Abstract

Light filaments in air provide a unique opportunity to perform remote spectroscopic measurements. A study has been made into the detection of dinitrotoluene (DNT) and ammonium perchlorate using IR and UV filaments. UV filaments appear to have marked advantages in being able to capture clear spectroscopic signatures of these materials, in addition to propagating over longer distances.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. F. C. De LuciaJr., R. S. Harmon, K. L. McNesby, R. J. WinkelJr., and A. W. Miziolek, “Spectroscopy in dense coherent media: line narrowing and interference effects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 6148-6152 (2003).
  2. S. Tzortzakis, D. Anglos, and D. Gray, “Ultraviolet laser filaments for remote laser-induced breakdown (libs) spectroscopy: application in cultural heritage monitoring,” Opt. Lett. 31, 1139-1141 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  3. Y. Dikmelik and J. B. Spicer, “Femtosecond laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of explosives and explosive-related compounds,” Proc. SPIE 5794, 757-761 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  4. C. Bohling, D. Scheel, K. Hohmann, W. Schade, M. Reuter, and G. Holl, “Fiber-optic laser sensor for mine detection and verification,” Appl. Opt. 45, 3817-3825 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. K. Stelmaszczyk, P. Rohwetter, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, R. Ackermann, J. P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “Long-distance remote laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy using filamentation in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3977-3979 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. Schwarz and J.-C. Diels, “Analytical solution for uv filaments,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 013806 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  7. O. J. Chalus, A. Sukhinin, A. Aceves, and J.-C. Diels, “Propagation of non-diffracting intense ultraviolet beams,” Opt. Commun. 281, 3356-3360 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, “Filamentation in transparent media,” Phys. Rep. 441, 47-189 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  9. O. Chalus, and J.-C. Diels, “Lifetime of fluorocarbon for high-energy stimulated brillouin scattering,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 606-608 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Ph. Rohwetter, J. Yu, G. Méjean, K. Stelmaszczyk, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, J. P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “Remote libs with ultrashort pulses: characteristics in picosecond and femotosecond regimes,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 19, 437-444 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Ph. Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, L. Wöste, R. Ackerman, G. Méjean, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, and J. P. Wolf, “Filament-induced remote surface ablation for long range laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy operation,” Spectrochim. Acta, Part B 60, 1025-1033 (2005).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (1)

O. J. Chalus, A. Sukhinin, A. Aceves, and J.-C. Diels, “Propagation of non-diffracting intense ultraviolet beams,” Opt. Commun. 281, 3356-3360 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

2006 (2)

2005 (2)

Ph. Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, L. Wöste, R. Ackerman, G. Méjean, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, and J. P. Wolf, “Filament-induced remote surface ablation for long range laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy operation,” Spectrochim. Acta, Part B 60, 1025-1033 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Dikmelik and J. B. Spicer, “Femtosecond laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of explosives and explosive-related compounds,” Proc. SPIE 5794, 757-761 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

K. Stelmaszczyk, P. Rohwetter, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, R. Ackermann, J. P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “Long-distance remote laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy using filamentation in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3977-3979 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ph. Rohwetter, J. Yu, G. Méjean, K. Stelmaszczyk, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, J. P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “Remote libs with ultrashort pulses: characteristics in picosecond and femotosecond regimes,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 19, 437-444 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

F. C. De LuciaJr., R. S. Harmon, K. L. McNesby, R. J. WinkelJr., and A. W. Miziolek, “Spectroscopy in dense coherent media: line narrowing and interference effects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 6148-6152 (2003).

2001 (1)

J. Schwarz and J.-C. Diels, “Analytical solution for uv filaments,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 013806 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Aceves, A.

O. J. Chalus, A. Sukhinin, A. Aceves, and J.-C. Diels, “Propagation of non-diffracting intense ultraviolet beams,” Opt. Commun. 281, 3356-3360 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ackerman, R.

Ph. Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, L. Wöste, R. Ackerman, G. Méjean, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, and J. P. Wolf, “Filament-induced remote surface ablation for long range laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy operation,” Spectrochim. Acta, Part B 60, 1025-1033 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ackermann, R.

K. Stelmaszczyk, P. Rohwetter, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, R. Ackermann, J. P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “Long-distance remote laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy using filamentation in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3977-3979 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Anglos, D.

Bohling, C.

Chalus, O.

Chalus, O. J.

O. J. Chalus, A. Sukhinin, A. Aceves, and J.-C. Diels, “Propagation of non-diffracting intense ultraviolet beams,” Opt. Commun. 281, 3356-3360 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Couairon, A.

A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, “Filamentation in transparent media,” Phys. Rep. 441, 47-189 (2007).
[CrossRef]

De Lucia, F. C.

F. C. De LuciaJr., R. S. Harmon, K. L. McNesby, R. J. WinkelJr., and A. W. Miziolek, “Spectroscopy in dense coherent media: line narrowing and interference effects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 6148-6152 (2003).

Diels, J.-C.

O. J. Chalus, A. Sukhinin, A. Aceves, and J.-C. Diels, “Propagation of non-diffracting intense ultraviolet beams,” Opt. Commun. 281, 3356-3360 (2008).
[CrossRef]

O. Chalus, and J.-C. Diels, “Lifetime of fluorocarbon for high-energy stimulated brillouin scattering,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 606-608 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Schwarz and J.-C. Diels, “Analytical solution for uv filaments,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 013806 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Dikmelik, Y.

Y. Dikmelik and J. B. Spicer, “Femtosecond laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of explosives and explosive-related compounds,” Proc. SPIE 5794, 757-761 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gray, D.

Harmon, R. S.

F. C. De LuciaJr., R. S. Harmon, K. L. McNesby, R. J. WinkelJr., and A. W. Miziolek, “Spectroscopy in dense coherent media: line narrowing and interference effects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 6148-6152 (2003).

Hohmann, K.

Holl, G.

Kasparian, J.

Ph. Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, L. Wöste, R. Ackerman, G. Méjean, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, and J. P. Wolf, “Filament-induced remote surface ablation for long range laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy operation,” Spectrochim. Acta, Part B 60, 1025-1033 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Stelmaszczyk, P. Rohwetter, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, R. Ackermann, J. P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “Long-distance remote laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy using filamentation in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3977-3979 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ph. Rohwetter, J. Yu, G. Méjean, K. Stelmaszczyk, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, J. P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “Remote libs with ultrashort pulses: characteristics in picosecond and femotosecond regimes,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 19, 437-444 (2004).
[CrossRef]

McNesby, K. L.

F. C. De LuciaJr., R. S. Harmon, K. L. McNesby, R. J. WinkelJr., and A. W. Miziolek, “Spectroscopy in dense coherent media: line narrowing and interference effects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 6148-6152 (2003).

Méjean, G.

Ph. Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, L. Wöste, R. Ackerman, G. Méjean, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, and J. P. Wolf, “Filament-induced remote surface ablation for long range laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy operation,” Spectrochim. Acta, Part B 60, 1025-1033 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Stelmaszczyk, P. Rohwetter, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, R. Ackermann, J. P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “Long-distance remote laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy using filamentation in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3977-3979 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ph. Rohwetter, J. Yu, G. Méjean, K. Stelmaszczyk, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, J. P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “Remote libs with ultrashort pulses: characteristics in picosecond and femotosecond regimes,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 19, 437-444 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Miziolek, A. W.

F. C. De LuciaJr., R. S. Harmon, K. L. McNesby, R. J. WinkelJr., and A. W. Miziolek, “Spectroscopy in dense coherent media: line narrowing and interference effects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 6148-6152 (2003).

Mysyrowicz, A.

A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, “Filamentation in transparent media,” Phys. Rep. 441, 47-189 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Reuter, M.

Rohwetter, P.

K. Stelmaszczyk, P. Rohwetter, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, R. Ackermann, J. P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “Long-distance remote laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy using filamentation in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3977-3979 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rohwetter, Ph.

Ph. Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, L. Wöste, R. Ackerman, G. Méjean, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, and J. P. Wolf, “Filament-induced remote surface ablation for long range laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy operation,” Spectrochim. Acta, Part B 60, 1025-1033 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ph. Rohwetter, J. Yu, G. Méjean, K. Stelmaszczyk, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, J. P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “Remote libs with ultrashort pulses: characteristics in picosecond and femotosecond regimes,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 19, 437-444 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Salmon, E.

Ph. Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, L. Wöste, R. Ackerman, G. Méjean, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, and J. P. Wolf, “Filament-induced remote surface ablation for long range laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy operation,” Spectrochim. Acta, Part B 60, 1025-1033 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Stelmaszczyk, P. Rohwetter, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, R. Ackermann, J. P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “Long-distance remote laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy using filamentation in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3977-3979 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ph. Rohwetter, J. Yu, G. Méjean, K. Stelmaszczyk, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, J. P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “Remote libs with ultrashort pulses: characteristics in picosecond and femotosecond regimes,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 19, 437-444 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schade, W.

Scheel, D.

Schwarz, J.

J. Schwarz and J.-C. Diels, “Analytical solution for uv filaments,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 013806 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Spicer, J. B.

Y. Dikmelik and J. B. Spicer, “Femtosecond laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of explosives and explosive-related compounds,” Proc. SPIE 5794, 757-761 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Stelmaszczyk, K.

Ph. Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, L. Wöste, R. Ackerman, G. Méjean, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, and J. P. Wolf, “Filament-induced remote surface ablation for long range laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy operation,” Spectrochim. Acta, Part B 60, 1025-1033 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Stelmaszczyk, P. Rohwetter, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, R. Ackermann, J. P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “Long-distance remote laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy using filamentation in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3977-3979 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ph. Rohwetter, J. Yu, G. Méjean, K. Stelmaszczyk, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, J. P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “Remote libs with ultrashort pulses: characteristics in picosecond and femotosecond regimes,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 19, 437-444 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sukhinin, A.

O. J. Chalus, A. Sukhinin, A. Aceves, and J.-C. Diels, “Propagation of non-diffracting intense ultraviolet beams,” Opt. Commun. 281, 3356-3360 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tzortzakis, S.

Winkel, R. J.

F. C. De LuciaJr., R. S. Harmon, K. L. McNesby, R. J. WinkelJr., and A. W. Miziolek, “Spectroscopy in dense coherent media: line narrowing and interference effects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 6148-6152 (2003).

Wolf, J. P.

Ph. Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, L. Wöste, R. Ackerman, G. Méjean, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, and J. P. Wolf, “Filament-induced remote surface ablation for long range laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy operation,” Spectrochim. Acta, Part B 60, 1025-1033 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Stelmaszczyk, P. Rohwetter, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, R. Ackermann, J. P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “Long-distance remote laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy using filamentation in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3977-3979 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ph. Rohwetter, J. Yu, G. Méjean, K. Stelmaszczyk, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, J. P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “Remote libs with ultrashort pulses: characteristics in picosecond and femotosecond regimes,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 19, 437-444 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wöste, L.

Ph. Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, L. Wöste, R. Ackerman, G. Méjean, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, and J. P. Wolf, “Filament-induced remote surface ablation for long range laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy operation,” Spectrochim. Acta, Part B 60, 1025-1033 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Stelmaszczyk, P. Rohwetter, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, R. Ackermann, J. P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “Long-distance remote laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy using filamentation in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3977-3979 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ph. Rohwetter, J. Yu, G. Méjean, K. Stelmaszczyk, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, J. P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “Remote libs with ultrashort pulses: characteristics in picosecond and femotosecond regimes,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 19, 437-444 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yu, J.

Ph. Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, L. Wöste, R. Ackerman, G. Méjean, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, and J. P. Wolf, “Filament-induced remote surface ablation for long range laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy operation,” Spectrochim. Acta, Part B 60, 1025-1033 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Stelmaszczyk, P. Rohwetter, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, R. Ackermann, J. P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “Long-distance remote laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy using filamentation in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3977-3979 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ph. Rohwetter, J. Yu, G. Méjean, K. Stelmaszczyk, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, J. P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “Remote libs with ultrashort pulses: characteristics in picosecond and femotosecond regimes,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 19, 437-444 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

K. Stelmaszczyk, P. Rohwetter, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, R. Ackermann, J. P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “Long-distance remote laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy using filamentation in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3977-3979 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Anal. At. Spectrom. (1)

Ph. Rohwetter, J. Yu, G. Méjean, K. Stelmaszczyk, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, J. P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “Remote libs with ultrashort pulses: characteristics in picosecond and femotosecond regimes,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 19, 437-444 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Commun. (1)

O. J. Chalus, A. Sukhinin, A. Aceves, and J.-C. Diels, “Propagation of non-diffracting intense ultraviolet beams,” Opt. Commun. 281, 3356-3360 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rep. (1)

A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, “Filamentation in transparent media,” Phys. Rep. 441, 47-189 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

J. Schwarz and J.-C. Diels, “Analytical solution for uv filaments,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 013806 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

F. C. De LuciaJr., R. S. Harmon, K. L. McNesby, R. J. WinkelJr., and A. W. Miziolek, “Spectroscopy in dense coherent media: line narrowing and interference effects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 6148-6152 (2003).

Proc. SPIE (1)

Y. Dikmelik and J. B. Spicer, “Femtosecond laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of explosives and explosive-related compounds,” Proc. SPIE 5794, 757-761 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Spectrochim. Acta, Part B (1)

Ph. Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, L. Wöste, R. Ackerman, G. Méjean, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, and J. P. Wolf, “Filament-induced remote surface ablation for long range laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy operation,” Spectrochim. Acta, Part B 60, 1025-1033 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Setup for diagnostic.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Setup for generating UV filaments. A seeded and Q-switched Nd : YVO 4 laser produces 4 ns pulses of 250 mJ energy, which are sent through a three-stage amplifier ( A 1 , A 2 , and A 3 ). FRI is a Faraday rotator isolator. The 4 ns , 3.5 J pulses are frequency doubled, expanded to 3.5 cm , and focused into to a Brillouin cell. The stimulated backward green pulses have an energy of 3 J and a duration of 250 ps . They are frequency doubled to 266 nm and sent through a 3 m vacuum tube terminated by an aerodynamic window. A focal spot (in vacuum) 1 cm before the aerodynamic window, results from a diverging beam produced by the beam expander, which, through phase conjugation, results in a converging Brillouin scattered beam. At a distance L from this window, a grazing incidence reflector is used as a first attenuator. Successive filters are used to visualize the beam profile on a CCD. At distances exceeding 1.5 m away from the focal spot, the beam size should exceed 3.5 × 150 560 cm 1 cm . Indeed, the field of view of the CCD camera completely filled in the case of a low intensity beam. There is an abrupt threshold for beam size collapse. The beam profile recorded at 500 MW peak power, seen at 1.5 m from the focus, is shown. An optical arrangement of image intensifier and CCD allows for a side view of the filament.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Plume spectrum for irradiation with an IR filament. Left: plume spectrum for irradiation of a Cu (green dotted curve) or Al (red solid curve) substrate. Right: the beam is incident on DNT-coated Al (red solid curve) and Cu (green dotted curve).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Plume spectrum for irradiation with a UV filament. Left: plume spectrum for irradiation of a Cu (green dotted curve) or Al (red solid curve) substrate. Right: the beam is incident on DNT-coated Al (red solid curve) and Cu (green dotted curve). The emission is from an excited cyanide ion (fragment). Emission from excited CN ions resulting from breakdown of DNT is easily identifiable at 388 nm .

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Spectra centered at 630 nm for ammonium perchlorate on Al and on Cu. The excitation source is the UV filament. A feature at 630 635 nm appears due to ammonium perchlorate (amino radical NH 2 ).

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