Abstract

Nd3+:(La1x,Bax)F3x (x=0.1) is efficiently grown by the micro-pulling-down method. Characterization of its optical properties reveals that it is transparent in the vacuum ultraviolet region with an absorption edge at around 180nm. It has fluorescence centered at 175nm with a bandwidth of 12nm and a lifetime of 6.1ns as measured by a vacuum ultraviolet streak camera and spectrometer combination. It is proposed to be suitable as a vacuum ultraviolet scintillator and a potential laser material.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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2007

L. Skuja, K. Kajihara, M. Hirano, and H. Hosono, “Fluorine laser-induced silicon hydride Si-H groups in silica,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 353, 526-529 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Tanaka, M. Nishikino, H. Yamatani, K. Nagashima, T. Kimura, Y. Furukawa, H. Murakami, S. Saito, N. Sarukura, H. Nishimura, K. Mima, Y. Kagamitani, D. Ehrentraut, and T. Fukuda, “Hydrothermal method grown large-sized zinc oxide single crystal as fast scintillator for future extreme ultraviolet lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 231117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Yoshikawa, M. Nikl, G. Boulon, and T. Fukuda, “Challenge and study for developing of novel single crystalline optical materials using micro-pulling-down method,” Opt. Mater. 30, 6-10 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. M. Epelbaum, K. Inaba, S. Uda, and T. Fukuda, “Micro-pulling down growth studies of lead tungstate crystals: aspects of incongruent melt vaporization,” J. Cryst. Growth 178, 426-429 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Cadatal, Y. S. Seo, S. Ono, Y. Furukawa, E. Estacio, H. Murakami, Y. Fujimoto, N. Sarukura, M. Nakatsuka, T. Suyama, K. Fukuda, R. Simura, and A. Yoshikawa, “Nd3+:(La1−xBax)F3−x grown by micro-pulling down method as vacuum ultraviolet scintillator and potential laser material,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 46, L985-L987 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

W. Drozdowski, A. Wojtowicz, D. Wisniewski, T. Lukasiewics, and J. Kisielewski, “Scintillation properties of Pr-activated LuAlO3,” Opt. Mater. 28, 102-105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004

A. Novoselov, A. Yoshikawa, and T. Fukuda, “The micro-pulling down method: fast and economic solution for materials screening,” Curr. Top. Cryst. Growth Res. 7, 87-111 (2004).

A. Yoshikawa, T. Satonaga, K. Kamada, H. Sato, M. Nikl, N. Solovieva, and T. Fukuda, “Crystal growth of Ce:PrF3 by micro-pulling-down method,” J. Cryst. Growth 270, 427-432 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

A. Yoshikawa, H. Itagaki, T. Fukuda, K. Lebbou, A. El Hassouni, A. Brenier, C. Goutaudier, O. Tillement, and G. Boulon, “Synthesis, crystal growth and second harmonic generation properties of trivalent rare-earth-doped non-linear tungsten-bronze-type structure Ba2Na1−3xRExNb5O15 (RE=Sc,Y,La,Gd,Yb and Lu),” J. Cryst. Growth 247, 148-156 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

T. Suganuma, H. Kubo, O. Wakabayashi, H. Mizoguchi, K. Nakao, Y. Nabekawa, T. Togashi, and S. Watanabe, “157-nm coherent light source as an inspection tool for F2 laser lithography,” Opt. Lett. 27, 46-48 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. T. Chen, J. Lu, T. Togashi, T. Suganuma, T. Sekikawa, S. Watanabe, Z. Xu, and J. Wang, “Second-harmonic generation from a KBe2BO3F2 crystal in the deep ultraviolet,” Opt. Lett. 27, 637-639 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Yoshikawa, T. Akagi, M. Nikl, N. Solovieva, K. Lebbou, C. Dujardin, C. Pédrini, and T. Fukuda, “{Y3−x,Ybx}[Ga]2(Ga)3O12 and {Lu2Yb1}[Al]2(Al)3O12 single crystals for scintillator application grown by the modified micro-pulling-down method,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 486, 79-82 (2002).
[CrossRef]

V. N. Makhov, N. Yu. Kirikova, M. Kirm, J. C. Krupa, P. Liblik, A. Lushchik, Ch. Lushchik, E. Negodin, and G. Zimmerer, “Luminescence properties of YPO4:Nd3+: a promising VUV scintillator material,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 486, 437-442 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

V. N. Makhov, M. N. Khaidukov, N. Yu. Kirikova, M. Kirm, J. C. Krupa, T. V. Ouvarova, and G. Zimmerer, “VUV spectroscopy of wide band-gap crystals doped with rare earth ions,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 470, 290-294 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Z. Liu, T. Kozeki, Y. Suzuki, N. Sarukura, K. Shimamura, T. Fukuda, M. Hirano, and H. Hosono, “Chirped-pulse amplification of ultraviolet femtosecond pulses by use of Ce3+:LiCaAlF6 as a broadband solid-state gain medium,” Opt. Lett. 26, 301-303 (2001).
[CrossRef]

W. Sasaki, T. Shirai, S. Kubodera, J. Kawanaka, and T. Igarashi, “Observation of vacuum-ultraviolet Kr2* laser oscillation pumped by a compact discharge device,” Opt. Lett. 26, 503-505 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Joubert, Y. Guyot, B. Jacquier, J. P. Chaminade, and A. Garcia, “Fluoride crystals and high lying excited states of rare earth ions,” J. Fluorine Chem. 107, 235-240 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

V. N. Makhov, N. M. Khaidukov, N. Yu. Kirikova, M. Kirm, J. C. Krupa, T. V. Ouvarova, and G. Zimmerer, “VUV emission of rare-earth ions doped into fluoride crystals,” J. Lumin. 87-89, 1005-1007 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. H. French, R. C. Wheland, D. J. Jones, J. N. Hilfiker, R. A. Synowicki, F. C. Zumsteg, J. Feldman, and A. E. Feiring, “Fluoropolymers for 157nm lithography: optical properties from VUV absorbance and ellipsometry measurements,” Proc. SPIE 4000, 1491-1502 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

R. H. French, D. J. Jones, H. Müllejans, S. Loughin, A. D. Dorneich, and P. F. Carcia, “Optical properties of aluminum nitride: determined from vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy and spectroscopic ellipsometry,” J. Mater. Res. 14, 4337-4344 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

J. Becker, J. Y. Gesland, N. Y. Kirikova, J. C. Krupa, V. N. Makhov, M. Runne, M. Queffelec, T. V. Uvarova, and G. Zimmerer, “Fast VUV emission of rare earth ions (Nd3+, Er3+, Tm3+) in wide bandgap crystals,” J. Alloys Compd. 275-277, 205-208 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

J. C. Krupa and M. Queffelec, “UV and VUV optical excitations in wide band gap materials doped with rare earth ions: 4f-5d transitions,” J. Alloys Compd. 250, 287-292 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Krupa and M. Queffelec, “UV and VUV optical excitations in wide band gap materials doped with rare earth ions: 4f-5d transitions,” J. Alloys Compd. 250, 287-292 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995

N. Sarukura, M. A. Dubinskii, Z. Liu, V. V. Semashko, A. K. Naumov, S. L. Koraleva, R. Yu. Abdulsabirov, K. Edamatsu, Y. Suzuki, T. Itoh, and Y. Segawa, “Ce3+ activated fluoride crystals as prospective media for widely tunable ultraviolet ultrafast lasers with direct 10-ns pumping,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1, 792-804 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

1993

M. A. Dubinskii, V. V. Semashko, A. K. Naumov, R. Y. Abdulsabirov, and S. L. Korableva, “Spectroscopy of a new active medium of a solid-state UV laser with broadband single-pass gain,” Laser Phys. 3, 216-217 (1993).

1992

1985

R. W. Waynant and P. H. Klein, “Vacuum ultraviolet laser emission from Nd+3:LaF3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 14-16 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984

1982

B. P. Sobolev and N. L. Tkachenko, “Phase diagrams of BaF2-(Y,Ln)F3 systems,” J. Less-Common Met. 85, 155-170 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1979

1976

K. H. Yang and J. A. DeLuca, “VUV fluorescence of Nd3+-, Er3+-, and Tm3+-doped trifluorides and tunable coherent sources from 1650 to 2600Å,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 499-501 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1963

Abdulsabirov, R. Y.

M. A. Dubinskii, V. V. Semashko, A. K. Naumov, R. Y. Abdulsabirov, and S. L. Korableva, “Spectroscopy of a new active medium of a solid-state UV laser with broadband single-pass gain,” Laser Phys. 3, 216-217 (1993).

M. A. Dubinskii, A. C. Cefalas, E. Sarantopoulou, S. M. Spyrou, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Y. Abdulsabirov, S. L. Korableva, and V. V. Semashko, “Efficient LaF3:Nd3+-based vacuum-ultraviolet laser at 172nm,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 1148-1150 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Abdulsabirov, R. Yu.

N. Sarukura, M. A. Dubinskii, Z. Liu, V. V. Semashko, A. K. Naumov, S. L. Koraleva, R. Yu. Abdulsabirov, K. Edamatsu, Y. Suzuki, T. Itoh, and Y. Segawa, “Ce3+ activated fluoride crystals as prospective media for widely tunable ultraviolet ultrafast lasers with direct 10-ns pumping,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1, 792-804 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Akagi, T.

A. Yoshikawa, T. Akagi, M. Nikl, N. Solovieva, K. Lebbou, C. Dujardin, C. Pédrini, and T. Fukuda, “{Y3−x,Ybx}[Ga]2(Ga)3O12 and {Lu2Yb1}[Al]2(Al)3O12 single crystals for scintillator application grown by the modified micro-pulling-down method,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 486, 79-82 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Becker, J.

J. Becker, J. Y. Gesland, N. Y. Kirikova, J. C. Krupa, V. N. Makhov, M. Runne, M. Queffelec, T. V. Uvarova, and G. Zimmerer, “Fast VUV emission of rare earth ions (Nd3+, Er3+, Tm3+) in wide bandgap crystals,” J. Alloys Compd. 275-277, 205-208 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Boulon, G.

A. Yoshikawa, M. Nikl, G. Boulon, and T. Fukuda, “Challenge and study for developing of novel single crystalline optical materials using micro-pulling-down method,” Opt. Mater. 30, 6-10 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Yoshikawa, H. Itagaki, T. Fukuda, K. Lebbou, A. El Hassouni, A. Brenier, C. Goutaudier, O. Tillement, and G. Boulon, “Synthesis, crystal growth and second harmonic generation properties of trivalent rare-earth-doped non-linear tungsten-bronze-type structure Ba2Na1−3xRExNb5O15 (RE=Sc,Y,La,Gd,Yb and Lu),” J. Cryst. Growth 247, 148-156 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Brenier, A.

A. Yoshikawa, H. Itagaki, T. Fukuda, K. Lebbou, A. El Hassouni, A. Brenier, C. Goutaudier, O. Tillement, and G. Boulon, “Synthesis, crystal growth and second harmonic generation properties of trivalent rare-earth-doped non-linear tungsten-bronze-type structure Ba2Na1−3xRExNb5O15 (RE=Sc,Y,La,Gd,Yb and Lu),” J. Cryst. Growth 247, 148-156 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cadatal, M.

M. Cadatal, Y. S. Seo, S. Ono, Y. Furukawa, E. Estacio, H. Murakami, Y. Fujimoto, N. Sarukura, M. Nakatsuka, T. Suyama, K. Fukuda, R. Simura, and A. Yoshikawa, “Nd3+:(La1−xBax)F3−x grown by micro-pulling down method as vacuum ultraviolet scintillator and potential laser material,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 46, L985-L987 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Carcia, P. F.

R. H. French, D. J. Jones, H. Müllejans, S. Loughin, A. D. Dorneich, and P. F. Carcia, “Optical properties of aluminum nitride: determined from vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy and spectroscopic ellipsometry,” J. Mater. Res. 14, 4337-4344 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Castillo, V.

Cefalas, A. C.

Chai, B. H. T.

Chaminade, J. P.

M. F. Joubert, Y. Guyot, B. Jacquier, J. P. Chaminade, and A. Garcia, “Fluoride crystals and high lying excited states of rare earth ions,” J. Fluorine Chem. 107, 235-240 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. T.

Crosswhite, H. M.

DeLuca, J. A.

K. H. Yang and J. A. DeLuca, “VUV fluorescence of Nd3+-, Er3+-, and Tm3+-doped trifluorides and tunable coherent sources from 1650 to 2600Å,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 499-501 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Dieke, G. H.

Dorneich, A. D.

R. H. French, D. J. Jones, H. Müllejans, S. Loughin, A. D. Dorneich, and P. F. Carcia, “Optical properties of aluminum nitride: determined from vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy and spectroscopic ellipsometry,” J. Mater. Res. 14, 4337-4344 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Drozdowski, W.

W. Drozdowski, A. Wojtowicz, D. Wisniewski, T. Lukasiewics, and J. Kisielewski, “Scintillation properties of Pr-activated LuAlO3,” Opt. Mater. 28, 102-105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dubinskii, M. A.

N. Sarukura, M. A. Dubinskii, Z. Liu, V. V. Semashko, A. K. Naumov, S. L. Koraleva, R. Yu. Abdulsabirov, K. Edamatsu, Y. Suzuki, T. Itoh, and Y. Segawa, “Ce3+ activated fluoride crystals as prospective media for widely tunable ultraviolet ultrafast lasers with direct 10-ns pumping,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1, 792-804 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Dubinskii, V. V. Semashko, A. K. Naumov, R. Y. Abdulsabirov, and S. L. Korableva, “Spectroscopy of a new active medium of a solid-state UV laser with broadband single-pass gain,” Laser Phys. 3, 216-217 (1993).

M. A. Dubinskii, A. C. Cefalas, E. Sarantopoulou, S. M. Spyrou, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Y. Abdulsabirov, S. L. Korableva, and V. V. Semashko, “Efficient LaF3:Nd3+-based vacuum-ultraviolet laser at 172nm,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 1148-1150 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Dujardin, C.

A. Yoshikawa, T. Akagi, M. Nikl, N. Solovieva, K. Lebbou, C. Dujardin, C. Pédrini, and T. Fukuda, “{Y3−x,Ybx}[Ga]2(Ga)3O12 and {Lu2Yb1}[Al]2(Al)3O12 single crystals for scintillator application grown by the modified micro-pulling-down method,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 486, 79-82 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Edamatsu, K.

N. Sarukura, M. A. Dubinskii, Z. Liu, V. V. Semashko, A. K. Naumov, S. L. Koraleva, R. Yu. Abdulsabirov, K. Edamatsu, Y. Suzuki, T. Itoh, and Y. Segawa, “Ce3+ activated fluoride crystals as prospective media for widely tunable ultraviolet ultrafast lasers with direct 10-ns pumping,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1, 792-804 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ehrentraut, D.

M. Tanaka, M. Nishikino, H. Yamatani, K. Nagashima, T. Kimura, Y. Furukawa, H. Murakami, S. Saito, N. Sarukura, H. Nishimura, K. Mima, Y. Kagamitani, D. Ehrentraut, and T. Fukuda, “Hydrothermal method grown large-sized zinc oxide single crystal as fast scintillator for future extreme ultraviolet lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 231117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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Krupa, J. C.

V. N. Makhov, N. Yu. Kirikova, M. Kirm, J. C. Krupa, P. Liblik, A. Lushchik, Ch. Lushchik, E. Negodin, and G. Zimmerer, “Luminescence properties of YPO4:Nd3+: a promising VUV scintillator material,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 486, 437-442 (2002).
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A. Yoshikawa, T. Akagi, M. Nikl, N. Solovieva, K. Lebbou, C. Dujardin, C. Pédrini, and T. Fukuda, “{Y3−x,Ybx}[Ga]2(Ga)3O12 and {Lu2Yb1}[Al]2(Al)3O12 single crystals for scintillator application grown by the modified micro-pulling-down method,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 486, 79-82 (2002).
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V. N. Makhov, N. Yu. Kirikova, M. Kirm, J. C. Krupa, P. Liblik, A. Lushchik, Ch. Lushchik, E. Negodin, and G. Zimmerer, “Luminescence properties of YPO4:Nd3+: a promising VUV scintillator material,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 486, 437-442 (2002).
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Z. Liu, T. Kozeki, Y. Suzuki, N. Sarukura, K. Shimamura, T. Fukuda, M. Hirano, and H. Hosono, “Chirped-pulse amplification of ultraviolet femtosecond pulses by use of Ce3+:LiCaAlF6 as a broadband solid-state gain medium,” Opt. Lett. 26, 301-303 (2001).
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Lukasiewics, T.

W. Drozdowski, A. Wojtowicz, D. Wisniewski, T. Lukasiewics, and J. Kisielewski, “Scintillation properties of Pr-activated LuAlO3,” Opt. Mater. 28, 102-105 (2006).
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V. N. Makhov, N. Yu. Kirikova, M. Kirm, J. C. Krupa, P. Liblik, A. Lushchik, Ch. Lushchik, E. Negodin, and G. Zimmerer, “Luminescence properties of YPO4:Nd3+: a promising VUV scintillator material,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 486, 437-442 (2002).
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V. N. Makhov, N. Yu. Kirikova, M. Kirm, J. C. Krupa, P. Liblik, A. Lushchik, Ch. Lushchik, E. Negodin, and G. Zimmerer, “Luminescence properties of YPO4:Nd3+: a promising VUV scintillator material,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 486, 437-442 (2002).
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V. N. Makhov, N. Yu. Kirikova, M. Kirm, J. C. Krupa, P. Liblik, A. Lushchik, Ch. Lushchik, E. Negodin, and G. Zimmerer, “Luminescence properties of YPO4:Nd3+: a promising VUV scintillator material,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 486, 437-442 (2002).
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V. N. Makhov, N. M. Khaidukov, N. Yu. Kirikova, M. Kirm, J. C. Krupa, T. V. Ouvarova, and G. Zimmerer, “VUV emission of rare-earth ions doped into fluoride crystals,” J. Lumin. 87-89, 1005-1007 (2000).
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J. Becker, J. Y. Gesland, N. Y. Kirikova, J. C. Krupa, V. N. Makhov, M. Runne, M. Queffelec, T. V. Uvarova, and G. Zimmerer, “Fast VUV emission of rare earth ions (Nd3+, Er3+, Tm3+) in wide bandgap crystals,” J. Alloys Compd. 275-277, 205-208 (1998).
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Mima, K.

M. Tanaka, M. Nishikino, H. Yamatani, K. Nagashima, T. Kimura, Y. Furukawa, H. Murakami, S. Saito, N. Sarukura, H. Nishimura, K. Mima, Y. Kagamitani, D. Ehrentraut, and T. Fukuda, “Hydrothermal method grown large-sized zinc oxide single crystal as fast scintillator for future extreme ultraviolet lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 231117 (2007).
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Müllejans, H.

R. H. French, D. J. Jones, H. Müllejans, S. Loughin, A. D. Dorneich, and P. F. Carcia, “Optical properties of aluminum nitride: determined from vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy and spectroscopic ellipsometry,” J. Mater. Res. 14, 4337-4344 (1999).
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M. Cadatal, Y. S. Seo, S. Ono, Y. Furukawa, E. Estacio, H. Murakami, Y. Fujimoto, N. Sarukura, M. Nakatsuka, T. Suyama, K. Fukuda, R. Simura, and A. Yoshikawa, “Nd3+:(La1−xBax)F3−x grown by micro-pulling down method as vacuum ultraviolet scintillator and potential laser material,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 46, L985-L987 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Tanaka, M. Nishikino, H. Yamatani, K. Nagashima, T. Kimura, Y. Furukawa, H. Murakami, S. Saito, N. Sarukura, H. Nishimura, K. Mima, Y. Kagamitani, D. Ehrentraut, and T. Fukuda, “Hydrothermal method grown large-sized zinc oxide single crystal as fast scintillator for future extreme ultraviolet lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 231117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nabekawa, Y.

Nagashima, K.

M. Tanaka, M. Nishikino, H. Yamatani, K. Nagashima, T. Kimura, Y. Furukawa, H. Murakami, S. Saito, N. Sarukura, H. Nishimura, K. Mima, Y. Kagamitani, D. Ehrentraut, and T. Fukuda, “Hydrothermal method grown large-sized zinc oxide single crystal as fast scintillator for future extreme ultraviolet lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 231117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nakao, K.

Nakatsuka, M.

M. Cadatal, Y. S. Seo, S. Ono, Y. Furukawa, E. Estacio, H. Murakami, Y. Fujimoto, N. Sarukura, M. Nakatsuka, T. Suyama, K. Fukuda, R. Simura, and A. Yoshikawa, “Nd3+:(La1−xBax)F3−x grown by micro-pulling down method as vacuum ultraviolet scintillator and potential laser material,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 46, L985-L987 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Naumov, A. K.

N. Sarukura, M. A. Dubinskii, Z. Liu, V. V. Semashko, A. K. Naumov, S. L. Koraleva, R. Yu. Abdulsabirov, K. Edamatsu, Y. Suzuki, T. Itoh, and Y. Segawa, “Ce3+ activated fluoride crystals as prospective media for widely tunable ultraviolet ultrafast lasers with direct 10-ns pumping,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1, 792-804 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Dubinskii, V. V. Semashko, A. K. Naumov, R. Y. Abdulsabirov, and S. L. Korableva, “Spectroscopy of a new active medium of a solid-state UV laser with broadband single-pass gain,” Laser Phys. 3, 216-217 (1993).

Negodin, E.

V. N. Makhov, N. Yu. Kirikova, M. Kirm, J. C. Krupa, P. Liblik, A. Lushchik, Ch. Lushchik, E. Negodin, and G. Zimmerer, “Luminescence properties of YPO4:Nd3+: a promising VUV scintillator material,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 486, 437-442 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nicolaides, C. A.

Nikl, M.

A. Yoshikawa, M. Nikl, G. Boulon, and T. Fukuda, “Challenge and study for developing of novel single crystalline optical materials using micro-pulling-down method,” Opt. Mater. 30, 6-10 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Yoshikawa, T. Satonaga, K. Kamada, H. Sato, M. Nikl, N. Solovieva, and T. Fukuda, “Crystal growth of Ce:PrF3 by micro-pulling-down method,” J. Cryst. Growth 270, 427-432 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Yoshikawa, T. Akagi, M. Nikl, N. Solovieva, K. Lebbou, C. Dujardin, C. Pédrini, and T. Fukuda, “{Y3−x,Ybx}[Ga]2(Ga)3O12 and {Lu2Yb1}[Al]2(Al)3O12 single crystals for scintillator application grown by the modified micro-pulling-down method,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 486, 79-82 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nishikino, M.

M. Tanaka, M. Nishikino, H. Yamatani, K. Nagashima, T. Kimura, Y. Furukawa, H. Murakami, S. Saito, N. Sarukura, H. Nishimura, K. Mima, Y. Kagamitani, D. Ehrentraut, and T. Fukuda, “Hydrothermal method grown large-sized zinc oxide single crystal as fast scintillator for future extreme ultraviolet lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 231117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nishimura, H.

M. Tanaka, M. Nishikino, H. Yamatani, K. Nagashima, T. Kimura, Y. Furukawa, H. Murakami, S. Saito, N. Sarukura, H. Nishimura, K. Mima, Y. Kagamitani, D. Ehrentraut, and T. Fukuda, “Hydrothermal method grown large-sized zinc oxide single crystal as fast scintillator for future extreme ultraviolet lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 231117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Novoselov, A.

A. Novoselov, A. Yoshikawa, and T. Fukuda, “The micro-pulling down method: fast and economic solution for materials screening,” Curr. Top. Cryst. Growth Res. 7, 87-111 (2004).

Ono, S.

M. Cadatal, Y. S. Seo, S. Ono, Y. Furukawa, E. Estacio, H. Murakami, Y. Fujimoto, N. Sarukura, M. Nakatsuka, T. Suyama, K. Fukuda, R. Simura, and A. Yoshikawa, “Nd3+:(La1−xBax)F3−x grown by micro-pulling down method as vacuum ultraviolet scintillator and potential laser material,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 46, L985-L987 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Osgood, R. M.

Ouvarova, T. V.

V. N. Makhov, M. N. Khaidukov, N. Yu. Kirikova, M. Kirm, J. C. Krupa, T. V. Ouvarova, and G. Zimmerer, “VUV spectroscopy of wide band-gap crystals doped with rare earth ions,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 470, 290-294 (2001).
[CrossRef]

V. N. Makhov, N. M. Khaidukov, N. Yu. Kirikova, M. Kirm, J. C. Krupa, T. V. Ouvarova, and G. Zimmerer, “VUV emission of rare-earth ions doped into fluoride crystals,” J. Lumin. 87-89, 1005-1007 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Payne, S. A.

Pédrini, C.

A. Yoshikawa, T. Akagi, M. Nikl, N. Solovieva, K. Lebbou, C. Dujardin, C. Pédrini, and T. Fukuda, “{Y3−x,Ybx}[Ga]2(Ga)3O12 and {Lu2Yb1}[Al]2(Al)3O12 single crystals for scintillator application grown by the modified micro-pulling-down method,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 486, 79-82 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pinto, J. F.

J. F. Pinto, G. H. Rosenblatt, L. Esterowitz, and G. J. Quarles, “Tunable solid-state laser action in Ce3+:LiSrAlF6,” Electron. Lett. 30, 240-241 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Quarles, G. J.

Queffelec, M.

J. Becker, J. Y. Gesland, N. Y. Kirikova, J. C. Krupa, V. N. Makhov, M. Runne, M. Queffelec, T. V. Uvarova, and G. Zimmerer, “Fast VUV emission of rare earth ions (Nd3+, Er3+, Tm3+) in wide bandgap crystals,” J. Alloys Compd. 275-277, 205-208 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Krupa and M. Queffelec, “UV and VUV optical excitations in wide band gap materials doped with rare earth ions: 4f-5d transitions,” J. Alloys Compd. 250, 287-292 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Krupa and M. Queffelec, “UV and VUV optical excitations in wide band gap materials doped with rare earth ions: 4f-5d transitions,” J. Alloys Compd. 250, 287-292 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rosenblatt, G. H.

J. F. Pinto, G. H. Rosenblatt, L. Esterowitz, and G. J. Quarles, “Tunable solid-state laser action in Ce3+:LiSrAlF6,” Electron. Lett. 30, 240-241 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Runne, M.

J. Becker, J. Y. Gesland, N. Y. Kirikova, J. C. Krupa, V. N. Makhov, M. Runne, M. Queffelec, T. V. Uvarova, and G. Zimmerer, “Fast VUV emission of rare earth ions (Nd3+, Er3+, Tm3+) in wide bandgap crystals,” J. Alloys Compd. 275-277, 205-208 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Saito, S.

M. Tanaka, M. Nishikino, H. Yamatani, K. Nagashima, T. Kimura, Y. Furukawa, H. Murakami, S. Saito, N. Sarukura, H. Nishimura, K. Mima, Y. Kagamitani, D. Ehrentraut, and T. Fukuda, “Hydrothermal method grown large-sized zinc oxide single crystal as fast scintillator for future extreme ultraviolet lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 231117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sarantopoulou, E.

Sarukura, N.

M. Cadatal, Y. S. Seo, S. Ono, Y. Furukawa, E. Estacio, H. Murakami, Y. Fujimoto, N. Sarukura, M. Nakatsuka, T. Suyama, K. Fukuda, R. Simura, and A. Yoshikawa, “Nd3+:(La1−xBax)F3−x grown by micro-pulling down method as vacuum ultraviolet scintillator and potential laser material,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 46, L985-L987 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Tanaka, M. Nishikino, H. Yamatani, K. Nagashima, T. Kimura, Y. Furukawa, H. Murakami, S. Saito, N. Sarukura, H. Nishimura, K. Mima, Y. Kagamitani, D. Ehrentraut, and T. Fukuda, “Hydrothermal method grown large-sized zinc oxide single crystal as fast scintillator for future extreme ultraviolet lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 231117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Liu, T. Kozeki, Y. Suzuki, N. Sarukura, K. Shimamura, T. Fukuda, M. Hirano, and H. Hosono, “Chirped-pulse amplification of ultraviolet femtosecond pulses by use of Ce3+:LiCaAlF6 as a broadband solid-state gain medium,” Opt. Lett. 26, 301-303 (2001).
[CrossRef]

N. Sarukura, M. A. Dubinskii, Z. Liu, V. V. Semashko, A. K. Naumov, S. L. Koraleva, R. Yu. Abdulsabirov, K. Edamatsu, Y. Suzuki, T. Itoh, and Y. Segawa, “Ce3+ activated fluoride crystals as prospective media for widely tunable ultraviolet ultrafast lasers with direct 10-ns pumping,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1, 792-804 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, W.

Sato, H.

A. Yoshikawa, T. Satonaga, K. Kamada, H. Sato, M. Nikl, N. Solovieva, and T. Fukuda, “Crystal growth of Ce:PrF3 by micro-pulling-down method,” J. Cryst. Growth 270, 427-432 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Satonaga, T.

A. Yoshikawa, T. Satonaga, K. Kamada, H. Sato, M. Nikl, N. Solovieva, and T. Fukuda, “Crystal growth of Ce:PrF3 by micro-pulling-down method,” J. Cryst. Growth 270, 427-432 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Segawa, Y.

N. Sarukura, M. A. Dubinskii, Z. Liu, V. V. Semashko, A. K. Naumov, S. L. Koraleva, R. Yu. Abdulsabirov, K. Edamatsu, Y. Suzuki, T. Itoh, and Y. Segawa, “Ce3+ activated fluoride crystals as prospective media for widely tunable ultraviolet ultrafast lasers with direct 10-ns pumping,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1, 792-804 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sekikawa, T.

Semashko, V. V.

N. Sarukura, M. A. Dubinskii, Z. Liu, V. V. Semashko, A. K. Naumov, S. L. Koraleva, R. Yu. Abdulsabirov, K. Edamatsu, Y. Suzuki, T. Itoh, and Y. Segawa, “Ce3+ activated fluoride crystals as prospective media for widely tunable ultraviolet ultrafast lasers with direct 10-ns pumping,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1, 792-804 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Dubinskii, V. V. Semashko, A. K. Naumov, R. Y. Abdulsabirov, and S. L. Korableva, “Spectroscopy of a new active medium of a solid-state UV laser with broadband single-pass gain,” Laser Phys. 3, 216-217 (1993).

M. A. Dubinskii, A. C. Cefalas, E. Sarantopoulou, S. M. Spyrou, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Y. Abdulsabirov, S. L. Korableva, and V. V. Semashko, “Efficient LaF3:Nd3+-based vacuum-ultraviolet laser at 172nm,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 1148-1150 (1992).
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M. Cadatal, Y. S. Seo, S. Ono, Y. Furukawa, E. Estacio, H. Murakami, Y. Fujimoto, N. Sarukura, M. Nakatsuka, T. Suyama, K. Fukuda, R. Simura, and A. Yoshikawa, “Nd3+:(La1−xBax)F3−x grown by micro-pulling down method as vacuum ultraviolet scintillator and potential laser material,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 46, L985-L987 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shimamura, K.

Shirai, T.

Simura, R.

M. Cadatal, Y. S. Seo, S. Ono, Y. Furukawa, E. Estacio, H. Murakami, Y. Fujimoto, N. Sarukura, M. Nakatsuka, T. Suyama, K. Fukuda, R. Simura, and A. Yoshikawa, “Nd3+:(La1−xBax)F3−x grown by micro-pulling down method as vacuum ultraviolet scintillator and potential laser material,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 46, L985-L987 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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L. Skuja, K. Kajihara, M. Hirano, and H. Hosono, “Fluorine laser-induced silicon hydride Si-H groups in silica,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 353, 526-529 (2007).
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B. P. Sobolev and N. L. Tkachenko, “Phase diagrams of BaF2-(Y,Ln)F3 systems,” J. Less-Common Met. 85, 155-170 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Solovieva, N.

A. Yoshikawa, T. Satonaga, K. Kamada, H. Sato, M. Nikl, N. Solovieva, and T. Fukuda, “Crystal growth of Ce:PrF3 by micro-pulling-down method,” J. Cryst. Growth 270, 427-432 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Yoshikawa, T. Akagi, M. Nikl, N. Solovieva, K. Lebbou, C. Dujardin, C. Pédrini, and T. Fukuda, “{Y3−x,Ybx}[Ga]2(Ga)3O12 and {Lu2Yb1}[Al]2(Al)3O12 single crystals for scintillator application grown by the modified micro-pulling-down method,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 486, 79-82 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Speth, J. A.

Spyrou, S. M.

Suganuma, T.

Suyama, T.

M. Cadatal, Y. S. Seo, S. Ono, Y. Furukawa, E. Estacio, H. Murakami, Y. Fujimoto, N. Sarukura, M. Nakatsuka, T. Suyama, K. Fukuda, R. Simura, and A. Yoshikawa, “Nd3+:(La1−xBax)F3−x grown by micro-pulling down method as vacuum ultraviolet scintillator and potential laser material,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 46, L985-L987 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, Y.

Z. Liu, T. Kozeki, Y. Suzuki, N. Sarukura, K. Shimamura, T. Fukuda, M. Hirano, and H. Hosono, “Chirped-pulse amplification of ultraviolet femtosecond pulses by use of Ce3+:LiCaAlF6 as a broadband solid-state gain medium,” Opt. Lett. 26, 301-303 (2001).
[CrossRef]

N. Sarukura, M. A. Dubinskii, Z. Liu, V. V. Semashko, A. K. Naumov, S. L. Koraleva, R. Yu. Abdulsabirov, K. Edamatsu, Y. Suzuki, T. Itoh, and Y. Segawa, “Ce3+ activated fluoride crystals as prospective media for widely tunable ultraviolet ultrafast lasers with direct 10-ns pumping,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1, 792-804 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Synowicki, R. A.

R. H. French, R. C. Wheland, D. J. Jones, J. N. Hilfiker, R. A. Synowicki, F. C. Zumsteg, J. Feldman, and A. E. Feiring, “Fluoropolymers for 157nm lithography: optical properties from VUV absorbance and ellipsometry measurements,” Proc. SPIE 4000, 1491-1502 (2000).
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Takahashi, H.

H. Takahashi, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan (personal communication, 2006).

Tanaka, M.

M. Tanaka, M. Nishikino, H. Yamatani, K. Nagashima, T. Kimura, Y. Furukawa, H. Murakami, S. Saito, N. Sarukura, H. Nishimura, K. Mima, Y. Kagamitani, D. Ehrentraut, and T. Fukuda, “Hydrothermal method grown large-sized zinc oxide single crystal as fast scintillator for future extreme ultraviolet lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 231117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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A. Yoshikawa, H. Itagaki, T. Fukuda, K. Lebbou, A. El Hassouni, A. Brenier, C. Goutaudier, O. Tillement, and G. Boulon, “Synthesis, crystal growth and second harmonic generation properties of trivalent rare-earth-doped non-linear tungsten-bronze-type structure Ba2Na1−3xRExNb5O15 (RE=Sc,Y,La,Gd,Yb and Lu),” J. Cryst. Growth 247, 148-156 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tkachenko, N. L.

B. P. Sobolev and N. L. Tkachenko, “Phase diagrams of BaF2-(Y,Ln)F3 systems,” J. Less-Common Met. 85, 155-170 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Togashi, T.

Uda, S.

B. M. Epelbaum, K. Inaba, S. Uda, and T. Fukuda, “Micro-pulling down growth studies of lead tungstate crystals: aspects of incongruent melt vaporization,” J. Cryst. Growth 178, 426-429 (2007).
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J. Becker, J. Y. Gesland, N. Y. Kirikova, J. C. Krupa, V. N. Makhov, M. Runne, M. Queffelec, T. V. Uvarova, and G. Zimmerer, “Fast VUV emission of rare earth ions (Nd3+, Er3+, Tm3+) in wide bandgap crystals,” J. Alloys Compd. 275-277, 205-208 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wakabayashi, O.

Wang, J.

Watanabe, S.

Waynant, R. W.

R. W. Waynant and P. H. Klein, “Vacuum ultraviolet laser emission from Nd+3:LaF3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 14-16 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Wheland, R. C.

R. H. French, R. C. Wheland, D. J. Jones, J. N. Hilfiker, R. A. Synowicki, F. C. Zumsteg, J. Feldman, and A. E. Feiring, “Fluoropolymers for 157nm lithography: optical properties from VUV absorbance and ellipsometry measurements,” Proc. SPIE 4000, 1491-1502 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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W. Drozdowski, A. Wojtowicz, D. Wisniewski, T. Lukasiewics, and J. Kisielewski, “Scintillation properties of Pr-activated LuAlO3,” Opt. Mater. 28, 102-105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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W. Drozdowski, A. Wojtowicz, D. Wisniewski, T. Lukasiewics, and J. Kisielewski, “Scintillation properties of Pr-activated LuAlO3,” Opt. Mater. 28, 102-105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Z.

Yamatani, H.

M. Tanaka, M. Nishikino, H. Yamatani, K. Nagashima, T. Kimura, Y. Furukawa, H. Murakami, S. Saito, N. Sarukura, H. Nishimura, K. Mima, Y. Kagamitani, D. Ehrentraut, and T. Fukuda, “Hydrothermal method grown large-sized zinc oxide single crystal as fast scintillator for future extreme ultraviolet lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 231117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yang, K. H.

K. H. Yang and J. A. DeLuca, “VUV fluorescence of Nd3+-, Er3+-, and Tm3+-doped trifluorides and tunable coherent sources from 1650 to 2600Å,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 499-501 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Yoshikawa, A.

A. Yoshikawa, M. Nikl, G. Boulon, and T. Fukuda, “Challenge and study for developing of novel single crystalline optical materials using micro-pulling-down method,” Opt. Mater. 30, 6-10 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Cadatal, Y. S. Seo, S. Ono, Y. Furukawa, E. Estacio, H. Murakami, Y. Fujimoto, N. Sarukura, M. Nakatsuka, T. Suyama, K. Fukuda, R. Simura, and A. Yoshikawa, “Nd3+:(La1−xBax)F3−x grown by micro-pulling down method as vacuum ultraviolet scintillator and potential laser material,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 46, L985-L987 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Yoshikawa, T. Satonaga, K. Kamada, H. Sato, M. Nikl, N. Solovieva, and T. Fukuda, “Crystal growth of Ce:PrF3 by micro-pulling-down method,” J. Cryst. Growth 270, 427-432 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Novoselov, A. Yoshikawa, and T. Fukuda, “The micro-pulling down method: fast and economic solution for materials screening,” Curr. Top. Cryst. Growth Res. 7, 87-111 (2004).

A. Yoshikawa, H. Itagaki, T. Fukuda, K. Lebbou, A. El Hassouni, A. Brenier, C. Goutaudier, O. Tillement, and G. Boulon, “Synthesis, crystal growth and second harmonic generation properties of trivalent rare-earth-doped non-linear tungsten-bronze-type structure Ba2Na1−3xRExNb5O15 (RE=Sc,Y,La,Gd,Yb and Lu),” J. Cryst. Growth 247, 148-156 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Yoshikawa, T. Akagi, M. Nikl, N. Solovieva, K. Lebbou, C. Dujardin, C. Pédrini, and T. Fukuda, “{Y3−x,Ybx}[Ga]2(Ga)3O12 and {Lu2Yb1}[Al]2(Al)3O12 single crystals for scintillator application grown by the modified micro-pulling-down method,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 486, 79-82 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zimmerer, G.

V. N. Makhov, N. Yu. Kirikova, M. Kirm, J. C. Krupa, P. Liblik, A. Lushchik, Ch. Lushchik, E. Negodin, and G. Zimmerer, “Luminescence properties of YPO4:Nd3+: a promising VUV scintillator material,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 486, 437-442 (2002).
[CrossRef]

V. N. Makhov, M. N. Khaidukov, N. Yu. Kirikova, M. Kirm, J. C. Krupa, T. V. Ouvarova, and G. Zimmerer, “VUV spectroscopy of wide band-gap crystals doped with rare earth ions,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 470, 290-294 (2001).
[CrossRef]

V. N. Makhov, N. M. Khaidukov, N. Yu. Kirikova, M. Kirm, J. C. Krupa, T. V. Ouvarova, and G. Zimmerer, “VUV emission of rare-earth ions doped into fluoride crystals,” J. Lumin. 87-89, 1005-1007 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Becker, J. Y. Gesland, N. Y. Kirikova, J. C. Krupa, V. N. Makhov, M. Runne, M. Queffelec, T. V. Uvarova, and G. Zimmerer, “Fast VUV emission of rare earth ions (Nd3+, Er3+, Tm3+) in wide bandgap crystals,” J. Alloys Compd. 275-277, 205-208 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zumsteg, F. C.

R. H. French, R. C. Wheland, D. J. Jones, J. N. Hilfiker, R. A. Synowicki, F. C. Zumsteg, J. Feldman, and A. E. Feiring, “Fluoropolymers for 157nm lithography: optical properties from VUV absorbance and ellipsometry measurements,” Proc. SPIE 4000, 1491-1502 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

K. H. Yang and J. A. DeLuca, “VUV fluorescence of Nd3+-, Er3+-, and Tm3+-doped trifluorides and tunable coherent sources from 1650 to 2600Å,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 499-501 (1976).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Waynant and P. H. Klein, “Vacuum ultraviolet laser emission from Nd+3:LaF3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 14-16 (1985).
[CrossRef]

M. Tanaka, M. Nishikino, H. Yamatani, K. Nagashima, T. Kimura, Y. Furukawa, H. Murakami, S. Saito, N. Sarukura, H. Nishimura, K. Mima, Y. Kagamitani, D. Ehrentraut, and T. Fukuda, “Hydrothermal method grown large-sized zinc oxide single crystal as fast scintillator for future extreme ultraviolet lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 231117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Curr. Top. Cryst. Growth Res.

A. Novoselov, A. Yoshikawa, and T. Fukuda, “The micro-pulling down method: fast and economic solution for materials screening,” Curr. Top. Cryst. Growth Res. 7, 87-111 (2004).

Electron. Lett.

J. F. Pinto, G. H. Rosenblatt, L. Esterowitz, and G. J. Quarles, “Tunable solid-state laser action in Ce3+:LiSrAlF6,” Electron. Lett. 30, 240-241 (1994).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

N. Sarukura, M. A. Dubinskii, Z. Liu, V. V. Semashko, A. K. Naumov, S. L. Koraleva, R. Yu. Abdulsabirov, K. Edamatsu, Y. Suzuki, T. Itoh, and Y. Segawa, “Ce3+ activated fluoride crystals as prospective media for widely tunable ultraviolet ultrafast lasers with direct 10-ns pumping,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1, 792-804 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Alloys Compd.

J. C. Krupa and M. Queffelec, “UV and VUV optical excitations in wide band gap materials doped with rare earth ions: 4f-5d transitions,” J. Alloys Compd. 250, 287-292 (1997).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The μ-PD apparatus modified for fluoride crystal growth, used to grow Nd 3 + : ( La 0.9 , Ba 0.1 ) F 2.9 .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

As-grown Nd 3 + : ( La 0.9 , Ba 0.1 ) F 2.9 and Nd 3 + : LaF 3 crystals.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic diagram of the VUV spectrometer and streak camera system used to measure the temporal characteristics of micro-PD-method-grown Nd 3 + : ( La 0.9 , Ba 0.1 ) F 2.9 and Nd 3 + : LaF 3 . Measurements are carried out under a vacuum level of 10 6 Torr .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Absorption coefficient, α, of undoped ( La 0.9 , Ba 0.1 ) F 2.9 , LaF 3 , and BaF 2 . ( La 0.9 , Ba 0.1 ) F 2.9 is more transparent in the VUV region. It has an absorption edge at 180 nm compared, with LaF 3 with an absorption edge at 210 nm .

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

F 2 -laser-induced fluorescence from Nd 3 + : ( La 0.9 , Ba 0.1 ) F 2.9 (solid curve) and Nd 3 + : LaF 3 (dashed curve) with peaks at 175 and 172 nm , respectively. The spectra are corrected for the spectrograph and CCD detector spectral responses.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

VUV streak camera image of the 172 nm fluorescence from a Nd 3 + : LaF 3 crystal excited by a F 2 laser. Also shown is the streak camera image of the 157 nm excitation pulse. The image is temporally and spectrally calibrated.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

The 172 nm fluorescence from Nd 3 + : LaF 3 has a lifetime, τ, of 8.9 ns , while the 175 nm fluorescence from Nd 3 + : ( La 0.9 , Ba 0.1 ) F 2.9 decays faster with a lifetime of 6.1 ns . Also shown is the temporal profile of the excitation pulse with a pulsewidth of 5 ns . The excitation pulse is shifted to have the same time scale as the fluorescence for clarity.

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