Abstract

We have investigated the all-optical generation of ultrashort voltage pulses that are launched by resonant excitation of a passive GaAs photoconductive switch with no electric bias field applied. Due to a specially designed geometry, we can distinguish between electrical transients generated in the Schottky field region of the metal/GaAs contact and shift currents resulting from nonlinear optical effects in the GaAs material. The shift current contribution is smaller than the Schottky field contribution but possesses a higher bandwidth with frequency components exceeding 1THz. For small bias fields, the contribution of all-optically-generated currents to the overall voltage signal may be significant and needs to be accounted for when modeling photoconductive switches.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. Bieler, S. Seitz, M. Spitzer, K. Pierz, G. Hein, U. Siegner, M. A. Basu, A. J. A. Smith, and M. R. Harper, “Rise-time calibration of 50 GHz sampling oscilloscopes: intercomparison between PTB and NPL,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 56, 266-270 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. A. Valdmanis and G. A. Mourou, “Subpicosecond electrooptic sampling: principles and applications,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22, 69-78 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. Sprik, I. N. Dulling III, C.-C. Chi, and D. Grischkowsky, “Far infrared spectroscopy with subpicosecond electrical pulses on transmission lines,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 548-550 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  4. U. D. Keil and D. R. Dykaar, “Ultrafast pulse generation in photoconductive switches,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1664-1671 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Alexandrou, C. C. Wang, R. Sobolewsky, and T. Y. Hsiang, “Generation of subpicosecond electrical pulses by nonuniform illumination of GaAs transmission-line gaps,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1332-1338 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  6. P. U. Jepsen, R. H. Jacobsen, and S. R. Keiding, “Generation and detection of terahertz pulses from biased semiconductor antennas,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 2424-2436 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  7. E. Castro-Camus, J. Lloyd-Hughes, and M. B. Johnston, “Three-dimensional carrier-dynamics simulation of terahertz emission from photoconductive switches,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 195301 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. E. Ralph and D. Grischkowsky, “Trap-enhanced electric fields in semi-insulators: the role of electrical and optical carrier injection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 1972-1974 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Bieler, G. Hein, K. Pierz, U. Siegner, and M. Koch, “Spatial pattern formation of optically excited carriers in photoconductive switches,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1002-1004 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. Nahata and T. F. Heinz, “Generation of subpicosecond electrical pulses by optical rectification,” Opt. Lett. 23, 867-869 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. Graf, H. Sigg, and W. Bächtold, “High-frequency electrical generation using optical rectification in bulk GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2647-2649 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. E. Sipe and A. I. Shkrebtii, “Second-order optical response in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 5337-5352 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. Bieler, K. Pierz, and U. Siegner, “Simultaneous generation of shift and injection currents in (110)-grown GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 100, 083710 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  14. F. Nastos and J. E. Sipe, “Optical rectification and shift currents in GaAs and GaP response: below and above the band gap,” Phys. Rev. B 74, 035201 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  15. Y. Jin, X. F. Ma, G. A. Wagoner, M. Alexander, and X.-C. Zhang, “Anomalous optically generated THz beams from metal/GaAs interfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 682 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  16. A weak signature of a voltage pulse generated in a PC switch that is not biased has been observed in Ref. . Yet the origin of this signal has not been investigated at all.
  17. T. S. Clement, P. D. Hale, D. F. Williams, C. M. Wang, A. D. Dienstfrey, and D. A. Keenan, “Calibration of sampling oscilloscopes with high-speed photodiodes,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 54, 3173-3181 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  18. S. M. Sze, Physics of Semiconductor Devices (John Wiley & Sons, 1981).
  19. P. G. Huggard, C. J. Shaw, J. A. Cluff, and S. R. Andrews, “Polarization-dependent efficiency of photoconducting THz transmitters and receivers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2069-2071 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  20. M. Bieler, K. Pierz, U. Siegner, and P. Dawson, “Quantum interference currents by excitation of heavy- and light-hole excitons in GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 73, 241312(R) (2006).
    [CrossRef]

2007 (1)

M. Bieler, S. Seitz, M. Spitzer, K. Pierz, G. Hein, U. Siegner, M. A. Basu, A. J. A. Smith, and M. R. Harper, “Rise-time calibration of 50 GHz sampling oscilloscopes: intercomparison between PTB and NPL,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 56, 266-270 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (4)

M. Bieler, K. Pierz, and U. Siegner, “Simultaneous generation of shift and injection currents in (110)-grown GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 100, 083710 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Nastos and J. E. Sipe, “Optical rectification and shift currents in GaAs and GaP response: below and above the band gap,” Phys. Rev. B 74, 035201 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. S. Clement, P. D. Hale, D. F. Williams, C. M. Wang, A. D. Dienstfrey, and D. A. Keenan, “Calibration of sampling oscilloscopes with high-speed photodiodes,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 54, 3173-3181 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Bieler, K. Pierz, U. Siegner, and P. Dawson, “Quantum interference currents by excitation of heavy- and light-hole excitons in GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 73, 241312(R) (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

E. Castro-Camus, J. Lloyd-Hughes, and M. B. Johnston, “Three-dimensional carrier-dynamics simulation of terahertz emission from photoconductive switches,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 195301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

M. Bieler, G. Hein, K. Pierz, U. Siegner, and M. Koch, “Spatial pattern formation of optically excited carriers in photoconductive switches,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1002-1004 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Graf, H. Sigg, and W. Bächtold, “High-frequency electrical generation using optical rectification in bulk GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2647-2649 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Sipe and A. I. Shkrebtii, “Second-order optical response in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 5337-5352 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

A. Nahata and T. F. Heinz, “Generation of subpicosecond electrical pulses by optical rectification,” Opt. Lett. 23, 867-869 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Huggard, C. J. Shaw, J. A. Cluff, and S. R. Andrews, “Polarization-dependent efficiency of photoconducting THz transmitters and receivers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2069-2071 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

P. U. Jepsen, R. H. Jacobsen, and S. R. Keiding, “Generation and detection of terahertz pulses from biased semiconductor antennas,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 2424-2436 (1996).
[CrossRef]

U. D. Keil and D. R. Dykaar, “Ultrafast pulse generation in photoconductive switches,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1664-1671 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

S. Alexandrou, C. C. Wang, R. Sobolewsky, and T. Y. Hsiang, “Generation of subpicosecond electrical pulses by nonuniform illumination of GaAs transmission-line gaps,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1332-1338 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Y. Jin, X. F. Ma, G. A. Wagoner, M. Alexander, and X.-C. Zhang, “Anomalous optically generated THz beams from metal/GaAs interfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 682 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

S. E. Ralph and D. Grischkowsky, “Trap-enhanced electric fields in semi-insulators: the role of electrical and optical carrier injection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 1972-1974 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

R. Sprik, I. N. Dulling III, C.-C. Chi, and D. Grischkowsky, “Far infrared spectroscopy with subpicosecond electrical pulses on transmission lines,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 548-550 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

J. A. Valdmanis and G. A. Mourou, “Subpicosecond electrooptic sampling: principles and applications,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22, 69-78 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Alexander, M.

Y. Jin, X. F. Ma, G. A. Wagoner, M. Alexander, and X.-C. Zhang, “Anomalous optically generated THz beams from metal/GaAs interfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 682 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Alexandrou, S.

S. Alexandrou, C. C. Wang, R. Sobolewsky, and T. Y. Hsiang, “Generation of subpicosecond electrical pulses by nonuniform illumination of GaAs transmission-line gaps,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1332-1338 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Andrews, S. R.

P. G. Huggard, C. J. Shaw, J. A. Cluff, and S. R. Andrews, “Polarization-dependent efficiency of photoconducting THz transmitters and receivers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2069-2071 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bächtold, W.

S. Graf, H. Sigg, and W. Bächtold, “High-frequency electrical generation using optical rectification in bulk GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2647-2649 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Basu, M. A.

M. Bieler, S. Seitz, M. Spitzer, K. Pierz, G. Hein, U. Siegner, M. A. Basu, A. J. A. Smith, and M. R. Harper, “Rise-time calibration of 50 GHz sampling oscilloscopes: intercomparison between PTB and NPL,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 56, 266-270 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bieler, M.

M. Bieler, S. Seitz, M. Spitzer, K. Pierz, G. Hein, U. Siegner, M. A. Basu, A. J. A. Smith, and M. R. Harper, “Rise-time calibration of 50 GHz sampling oscilloscopes: intercomparison between PTB and NPL,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 56, 266-270 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Bieler, K. Pierz, and U. Siegner, “Simultaneous generation of shift and injection currents in (110)-grown GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 100, 083710 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Bieler, K. Pierz, U. Siegner, and P. Dawson, “Quantum interference currents by excitation of heavy- and light-hole excitons in GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 73, 241312(R) (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Bieler, G. Hein, K. Pierz, U. Siegner, and M. Koch, “Spatial pattern formation of optically excited carriers in photoconductive switches,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1002-1004 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Castro-Camus, E.

E. Castro-Camus, J. Lloyd-Hughes, and M. B. Johnston, “Three-dimensional carrier-dynamics simulation of terahertz emission from photoconductive switches,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 195301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chi, C.-C.

R. Sprik, I. N. Dulling III, C.-C. Chi, and D. Grischkowsky, “Far infrared spectroscopy with subpicosecond electrical pulses on transmission lines,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 548-550 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Clement, T. S.

T. S. Clement, P. D. Hale, D. F. Williams, C. M. Wang, A. D. Dienstfrey, and D. A. Keenan, “Calibration of sampling oscilloscopes with high-speed photodiodes,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 54, 3173-3181 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cluff, J. A.

P. G. Huggard, C. J. Shaw, J. A. Cluff, and S. R. Andrews, “Polarization-dependent efficiency of photoconducting THz transmitters and receivers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2069-2071 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dawson, P.

M. Bieler, K. Pierz, U. Siegner, and P. Dawson, “Quantum interference currents by excitation of heavy- and light-hole excitons in GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 73, 241312(R) (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dienstfrey, A. D.

T. S. Clement, P. D. Hale, D. F. Williams, C. M. Wang, A. D. Dienstfrey, and D. A. Keenan, “Calibration of sampling oscilloscopes with high-speed photodiodes,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 54, 3173-3181 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dulling, I. N.

R. Sprik, I. N. Dulling III, C.-C. Chi, and D. Grischkowsky, “Far infrared spectroscopy with subpicosecond electrical pulses on transmission lines,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 548-550 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Dykaar, D. R.

U. D. Keil and D. R. Dykaar, “Ultrafast pulse generation in photoconductive switches,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1664-1671 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Graf, S.

S. Graf, H. Sigg, and W. Bächtold, “High-frequency electrical generation using optical rectification in bulk GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2647-2649 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Grischkowsky, D.

S. E. Ralph and D. Grischkowsky, “Trap-enhanced electric fields in semi-insulators: the role of electrical and optical carrier injection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 1972-1974 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. Sprik, I. N. Dulling III, C.-C. Chi, and D. Grischkowsky, “Far infrared spectroscopy with subpicosecond electrical pulses on transmission lines,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 548-550 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Hale, P. D.

T. S. Clement, P. D. Hale, D. F. Williams, C. M. Wang, A. D. Dienstfrey, and D. A. Keenan, “Calibration of sampling oscilloscopes with high-speed photodiodes,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 54, 3173-3181 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Harper, M. R.

M. Bieler, S. Seitz, M. Spitzer, K. Pierz, G. Hein, U. Siegner, M. A. Basu, A. J. A. Smith, and M. R. Harper, “Rise-time calibration of 50 GHz sampling oscilloscopes: intercomparison between PTB and NPL,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 56, 266-270 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hein, G.

M. Bieler, S. Seitz, M. Spitzer, K. Pierz, G. Hein, U. Siegner, M. A. Basu, A. J. A. Smith, and M. R. Harper, “Rise-time calibration of 50 GHz sampling oscilloscopes: intercomparison between PTB and NPL,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 56, 266-270 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Bieler, G. Hein, K. Pierz, U. Siegner, and M. Koch, “Spatial pattern formation of optically excited carriers in photoconductive switches,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1002-1004 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Heinz, T. F.

Hsiang, T. Y.

S. Alexandrou, C. C. Wang, R. Sobolewsky, and T. Y. Hsiang, “Generation of subpicosecond electrical pulses by nonuniform illumination of GaAs transmission-line gaps,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1332-1338 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Huggard, P. G.

P. G. Huggard, C. J. Shaw, J. A. Cluff, and S. R. Andrews, “Polarization-dependent efficiency of photoconducting THz transmitters and receivers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2069-2071 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jacobsen, R. H.

Jepsen, P. U.

Jin, Y.

Y. Jin, X. F. Ma, G. A. Wagoner, M. Alexander, and X.-C. Zhang, “Anomalous optically generated THz beams from metal/GaAs interfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 682 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Johnston, M. B.

E. Castro-Camus, J. Lloyd-Hughes, and M. B. Johnston, “Three-dimensional carrier-dynamics simulation of terahertz emission from photoconductive switches,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 195301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Keenan, D. A.

T. S. Clement, P. D. Hale, D. F. Williams, C. M. Wang, A. D. Dienstfrey, and D. A. Keenan, “Calibration of sampling oscilloscopes with high-speed photodiodes,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 54, 3173-3181 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Keiding, S. R.

Keil, U. D.

U. D. Keil and D. R. Dykaar, “Ultrafast pulse generation in photoconductive switches,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1664-1671 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Koch, M.

M. Bieler, G. Hein, K. Pierz, U. Siegner, and M. Koch, “Spatial pattern formation of optically excited carriers in photoconductive switches,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1002-1004 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lloyd-Hughes, J.

E. Castro-Camus, J. Lloyd-Hughes, and M. B. Johnston, “Three-dimensional carrier-dynamics simulation of terahertz emission from photoconductive switches,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 195301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ma, X. F.

Y. Jin, X. F. Ma, G. A. Wagoner, M. Alexander, and X.-C. Zhang, “Anomalous optically generated THz beams from metal/GaAs interfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 682 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Mourou, G. A.

J. A. Valdmanis and G. A. Mourou, “Subpicosecond electrooptic sampling: principles and applications,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22, 69-78 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Nahata, A.

Nastos, F.

F. Nastos and J. E. Sipe, “Optical rectification and shift currents in GaAs and GaP response: below and above the band gap,” Phys. Rev. B 74, 035201 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pierz, K.

M. Bieler, S. Seitz, M. Spitzer, K. Pierz, G. Hein, U. Siegner, M. A. Basu, A. J. A. Smith, and M. R. Harper, “Rise-time calibration of 50 GHz sampling oscilloscopes: intercomparison between PTB and NPL,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 56, 266-270 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Bieler, K. Pierz, and U. Siegner, “Simultaneous generation of shift and injection currents in (110)-grown GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 100, 083710 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Bieler, K. Pierz, U. Siegner, and P. Dawson, “Quantum interference currents by excitation of heavy- and light-hole excitons in GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 73, 241312(R) (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Bieler, G. Hein, K. Pierz, U. Siegner, and M. Koch, “Spatial pattern formation of optically excited carriers in photoconductive switches,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1002-1004 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ralph, S. E.

S. E. Ralph and D. Grischkowsky, “Trap-enhanced electric fields in semi-insulators: the role of electrical and optical carrier injection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 1972-1974 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Seitz, S.

M. Bieler, S. Seitz, M. Spitzer, K. Pierz, G. Hein, U. Siegner, M. A. Basu, A. J. A. Smith, and M. R. Harper, “Rise-time calibration of 50 GHz sampling oscilloscopes: intercomparison between PTB and NPL,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 56, 266-270 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shaw, C. J.

P. G. Huggard, C. J. Shaw, J. A. Cluff, and S. R. Andrews, “Polarization-dependent efficiency of photoconducting THz transmitters and receivers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2069-2071 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shkrebtii, A. I.

J. E. Sipe and A. I. Shkrebtii, “Second-order optical response in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 5337-5352 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Siegner, U.

M. Bieler, S. Seitz, M. Spitzer, K. Pierz, G. Hein, U. Siegner, M. A. Basu, A. J. A. Smith, and M. R. Harper, “Rise-time calibration of 50 GHz sampling oscilloscopes: intercomparison between PTB and NPL,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 56, 266-270 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Bieler, K. Pierz, and U. Siegner, “Simultaneous generation of shift and injection currents in (110)-grown GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 100, 083710 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Bieler, K. Pierz, U. Siegner, and P. Dawson, “Quantum interference currents by excitation of heavy- and light-hole excitons in GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 73, 241312(R) (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Bieler, G. Hein, K. Pierz, U. Siegner, and M. Koch, “Spatial pattern formation of optically excited carriers in photoconductive switches,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1002-1004 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sigg, H.

S. Graf, H. Sigg, and W. Bächtold, “High-frequency electrical generation using optical rectification in bulk GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2647-2649 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sipe, J. E.

F. Nastos and J. E. Sipe, “Optical rectification and shift currents in GaAs and GaP response: below and above the band gap,” Phys. Rev. B 74, 035201 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Sipe and A. I. Shkrebtii, “Second-order optical response in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 5337-5352 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Smith, A. J. A.

M. Bieler, S. Seitz, M. Spitzer, K. Pierz, G. Hein, U. Siegner, M. A. Basu, A. J. A. Smith, and M. R. Harper, “Rise-time calibration of 50 GHz sampling oscilloscopes: intercomparison between PTB and NPL,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 56, 266-270 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sobolewsky, R.

S. Alexandrou, C. C. Wang, R. Sobolewsky, and T. Y. Hsiang, “Generation of subpicosecond electrical pulses by nonuniform illumination of GaAs transmission-line gaps,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1332-1338 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Spitzer, M.

M. Bieler, S. Seitz, M. Spitzer, K. Pierz, G. Hein, U. Siegner, M. A. Basu, A. J. A. Smith, and M. R. Harper, “Rise-time calibration of 50 GHz sampling oscilloscopes: intercomparison between PTB and NPL,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 56, 266-270 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sprik, R.

R. Sprik, I. N. Dulling III, C.-C. Chi, and D. Grischkowsky, “Far infrared spectroscopy with subpicosecond electrical pulses on transmission lines,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 548-550 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Sze, S. M.

S. M. Sze, Physics of Semiconductor Devices (John Wiley & Sons, 1981).

Valdmanis, J. A.

J. A. Valdmanis and G. A. Mourou, “Subpicosecond electrooptic sampling: principles and applications,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22, 69-78 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Wagoner, G. A.

Y. Jin, X. F. Ma, G. A. Wagoner, M. Alexander, and X.-C. Zhang, “Anomalous optically generated THz beams from metal/GaAs interfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 682 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C. C.

S. Alexandrou, C. C. Wang, R. Sobolewsky, and T. Y. Hsiang, “Generation of subpicosecond electrical pulses by nonuniform illumination of GaAs transmission-line gaps,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1332-1338 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C. M.

T. S. Clement, P. D. Hale, D. F. Williams, C. M. Wang, A. D. Dienstfrey, and D. A. Keenan, “Calibration of sampling oscilloscopes with high-speed photodiodes,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 54, 3173-3181 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Williams, D. F.

T. S. Clement, P. D. Hale, D. F. Williams, C. M. Wang, A. D. Dienstfrey, and D. A. Keenan, “Calibration of sampling oscilloscopes with high-speed photodiodes,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 54, 3173-3181 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.-C.

Y. Jin, X. F. Ma, G. A. Wagoner, M. Alexander, and X.-C. Zhang, “Anomalous optically generated THz beams from metal/GaAs interfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 682 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

R. Sprik, I. N. Dulling III, C.-C. Chi, and D. Grischkowsky, “Far infrared spectroscopy with subpicosecond electrical pulses on transmission lines,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 548-550 (1987).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Ralph and D. Grischkowsky, “Trap-enhanced electric fields in semi-insulators: the role of electrical and optical carrier injection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 1972-1974 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. Bieler, G. Hein, K. Pierz, U. Siegner, and M. Koch, “Spatial pattern formation of optically excited carriers in photoconductive switches,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1002-1004 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Graf, H. Sigg, and W. Bächtold, “High-frequency electrical generation using optical rectification in bulk GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2647-2649 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. Jin, X. F. Ma, G. A. Wagoner, M. Alexander, and X.-C. Zhang, “Anomalous optically generated THz beams from metal/GaAs interfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 682 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Huggard, C. J. Shaw, J. A. Cluff, and S. R. Andrews, “Polarization-dependent efficiency of photoconducting THz transmitters and receivers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2069-2071 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (3)

J. A. Valdmanis and G. A. Mourou, “Subpicosecond electrooptic sampling: principles and applications,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22, 69-78 (1986).
[CrossRef]

U. D. Keil and D. R. Dykaar, “Ultrafast pulse generation in photoconductive switches,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1664-1671 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Alexandrou, C. C. Wang, R. Sobolewsky, and T. Y. Hsiang, “Generation of subpicosecond electrical pulses by nonuniform illumination of GaAs transmission-line gaps,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1332-1338 (1994).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. (1)

M. Bieler, S. Seitz, M. Spitzer, K. Pierz, G. Hein, U. Siegner, M. A. Basu, A. J. A. Smith, and M. R. Harper, “Rise-time calibration of 50 GHz sampling oscilloscopes: intercomparison between PTB and NPL,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 56, 266-270 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. (1)

T. S. Clement, P. D. Hale, D. F. Williams, C. M. Wang, A. D. Dienstfrey, and D. A. Keenan, “Calibration of sampling oscilloscopes with high-speed photodiodes,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 54, 3173-3181 (2006).
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J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. Bieler, K. Pierz, and U. Siegner, “Simultaneous generation of shift and injection currents in (110)-grown GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 100, 083710 (2006).
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J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. B (4)

M. Bieler, K. Pierz, U. Siegner, and P. Dawson, “Quantum interference currents by excitation of heavy- and light-hole excitons in GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 73, 241312(R) (2006).
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F. Nastos and J. E. Sipe, “Optical rectification and shift currents in GaAs and GaP response: below and above the band gap,” Phys. Rev. B 74, 035201 (2006).
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Other (2)

S. M. Sze, Physics of Semiconductor Devices (John Wiley & Sons, 1981).

A weak signature of a voltage pulse generated in a PC switch that is not biased has been observed in Ref. . Yet the origin of this signal has not been investigated at all.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic drawings of the experimental setup containing the CPS, EO crystal, and the excitation geometry. (b) Calculated dependence of the shift current along the x-, y- and z-directions together with the optical power absorbed in the GaAs substrate versus polarization direction of the pump beam.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Voltage pulse measured for the pump beam focus close to the lower contact of the CPS and for TM polarization. Inset compares different pump focus positions. (b) Amplitude of the voltage signals measured for the pump beam focus close to the upper and lower contact versus the polarization angle of the pump beam. (c) Amplitude of the voltage signal versus polarization angle of the pump beam in a differently oriented sample (see inset).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Temporal waveform of the shift-current-induced voltage pulse derived from the waveforms measured at 45 ° and 45 ° (shown in the inset). (b) Power spectra of voltage pulses generated by shift and Schottky currents (solid and short-dashed curve, respectively) and of voltage pulses obtained with a bias field of 2.5 kV cm (dashed curve). The 20 dB drop is determined with respect to the power at 50 GHz .

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