Abstract

Femtosecond laser-induced alignment and its periodic quantum revivals are measured in a range of linear gas molecules using an improved version of single-shot supercontinuum spectral interferometry. In particular, room temperature alignment revivals of hydrogen and deuterium molecules are measured for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, in a single shot. Wave packet collisional dephasing rates are also measured.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  50. I. Alexeev, A. Ting, D. F. Gordon, E. Briscoe, J. R. Penano, R. F. Hubbard, and P. Sprangle, “Longitudinal compression of short laser pulses in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4080-4082 (2004).
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    [CrossRef]

2007

2006

V. Loriot, E. Hertz, A. Rouzée, B. Sinardet, B. Lavorel, and O. Faucher, “Strong-field molecular ionization: determination of ionization probabilities calibrated with field-free alignment,” Opt. Lett. 31, 2897-2899 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. F. Lee, F. Legare, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Measured field-free alignment of deuterium by few-cycle pulses,” J. Phys. B 39, 4081-4086 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Baker, J. S. Robinson, C. A. Haworth, H. Teng, R. A. Smith, C. C. Chirila, M. Lein, J., W. G. Tisch, and J. P. Marangos, “Probing proton dynamics in molecules on an attosecond time scale,” Science 21, 424-427 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. H. Matlis, S. Reed, S. S. Bulanov, V. Chvykov, G. Kalintchenko, T. Matsuoka, P. Rousseau, V. Yanovsky, A. Maksimchuk, S. Kalmykov, G. Shvets, and M. C. Downer, “Snapshots of laser wakefields,” Nat. Phys. 2, 749-753 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

K. Y. Kim, I. Alexeev, and H. M. Milchberg, “Measurement of ultrafast dynamics in the interaction of intense laser pulses with gases, clusters, and plasma waveguides,” Phys. Plasmas 12, 056712 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Vozzi, F. Calegari, E. Benedetti, J.-P. Caumes, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, M. Nisoli, R. Torres, E. Heesel, N. Kajumba, J. P. Marangos, C. Altucci, and R. Velotta, “Controlling two-center interference in molecular high harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 153902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Renard, O. Faucher, and B. Lavorel, “Measurement of laser-induced alignment of molecules by cross defocusing,” Opt. Lett. 30, 70-72 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

I. Alexeev, A. Ting, D. F. Gordon, E. Briscoe, J. R. Penano, R. F. Hubbard, and P. Sprangle, “Longitudinal compression of short laser pulses in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4080-4082 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pepin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature 432, 867-871 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Y. Kim, I. Alexeev, V. Kumarappan, E. Parra, T. Antonsen, T. Taguchi, A. Gupta, and H. M. Milchberg, “Gases of exploding laser-heated cluster nanoplasmas as a nonlinear optical medium,” Phys. Plasmas 11, 2882-2889 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

K. Y. Kim, I. Alexeev, E. Parra, and H. M. Milchberg, “Time-resolved explosion of intense-laser-heated clusters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 023401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Alexeev, T. M. Antonsen, K. Y. Kim, and H. M. Milchberg, “Self-focusing of intense laser pulses in a clustered gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 103402 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Stapelfeldt and T. Seideman, “Aligning molecules with strong laser pulses,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 75, 543-557 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Peñano, P. Sprangle, P. Serafim, B. Hafizi, and A. Ting, “Stimulated Raman scattering of intense laser pulses in air,” Phys. Rev. E 68, 056502 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. W. Dooley, I. V. Litvinyuk, K. F. Lee, D. M. Rayner, M. Spanner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Direct imaging of rotational wave-packet dynamics of diatomic molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 68, 023406 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

R. A. Bartels, T. C. Weinacht, N. Wagner, M. Baertschy, Chris H. Greene, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase modulation of ultrashort light pulses using molecular rotational wave packets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 013903 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Y. Kim, I. Alexeev, and H. M. Milchberg, “Single-shot supercontinuum spectral interferometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4124 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. Hay, R. Velotta, M. Lein, R. de Nalda, E. Heesel, M. Castillejo, and J. P. Marangos, “High-order harmonic generation in laser-aligned molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 053805 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Falconieri, E. Palange, and H. L. Fragnito, “Achievement of λ/4000 phase distortion sensitivity in the measurement of optical nonlinearities by using a modulated Z-scan technique,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 4, 404-407 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Kim, I. Alexeev, and H. Milchberg, “Single-shot measurement of laser-induced double step ionization of helium,” Opt. Express 10, 1563-1572 (2002).
[PubMed]

2001

R. Velotta, N. Hay, M. B. Mason, M. Castillejo, and J. P. Marangos, “High-order harmonic generation in aligned molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 183901 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. Rosca-Pruna and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Experimental observation of revival structures in picosecond laser-induced alignment of I2,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 153902 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

1999

P. Salières, L. Le Dèroff, T. Auguste, P. Monot, P. d'Oliveira, D. Campo, J.-F. Hergott, H. Merdji, and B. Carrè, “Frequency-domain interferometry in the XUV with high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 5483-5486 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

J. R. Marquès, F. Dorchies, F. Amiranoff, P. Audebert, J. C. Gauthier, J. P. Geindre, A. Antonetti, T. M. Antonsen, Jr., P. Chessa, and P. Mora, “Laser wakefield: experimental study of nonlinear radial electron oscillations,” Phys. Plasmas 5, 1162-1177 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. X. Yu, M. Margalit, E. P. Ippen, and H. A. Haus, “Direct measurement of self-phase shift due to fiber nonlinearity,” Opt. Lett. 23, 679-681 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

1996

S. Geltman, “Multiple ionization of argon atoms by intense laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 54, 2489-2491 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Evans, A. D. Badger, F. Fallies, M. Mahdieh, T. A. Hall, P. Audebert, J.-P. Geindre, J.-C. Gauthier, A. Mysyrowicz, G. Grillon, and A. Antonetti, “Time- and space-resolved optical probing of femtosecond-laser-driven shock waves in aluminum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3359-3362 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Marquès, J. P. Geindre, F. Amiranoff, P. Audebert, J. C. Gauthier, A. Antonetti, and G. Grillon, “Temporal and spatial measurements of the electron density perturbation produced in the wake of an ultrashort laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3566-3569 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. W. Siders, S. P. Le Blanc, D. Fisher, T. Tajima, M. C. Downer, A. Babine, A. Stepanov, and A. Sergeev, “Laser wakefield excitation and measurement by femtosecond longitudinal interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3570-3573 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995

S. Augst, A. Talebpour, S. L. Chin, Y. Beaudoin, and M. Chaker, “Nonsequential triple ionization of argon atoms in a high-intensity laser field,” Phys. Rev. A 52, R917 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994

1993

R. Righini, “Ultrafast optical Kerr effect in liquids and solids,” Science 262, 1386-1390 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990

L. L. Connell, T. C. Corcoran, P. W. Joireman, and P. M. Felker, “Observation and description of a new type of transient in rotational coherence spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. 94, 1229-1232 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989

1987

1986

P. M. Felker, J. S. Baskin, and A. H. Zewail, “Rephasing of collisionless molecular coherence in large molecules,” J. Phys. Chem. 90, 724-728 (1986).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Corkum, C. Rolland, and T. Srinivasan-Rao, “Supercontinuum generation in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2268-2271 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985

H. J. Lehmeier, W. Leupacher, and A. Penzkofer, “Nonresonant third order hyperpolarizability of rare gases and N2 determined by third harmonic generation,” Opt. Commun. 56, 67-72 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1976

D. Milam and M. J. Weber, “Measurement of nonlinear refractive-index coefficients using time-resolved interferometry: application to optical materials for high-power neodymium lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 47, 2497-2501 (1976).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Lin, J. P. Heritage, T. K. Gustafson, R. Y. Chiao, and J. P. McTague, “Birefringence arising from the reorientation of the polarizability anisotropy of molecules in collisionless gases,” Phys. Rev. A 13, 813-829 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1975

E. P. Ippen and C. V. Shank, “Picosecond response of a high-repetition-rate CS2 optical Kerr gate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 92-93 (1975).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Heritage, T. K. Gustafson, and C. H. Lin, “Observation of coherent transient birefringence in CS2 vapor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 34, 1299-1302 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1973

Cl. Froehly, A. Lacourt, and J. Ch. Viénot, “Time impulse response and time frequency response of optical pupils: experimental confirmations and applications,” Nouv. Rev. Opt. 4, 183-196 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1969

M. A. Duguay and J. W. Hansen, “An ultrafast light gate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 15, 192-194 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Adair, R.

Alexeev, I.

Y.-H. Chen, S. Varma, I. Alexeev, and H. Milchberg, “Measurement of transient nonlinear refractive index in gases using xenon supercontinuum single-shot spectral interferometry,” Opt. Express 15, 7458-7467 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Y. Kim, I. Alexeev, and H. M. Milchberg, “Measurement of ultrafast dynamics in the interaction of intense laser pulses with gases, clusters, and plasma waveguides,” Phys. Plasmas 12, 056712 (2005).
[CrossRef]

I. Alexeev, A. Ting, D. F. Gordon, E. Briscoe, J. R. Penano, R. F. Hubbard, and P. Sprangle, “Longitudinal compression of short laser pulses in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4080-4082 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Y. Kim, I. Alexeev, V. Kumarappan, E. Parra, T. Antonsen, T. Taguchi, A. Gupta, and H. M. Milchberg, “Gases of exploding laser-heated cluster nanoplasmas as a nonlinear optical medium,” Phys. Plasmas 11, 2882-2889 (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. Alexeev, T. M. Antonsen, K. Y. Kim, and H. M. Milchberg, “Self-focusing of intense laser pulses in a clustered gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 103402 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Y. Kim, I. Alexeev, E. Parra, and H. M. Milchberg, “Time-resolved explosion of intense-laser-heated clusters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 023401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Y. Kim, I. Alexeev, and H. M. Milchberg, “Single-shot supercontinuum spectral interferometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4124 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Kim, I. Alexeev, and H. Milchberg, “Single-shot measurement of laser-induced double step ionization of helium,” Opt. Express 10, 1563-1572 (2002).
[PubMed]

Altucci, C.

C. Vozzi, F. Calegari, E. Benedetti, J.-P. Caumes, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, M. Nisoli, R. Torres, E. Heesel, N. Kajumba, J. P. Marangos, C. Altucci, and R. Velotta, “Controlling two-center interference in molecular high harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 153902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Amiranoff, F.

J. R. Marquès, F. Dorchies, F. Amiranoff, P. Audebert, J. C. Gauthier, J. P. Geindre, A. Antonetti, T. M. Antonsen, Jr., P. Chessa, and P. Mora, “Laser wakefield: experimental study of nonlinear radial electron oscillations,” Phys. Plasmas 5, 1162-1177 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Marquès, J. P. Geindre, F. Amiranoff, P. Audebert, J. C. Gauthier, A. Antonetti, and G. Grillon, “Temporal and spatial measurements of the electron density perturbation produced in the wake of an ultrashort laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3566-3569 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Antonetti, A.

J. R. Marquès, F. Dorchies, F. Amiranoff, P. Audebert, J. C. Gauthier, J. P. Geindre, A. Antonetti, T. M. Antonsen, Jr., P. Chessa, and P. Mora, “Laser wakefield: experimental study of nonlinear radial electron oscillations,” Phys. Plasmas 5, 1162-1177 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Marquès, J. P. Geindre, F. Amiranoff, P. Audebert, J. C. Gauthier, A. Antonetti, and G. Grillon, “Temporal and spatial measurements of the electron density perturbation produced in the wake of an ultrashort laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3566-3569 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Evans, A. D. Badger, F. Fallies, M. Mahdieh, T. A. Hall, P. Audebert, J.-P. Geindre, J.-C. Gauthier, A. Mysyrowicz, G. Grillon, and A. Antonetti, “Time- and space-resolved optical probing of femtosecond-laser-driven shock waves in aluminum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3359-3362 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Geindre, P. Audebert, A. Rousse, F. Fallies, J. C. Gauthier, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Dos Santos, G. Hamoniaux, and A. Antonetti, “Frequency-domain interferometer for measuring the phase and amplitude of a femtosecond pulse probing a laser-produced plasma,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1997-1999 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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K. Y. Kim, I. Alexeev, V. Kumarappan, E. Parra, T. Antonsen, T. Taguchi, A. Gupta, and H. M. Milchberg, “Gases of exploding laser-heated cluster nanoplasmas as a nonlinear optical medium,” Phys. Plasmas 11, 2882-2889 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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I. Alexeev, T. M. Antonsen, K. Y. Kim, and H. M. Milchberg, “Self-focusing of intense laser pulses in a clustered gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 103402 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Marquès, F. Dorchies, F. Amiranoff, P. Audebert, J. C. Gauthier, J. P. Geindre, A. Antonetti, T. M. Antonsen, Jr., P. Chessa, and P. Mora, “Laser wakefield: experimental study of nonlinear radial electron oscillations,” Phys. Plasmas 5, 1162-1177 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Audebert, P.

J. R. Marquès, F. Dorchies, F. Amiranoff, P. Audebert, J. C. Gauthier, J. P. Geindre, A. Antonetti, T. M. Antonsen, Jr., P. Chessa, and P. Mora, “Laser wakefield: experimental study of nonlinear radial electron oscillations,” Phys. Plasmas 5, 1162-1177 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Marquès, J. P. Geindre, F. Amiranoff, P. Audebert, J. C. Gauthier, A. Antonetti, and G. Grillon, “Temporal and spatial measurements of the electron density perturbation produced in the wake of an ultrashort laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3566-3569 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Evans, A. D. Badger, F. Fallies, M. Mahdieh, T. A. Hall, P. Audebert, J.-P. Geindre, J.-C. Gauthier, A. Mysyrowicz, G. Grillon, and A. Antonetti, “Time- and space-resolved optical probing of femtosecond-laser-driven shock waves in aluminum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3359-3362 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Geindre, P. Audebert, A. Rousse, F. Fallies, J. C. Gauthier, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Dos Santos, G. Hamoniaux, and A. Antonetti, “Frequency-domain interferometer for measuring the phase and amplitude of a femtosecond pulse probing a laser-produced plasma,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1997-1999 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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S. Augst, A. Talebpour, S. L. Chin, Y. Beaudoin, and M. Chaker, “Nonsequential triple ionization of argon atoms in a high-intensity laser field,” Phys. Rev. A 52, R917 (1995).
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P. Salières, L. Le Dèroff, T. Auguste, P. Monot, P. d'Oliveira, D. Campo, J.-F. Hergott, H. Merdji, and B. Carrè, “Frequency-domain interferometry in the XUV with high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 5483-5486 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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C. W. Siders, S. P. Le Blanc, D. Fisher, T. Tajima, M. C. Downer, A. Babine, A. Stepanov, and A. Sergeev, “Laser wakefield excitation and measurement by femtosecond longitudinal interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3570-3573 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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R. Evans, A. D. Badger, F. Fallies, M. Mahdieh, T. A. Hall, P. Audebert, J.-P. Geindre, J.-C. Gauthier, A. Mysyrowicz, G. Grillon, and A. Antonetti, “Time- and space-resolved optical probing of femtosecond-laser-driven shock waves in aluminum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3359-3362 (1996).
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R. A. Bartels, T. C. Weinacht, N. Wagner, M. Baertschy, Chris H. Greene, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase modulation of ultrashort light pulses using molecular rotational wave packets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 013903 (2002).
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S. Baker, J. S. Robinson, C. A. Haworth, H. Teng, R. A. Smith, C. C. Chirila, M. Lein, J., W. G. Tisch, and J. P. Marangos, “Probing proton dynamics in molecules on an attosecond time scale,” Science 21, 424-427 (2006).
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R. A. Bartels, T. C. Weinacht, N. Wagner, M. Baertschy, Chris H. Greene, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase modulation of ultrashort light pulses using molecular rotational wave packets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 013903 (2002).
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S. Augst, A. Talebpour, S. L. Chin, Y. Beaudoin, and M. Chaker, “Nonsequential triple ionization of argon atoms in a high-intensity laser field,” Phys. Rev. A 52, R917 (1995).
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I. Alexeev, A. Ting, D. F. Gordon, E. Briscoe, J. R. Penano, R. F. Hubbard, and P. Sprangle, “Longitudinal compression of short laser pulses in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4080-4082 (2004).
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N. H. Matlis, S. Reed, S. S. Bulanov, V. Chvykov, G. Kalintchenko, T. Matsuoka, P. Rousseau, V. Yanovsky, A. Maksimchuk, S. Kalmykov, G. Shvets, and M. C. Downer, “Snapshots of laser wakefields,” Nat. Phys. 2, 749-753 (2006).
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P. Salières, L. Le Dèroff, T. Auguste, P. Monot, P. d'Oliveira, D. Campo, J.-F. Hergott, H. Merdji, and B. Carrè, “Frequency-domain interferometry in the XUV with high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 5483-5486 (1999).
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N. Hay, R. Velotta, M. Lein, R. de Nalda, E. Heesel, M. Castillejo, and J. P. Marangos, “High-order harmonic generation in laser-aligned molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 053805 (2002).
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C. Vozzi, F. Calegari, E. Benedetti, J.-P. Caumes, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, M. Nisoli, R. Torres, E. Heesel, N. Kajumba, J. P. Marangos, C. Altucci, and R. Velotta, “Controlling two-center interference in molecular high harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 153902 (2005).
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S. Augst, A. Talebpour, S. L. Chin, Y. Beaudoin, and M. Chaker, “Nonsequential triple ionization of argon atoms in a high-intensity laser field,” Phys. Rev. A 52, R917 (1995).
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J. R. Marquès, F. Dorchies, F. Amiranoff, P. Audebert, J. C. Gauthier, J. P. Geindre, A. Antonetti, T. M. Antonsen, Jr., P. Chessa, and P. Mora, “Laser wakefield: experimental study of nonlinear radial electron oscillations,” Phys. Plasmas 5, 1162-1177 (1998).
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C. H. Lin, J. P. Heritage, T. K. Gustafson, R. Y. Chiao, and J. P. McTague, “Birefringence arising from the reorientation of the polarizability anisotropy of molecules in collisionless gases,” Phys. Rev. A 13, 813-829 (1976).
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S. Augst, A. Talebpour, S. L. Chin, Y. Beaudoin, and M. Chaker, “Nonsequential triple ionization of argon atoms in a high-intensity laser field,” Phys. Rev. A 52, R917 (1995).
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S. Baker, J. S. Robinson, C. A. Haworth, H. Teng, R. A. Smith, C. C. Chirila, M. Lein, J., W. G. Tisch, and J. P. Marangos, “Probing proton dynamics in molecules on an attosecond time scale,” Science 21, 424-427 (2006).
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N. H. Matlis, S. Reed, S. S. Bulanov, V. Chvykov, G. Kalintchenko, T. Matsuoka, P. Rousseau, V. Yanovsky, A. Maksimchuk, S. Kalmykov, G. Shvets, and M. C. Downer, “Snapshots of laser wakefields,” Nat. Phys. 2, 749-753 (2006).
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P. Salières, L. Le Dèroff, T. Auguste, P. Monot, P. d'Oliveira, D. Campo, J.-F. Hergott, H. Merdji, and B. Carrè, “Frequency-domain interferometry in the XUV with high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 5483-5486 (1999).
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P. W. Dooley, I. V. Litvinyuk, K. F. Lee, D. M. Rayner, M. Spanner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Direct imaging of rotational wave-packet dynamics of diatomic molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 68, 023406 (2003).
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J. R. Marquès, F. Dorchies, F. Amiranoff, P. Audebert, J. C. Gauthier, J. P. Geindre, A. Antonetti, T. M. Antonsen, Jr., P. Chessa, and P. Mora, “Laser wakefield: experimental study of nonlinear radial electron oscillations,” Phys. Plasmas 5, 1162-1177 (1998).
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Downer, M. C.

N. H. Matlis, S. Reed, S. S. Bulanov, V. Chvykov, G. Kalintchenko, T. Matsuoka, P. Rousseau, V. Yanovsky, A. Maksimchuk, S. Kalmykov, G. Shvets, and M. C. Downer, “Snapshots of laser wakefields,” Nat. Phys. 2, 749-753 (2006).
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M. A. Duguay and J. W. Hansen, “An ultrafast light gate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 15, 192-194 (1969).
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R. Evans, A. D. Badger, F. Fallies, M. Mahdieh, T. A. Hall, P. Audebert, J.-P. Geindre, J.-C. Gauthier, A. Mysyrowicz, G. Grillon, and A. Antonetti, “Time- and space-resolved optical probing of femtosecond-laser-driven shock waves in aluminum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3359-3362 (1996).
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R. Evans, A. D. Badger, F. Fallies, M. Mahdieh, T. A. Hall, P. Audebert, J.-P. Geindre, J.-C. Gauthier, A. Mysyrowicz, G. Grillon, and A. Antonetti, “Time- and space-resolved optical probing of femtosecond-laser-driven shock waves in aluminum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3359-3362 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Geindre, P. Audebert, A. Rousse, F. Fallies, J. C. Gauthier, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Dos Santos, G. Hamoniaux, and A. Antonetti, “Frequency-domain interferometer for measuring the phase and amplitude of a femtosecond pulse probing a laser-produced plasma,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1997-1999 (1994).
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L. L. Connell, T. C. Corcoran, P. W. Joireman, and P. M. Felker, “Observation and description of a new type of transient in rotational coherence spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. 94, 1229-1232 (1990).
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P. M. Felker, J. S. Baskin, and A. H. Zewail, “Rephasing of collisionless molecular coherence in large molecules,” J. Phys. Chem. 90, 724-728 (1986).
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C. W. Siders, S. P. Le Blanc, D. Fisher, T. Tajima, M. C. Downer, A. Babine, A. Stepanov, and A. Sergeev, “Laser wakefield excitation and measurement by femtosecond longitudinal interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3570-3573 (1996).
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M. Falconieri, E. Palange, and H. L. Fragnito, “Achievement of λ/4000 phase distortion sensitivity in the measurement of optical nonlinearities by using a modulated Z-scan technique,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 4, 404-407 (2002).
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J.-F. Ripoche, G. Grillon, B. Prade, M. France, E. Nibbering, R. Lange, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Determination of the time dependence of n2 in air,” Opt. Commun. 135, 310-314 (1997).
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J. R. Marquès, F. Dorchies, F. Amiranoff, P. Audebert, J. C. Gauthier, J. P. Geindre, A. Antonetti, T. M. Antonsen, Jr., P. Chessa, and P. Mora, “Laser wakefield: experimental study of nonlinear radial electron oscillations,” Phys. Plasmas 5, 1162-1177 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Marquès, J. P. Geindre, F. Amiranoff, P. Audebert, J. C. Gauthier, A. Antonetti, and G. Grillon, “Temporal and spatial measurements of the electron density perturbation produced in the wake of an ultrashort laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3566-3569 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Geindre, P. Audebert, A. Rousse, F. Fallies, J. C. Gauthier, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Dos Santos, G. Hamoniaux, and A. Antonetti, “Frequency-domain interferometer for measuring the phase and amplitude of a femtosecond pulse probing a laser-produced plasma,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1997-1999 (1994).
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R. Evans, A. D. Badger, F. Fallies, M. Mahdieh, T. A. Hall, P. Audebert, J.-P. Geindre, J.-C. Gauthier, A. Mysyrowicz, G. Grillon, and A. Antonetti, “Time- and space-resolved optical probing of femtosecond-laser-driven shock waves in aluminum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3359-3362 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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J. R. Marquès, F. Dorchies, F. Amiranoff, P. Audebert, J. C. Gauthier, J. P. Geindre, A. Antonetti, T. M. Antonsen, Jr., P. Chessa, and P. Mora, “Laser wakefield: experimental study of nonlinear radial electron oscillations,” Phys. Plasmas 5, 1162-1177 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Marquès, J. P. Geindre, F. Amiranoff, P. Audebert, J. C. Gauthier, A. Antonetti, and G. Grillon, “Temporal and spatial measurements of the electron density perturbation produced in the wake of an ultrashort laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3566-3569 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Geindre, P. Audebert, A. Rousse, F. Fallies, J. C. Gauthier, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Dos Santos, G. Hamoniaux, and A. Antonetti, “Frequency-domain interferometer for measuring the phase and amplitude of a femtosecond pulse probing a laser-produced plasma,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1997-1999 (1994).
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R. Evans, A. D. Badger, F. Fallies, M. Mahdieh, T. A. Hall, P. Audebert, J.-P. Geindre, J.-C. Gauthier, A. Mysyrowicz, G. Grillon, and A. Antonetti, “Time- and space-resolved optical probing of femtosecond-laser-driven shock waves in aluminum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3359-3362 (1996).
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[CrossRef]

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R. A. Bartels, T. C. Weinacht, N. Wagner, M. Baertschy, Chris H. Greene, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase modulation of ultrashort light pulses using molecular rotational wave packets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 013903 (2002).
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J.-F. Ripoche, G. Grillon, B. Prade, M. France, E. Nibbering, R. Lange, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Determination of the time dependence of n2 in air,” Opt. Commun. 135, 310-314 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Marquès, J. P. Geindre, F. Amiranoff, P. Audebert, J. C. Gauthier, A. Antonetti, and G. Grillon, “Temporal and spatial measurements of the electron density perturbation produced in the wake of an ultrashort laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3566-3569 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Evans, A. D. Badger, F. Fallies, M. Mahdieh, T. A. Hall, P. Audebert, J.-P. Geindre, J.-C. Gauthier, A. Mysyrowicz, G. Grillon, and A. Antonetti, “Time- and space-resolved optical probing of femtosecond-laser-driven shock waves in aluminum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3359-3362 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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K. Y. Kim, I. Alexeev, V. Kumarappan, E. Parra, T. Antonsen, T. Taguchi, A. Gupta, and H. M. Milchberg, “Gases of exploding laser-heated cluster nanoplasmas as a nonlinear optical medium,” Phys. Plasmas 11, 2882-2889 (2004).
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C. H. Lin, J. P. Heritage, T. K. Gustafson, R. Y. Chiao, and J. P. McTague, “Birefringence arising from the reorientation of the polarizability anisotropy of molecules in collisionless gases,” Phys. Rev. A 13, 813-829 (1976).
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R. Evans, A. D. Badger, F. Fallies, M. Mahdieh, T. A. Hall, P. Audebert, J.-P. Geindre, J.-C. Gauthier, A. Mysyrowicz, G. Grillon, and A. Antonetti, “Time- and space-resolved optical probing of femtosecond-laser-driven shock waves in aluminum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3359-3362 (1996).
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[CrossRef]

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N. Hay, R. Velotta, M. Lein, R. de Nalda, E. Heesel, M. Castillejo, and J. P. Marangos, “High-order harmonic generation in laser-aligned molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 053805 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Velotta, N. Hay, M. B. Mason, M. Castillejo, and J. P. Marangos, “High-order harmonic generation in aligned molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 183901 (2001).
[CrossRef]

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C. W. Siders, S. P. Le Blanc, D. Fisher, T. Tajima, M. C. Downer, A. Babine, A. Stepanov, and A. Sergeev, “Laser wakefield excitation and measurement by femtosecond longitudinal interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3570-3573 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sinardet, B.

Smith, R. A.

S. Baker, J. S. Robinson, C. A. Haworth, H. Teng, R. A. Smith, C. C. Chirila, M. Lein, J., W. G. Tisch, and J. P. Marangos, “Probing proton dynamics in molecules on an attosecond time scale,” Science 21, 424-427 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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P. W. Dooley, I. V. Litvinyuk, K. F. Lee, D. M. Rayner, M. Spanner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Direct imaging of rotational wave-packet dynamics of diatomic molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 68, 023406 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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I. Alexeev, A. Ting, D. F. Gordon, E. Briscoe, J. R. Penano, R. F. Hubbard, and P. Sprangle, “Longitudinal compression of short laser pulses in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4080-4082 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Peñano, P. Sprangle, P. Serafim, B. Hafizi, and A. Ting, “Stimulated Raman scattering of intense laser pulses in air,” Phys. Rev. E 68, 056502 (2003).
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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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H. Stapelfeldt and T. Seideman, “Aligning molecules with strong laser pulses,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 75, 543-557 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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C. W. Siders, S. P. Le Blanc, D. Fisher, T. Tajima, M. C. Downer, A. Babine, A. Stepanov, and A. Sergeev, “Laser wakefield excitation and measurement by femtosecond longitudinal interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3570-3573 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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K. Y. Kim, I. Alexeev, V. Kumarappan, E. Parra, T. Antonsen, T. Taguchi, A. Gupta, and H. M. Milchberg, “Gases of exploding laser-heated cluster nanoplasmas as a nonlinear optical medium,” Phys. Plasmas 11, 2882-2889 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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C. W. Siders, S. P. Le Blanc, D. Fisher, T. Tajima, M. C. Downer, A. Babine, A. Stepanov, and A. Sergeev, “Laser wakefield excitation and measurement by femtosecond longitudinal interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3570-3573 (1996).
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S. Baker, J. S. Robinson, C. A. Haworth, H. Teng, R. A. Smith, C. C. Chirila, M. Lein, J., W. G. Tisch, and J. P. Marangos, “Probing proton dynamics in molecules on an attosecond time scale,” Science 21, 424-427 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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I. Alexeev, A. Ting, D. F. Gordon, E. Briscoe, J. R. Penano, R. F. Hubbard, and P. Sprangle, “Longitudinal compression of short laser pulses in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4080-4082 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Peñano, P. Sprangle, P. Serafim, B. Hafizi, and A. Ting, “Stimulated Raman scattering of intense laser pulses in air,” Phys. Rev. E 68, 056502 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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S. Baker, J. S. Robinson, C. A. Haworth, H. Teng, R. A. Smith, C. C. Chirila, M. Lein, J., W. G. Tisch, and J. P. Marangos, “Probing proton dynamics in molecules on an attosecond time scale,” Science 21, 424-427 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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C. Vozzi, F. Calegari, E. Benedetti, J.-P. Caumes, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, M. Nisoli, R. Torres, E. Heesel, N. Kajumba, J. P. Marangos, C. Altucci, and R. Velotta, “Controlling two-center interference in molecular high harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 153902 (2005).
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[CrossRef]

N. Hay, R. Velotta, M. Lein, R. de Nalda, E. Heesel, M. Castillejo, and J. P. Marangos, “High-order harmonic generation in laser-aligned molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 053805 (2002).
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Phys. Rev. Lett.

R. A. Bartels, T. C. Weinacht, N. Wagner, M. Baertschy, Chris H. Greene, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase modulation of ultrashort light pulses using molecular rotational wave packets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 013903 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Vozzi, F. Calegari, E. Benedetti, J.-P. Caumes, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, M. Nisoli, R. Torres, E. Heesel, N. Kajumba, J. P. Marangos, C. Altucci, and R. Velotta, “Controlling two-center interference in molecular high harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 153902 (2005).
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R. Velotta, N. Hay, M. B. Mason, M. Castillejo, and J. P. Marangos, “High-order harmonic generation in aligned molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 183901 (2001).
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F. Rosca-Pruna and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Experimental observation of revival structures in picosecond laser-induced alignment of I2,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 153902 (2001).
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[CrossRef]

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Improved SSSI experimental setup, employing a xenon gas cell to generate broadband supercontinuum. BS1: beam splitter; XGC: xenon gas cell; MI: Michelson interferometer; P: 500 μ m pinhole; SF4: 2.5 cm thick SF4 glass; HWP: half-wave-plate; M: zero degree dielectric mirror to reject Ti : sapphire laser energy; BS2: beam splitter for combining pump and SC pulses. The pump beam energy can be tuned by another set of half-wave-plate and polarizer, which is not shown in the figure.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Spectral interferogram showing pump-induced, wavelength-dependent fringe shift, and (b) extracted 1D space and time variations of the effective transient refractive index shift Δ n in argon at 7.8 atm pressure and 4.1 × 10 13 W cm 2 peak pump intensity. The inset in (b) shows the 1D lineout of Δ n along x = 0 axis with a FWHM of 110 fs , which is close to the pump laser pulse duration measured by FROG. The index shift is due to instantaneous electronic nonlinearity and thus follows the pump pulse temporal profile.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Normalized transient shift of refractive index Δ n from measurements (open circles) and calculations (solid curve) for (a) N 2 and (b) N 2 O . For comparison, a Gaussian function centered at t = 0 with 110 fs FWHM duration is shown on each figure (dashed curve) to represent the pump pulse envelope. Unnormalized Δ n traces of (a) and (b), along with Ar , are shown in (c), under the experiment conditions of 110 fs pump pulse duration and 4.4 atm Ar , N 2 , and N 2 O , with 95 μ J ( 6.7 × 10 13 W cm 2 ) , 60 μ J ( 4.2 × 10 13 W cm 2 ) , and 20 μ J ( 1.4 × 10 13 W cm 2 ) pulse energy (peak intensity), respectively.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Time-resolved and 1D space-resolved plot of measured full revival of O 2 alignment cos 2 θ t 1 3 , with 5.1 atm gas pressure and 40 μ J pump pulse energy ( 2.7 × 10 13 W cm 2 peak intensity).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Measured and (b) simulated laser alignment of O 2 molecules and the successive wave packet revivals from t = 0 to t = 1.25 T , at the center of the pump beam focus ( x = 0 ) , under the same conditions as in Fig. 4. The dephasing time constant 1 γ = 23.2 ps is determined by fitting the peak amplitudes at each revival in (a), and the fitted γ is used to calculate (b). δ function (dashed curve) and cos 2 function with 110 fs FWHM duration (solid curve) of pump pulse profiles are considered in (b).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Pump beam center lineout and (b) corresponding x t perspective plot of measured D 2 molecule alignment recurrences excited by 65 μ J pump energy ( 4.4 × 10 13 W cm 2 peak intensity), with 7.8 atm gas pressure. (c) Fourier transform of the signal representing rotational wave packet revivals after the pump pulse in (a). The peak frequency is identified as ω 2 , 0 3.4 × 10 13 s 1 , giving the rotational constant B D 2 = 30.4 cm 1 . (d) Calculated cos 2 θ t 1 3 with δ function (dashed curve) and 110 fs cos 2 function (solid curve), using B D 2 obtained in (c).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Pump beam center lineout and (b) corresponding x t perspective plot of H 2 alignment recurrences, measured in the same main conditions as in Fig. 6. (c) ω 2 , 0 7 × 10 13 s 1 is observed by Fourier transformation of recurrence signal (neglecting the peak) in (a), which gives B H 2 = 61.8 cm 1 . (d) Simulated cos 2 θ t 1 3 with δ function (dashed curve) and 110 fs cos 2 function (solid curve), pump pulses, with rotational constant B H 2 from (c).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Transient refractive indices of 5.1 atm O 2 near t = 0.75 T for the pump polarization parallel (black solid curve) and perpendicular (red dashed curve) to the probe beam. The pump energy and peak intensity is 40 μ J and 2.7 × 10 13 W cm 2 , respectively.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(a) Measured N 2 O revivals at t = 0.5 T at pressures of 2.4, 3.7, 5.1, and 6.4 atm , normalized to the peak alignment amplitude near t = 0 . (b) Dephasing rate γ versus N 2 O pressure (squares) with a linear fit (solid line). The dephasing rate per unit pressure is 1.46 × 10 10 s 1 atm 1 . The laser energy is 20 μ J , corresponding to 1.4 × 10 13 W cm 2 peak intensity.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δ n ( t ) = 2 π N n 0 1 Δ α ( cos 2 θ t 1 3 ) ,
[ ρ ( 1 ) ( t ) ] k l = i t d τ [ h ̃ ( τ ) , ρ ( 0 ) ] k l e ( i ω k l + γ k l ) ( τ t ) ,
cos 2 θ t = 1 3 1 15 Δ α j [ j ( j 1 ) 2 j 1 ( ρ j ( 0 ) ρ j 2 ( 0 ) ) × Im ( e ( i ω j , j 2 γ j , j 2 ) t t d τ ε 2 ( τ ) e ( i ω j , j 2 + γ j , j 2 ) τ ) ] ,
Δ n ( t ) = 2 π N n 0 1 Δ α ( 1 2 sin 2 θ t 1 3 ) ,

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