Abstract

The scintillation properties of a hydrothermal-method-grown zinc oxide (ZnO) crystal in the extreme ultraviolet region are evaluated using a nickel-like silver laser with an emission wavelength of 13.9nm. The temperature dependence of the scintillation properties of the ZnO emission at a wavelength of 380nm is investigated. The emission exhibits a broad peak at 386nm with a full width at half-maximum (FWHM) of 15nm at room temperature (298K). Decreasing the ZnO crystal temperature to 25K causes the peak position to be blueshifted by 12nm while the FWHM becomes narrower by 9nm as compared with the room temperature case.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. Y. Shimada, N. Nishimura, M. Nakai, K. Hashimoto, M. Yamaura, Y. Tao, K. Shigemori, T. Kawamura, A. Sunahara, T. Nishikawa, A. Sasaki, K. Nagai, T. Norimatsu, S. Fujioka, S. Uchida, N. Miyanaga, Y. Izawa, and C. Yamanaka, “Characterization of extreme ultraviolet emission from laser-produced spherical tin plasma generated with multiple laser beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 051501 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. Fujioka, H. Nishimura, K. Nishihara, A. Sasaki, A. Sunahara, T. Okuno, N. Ueda, T. Ando, Y. Tao, Y. Shimada, K. Hashimoto, M. Yamaura, K. Shigemori, M. Nakai, K. Nagai, T. Norimatsu, T. Nishikawa, N. Miyanaga, Y. Izawa, and K. Mima, “Opacity effect on extreme ultraviolet radiation from laser-produced tin plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 235004 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. E. Ohshima, H. Ogino, I. Niikura, K. Maeda, M. Sato, M. Ito, and T. Fukuda, “Growth of the 2-in-size bulk ZnO single crystals by the hydrothermal method,” J. Cryst. Growth 260, 166-170 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  4. H. Ohta, K. Kawamura, M. Orita, M. Hirano, N. Sarukura, and H. Hosono, “Current injection emission from a transparent p-n junction composed of p-SrCu2O2/n-ZnO,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 475-477 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  5. P. Xu, X. Wen, Z. Zheng, G. Cox, and H. Zhu, “Two-photon optical characteristics of zinc oxide in bulk, low dimensional and nanoforms,” J. Lumin. 16, 641-643 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Ichimiya, T. Horii, T. Hirai, Y. Sawada, M. Minamiguchi, N. Ohno, M. Ashida, and T. Itoh, “Nano-scale distribution of ZnO free exciton luminescence in ZnO:Zn microcrystals and its modification under electron beam excitation,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 18, 1967-1975 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  7. W. Cao and W. Du, “Strong exciton emission from ZnO microcrystal formed by continuous 532nm laser irradiation,” J. Lumin. 124, 260-264 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  8. T. Kawachi, M. Kado, M. Tanaka, A. Sasaki, N. Hasegawa, A. V. Kilpio, S. Namba, K. Nagashima, P. Lu, K. Takahashi, H. Tang, R. Tai, M. Kishimoto, M. Koike, H. Daido, and Y. Kato, “Gain saturation of nickel-like silver and tin x-ray lasers by use of a tabletop pumping laser system,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 033815 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. Klisnick, J. Kuba, D. Ros, R. Smith, G. Jamelot, C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Keenan, S. J. Topping, C. L. S. Lewis, F. Strati, G. J. Tallents, D. Neely, R. Clarke, J. Collier, A. G. MacPhee, F. Bortolotto, P. V. Nickles, and K. A. Janulewicz, “Gain saturation of nickel-like silver and tin x-ray lasers by use of a tabletop pumping laser system,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 033810 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. Tanaka, M. Nishikino, H. Yamatani, K. Nagashima, T. Kimura, Y. Furukawa, H. Murakami, S. Saito, N. Sarukura, H. Nishimura, K. Mima, Y. Kagamitani, D. Ehrentraut, and T. Fukuda, “Hydrothermal method grown large-size zinc oxide single crystal as fast scintillator for future extreme ultraviolet lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 231117 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Tanaka, M. Nishikino, T. Kawachi, N. Hasegawa, M. Kado, M. Kishimoto, K. Nagashima, and Y. Kato, “X-ray laser beam with diffraction-limited divergence generated with two gain media,” Opt. Lett. 28, 1680-1682 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. Y. Chen, D. Bagnall, and T. Yao, “ZnO as a novel photonic material for the UV region,” Mater. Sci. Eng., B 75, 190-198 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  13. R. Hauschild, H. Priller, M. Decker, J. Brückner, H. Kalt, and C. Klingshirn, “Temperature dependent band gap and homogeneous line broadening of the exciton emission in ZnO,” Phys. Status Solidi C 3, 976-979 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  14. G. Qian, M. Nikl, J. Bei, J. Pejchal, S. Baccaro, R. Giorgi, A. Cecilia, and G. Chen, “Temperature dependence of photoluminescence in ZnO-containing glasses,” Opt. Mater. 30, 91-94 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  15. X. H. Zhang, S. J. Chua, A. M. Yong, H. Y. Yang, S. P. Lau, S. F. Yu, X. W. Sun, L. Miao, M. Tanemura, and S. Tanemura, “Exciton radiative lifetime in ZnO nanorods fabricated by vapor phase transport method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 013107 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  16. F. Y. Jen, Y. C. Lu, H. C. Wang, C. C. Yang, B. Zhang, and Y. Segawa, “Temperature-dependent exciton dynamics in a ZnO thin film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 252117 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  17. J. Wilkinson, K. B. Ucer, and R. T. Williams, “Picosecond excitonic luminescence in ZnO and other wide-gap semiconductors,” Radiat. Meas. 38, 501-505 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  18. P. Y. Yu and M. Cardona, “Electrical transport,” in Fundamentals of Semiconductors, Physics and Materials Properties (Springer-Verlag, 1996), Chap. 5, pp. 210-212.

2007 (5)

P. Xu, X. Wen, Z. Zheng, G. Cox, and H. Zhu, “Two-photon optical characteristics of zinc oxide in bulk, low dimensional and nanoforms,” J. Lumin. 16, 641-643 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Cao and W. Du, “Strong exciton emission from ZnO microcrystal formed by continuous 532nm laser irradiation,” J. Lumin. 124, 260-264 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Qian, M. Nikl, J. Bei, J. Pejchal, S. Baccaro, R. Giorgi, A. Cecilia, and G. Chen, “Temperature dependence of photoluminescence in ZnO-containing glasses,” Opt. Mater. 30, 91-94 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. H. Zhang, S. J. Chua, A. M. Yong, H. Y. Yang, S. P. Lau, S. F. Yu, X. W. Sun, L. Miao, M. Tanemura, and S. Tanemura, “Exciton radiative lifetime in ZnO nanorods fabricated by vapor phase transport method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 013107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Tanaka, M. Nishikino, H. Yamatani, K. Nagashima, T. Kimura, Y. Furukawa, H. Murakami, S. Saito, N. Sarukura, H. Nishimura, K. Mima, Y. Kagamitani, D. Ehrentraut, and T. Fukuda, “Hydrothermal method grown large-size zinc oxide single crystal as fast scintillator for future extreme ultraviolet lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 231117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

R. Hauschild, H. Priller, M. Decker, J. Brückner, H. Kalt, and C. Klingshirn, “Temperature dependent band gap and homogeneous line broadening of the exciton emission in ZnO,” Phys. Status Solidi C 3, 976-979 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Ichimiya, T. Horii, T. Hirai, Y. Sawada, M. Minamiguchi, N. Ohno, M. Ashida, and T. Itoh, “Nano-scale distribution of ZnO free exciton luminescence in ZnO:Zn microcrystals and its modification under electron beam excitation,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 18, 1967-1975 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

Y. Shimada, N. Nishimura, M. Nakai, K. Hashimoto, M. Yamaura, Y. Tao, K. Shigemori, T. Kawamura, A. Sunahara, T. Nishikawa, A. Sasaki, K. Nagai, T. Norimatsu, S. Fujioka, S. Uchida, N. Miyanaga, Y. Izawa, and C. Yamanaka, “Characterization of extreme ultraviolet emission from laser-produced spherical tin plasma generated with multiple laser beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 051501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Fujioka, H. Nishimura, K. Nishihara, A. Sasaki, A. Sunahara, T. Okuno, N. Ueda, T. Ando, Y. Tao, Y. Shimada, K. Hashimoto, M. Yamaura, K. Shigemori, M. Nakai, K. Nagai, T. Norimatsu, T. Nishikawa, N. Miyanaga, Y. Izawa, and K. Mima, “Opacity effect on extreme ultraviolet radiation from laser-produced tin plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 235004 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Y. Jen, Y. C. Lu, H. C. Wang, C. C. Yang, B. Zhang, and Y. Segawa, “Temperature-dependent exciton dynamics in a ZnO thin film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 252117 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

J. Wilkinson, K. B. Ucer, and R. T. Williams, “Picosecond excitonic luminescence in ZnO and other wide-gap semiconductors,” Radiat. Meas. 38, 501-505 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Ohshima, H. Ogino, I. Niikura, K. Maeda, M. Sato, M. Ito, and T. Fukuda, “Growth of the 2-in-size bulk ZnO single crystals by the hydrothermal method,” J. Cryst. Growth 260, 166-170 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

2002 (2)

T. Kawachi, M. Kado, M. Tanaka, A. Sasaki, N. Hasegawa, A. V. Kilpio, S. Namba, K. Nagashima, P. Lu, K. Takahashi, H. Tang, R. Tai, M. Kishimoto, M. Koike, H. Daido, and Y. Kato, “Gain saturation of nickel-like silver and tin x-ray lasers by use of a tabletop pumping laser system,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 033815 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Klisnick, J. Kuba, D. Ros, R. Smith, G. Jamelot, C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Keenan, S. J. Topping, C. L. S. Lewis, F. Strati, G. J. Tallents, D. Neely, R. Clarke, J. Collier, A. G. MacPhee, F. Bortolotto, P. V. Nickles, and K. A. Janulewicz, “Gain saturation of nickel-like silver and tin x-ray lasers by use of a tabletop pumping laser system,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 033810 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

H. Ohta, K. Kawamura, M. Orita, M. Hirano, N. Sarukura, and H. Hosono, “Current injection emission from a transparent p-n junction composed of p-SrCu2O2/n-ZnO,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 475-477 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, D. Bagnall, and T. Yao, “ZnO as a novel photonic material for the UV region,” Mater. Sci. Eng., B 75, 190-198 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ando, T.

S. Fujioka, H. Nishimura, K. Nishihara, A. Sasaki, A. Sunahara, T. Okuno, N. Ueda, T. Ando, Y. Tao, Y. Shimada, K. Hashimoto, M. Yamaura, K. Shigemori, M. Nakai, K. Nagai, T. Norimatsu, T. Nishikawa, N. Miyanaga, Y. Izawa, and K. Mima, “Opacity effect on extreme ultraviolet radiation from laser-produced tin plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 235004 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ashida, M.

M. Ichimiya, T. Horii, T. Hirai, Y. Sawada, M. Minamiguchi, N. Ohno, M. Ashida, and T. Itoh, “Nano-scale distribution of ZnO free exciton luminescence in ZnO:Zn microcrystals and its modification under electron beam excitation,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 18, 1967-1975 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Baccaro, S.

G. Qian, M. Nikl, J. Bei, J. Pejchal, S. Baccaro, R. Giorgi, A. Cecilia, and G. Chen, “Temperature dependence of photoluminescence in ZnO-containing glasses,” Opt. Mater. 30, 91-94 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bagnall, D.

Y. Chen, D. Bagnall, and T. Yao, “ZnO as a novel photonic material for the UV region,” Mater. Sci. Eng., B 75, 190-198 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bei, J.

G. Qian, M. Nikl, J. Bei, J. Pejchal, S. Baccaro, R. Giorgi, A. Cecilia, and G. Chen, “Temperature dependence of photoluminescence in ZnO-containing glasses,” Opt. Mater. 30, 91-94 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bortolotto, F.

A. Klisnick, J. Kuba, D. Ros, R. Smith, G. Jamelot, C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Keenan, S. J. Topping, C. L. S. Lewis, F. Strati, G. J. Tallents, D. Neely, R. Clarke, J. Collier, A. G. MacPhee, F. Bortolotto, P. V. Nickles, and K. A. Janulewicz, “Gain saturation of nickel-like silver and tin x-ray lasers by use of a tabletop pumping laser system,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 033810 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Brückner, J.

R. Hauschild, H. Priller, M. Decker, J. Brückner, H. Kalt, and C. Klingshirn, “Temperature dependent band gap and homogeneous line broadening of the exciton emission in ZnO,” Phys. Status Solidi C 3, 976-979 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cao, W.

W. Cao and W. Du, “Strong exciton emission from ZnO microcrystal formed by continuous 532nm laser irradiation,” J. Lumin. 124, 260-264 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cardona, M.

P. Y. Yu and M. Cardona, “Electrical transport,” in Fundamentals of Semiconductors, Physics and Materials Properties (Springer-Verlag, 1996), Chap. 5, pp. 210-212.

Cecilia, A.

G. Qian, M. Nikl, J. Bei, J. Pejchal, S. Baccaro, R. Giorgi, A. Cecilia, and G. Chen, “Temperature dependence of photoluminescence in ZnO-containing glasses,” Opt. Mater. 30, 91-94 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, G.

G. Qian, M. Nikl, J. Bei, J. Pejchal, S. Baccaro, R. Giorgi, A. Cecilia, and G. Chen, “Temperature dependence of photoluminescence in ZnO-containing glasses,” Opt. Mater. 30, 91-94 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

Y. Chen, D. Bagnall, and T. Yao, “ZnO as a novel photonic material for the UV region,” Mater. Sci. Eng., B 75, 190-198 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chenais-Popovics, C.

A. Klisnick, J. Kuba, D. Ros, R. Smith, G. Jamelot, C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Keenan, S. J. Topping, C. L. S. Lewis, F. Strati, G. J. Tallents, D. Neely, R. Clarke, J. Collier, A. G. MacPhee, F. Bortolotto, P. V. Nickles, and K. A. Janulewicz, “Gain saturation of nickel-like silver and tin x-ray lasers by use of a tabletop pumping laser system,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 033810 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chua, S. J.

X. H. Zhang, S. J. Chua, A. M. Yong, H. Y. Yang, S. P. Lau, S. F. Yu, X. W. Sun, L. Miao, M. Tanemura, and S. Tanemura, “Exciton radiative lifetime in ZnO nanorods fabricated by vapor phase transport method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 013107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Clarke, R.

A. Klisnick, J. Kuba, D. Ros, R. Smith, G. Jamelot, C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Keenan, S. J. Topping, C. L. S. Lewis, F. Strati, G. J. Tallents, D. Neely, R. Clarke, J. Collier, A. G. MacPhee, F. Bortolotto, P. V. Nickles, and K. A. Janulewicz, “Gain saturation of nickel-like silver and tin x-ray lasers by use of a tabletop pumping laser system,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 033810 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Collier, J.

A. Klisnick, J. Kuba, D. Ros, R. Smith, G. Jamelot, C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Keenan, S. J. Topping, C. L. S. Lewis, F. Strati, G. J. Tallents, D. Neely, R. Clarke, J. Collier, A. G. MacPhee, F. Bortolotto, P. V. Nickles, and K. A. Janulewicz, “Gain saturation of nickel-like silver and tin x-ray lasers by use of a tabletop pumping laser system,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 033810 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cox, G.

P. Xu, X. Wen, Z. Zheng, G. Cox, and H. Zhu, “Two-photon optical characteristics of zinc oxide in bulk, low dimensional and nanoforms,” J. Lumin. 16, 641-643 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Daido, H.

T. Kawachi, M. Kado, M. Tanaka, A. Sasaki, N. Hasegawa, A. V. Kilpio, S. Namba, K. Nagashima, P. Lu, K. Takahashi, H. Tang, R. Tai, M. Kishimoto, M. Koike, H. Daido, and Y. Kato, “Gain saturation of nickel-like silver and tin x-ray lasers by use of a tabletop pumping laser system,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 033815 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Decker, M.

R. Hauschild, H. Priller, M. Decker, J. Brückner, H. Kalt, and C. Klingshirn, “Temperature dependent band gap and homogeneous line broadening of the exciton emission in ZnO,” Phys. Status Solidi C 3, 976-979 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Du, W.

W. Cao and W. Du, “Strong exciton emission from ZnO microcrystal formed by continuous 532nm laser irradiation,” J. Lumin. 124, 260-264 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ehrentraut, D.

M. Tanaka, M. Nishikino, H. Yamatani, K. Nagashima, T. Kimura, Y. Furukawa, H. Murakami, S. Saito, N. Sarukura, H. Nishimura, K. Mima, Y. Kagamitani, D. Ehrentraut, and T. Fukuda, “Hydrothermal method grown large-size zinc oxide single crystal as fast scintillator for future extreme ultraviolet lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 231117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fujioka, S.

S. Fujioka, H. Nishimura, K. Nishihara, A. Sasaki, A. Sunahara, T. Okuno, N. Ueda, T. Ando, Y. Tao, Y. Shimada, K. Hashimoto, M. Yamaura, K. Shigemori, M. Nakai, K. Nagai, T. Norimatsu, T. Nishikawa, N. Miyanaga, Y. Izawa, and K. Mima, “Opacity effect on extreme ultraviolet radiation from laser-produced tin plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 235004 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Shimada, N. Nishimura, M. Nakai, K. Hashimoto, M. Yamaura, Y. Tao, K. Shigemori, T. Kawamura, A. Sunahara, T. Nishikawa, A. Sasaki, K. Nagai, T. Norimatsu, S. Fujioka, S. Uchida, N. Miyanaga, Y. Izawa, and C. Yamanaka, “Characterization of extreme ultraviolet emission from laser-produced spherical tin plasma generated with multiple laser beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 051501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fukuda, T.

M. Tanaka, M. Nishikino, H. Yamatani, K. Nagashima, T. Kimura, Y. Furukawa, H. Murakami, S. Saito, N. Sarukura, H. Nishimura, K. Mima, Y. Kagamitani, D. Ehrentraut, and T. Fukuda, “Hydrothermal method grown large-size zinc oxide single crystal as fast scintillator for future extreme ultraviolet lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 231117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Ohshima, H. Ogino, I. Niikura, K. Maeda, M. Sato, M. Ito, and T. Fukuda, “Growth of the 2-in-size bulk ZnO single crystals by the hydrothermal method,” J. Cryst. Growth 260, 166-170 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Furukawa, Y.

M. Tanaka, M. Nishikino, H. Yamatani, K. Nagashima, T. Kimura, Y. Furukawa, H. Murakami, S. Saito, N. Sarukura, H. Nishimura, K. Mima, Y. Kagamitani, D. Ehrentraut, and T. Fukuda, “Hydrothermal method grown large-size zinc oxide single crystal as fast scintillator for future extreme ultraviolet lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 231117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Giorgi, R.

G. Qian, M. Nikl, J. Bei, J. Pejchal, S. Baccaro, R. Giorgi, A. Cecilia, and G. Chen, “Temperature dependence of photoluminescence in ZnO-containing glasses,” Opt. Mater. 30, 91-94 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hasegawa, N.

M. Tanaka, M. Nishikino, T. Kawachi, N. Hasegawa, M. Kado, M. Kishimoto, K. Nagashima, and Y. Kato, “X-ray laser beam with diffraction-limited divergence generated with two gain media,” Opt. Lett. 28, 1680-1682 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Kawachi, M. Kado, M. Tanaka, A. Sasaki, N. Hasegawa, A. V. Kilpio, S. Namba, K. Nagashima, P. Lu, K. Takahashi, H. Tang, R. Tai, M. Kishimoto, M. Koike, H. Daido, and Y. Kato, “Gain saturation of nickel-like silver and tin x-ray lasers by use of a tabletop pumping laser system,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 033815 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hashimoto, K.

Y. Shimada, N. Nishimura, M. Nakai, K. Hashimoto, M. Yamaura, Y. Tao, K. Shigemori, T. Kawamura, A. Sunahara, T. Nishikawa, A. Sasaki, K. Nagai, T. Norimatsu, S. Fujioka, S. Uchida, N. Miyanaga, Y. Izawa, and C. Yamanaka, “Characterization of extreme ultraviolet emission from laser-produced spherical tin plasma generated with multiple laser beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 051501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Fujioka, H. Nishimura, K. Nishihara, A. Sasaki, A. Sunahara, T. Okuno, N. Ueda, T. Ando, Y. Tao, Y. Shimada, K. Hashimoto, M. Yamaura, K. Shigemori, M. Nakai, K. Nagai, T. Norimatsu, T. Nishikawa, N. Miyanaga, Y. Izawa, and K. Mima, “Opacity effect on extreme ultraviolet radiation from laser-produced tin plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 235004 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hauschild, R.

R. Hauschild, H. Priller, M. Decker, J. Brückner, H. Kalt, and C. Klingshirn, “Temperature dependent band gap and homogeneous line broadening of the exciton emission in ZnO,” Phys. Status Solidi C 3, 976-979 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hirai, T.

M. Ichimiya, T. Horii, T. Hirai, Y. Sawada, M. Minamiguchi, N. Ohno, M. Ashida, and T. Itoh, “Nano-scale distribution of ZnO free exciton luminescence in ZnO:Zn microcrystals and its modification under electron beam excitation,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 18, 1967-1975 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hirano, M.

H. Ohta, K. Kawamura, M. Orita, M. Hirano, N. Sarukura, and H. Hosono, “Current injection emission from a transparent p-n junction composed of p-SrCu2O2/n-ZnO,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 475-477 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Horii, T.

M. Ichimiya, T. Horii, T. Hirai, Y. Sawada, M. Minamiguchi, N. Ohno, M. Ashida, and T. Itoh, “Nano-scale distribution of ZnO free exciton luminescence in ZnO:Zn microcrystals and its modification under electron beam excitation,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 18, 1967-1975 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hosono, H.

H. Ohta, K. Kawamura, M. Orita, M. Hirano, N. Sarukura, and H. Hosono, “Current injection emission from a transparent p-n junction composed of p-SrCu2O2/n-ZnO,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 475-477 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ichimiya, M.

M. Ichimiya, T. Horii, T. Hirai, Y. Sawada, M. Minamiguchi, N. Ohno, M. Ashida, and T. Itoh, “Nano-scale distribution of ZnO free exciton luminescence in ZnO:Zn microcrystals and its modification under electron beam excitation,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 18, 1967-1975 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ito, M.

E. Ohshima, H. Ogino, I. Niikura, K. Maeda, M. Sato, M. Ito, and T. Fukuda, “Growth of the 2-in-size bulk ZnO single crystals by the hydrothermal method,” J. Cryst. Growth 260, 166-170 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Itoh, T.

M. Ichimiya, T. Horii, T. Hirai, Y. Sawada, M. Minamiguchi, N. Ohno, M. Ashida, and T. Itoh, “Nano-scale distribution of ZnO free exciton luminescence in ZnO:Zn microcrystals and its modification under electron beam excitation,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 18, 1967-1975 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Izawa, Y.

S. Fujioka, H. Nishimura, K. Nishihara, A. Sasaki, A. Sunahara, T. Okuno, N. Ueda, T. Ando, Y. Tao, Y. Shimada, K. Hashimoto, M. Yamaura, K. Shigemori, M. Nakai, K. Nagai, T. Norimatsu, T. Nishikawa, N. Miyanaga, Y. Izawa, and K. Mima, “Opacity effect on extreme ultraviolet radiation from laser-produced tin plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 235004 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Shimada, N. Nishimura, M. Nakai, K. Hashimoto, M. Yamaura, Y. Tao, K. Shigemori, T. Kawamura, A. Sunahara, T. Nishikawa, A. Sasaki, K. Nagai, T. Norimatsu, S. Fujioka, S. Uchida, N. Miyanaga, Y. Izawa, and C. Yamanaka, “Characterization of extreme ultraviolet emission from laser-produced spherical tin plasma generated with multiple laser beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 051501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jamelot, G.

A. Klisnick, J. Kuba, D. Ros, R. Smith, G. Jamelot, C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Keenan, S. J. Topping, C. L. S. Lewis, F. Strati, G. J. Tallents, D. Neely, R. Clarke, J. Collier, A. G. MacPhee, F. Bortolotto, P. V. Nickles, and K. A. Janulewicz, “Gain saturation of nickel-like silver and tin x-ray lasers by use of a tabletop pumping laser system,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 033810 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Janulewicz, K. A.

A. Klisnick, J. Kuba, D. Ros, R. Smith, G. Jamelot, C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Keenan, S. J. Topping, C. L. S. Lewis, F. Strati, G. J. Tallents, D. Neely, R. Clarke, J. Collier, A. G. MacPhee, F. Bortolotto, P. V. Nickles, and K. A. Janulewicz, “Gain saturation of nickel-like silver and tin x-ray lasers by use of a tabletop pumping laser system,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 033810 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jen, F. Y.

F. Y. Jen, Y. C. Lu, H. C. Wang, C. C. Yang, B. Zhang, and Y. Segawa, “Temperature-dependent exciton dynamics in a ZnO thin film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 252117 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kado, M.

M. Tanaka, M. Nishikino, T. Kawachi, N. Hasegawa, M. Kado, M. Kishimoto, K. Nagashima, and Y. Kato, “X-ray laser beam with diffraction-limited divergence generated with two gain media,” Opt. Lett. 28, 1680-1682 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Kawachi, M. Kado, M. Tanaka, A. Sasaki, N. Hasegawa, A. V. Kilpio, S. Namba, K. Nagashima, P. Lu, K. Takahashi, H. Tang, R. Tai, M. Kishimoto, M. Koike, H. Daido, and Y. Kato, “Gain saturation of nickel-like silver and tin x-ray lasers by use of a tabletop pumping laser system,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 033815 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kagamitani, Y.

M. Tanaka, M. Nishikino, H. Yamatani, K. Nagashima, T. Kimura, Y. Furukawa, H. Murakami, S. Saito, N. Sarukura, H. Nishimura, K. Mima, Y. Kagamitani, D. Ehrentraut, and T. Fukuda, “Hydrothermal method grown large-size zinc oxide single crystal as fast scintillator for future extreme ultraviolet lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 231117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kalt, H.

R. Hauschild, H. Priller, M. Decker, J. Brückner, H. Kalt, and C. Klingshirn, “Temperature dependent band gap and homogeneous line broadening of the exciton emission in ZnO,” Phys. Status Solidi C 3, 976-979 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kato, Y.

M. Tanaka, M. Nishikino, T. Kawachi, N. Hasegawa, M. Kado, M. Kishimoto, K. Nagashima, and Y. Kato, “X-ray laser beam with diffraction-limited divergence generated with two gain media,” Opt. Lett. 28, 1680-1682 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Kawachi, M. Kado, M. Tanaka, A. Sasaki, N. Hasegawa, A. V. Kilpio, S. Namba, K. Nagashima, P. Lu, K. Takahashi, H. Tang, R. Tai, M. Kishimoto, M. Koike, H. Daido, and Y. Kato, “Gain saturation of nickel-like silver and tin x-ray lasers by use of a tabletop pumping laser system,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 033815 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kawachi, T.

M. Tanaka, M. Nishikino, T. Kawachi, N. Hasegawa, M. Kado, M. Kishimoto, K. Nagashima, and Y. Kato, “X-ray laser beam with diffraction-limited divergence generated with two gain media,” Opt. Lett. 28, 1680-1682 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Kawachi, M. Kado, M. Tanaka, A. Sasaki, N. Hasegawa, A. V. Kilpio, S. Namba, K. Nagashima, P. Lu, K. Takahashi, H. Tang, R. Tai, M. Kishimoto, M. Koike, H. Daido, and Y. Kato, “Gain saturation of nickel-like silver and tin x-ray lasers by use of a tabletop pumping laser system,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 033815 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kawamura, K.

H. Ohta, K. Kawamura, M. Orita, M. Hirano, N. Sarukura, and H. Hosono, “Current injection emission from a transparent p-n junction composed of p-SrCu2O2/n-ZnO,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 475-477 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kawamura, T.

Y. Shimada, N. Nishimura, M. Nakai, K. Hashimoto, M. Yamaura, Y. Tao, K. Shigemori, T. Kawamura, A. Sunahara, T. Nishikawa, A. Sasaki, K. Nagai, T. Norimatsu, S. Fujioka, S. Uchida, N. Miyanaga, Y. Izawa, and C. Yamanaka, “Characterization of extreme ultraviolet emission from laser-produced spherical tin plasma generated with multiple laser beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 051501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Keenan, R.

A. Klisnick, J. Kuba, D. Ros, R. Smith, G. Jamelot, C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Keenan, S. J. Topping, C. L. S. Lewis, F. Strati, G. J. Tallents, D. Neely, R. Clarke, J. Collier, A. G. MacPhee, F. Bortolotto, P. V. Nickles, and K. A. Janulewicz, “Gain saturation of nickel-like silver and tin x-ray lasers by use of a tabletop pumping laser system,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 033810 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kilpio, A. V.

T. Kawachi, M. Kado, M. Tanaka, A. Sasaki, N. Hasegawa, A. V. Kilpio, S. Namba, K. Nagashima, P. Lu, K. Takahashi, H. Tang, R. Tai, M. Kishimoto, M. Koike, H. Daido, and Y. Kato, “Gain saturation of nickel-like silver and tin x-ray lasers by use of a tabletop pumping laser system,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 033815 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kimura, T.

M. Tanaka, M. Nishikino, H. Yamatani, K. Nagashima, T. Kimura, Y. Furukawa, H. Murakami, S. Saito, N. Sarukura, H. Nishimura, K. Mima, Y. Kagamitani, D. Ehrentraut, and T. Fukuda, “Hydrothermal method grown large-size zinc oxide single crystal as fast scintillator for future extreme ultraviolet lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 231117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kishimoto, M.

M. Tanaka, M. Nishikino, T. Kawachi, N. Hasegawa, M. Kado, M. Kishimoto, K. Nagashima, and Y. Kato, “X-ray laser beam with diffraction-limited divergence generated with two gain media,” Opt. Lett. 28, 1680-1682 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Kawachi, M. Kado, M. Tanaka, A. Sasaki, N. Hasegawa, A. V. Kilpio, S. Namba, K. Nagashima, P. Lu, K. Takahashi, H. Tang, R. Tai, M. Kishimoto, M. Koike, H. Daido, and Y. Kato, “Gain saturation of nickel-like silver and tin x-ray lasers by use of a tabletop pumping laser system,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 033815 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Klingshirn, C.

R. Hauschild, H. Priller, M. Decker, J. Brückner, H. Kalt, and C. Klingshirn, “Temperature dependent band gap and homogeneous line broadening of the exciton emission in ZnO,” Phys. Status Solidi C 3, 976-979 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Klisnick, A.

A. Klisnick, J. Kuba, D. Ros, R. Smith, G. Jamelot, C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Keenan, S. J. Topping, C. L. S. Lewis, F. Strati, G. J. Tallents, D. Neely, R. Clarke, J. Collier, A. G. MacPhee, F. Bortolotto, P. V. Nickles, and K. A. Janulewicz, “Gain saturation of nickel-like silver and tin x-ray lasers by use of a tabletop pumping laser system,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 033810 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Koike, M.

T. Kawachi, M. Kado, M. Tanaka, A. Sasaki, N. Hasegawa, A. V. Kilpio, S. Namba, K. Nagashima, P. Lu, K. Takahashi, H. Tang, R. Tai, M. Kishimoto, M. Koike, H. Daido, and Y. Kato, “Gain saturation of nickel-like silver and tin x-ray lasers by use of a tabletop pumping laser system,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 033815 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kuba, J.

A. Klisnick, J. Kuba, D. Ros, R. Smith, G. Jamelot, C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Keenan, S. J. Topping, C. L. S. Lewis, F. Strati, G. J. Tallents, D. Neely, R. Clarke, J. Collier, A. G. MacPhee, F. Bortolotto, P. V. Nickles, and K. A. Janulewicz, “Gain saturation of nickel-like silver and tin x-ray lasers by use of a tabletop pumping laser system,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 033810 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lau, S. P.

X. H. Zhang, S. J. Chua, A. M. Yong, H. Y. Yang, S. P. Lau, S. F. Yu, X. W. Sun, L. Miao, M. Tanemura, and S. Tanemura, “Exciton radiative lifetime in ZnO nanorods fabricated by vapor phase transport method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 013107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lu, P.

T. Kawachi, M. Kado, M. Tanaka, A. Sasaki, N. Hasegawa, A. V. Kilpio, S. Namba, K. Nagashima, P. Lu, K. Takahashi, H. Tang, R. Tai, M. Kishimoto, M. Koike, H. Daido, and Y. Kato, “Gain saturation of nickel-like silver and tin x-ray lasers by use of a tabletop pumping laser system,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 033815 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Y. C.

F. Y. Jen, Y. C. Lu, H. C. Wang, C. C. Yang, B. Zhang, and Y. Segawa, “Temperature-dependent exciton dynamics in a ZnO thin film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 252117 (2005).
[CrossRef]

MacPhee, A. G.

A. Klisnick, J. Kuba, D. Ros, R. Smith, G. Jamelot, C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Keenan, S. J. Topping, C. L. S. Lewis, F. Strati, G. J. Tallents, D. Neely, R. Clarke, J. Collier, A. G. MacPhee, F. Bortolotto, P. V. Nickles, and K. A. Janulewicz, “Gain saturation of nickel-like silver and tin x-ray lasers by use of a tabletop pumping laser system,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 033810 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Maeda, K.

E. Ohshima, H. Ogino, I. Niikura, K. Maeda, M. Sato, M. Ito, and T. Fukuda, “Growth of the 2-in-size bulk ZnO single crystals by the hydrothermal method,” J. Cryst. Growth 260, 166-170 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Miao, L.

X. H. Zhang, S. J. Chua, A. M. Yong, H. Y. Yang, S. P. Lau, S. F. Yu, X. W. Sun, L. Miao, M. Tanemura, and S. Tanemura, “Exciton radiative lifetime in ZnO nanorods fabricated by vapor phase transport method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 013107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mima, K.

M. Tanaka, M. Nishikino, H. Yamatani, K. Nagashima, T. Kimura, Y. Furukawa, H. Murakami, S. Saito, N. Sarukura, H. Nishimura, K. Mima, Y. Kagamitani, D. Ehrentraut, and T. Fukuda, “Hydrothermal method grown large-size zinc oxide single crystal as fast scintillator for future extreme ultraviolet lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 231117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Fujioka, H. Nishimura, K. Nishihara, A. Sasaki, A. Sunahara, T. Okuno, N. Ueda, T. Ando, Y. Tao, Y. Shimada, K. Hashimoto, M. Yamaura, K. Shigemori, M. Nakai, K. Nagai, T. Norimatsu, T. Nishikawa, N. Miyanaga, Y. Izawa, and K. Mima, “Opacity effect on extreme ultraviolet radiation from laser-produced tin plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 235004 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Minamiguchi, M.

M. Ichimiya, T. Horii, T. Hirai, Y. Sawada, M. Minamiguchi, N. Ohno, M. Ashida, and T. Itoh, “Nano-scale distribution of ZnO free exciton luminescence in ZnO:Zn microcrystals and its modification under electron beam excitation,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 18, 1967-1975 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Miyanaga, N.

S. Fujioka, H. Nishimura, K. Nishihara, A. Sasaki, A. Sunahara, T. Okuno, N. Ueda, T. Ando, Y. Tao, Y. Shimada, K. Hashimoto, M. Yamaura, K. Shigemori, M. Nakai, K. Nagai, T. Norimatsu, T. Nishikawa, N. Miyanaga, Y. Izawa, and K. Mima, “Opacity effect on extreme ultraviolet radiation from laser-produced tin plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 235004 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Shimada, N. Nishimura, M. Nakai, K. Hashimoto, M. Yamaura, Y. Tao, K. Shigemori, T. Kawamura, A. Sunahara, T. Nishikawa, A. Sasaki, K. Nagai, T. Norimatsu, S. Fujioka, S. Uchida, N. Miyanaga, Y. Izawa, and C. Yamanaka, “Characterization of extreme ultraviolet emission from laser-produced spherical tin plasma generated with multiple laser beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 051501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Murakami, H.

M. Tanaka, M. Nishikino, H. Yamatani, K. Nagashima, T. Kimura, Y. Furukawa, H. Murakami, S. Saito, N. Sarukura, H. Nishimura, K. Mima, Y. Kagamitani, D. Ehrentraut, and T. Fukuda, “Hydrothermal method grown large-size zinc oxide single crystal as fast scintillator for future extreme ultraviolet lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 231117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nagai, K.

Y. Shimada, N. Nishimura, M. Nakai, K. Hashimoto, M. Yamaura, Y. Tao, K. Shigemori, T. Kawamura, A. Sunahara, T. Nishikawa, A. Sasaki, K. Nagai, T. Norimatsu, S. Fujioka, S. Uchida, N. Miyanaga, Y. Izawa, and C. Yamanaka, “Characterization of extreme ultraviolet emission from laser-produced spherical tin plasma generated with multiple laser beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 051501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Fujioka, H. Nishimura, K. Nishihara, A. Sasaki, A. Sunahara, T. Okuno, N. Ueda, T. Ando, Y. Tao, Y. Shimada, K. Hashimoto, M. Yamaura, K. Shigemori, M. Nakai, K. Nagai, T. Norimatsu, T. Nishikawa, N. Miyanaga, Y. Izawa, and K. Mima, “Opacity effect on extreme ultraviolet radiation from laser-produced tin plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 235004 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nagashima, K.

M. Tanaka, M. Nishikino, H. Yamatani, K. Nagashima, T. Kimura, Y. Furukawa, H. Murakami, S. Saito, N. Sarukura, H. Nishimura, K. Mima, Y. Kagamitani, D. Ehrentraut, and T. Fukuda, “Hydrothermal method grown large-size zinc oxide single crystal as fast scintillator for future extreme ultraviolet lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 231117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Tanaka, M. Nishikino, T. Kawachi, N. Hasegawa, M. Kado, M. Kishimoto, K. Nagashima, and Y. Kato, “X-ray laser beam with diffraction-limited divergence generated with two gain media,” Opt. Lett. 28, 1680-1682 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Kawachi, M. Kado, M. Tanaka, A. Sasaki, N. Hasegawa, A. V. Kilpio, S. Namba, K. Nagashima, P. Lu, K. Takahashi, H. Tang, R. Tai, M. Kishimoto, M. Koike, H. Daido, and Y. Kato, “Gain saturation of nickel-like silver and tin x-ray lasers by use of a tabletop pumping laser system,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 033815 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nakai, M.

Y. Shimada, N. Nishimura, M. Nakai, K. Hashimoto, M. Yamaura, Y. Tao, K. Shigemori, T. Kawamura, A. Sunahara, T. Nishikawa, A. Sasaki, K. Nagai, T. Norimatsu, S. Fujioka, S. Uchida, N. Miyanaga, Y. Izawa, and C. Yamanaka, “Characterization of extreme ultraviolet emission from laser-produced spherical tin plasma generated with multiple laser beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 051501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Fujioka, H. Nishimura, K. Nishihara, A. Sasaki, A. Sunahara, T. Okuno, N. Ueda, T. Ando, Y. Tao, Y. Shimada, K. Hashimoto, M. Yamaura, K. Shigemori, M. Nakai, K. Nagai, T. Norimatsu, T. Nishikawa, N. Miyanaga, Y. Izawa, and K. Mima, “Opacity effect on extreme ultraviolet radiation from laser-produced tin plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 235004 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Namba, S.

T. Kawachi, M. Kado, M. Tanaka, A. Sasaki, N. Hasegawa, A. V. Kilpio, S. Namba, K. Nagashima, P. Lu, K. Takahashi, H. Tang, R. Tai, M. Kishimoto, M. Koike, H. Daido, and Y. Kato, “Gain saturation of nickel-like silver and tin x-ray lasers by use of a tabletop pumping laser system,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 033815 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Neely, D.

A. Klisnick, J. Kuba, D. Ros, R. Smith, G. Jamelot, C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Keenan, S. J. Topping, C. L. S. Lewis, F. Strati, G. J. Tallents, D. Neely, R. Clarke, J. Collier, A. G. MacPhee, F. Bortolotto, P. V. Nickles, and K. A. Janulewicz, “Gain saturation of nickel-like silver and tin x-ray lasers by use of a tabletop pumping laser system,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 033810 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nickles, P. V.

A. Klisnick, J. Kuba, D. Ros, R. Smith, G. Jamelot, C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Keenan, S. J. Topping, C. L. S. Lewis, F. Strati, G. J. Tallents, D. Neely, R. Clarke, J. Collier, A. G. MacPhee, F. Bortolotto, P. V. Nickles, and K. A. Janulewicz, “Gain saturation of nickel-like silver and tin x-ray lasers by use of a tabletop pumping laser system,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 033810 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Niikura, I.

E. Ohshima, H. Ogino, I. Niikura, K. Maeda, M. Sato, M. Ito, and T. Fukuda, “Growth of the 2-in-size bulk ZnO single crystals by the hydrothermal method,” J. Cryst. Growth 260, 166-170 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nikl, M.

G. Qian, M. Nikl, J. Bei, J. Pejchal, S. Baccaro, R. Giorgi, A. Cecilia, and G. Chen, “Temperature dependence of photoluminescence in ZnO-containing glasses,” Opt. Mater. 30, 91-94 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nishihara, K.

S. Fujioka, H. Nishimura, K. Nishihara, A. Sasaki, A. Sunahara, T. Okuno, N. Ueda, T. Ando, Y. Tao, Y. Shimada, K. Hashimoto, M. Yamaura, K. Shigemori, M. Nakai, K. Nagai, T. Norimatsu, T. Nishikawa, N. Miyanaga, Y. Izawa, and K. Mima, “Opacity effect on extreme ultraviolet radiation from laser-produced tin plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 235004 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nishikawa, T.

Y. Shimada, N. Nishimura, M. Nakai, K. Hashimoto, M. Yamaura, Y. Tao, K. Shigemori, T. Kawamura, A. Sunahara, T. Nishikawa, A. Sasaki, K. Nagai, T. Norimatsu, S. Fujioka, S. Uchida, N. Miyanaga, Y. Izawa, and C. Yamanaka, “Characterization of extreme ultraviolet emission from laser-produced spherical tin plasma generated with multiple laser beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 051501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Fujioka, H. Nishimura, K. Nishihara, A. Sasaki, A. Sunahara, T. Okuno, N. Ueda, T. Ando, Y. Tao, Y. Shimada, K. Hashimoto, M. Yamaura, K. Shigemori, M. Nakai, K. Nagai, T. Norimatsu, T. Nishikawa, N. Miyanaga, Y. Izawa, and K. Mima, “Opacity effect on extreme ultraviolet radiation from laser-produced tin plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 235004 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nishikino, M.

M. Tanaka, M. Nishikino, H. Yamatani, K. Nagashima, T. Kimura, Y. Furukawa, H. Murakami, S. Saito, N. Sarukura, H. Nishimura, K. Mima, Y. Kagamitani, D. Ehrentraut, and T. Fukuda, “Hydrothermal method grown large-size zinc oxide single crystal as fast scintillator for future extreme ultraviolet lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 231117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Tanaka, M. Nishikino, T. Kawachi, N. Hasegawa, M. Kado, M. Kishimoto, K. Nagashima, and Y. Kato, “X-ray laser beam with diffraction-limited divergence generated with two gain media,” Opt. Lett. 28, 1680-1682 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nishimura, H.

M. Tanaka, M. Nishikino, H. Yamatani, K. Nagashima, T. Kimura, Y. Furukawa, H. Murakami, S. Saito, N. Sarukura, H. Nishimura, K. Mima, Y. Kagamitani, D. Ehrentraut, and T. Fukuda, “Hydrothermal method grown large-size zinc oxide single crystal as fast scintillator for future extreme ultraviolet lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 231117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Fujioka, H. Nishimura, K. Nishihara, A. Sasaki, A. Sunahara, T. Okuno, N. Ueda, T. Ando, Y. Tao, Y. Shimada, K. Hashimoto, M. Yamaura, K. Shigemori, M. Nakai, K. Nagai, T. Norimatsu, T. Nishikawa, N. Miyanaga, Y. Izawa, and K. Mima, “Opacity effect on extreme ultraviolet radiation from laser-produced tin plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 235004 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nishimura, N.

Y. Shimada, N. Nishimura, M. Nakai, K. Hashimoto, M. Yamaura, Y. Tao, K. Shigemori, T. Kawamura, A. Sunahara, T. Nishikawa, A. Sasaki, K. Nagai, T. Norimatsu, S. Fujioka, S. Uchida, N. Miyanaga, Y. Izawa, and C. Yamanaka, “Characterization of extreme ultraviolet emission from laser-produced spherical tin plasma generated with multiple laser beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 051501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Norimatsu, T.

Y. Shimada, N. Nishimura, M. Nakai, K. Hashimoto, M. Yamaura, Y. Tao, K. Shigemori, T. Kawamura, A. Sunahara, T. Nishikawa, A. Sasaki, K. Nagai, T. Norimatsu, S. Fujioka, S. Uchida, N. Miyanaga, Y. Izawa, and C. Yamanaka, “Characterization of extreme ultraviolet emission from laser-produced spherical tin plasma generated with multiple laser beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 051501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Fujioka, H. Nishimura, K. Nishihara, A. Sasaki, A. Sunahara, T. Okuno, N. Ueda, T. Ando, Y. Tao, Y. Shimada, K. Hashimoto, M. Yamaura, K. Shigemori, M. Nakai, K. Nagai, T. Norimatsu, T. Nishikawa, N. Miyanaga, Y. Izawa, and K. Mima, “Opacity effect on extreme ultraviolet radiation from laser-produced tin plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 235004 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ogino, H.

E. Ohshima, H. Ogino, I. Niikura, K. Maeda, M. Sato, M. Ito, and T. Fukuda, “Growth of the 2-in-size bulk ZnO single crystals by the hydrothermal method,” J. Cryst. Growth 260, 166-170 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ohno, N.

M. Ichimiya, T. Horii, T. Hirai, Y. Sawada, M. Minamiguchi, N. Ohno, M. Ashida, and T. Itoh, “Nano-scale distribution of ZnO free exciton luminescence in ZnO:Zn microcrystals and its modification under electron beam excitation,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 18, 1967-1975 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ohshima, E.

E. Ohshima, H. Ogino, I. Niikura, K. Maeda, M. Sato, M. Ito, and T. Fukuda, “Growth of the 2-in-size bulk ZnO single crystals by the hydrothermal method,” J. Cryst. Growth 260, 166-170 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ohta, H.

H. Ohta, K. Kawamura, M. Orita, M. Hirano, N. Sarukura, and H. Hosono, “Current injection emission from a transparent p-n junction composed of p-SrCu2O2/n-ZnO,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 475-477 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Okuno, T.

S. Fujioka, H. Nishimura, K. Nishihara, A. Sasaki, A. Sunahara, T. Okuno, N. Ueda, T. Ando, Y. Tao, Y. Shimada, K. Hashimoto, M. Yamaura, K. Shigemori, M. Nakai, K. Nagai, T. Norimatsu, T. Nishikawa, N. Miyanaga, Y. Izawa, and K. Mima, “Opacity effect on extreme ultraviolet radiation from laser-produced tin plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 235004 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Orita, M.

H. Ohta, K. Kawamura, M. Orita, M. Hirano, N. Sarukura, and H. Hosono, “Current injection emission from a transparent p-n junction composed of p-SrCu2O2/n-ZnO,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 475-477 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pejchal, J.

G. Qian, M. Nikl, J. Bei, J. Pejchal, S. Baccaro, R. Giorgi, A. Cecilia, and G. Chen, “Temperature dependence of photoluminescence in ZnO-containing glasses,” Opt. Mater. 30, 91-94 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Priller, H.

R. Hauschild, H. Priller, M. Decker, J. Brückner, H. Kalt, and C. Klingshirn, “Temperature dependent band gap and homogeneous line broadening of the exciton emission in ZnO,” Phys. Status Solidi C 3, 976-979 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Qian, G.

G. Qian, M. Nikl, J. Bei, J. Pejchal, S. Baccaro, R. Giorgi, A. Cecilia, and G. Chen, “Temperature dependence of photoluminescence in ZnO-containing glasses,” Opt. Mater. 30, 91-94 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ros, D.

A. Klisnick, J. Kuba, D. Ros, R. Smith, G. Jamelot, C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Keenan, S. J. Topping, C. L. S. Lewis, F. Strati, G. J. Tallents, D. Neely, R. Clarke, J. Collier, A. G. MacPhee, F. Bortolotto, P. V. Nickles, and K. A. Janulewicz, “Gain saturation of nickel-like silver and tin x-ray lasers by use of a tabletop pumping laser system,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 033810 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Lewis, C. L.

A. Klisnick, J. Kuba, D. Ros, R. Smith, G. Jamelot, C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Keenan, S. J. Topping, C. L. S. Lewis, F. Strati, G. J. Tallents, D. Neely, R. Clarke, J. Collier, A. G. MacPhee, F. Bortolotto, P. V. Nickles, and K. A. Janulewicz, “Gain saturation of nickel-like silver and tin x-ray lasers by use of a tabletop pumping laser system,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 033810 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Saito, S.

M. Tanaka, M. Nishikino, H. Yamatani, K. Nagashima, T. Kimura, Y. Furukawa, H. Murakami, S. Saito, N. Sarukura, H. Nishimura, K. Mima, Y. Kagamitani, D. Ehrentraut, and T. Fukuda, “Hydrothermal method grown large-size zinc oxide single crystal as fast scintillator for future extreme ultraviolet lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 231117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sarukura, N.

M. Tanaka, M. Nishikino, H. Yamatani, K. Nagashima, T. Kimura, Y. Furukawa, H. Murakami, S. Saito, N. Sarukura, H. Nishimura, K. Mima, Y. Kagamitani, D. Ehrentraut, and T. Fukuda, “Hydrothermal method grown large-size zinc oxide single crystal as fast scintillator for future extreme ultraviolet lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 231117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Ohta, K. Kawamura, M. Orita, M. Hirano, N. Sarukura, and H. Hosono, “Current injection emission from a transparent p-n junction composed of p-SrCu2O2/n-ZnO,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 475-477 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, A.

S. Fujioka, H. Nishimura, K. Nishihara, A. Sasaki, A. Sunahara, T. Okuno, N. Ueda, T. Ando, Y. Tao, Y. Shimada, K. Hashimoto, M. Yamaura, K. Shigemori, M. Nakai, K. Nagai, T. Norimatsu, T. Nishikawa, N. Miyanaga, Y. Izawa, and K. Mima, “Opacity effect on extreme ultraviolet radiation from laser-produced tin plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 235004 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Shimada, N. Nishimura, M. Nakai, K. Hashimoto, M. Yamaura, Y. Tao, K. Shigemori, T. Kawamura, A. Sunahara, T. Nishikawa, A. Sasaki, K. Nagai, T. Norimatsu, S. Fujioka, S. Uchida, N. Miyanaga, Y. Izawa, and C. Yamanaka, “Characterization of extreme ultraviolet emission from laser-produced spherical tin plasma generated with multiple laser beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 051501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Kawachi, M. Kado, M. Tanaka, A. Sasaki, N. Hasegawa, A. V. Kilpio, S. Namba, K. Nagashima, P. Lu, K. Takahashi, H. Tang, R. Tai, M. Kishimoto, M. Koike, H. Daido, and Y. Kato, “Gain saturation of nickel-like silver and tin x-ray lasers by use of a tabletop pumping laser system,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 033815 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sato, M.

E. Ohshima, H. Ogino, I. Niikura, K. Maeda, M. Sato, M. Ito, and T. Fukuda, “Growth of the 2-in-size bulk ZnO single crystals by the hydrothermal method,” J. Cryst. Growth 260, 166-170 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sawada, Y.

M. Ichimiya, T. Horii, T. Hirai, Y. Sawada, M. Minamiguchi, N. Ohno, M. Ashida, and T. Itoh, “Nano-scale distribution of ZnO free exciton luminescence in ZnO:Zn microcrystals and its modification under electron beam excitation,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 18, 1967-1975 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Segawa, Y.

F. Y. Jen, Y. C. Lu, H. C. Wang, C. C. Yang, B. Zhang, and Y. Segawa, “Temperature-dependent exciton dynamics in a ZnO thin film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 252117 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shigemori, K.

Y. Shimada, N. Nishimura, M. Nakai, K. Hashimoto, M. Yamaura, Y. Tao, K. Shigemori, T. Kawamura, A. Sunahara, T. Nishikawa, A. Sasaki, K. Nagai, T. Norimatsu, S. Fujioka, S. Uchida, N. Miyanaga, Y. Izawa, and C. Yamanaka, “Characterization of extreme ultraviolet emission from laser-produced spherical tin plasma generated with multiple laser beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 051501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Fujioka, H. Nishimura, K. Nishihara, A. Sasaki, A. Sunahara, T. Okuno, N. Ueda, T. Ando, Y. Tao, Y. Shimada, K. Hashimoto, M. Yamaura, K. Shigemori, M. Nakai, K. Nagai, T. Norimatsu, T. Nishikawa, N. Miyanaga, Y. Izawa, and K. Mima, “Opacity effect on extreme ultraviolet radiation from laser-produced tin plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 235004 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shimada, Y.

S. Fujioka, H. Nishimura, K. Nishihara, A. Sasaki, A. Sunahara, T. Okuno, N. Ueda, T. Ando, Y. Tao, Y. Shimada, K. Hashimoto, M. Yamaura, K. Shigemori, M. Nakai, K. Nagai, T. Norimatsu, T. Nishikawa, N. Miyanaga, Y. Izawa, and K. Mima, “Opacity effect on extreme ultraviolet radiation from laser-produced tin plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 235004 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Shimada, N. Nishimura, M. Nakai, K. Hashimoto, M. Yamaura, Y. Tao, K. Shigemori, T. Kawamura, A. Sunahara, T. Nishikawa, A. Sasaki, K. Nagai, T. Norimatsu, S. Fujioka, S. Uchida, N. Miyanaga, Y. Izawa, and C. Yamanaka, “Characterization of extreme ultraviolet emission from laser-produced spherical tin plasma generated with multiple laser beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 051501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Smith, R.

A. Klisnick, J. Kuba, D. Ros, R. Smith, G. Jamelot, C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Keenan, S. J. Topping, C. L. S. Lewis, F. Strati, G. J. Tallents, D. Neely, R. Clarke, J. Collier, A. G. MacPhee, F. Bortolotto, P. V. Nickles, and K. A. Janulewicz, “Gain saturation of nickel-like silver and tin x-ray lasers by use of a tabletop pumping laser system,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 033810 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Strati, F.

A. Klisnick, J. Kuba, D. Ros, R. Smith, G. Jamelot, C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Keenan, S. J. Topping, C. L. S. Lewis, F. Strati, G. J. Tallents, D. Neely, R. Clarke, J. Collier, A. G. MacPhee, F. Bortolotto, P. V. Nickles, and K. A. Janulewicz, “Gain saturation of nickel-like silver and tin x-ray lasers by use of a tabletop pumping laser system,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 033810 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sun, X. W.

X. H. Zhang, S. J. Chua, A. M. Yong, H. Y. Yang, S. P. Lau, S. F. Yu, X. W. Sun, L. Miao, M. Tanemura, and S. Tanemura, “Exciton radiative lifetime in ZnO nanorods fabricated by vapor phase transport method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 013107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sunahara, A.

Y. Shimada, N. Nishimura, M. Nakai, K. Hashimoto, M. Yamaura, Y. Tao, K. Shigemori, T. Kawamura, A. Sunahara, T. Nishikawa, A. Sasaki, K. Nagai, T. Norimatsu, S. Fujioka, S. Uchida, N. Miyanaga, Y. Izawa, and C. Yamanaka, “Characterization of extreme ultraviolet emission from laser-produced spherical tin plasma generated with multiple laser beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 051501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Fujioka, H. Nishimura, K. Nishihara, A. Sasaki, A. Sunahara, T. Okuno, N. Ueda, T. Ando, Y. Tao, Y. Shimada, K. Hashimoto, M. Yamaura, K. Shigemori, M. Nakai, K. Nagai, T. Norimatsu, T. Nishikawa, N. Miyanaga, Y. Izawa, and K. Mima, “Opacity effect on extreme ultraviolet radiation from laser-produced tin plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 235004 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tai, R.

T. Kawachi, M. Kado, M. Tanaka, A. Sasaki, N. Hasegawa, A. V. Kilpio, S. Namba, K. Nagashima, P. Lu, K. Takahashi, H. Tang, R. Tai, M. Kishimoto, M. Koike, H. Daido, and Y. Kato, “Gain saturation of nickel-like silver and tin x-ray lasers by use of a tabletop pumping laser system,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 033815 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, K.

T. Kawachi, M. Kado, M. Tanaka, A. Sasaki, N. Hasegawa, A. V. Kilpio, S. Namba, K. Nagashima, P. Lu, K. Takahashi, H. Tang, R. Tai, M. Kishimoto, M. Koike, H. Daido, and Y. Kato, “Gain saturation of nickel-like silver and tin x-ray lasers by use of a tabletop pumping laser system,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 033815 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tallents, G. J.

A. Klisnick, J. Kuba, D. Ros, R. Smith, G. Jamelot, C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Keenan, S. J. Topping, C. L. S. Lewis, F. Strati, G. J. Tallents, D. Neely, R. Clarke, J. Collier, A. G. MacPhee, F. Bortolotto, P. V. Nickles, and K. A. Janulewicz, “Gain saturation of nickel-like silver and tin x-ray lasers by use of a tabletop pumping laser system,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 033810 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, M.

M. Tanaka, M. Nishikino, H. Yamatani, K. Nagashima, T. Kimura, Y. Furukawa, H. Murakami, S. Saito, N. Sarukura, H. Nishimura, K. Mima, Y. Kagamitani, D. Ehrentraut, and T. Fukuda, “Hydrothermal method grown large-size zinc oxide single crystal as fast scintillator for future extreme ultraviolet lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 231117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Tanaka, M. Nishikino, T. Kawachi, N. Hasegawa, M. Kado, M. Kishimoto, K. Nagashima, and Y. Kato, “X-ray laser beam with diffraction-limited divergence generated with two gain media,” Opt. Lett. 28, 1680-1682 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Kawachi, M. Kado, M. Tanaka, A. Sasaki, N. Hasegawa, A. V. Kilpio, S. Namba, K. Nagashima, P. Lu, K. Takahashi, H. Tang, R. Tai, M. Kishimoto, M. Koike, H. Daido, and Y. Kato, “Gain saturation of nickel-like silver and tin x-ray lasers by use of a tabletop pumping laser system,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 033815 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tanemura, M.

X. H. Zhang, S. J. Chua, A. M. Yong, H. Y. Yang, S. P. Lau, S. F. Yu, X. W. Sun, L. Miao, M. Tanemura, and S. Tanemura, “Exciton radiative lifetime in ZnO nanorods fabricated by vapor phase transport method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 013107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tanemura, S.

X. H. Zhang, S. J. Chua, A. M. Yong, H. Y. Yang, S. P. Lau, S. F. Yu, X. W. Sun, L. Miao, M. Tanemura, and S. Tanemura, “Exciton radiative lifetime in ZnO nanorods fabricated by vapor phase transport method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 013107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tang, H.

T. Kawachi, M. Kado, M. Tanaka, A. Sasaki, N. Hasegawa, A. V. Kilpio, S. Namba, K. Nagashima, P. Lu, K. Takahashi, H. Tang, R. Tai, M. Kishimoto, M. Koike, H. Daido, and Y. Kato, “Gain saturation of nickel-like silver and tin x-ray lasers by use of a tabletop pumping laser system,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 033815 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tao, Y.

S. Fujioka, H. Nishimura, K. Nishihara, A. Sasaki, A. Sunahara, T. Okuno, N. Ueda, T. Ando, Y. Tao, Y. Shimada, K. Hashimoto, M. Yamaura, K. Shigemori, M. Nakai, K. Nagai, T. Norimatsu, T. Nishikawa, N. Miyanaga, Y. Izawa, and K. Mima, “Opacity effect on extreme ultraviolet radiation from laser-produced tin plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 235004 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Shimada, N. Nishimura, M. Nakai, K. Hashimoto, M. Yamaura, Y. Tao, K. Shigemori, T. Kawamura, A. Sunahara, T. Nishikawa, A. Sasaki, K. Nagai, T. Norimatsu, S. Fujioka, S. Uchida, N. Miyanaga, Y. Izawa, and C. Yamanaka, “Characterization of extreme ultraviolet emission from laser-produced spherical tin plasma generated with multiple laser beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 051501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Topping, S. J.

A. Klisnick, J. Kuba, D. Ros, R. Smith, G. Jamelot, C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Keenan, S. J. Topping, C. L. S. Lewis, F. Strati, G. J. Tallents, D. Neely, R. Clarke, J. Collier, A. G. MacPhee, F. Bortolotto, P. V. Nickles, and K. A. Janulewicz, “Gain saturation of nickel-like silver and tin x-ray lasers by use of a tabletop pumping laser system,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 033810 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ucer, K. B.

J. Wilkinson, K. B. Ucer, and R. T. Williams, “Picosecond excitonic luminescence in ZnO and other wide-gap semiconductors,” Radiat. Meas. 38, 501-505 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Uchida, S.

Y. Shimada, N. Nishimura, M. Nakai, K. Hashimoto, M. Yamaura, Y. Tao, K. Shigemori, T. Kawamura, A. Sunahara, T. Nishikawa, A. Sasaki, K. Nagai, T. Norimatsu, S. Fujioka, S. Uchida, N. Miyanaga, Y. Izawa, and C. Yamanaka, “Characterization of extreme ultraviolet emission from laser-produced spherical tin plasma generated with multiple laser beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 051501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ueda, N.

S. Fujioka, H. Nishimura, K. Nishihara, A. Sasaki, A. Sunahara, T. Okuno, N. Ueda, T. Ando, Y. Tao, Y. Shimada, K. Hashimoto, M. Yamaura, K. Shigemori, M. Nakai, K. Nagai, T. Norimatsu, T. Nishikawa, N. Miyanaga, Y. Izawa, and K. Mima, “Opacity effect on extreme ultraviolet radiation from laser-produced tin plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 235004 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, H. C.

F. Y. Jen, Y. C. Lu, H. C. Wang, C. C. Yang, B. Zhang, and Y. Segawa, “Temperature-dependent exciton dynamics in a ZnO thin film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 252117 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wen, X.

P. Xu, X. Wen, Z. Zheng, G. Cox, and H. Zhu, “Two-photon optical characteristics of zinc oxide in bulk, low dimensional and nanoforms,” J. Lumin. 16, 641-643 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wilkinson, J.

J. Wilkinson, K. B. Ucer, and R. T. Williams, “Picosecond excitonic luminescence in ZnO and other wide-gap semiconductors,” Radiat. Meas. 38, 501-505 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Williams, R. T.

J. Wilkinson, K. B. Ucer, and R. T. Williams, “Picosecond excitonic luminescence in ZnO and other wide-gap semiconductors,” Radiat. Meas. 38, 501-505 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Xu, P.

P. Xu, X. Wen, Z. Zheng, G. Cox, and H. Zhu, “Two-photon optical characteristics of zinc oxide in bulk, low dimensional and nanoforms,” J. Lumin. 16, 641-643 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yamanaka, C.

Y. Shimada, N. Nishimura, M. Nakai, K. Hashimoto, M. Yamaura, Y. Tao, K. Shigemori, T. Kawamura, A. Sunahara, T. Nishikawa, A. Sasaki, K. Nagai, T. Norimatsu, S. Fujioka, S. Uchida, N. Miyanaga, Y. Izawa, and C. Yamanaka, “Characterization of extreme ultraviolet emission from laser-produced spherical tin plasma generated with multiple laser beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 051501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yamatani, H.

M. Tanaka, M. Nishikino, H. Yamatani, K. Nagashima, T. Kimura, Y. Furukawa, H. Murakami, S. Saito, N. Sarukura, H. Nishimura, K. Mima, Y. Kagamitani, D. Ehrentraut, and T. Fukuda, “Hydrothermal method grown large-size zinc oxide single crystal as fast scintillator for future extreme ultraviolet lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 231117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yamaura, M.

S. Fujioka, H. Nishimura, K. Nishihara, A. Sasaki, A. Sunahara, T. Okuno, N. Ueda, T. Ando, Y. Tao, Y. Shimada, K. Hashimoto, M. Yamaura, K. Shigemori, M. Nakai, K. Nagai, T. Norimatsu, T. Nishikawa, N. Miyanaga, Y. Izawa, and K. Mima, “Opacity effect on extreme ultraviolet radiation from laser-produced tin plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 235004 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Shimada, N. Nishimura, M. Nakai, K. Hashimoto, M. Yamaura, Y. Tao, K. Shigemori, T. Kawamura, A. Sunahara, T. Nishikawa, A. Sasaki, K. Nagai, T. Norimatsu, S. Fujioka, S. Uchida, N. Miyanaga, Y. Izawa, and C. Yamanaka, “Characterization of extreme ultraviolet emission from laser-produced spherical tin plasma generated with multiple laser beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 051501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yang, C. C.

F. Y. Jen, Y. C. Lu, H. C. Wang, C. C. Yang, B. Zhang, and Y. Segawa, “Temperature-dependent exciton dynamics in a ZnO thin film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 252117 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yang, H. Y.

X. H. Zhang, S. J. Chua, A. M. Yong, H. Y. Yang, S. P. Lau, S. F. Yu, X. W. Sun, L. Miao, M. Tanemura, and S. Tanemura, “Exciton radiative lifetime in ZnO nanorods fabricated by vapor phase transport method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 013107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yao, T.

Y. Chen, D. Bagnall, and T. Yao, “ZnO as a novel photonic material for the UV region,” Mater. Sci. Eng., B 75, 190-198 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yong, A. M.

X. H. Zhang, S. J. Chua, A. M. Yong, H. Y. Yang, S. P. Lau, S. F. Yu, X. W. Sun, L. Miao, M. Tanemura, and S. Tanemura, “Exciton radiative lifetime in ZnO nanorods fabricated by vapor phase transport method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 013107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yu, P. Y.

P. Y. Yu and M. Cardona, “Electrical transport,” in Fundamentals of Semiconductors, Physics and Materials Properties (Springer-Verlag, 1996), Chap. 5, pp. 210-212.

Yu, S. F.

X. H. Zhang, S. J. Chua, A. M. Yong, H. Y. Yang, S. P. Lau, S. F. Yu, X. W. Sun, L. Miao, M. Tanemura, and S. Tanemura, “Exciton radiative lifetime in ZnO nanorods fabricated by vapor phase transport method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 013107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, B.

F. Y. Jen, Y. C. Lu, H. C. Wang, C. C. Yang, B. Zhang, and Y. Segawa, “Temperature-dependent exciton dynamics in a ZnO thin film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 252117 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X. H.

X. H. Zhang, S. J. Chua, A. M. Yong, H. Y. Yang, S. P. Lau, S. F. Yu, X. W. Sun, L. Miao, M. Tanemura, and S. Tanemura, “Exciton radiative lifetime in ZnO nanorods fabricated by vapor phase transport method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 013107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, Z.

P. Xu, X. Wen, Z. Zheng, G. Cox, and H. Zhu, “Two-photon optical characteristics of zinc oxide in bulk, low dimensional and nanoforms,” J. Lumin. 16, 641-643 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, H.

P. Xu, X. Wen, Z. Zheng, G. Cox, and H. Zhu, “Two-photon optical characteristics of zinc oxide in bulk, low dimensional and nanoforms,” J. Lumin. 16, 641-643 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

Y. Shimada, N. Nishimura, M. Nakai, K. Hashimoto, M. Yamaura, Y. Tao, K. Shigemori, T. Kawamura, A. Sunahara, T. Nishikawa, A. Sasaki, K. Nagai, T. Norimatsu, S. Fujioka, S. Uchida, N. Miyanaga, Y. Izawa, and C. Yamanaka, “Characterization of extreme ultraviolet emission from laser-produced spherical tin plasma generated with multiple laser beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 051501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Ohta, K. Kawamura, M. Orita, M. Hirano, N. Sarukura, and H. Hosono, “Current injection emission from a transparent p-n junction composed of p-SrCu2O2/n-ZnO,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 475-477 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Tanaka, M. Nishikino, H. Yamatani, K. Nagashima, T. Kimura, Y. Furukawa, H. Murakami, S. Saito, N. Sarukura, H. Nishimura, K. Mima, Y. Kagamitani, D. Ehrentraut, and T. Fukuda, “Hydrothermal method grown large-size zinc oxide single crystal as fast scintillator for future extreme ultraviolet lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 231117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. H. Zhang, S. J. Chua, A. M. Yong, H. Y. Yang, S. P. Lau, S. F. Yu, X. W. Sun, L. Miao, M. Tanemura, and S. Tanemura, “Exciton radiative lifetime in ZnO nanorods fabricated by vapor phase transport method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 013107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Y. Jen, Y. C. Lu, H. C. Wang, C. C. Yang, B. Zhang, and Y. Segawa, “Temperature-dependent exciton dynamics in a ZnO thin film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 252117 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth (1)

E. Ohshima, H. Ogino, I. Niikura, K. Maeda, M. Sato, M. Ito, and T. Fukuda, “Growth of the 2-in-size bulk ZnO single crystals by the hydrothermal method,” J. Cryst. Growth 260, 166-170 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Lumin. (2)

W. Cao and W. Du, “Strong exciton emission from ZnO microcrystal formed by continuous 532nm laser irradiation,” J. Lumin. 124, 260-264 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Xu, X. Wen, Z. Zheng, G. Cox, and H. Zhu, “Two-photon optical characteristics of zinc oxide in bulk, low dimensional and nanoforms,” J. Lumin. 16, 641-643 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys.: Condens. Matter (1)

M. Ichimiya, T. Horii, T. Hirai, Y. Sawada, M. Minamiguchi, N. Ohno, M. Ashida, and T. Itoh, “Nano-scale distribution of ZnO free exciton luminescence in ZnO:Zn microcrystals and its modification under electron beam excitation,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 18, 1967-1975 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Sci. Eng., B (1)

Y. Chen, D. Bagnall, and T. Yao, “ZnO as a novel photonic material for the UV region,” Mater. Sci. Eng., B 75, 190-198 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Mater. (1)

G. Qian, M. Nikl, J. Bei, J. Pejchal, S. Baccaro, R. Giorgi, A. Cecilia, and G. Chen, “Temperature dependence of photoluminescence in ZnO-containing glasses,” Opt. Mater. 30, 91-94 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (2)

T. Kawachi, M. Kado, M. Tanaka, A. Sasaki, N. Hasegawa, A. V. Kilpio, S. Namba, K. Nagashima, P. Lu, K. Takahashi, H. Tang, R. Tai, M. Kishimoto, M. Koike, H. Daido, and Y. Kato, “Gain saturation of nickel-like silver and tin x-ray lasers by use of a tabletop pumping laser system,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 033815 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Klisnick, J. Kuba, D. Ros, R. Smith, G. Jamelot, C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Keenan, S. J. Topping, C. L. S. Lewis, F. Strati, G. J. Tallents, D. Neely, R. Clarke, J. Collier, A. G. MacPhee, F. Bortolotto, P. V. Nickles, and K. A. Janulewicz, “Gain saturation of nickel-like silver and tin x-ray lasers by use of a tabletop pumping laser system,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 033810 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

S. Fujioka, H. Nishimura, K. Nishihara, A. Sasaki, A. Sunahara, T. Okuno, N. Ueda, T. Ando, Y. Tao, Y. Shimada, K. Hashimoto, M. Yamaura, K. Shigemori, M. Nakai, K. Nagai, T. Norimatsu, T. Nishikawa, N. Miyanaga, Y. Izawa, and K. Mima, “Opacity effect on extreme ultraviolet radiation from laser-produced tin plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 235004 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Status Solidi C (1)

R. Hauschild, H. Priller, M. Decker, J. Brückner, H. Kalt, and C. Klingshirn, “Temperature dependent band gap and homogeneous line broadening of the exciton emission in ZnO,” Phys. Status Solidi C 3, 976-979 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Radiat. Meas. (1)

J. Wilkinson, K. B. Ucer, and R. T. Williams, “Picosecond excitonic luminescence in ZnO and other wide-gap semiconductors,” Radiat. Meas. 38, 501-505 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

P. Y. Yu and M. Cardona, “Electrical transport,” in Fundamentals of Semiconductors, Physics and Materials Properties (Springer-Verlag, 1996), Chap. 5, pp. 210-212.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Photograph of a 7.5 cm ZnO crystal grown by the hydrothermal method. Image reproduced with permission from Tokyo Denpa Co., Ltd.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) One shot and (b) three shots spectrally resolved streak image of the emission of ZnO , which is excited by the EUV excitation at a 105 K temperature.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Spectral profiles of ZnO emission in different temperatures, 298, 244, 192, 138, 105, and 25 K .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Decay curves of the emission in different temperatures, 298, 138, 105, and 25 K .

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Two decay constants determined and their estimated error in the different temperatures.

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