing by phase modulation and subsequent spectral filtering aiming at applications to ultrafast optical communication systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 551-565 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ikeda, K.

K. Ikeda and Y. Fainman, “Material and structural criteria for ultra-fast Kerr nonlinear switching in optical resonant cavities,” Solid-State Electron. 51, 1376-1380 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jacome, L.

Jafarpour, A.

Jeong, S. H.

Ji, J.-R.

Joannopoulos, J. D.

J. B. Abad, A. Rodriguez, P. Bermel, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, and M. Soljaciić, “Enhanced nonlinear optics in photonic-crystal microcavities,” Opt. Express 15, 16161-16176 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Soljacic, M. Ibanescu, S. G. Johnson, Y. Fink, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Optimal bistable switching in nonlinear photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. E 66, 055601 (2002).
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Johnson, S. G.

J. B. Abad, A. Rodriguez, P. Bermel, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, and M. Soljaciić, “Enhanced nonlinear optics in photonic-crystal microcavities,” Opt. Express 15, 16161-16176 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Soljacic, M. Ibanescu, S. G. Johnson, Y. Fink, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Optimal bistable switching in nonlinear photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. E 66, 055601 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jordana, E.

S. Hernández, P. Pellegrino, A. Martínez, Y. Lebour, B. Garrido, R. Spano, M. Cazzanelli, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, E. Jordana, and J. M. Fedeli, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of Si nano crystals in SiO2 deposited by plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 064309 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kawanishi, S.

Khorasani, S.

Kikuchi, K.

K. Igarashi and K. Kikuchi, “Optical signal processing by phase modulation and subsequent spectral filtering aiming at applications to ultrafast optical communication systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 551-565 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S.-H.

S.-H. Kim and Y.-H. Lee, “Symmetry relations of two-dimensional photonic crystal cavity modes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 1081-1085 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kimb, D.

L.-X. Chena and D. Kimb, “A bistable switching of two-dimensional photonic crystal with Kerr point defect,” Opt. Commun. 218, 19-26 (2003).
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Kirkpatrick, S.

R. L. Sutherland, D. G. Mclean, and S. Kirkpatrick, Handbook of Nonlinear Optics, 2nd ed. (Dekker, 2003).
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Komori, K.

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Kosmidou, E. P.

E. P. Kosmidou and T. D. Tsiboukis, “An FDTD analysis of photonic crystal waveguides comprising third-order nonlinear materials,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 35, 931-946 (2003).
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Kuo, L. C.

Kuramochi, E.

Kurz, T.

Lamont, M. R. E.

Lebour, Y.

S. Hernández, P. Pellegrino, A. Martínez, Y. Lebour, B. Garrido, R. Spano, M. Cazzanelli, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, E. Jordana, and J. M. Fedeli, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of Si nano crystals in SiO2 deposited by plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 064309 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, R. K.

Lee, Y.-H.

S.-H. Kim and Y.-H. Lee, “Symmetry relations of two-dimensional photonic crystal cavity modes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 1081-1085 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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Leuthold, J.

Li, B.

Li, Z.

Liang, G. Q.

Liangcai, C.

C. Lixue, D. Xiaoxu, D. Weiqiang, C. Liangcai, and L. Shutian, “Finite-difference time-domain analysis of optical bistability with low threshold in one-dimensional nonlinear photonic crystal with Kerr medium,” Opt. Commun. 209, 491-500 (2002).
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M. Lipson, “Switching light on a silicon chip,” Opt. Mater. 27, 731-739 (2005).
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Liu, D.

J. Wang, J. Sun, X. Zhang, D. Liu, and D. Huang, “Proposal and simulation for all-optical format conversion between differential phase-shift keying signals based on cascaded second-order nonlinearities,” Opt. Commun. 281, 5019-5024 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Q.

Q. Liu, X. Zhao, F. Gan, J. Mi, and S. Qian, “Femtosecond optical Kerr effect study of amorphous chalcogenide films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352, 2351-2354 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lixue, C.

C. Lixue, D. Xiaoxu, D. Weiqiang, C. Liangcai, and L. Shutian, “Finite-difference time-domain analysis of optical bistability with low threshold in one-dimensional nonlinear photonic crystal with Kerr medium,” Opt. Commun. 209, 491-500 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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Madden, S.

Magi, E. C.

Mägi, E. C.

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I. S. Maksymov, L. F. Marsal and J. Pallarès, “An FDTD analysis of nonlinear photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 38, 149-160 (2006).
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I. S. Maksymov, L. F. Marsal, and J. Pallares, “Finite-difference time-domain analysis of band structures in one-dimensional Kerr-nonlinear photonic crystals,” Opt. Commun. 239, 213-222 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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T. Stomeo, V. Errico, A. Salhi, A. Passaseo, R. Cingolani, A. D'Orazio, M. De Sario, V. Marrocco, V. Petruzzelli, F. Prudenzano, and M. De Vittorio, “Design and fabrication of active and passive photonic crystal resonators,” Microelectron. Eng. 83, 1823-1825 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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I. S. Maksymov, L. F. Marsal and J. Pallarès, “An FDTD analysis of nonlinear photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 38, 149-160 (2006).
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I. S. Maksymov, L. F. Marsal, and J. Pallares, “Finite-difference time-domain analysis of band structures in one-dimensional Kerr-nonlinear photonic crystals,” Opt. Commun. 239, 213-222 (2004).
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S. Hernández, P. Pellegrino, A. Martínez, Y. Lebour, B. Garrido, R. Spano, M. Cazzanelli, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, E. Jordana, and J. M. Fedeli, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of Si nano crystals in SiO2 deposited by plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 064309 (2008).
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R. L. Sutherland, D. G. Mclean, and S. Kirkpatrick, Handbook of Nonlinear Optics, 2nd ed. (Dekker, 2003).
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W. B. Fraga, J. W. M. Menezes, M. G. da Silva, C. S. Sobrinho, and A. S. B. Sombra, “All optical logic gates based on an asymmetric nonlinear directional coupler,” Opt. Commun. 262, 32-37 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mi, J.

Q. Liu, X. Zhao, F. Gan, J. Mi, and S. Qian, “Femtosecond optical Kerr effect study of amorphous chalcogenide films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352, 2351-2354 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mikhnevich, S. Y.

Mingaleev, S. F.

S. F. Mingaleev, A. E. Miroshnichenko, Y. S. Kivshar, and K. Busch, “All-optical switching, bistability, and slow light transmission in photonic crystal waveguide-resonator structures,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 046603 (2006).
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S. F. Mingaleev and Y. S. Kivshar, “Nonlinear transmission and light localization in photonic-crystal waveguides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 2241-2249 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Miroshnichenko, A. E.

S. F. Mingaleev, A. E. Miroshnichenko, Y. S. Kivshar, and K. Busch, “All-optical switching, bistability, and slow light transmission in photonic crystal waveguide-resonator structures,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 046603 (2006).
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A. E. Miroshnichenko and Y. S. Kivshar, “Sharp bends in photonic crystal waveguides as nonlinear Fano resonators,” Opt. Express 13, 3969-3976 (2005).
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Momeni, B.

Monifi, F.

Mookherjea, S.

S. Mookherjea and A. Yariv, “Kerr-stabilized super-resonant modes in coupled-resonator optical waveguides,” Phys. Rev. E 66, 046610 (2002).
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Moss, D. J.

Nguyen, H. C.

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Ogusu, K.

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Osgood, R. M.

Pallares, J.

I. S. Maksymov, L. F. Marsal, and J. Pallares, “Finite-difference time-domain analysis of band structures in one-dimensional Kerr-nonlinear photonic crystals,” Opt. Commun. 239, 213-222 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pallarès, J.

I. S. Maksymov, L. F. Marsal and J. Pallarès, “An FDTD analysis of nonlinear photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 38, 149-160 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Panoiu, N. C.

Passaseo, A.

T. Stomeo, V. Errico, A. Salhi, A. Passaseo, R. Cingolani, A. D'Orazio, M. De Sario, V. Marrocco, V. Petruzzelli, F. Prudenzano, and M. De Vittorio, “Design and fabrication of active and passive photonic crystal resonators,” Microelectron. Eng. 83, 1823-1825 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pavesi, L.

S. Hernández, P. Pellegrino, A. Martínez, Y. Lebour, B. Garrido, R. Spano, M. Cazzanelli, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, E. Jordana, and J. M. Fedeli, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of Si nano crystals in SiO2 deposited by plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 064309 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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G. Vijaya Prakash, M. Cazzanelli, Z. Gaburro, L. Pavesi, F. Iacona, G. Franzò, and F. Priolo, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of plasma-enhanced chemical-vapour deposition grown silicon nanocrystals,” J. Mod. Opt. 49, 719-730 (2002).
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Microelectron. Eng. (1)

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Opt. Commun. (6)

J. Wang, J. Sun, X. Zhang, D. Liu, and D. Huang, “Proposal and simulation for all-optical format conversion between differential phase-shift keying signals based on cascaded second-order nonlinearities,” Opt. Commun. 281, 5019-5024 (2008).
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Opt. Express (16)

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M. Notomi, T. Tanabe, A. Shinya, E. Kuramochi, H. Taniyama, S. Mitsugi, and M. Morita, “Nonlinear and adiabatic control of high-Q photonic crystal nanocavities,” Opt. Express 15, 17458-17481 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-D. Wu, T.-T. Shih, and M.-H. Chen, “New all-optical logic gates based on the local nonlinear Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” Opt. Express 16, 248-257 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wang, J. Sun, and Q. Sun, “Single-PPLN-based simultaneous half-adder, half-subtracter, and OR logic gate: proposal and simulation,” Opt. Express 15, 1690-1699 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Qiang, W. Z. Richard, and A. Soref, “Optical add-drop filters based on photonic crystal ring resonators,” Opt. Express 15, 1823-1831 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Koos, L. Jacome, C. Poulton, J. Leuthold, and W. Freude, “Nonlinear silicon-on-insulator waveguides for all-optical signal processing,” Opt. Express 15, 5976-5990 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z.-H. Zhu, W.-M. Ye, J.-R. Ji, X.-D. Yuan, and C. Zen, “High-contrast light-by-light switching and AND gate based on nonlinear photonic crystals,” Opt. Express 14, 1783-1788 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Li, Z. Chen, and B. Li, “Optical pulse controlled all-optical logic gates in SiGe/Si multimode interference,” Opt. Express 13, 1033-1038 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Notomi, A. Shinya, S. Mitsugi, G. Kira, E. Kuramochi, and T. Tanabe, “Optical bistable switching action of Si high-Q photonic-crystal nanocavities,” Opt. Express 13, 2678-2687 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. Miroshnichenko and Y. S. Kivshar, “Sharp bends in photonic crystal waveguides as nonlinear Fano resonators,” Opt. Express 13, 3969-3976 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Grillet, C. Smith, D. Freeman, S. Madden, B. Luther-Davies, E. C. Magi, D. J. Moss, and B. J. Eggleton, “Efficient coupling to chalcogenide glass photonic crystal waveguides via silica optical fiber nanowires,” Opt. Express 14, 1070-1078 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Shinya, S. Mitsugi, T. Tanabe, M. Notomi, I. Yokohama, H. Takara, and S. Kawanishi, “All-optical flip-flop circuit composed of coupled two-port resonant tunneling filter in two dimensional photonic crystal slab,” Opt. Express 14, 1230-1235 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (8)

J. Wang, J. Sun, and Q. Sun, “Experimental observation of a 1.5 μm band wavelength conversion and logic NOT gate at 40 Gbit/s based on sum-frequency generation,” Opt. Lett. 31, 1711-1713 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Dumeige, L. Ghisa, P. Féron, and Y. Dumeige, “Integrated all-optical pulse restoration with coupled nonlinear microring resonators,” Opt. Lett. 31, 2187-2189 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. F. Yanik and S. Fan, “All-optical transistor action with bistable switching in a photonic crystal cross-waveguide geometry,” Opt. Lett. 28, 2506-2508 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Heebner, N. N. Lepeshkin, A. Schweinsberg, G. W. Wicks, R. W. Boyd, R. Grover, and P.-T. Ho, “Enhanced linear and nonlinear optical phase response of AlGaAs microring resonators,” Opt. Lett. 29, 769-71 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Lin and E. Chow, “Direct measurement of the quality factor in a two-dimensional photonic-crystal microcavity,” Opt. Lett. 26, 1903-1905 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, J. Sun, D. Wang, X. Zhang, D. Huang, and M. M. Fejer, “Optical phase erasure and its application to format conversion through cascaded second-order processes in periodically poled lithium niobate,” Opt. Lett. 33, 1804-1806 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Pereira, P. Chak, and J. E. Sipe, “All-optical AND gate by use of a Kerr nonlinear microresonator structure,” Opt. Lett. 28, 444-446 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Mater. (1)

M. Lipson, “Switching light on a silicon chip,” Opt. Mater. 27, 731-739 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Quantum Electron. (2)

E. P. Kosmidou and T. D. Tsiboukis, “An FDTD analysis of photonic crystal waveguides comprising third-order nonlinear materials,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 35, 931-946 (2003).
[CrossRef]

I. S. Maksymov, L. F. Marsal and J. Pallarès, “An FDTD analysis of nonlinear photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 38, 149-160 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Lett. A (1)

H. Xiao and D. Yao, “Optical limitation in two-dimensional nonlinear photonic crystal with triangular lattice,” Phys. Lett. A 359, 723-727 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E (3)

S. Mookherjea and A. Yariv, “Kerr-stabilized super-resonant modes in coupled-resonator optical waveguides,” Phys. Rev. E 66, 046610 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. F. Mingaleev, A. E. Miroshnichenko, Y. S. Kivshar, and K. Busch, “All-optical switching, bistability, and slow light transmission in photonic crystal waveguide-resonator structures,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 046603 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Soljacic, M. Ibanescu, S. G. Johnson, Y. Fink, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Optimal bistable switching in nonlinear photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. E 66, 055601 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Solid-State Electron. (1)

K. Ikeda and Y. Fainman, “Material and structural criteria for ultra-fast Kerr nonlinear switching in optical resonant cavities,” Solid-State Electron. 51, 1376-1380 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics, 2nd ed. (Academic, 2003).

R. L. Sutherland, D. G. Mclean, and S. Kirkpatrick, Handbook of Nonlinear Optics, 2nd ed. (Dekker, 2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Taflov and S. C. Hagness, Computational Electrodynamics: The Finite-Difference Time Domain Method, 2nd ed. (Artech House, 2000).

M. Mazidi and J. G. Mazidi, The 8051 Microcontroller and Embedded Systems (Prentice-Hall, 2000).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of a nonlinear double channel ring resonator.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Dispersion diagram of a square lattice photonic crystal with GaAs rods in BSC glass background.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic of our proposed AND gate.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Transmission spectra of a linear double channel ring resonator.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Transmission to each port of the nonlinear add–drop ring resonator.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Field distribution to show the performance of the proposed optical AND gate.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Temporal waveforms of signals A and B, and logic AND output to shows the logic AND operation.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Valid power level ranges.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Extinction ratio versus acceptable input power deviations.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Truth Table of the Proposed AND Gate

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