Abstract

We present a single-shot frequency-resolved optical gating setup for measurements of ultrashort pulse intensity and phase down to single-optical-cycle durations. Several issues stemming from short durations and extreme bandwidths are addressed. We show that after using spectral response correction, the regular FROG algorithm yields reliable pulse retrievals. We demonstrate measurement of pulse widths down to 4.9fs.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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2007 (2)

A. Zair, A. Guandalini, F. Schapper, M. Holler, J. Biegert, L. Gallmann, U. Keller, A. Couairon, M. Franco, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Spatio-temporal characterization of few-cycle pulses obtained by filamentation,” Opt. Express 15, 5394-5404 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Pervak, A. V. Tikhonravov, M. K. Trubetskov, S. Naumov, F. Krausz, and A. Apolonski, “1.5-octave chirped mirror for pulse compression down to sub-3fs,” Appl. Phys. B 87, 5-12 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (4)

2005 (2)

2004 (3)

P. Baum, S. Lochbrunner, and E. Riedle, “Zero-additional-phase SPIDER:full characterization of visible and sub-20-fs ultraviolet pulses,” Opt. Lett. 29, 210-212 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 673-677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Akturk, M. Kimmel, P. O'Shea, and R. Trebino, “Extremely simple device for measuring 20fs pulses,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1025-1027 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (4)

2002 (1)

2001 (2)

2000 (3)

P. O'Shea, M. Kimmel, X. Gu, and R. Trebino, “Increased-bandwidth in ultrashort-pulse measurement using an angle-dithered nonlinear-optical crystal,” Opt. Express 7, 342-349 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Brabec and F. Krausz, “Intense few-cycle laser fields: frontiers of nonlinear optics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 72, 545-591 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stenz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288, 635-639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (2)

C. Iaconis and I. A. Walmsley, “Self-referencing spectral interferometry for measuring ultrashort optical pulses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 501-509 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Baltuska, M. S. Pshenichnikov, and D. A. Wiersma, “Second-harmonic generation frequency-resolved optical gating in the single-cycle regime,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 459-478 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

A. Baltuska, M. S. Pshenichnikov, and D. Wiersma, “Amplitude and phase characterization of 4.5fs pulses by frequency-resolved optical gating,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1474-1476 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Kane, “Real-time measurement of ultrashort laser pulses using principal-components generalized projections,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 278-284 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, R. Szipocs, K. Ferencz, C. Spielmann, S. Sartania, and F. Krausz, “Compression of high-energy laser pulses below 5fs,” Opt. Lett. 22, 522-524 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “High-harmonic generation of attosecond pulses in the “single-cycle” regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1251-1254 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

G. Taft, A. Rundquist, M. M. Murnane, I. P. Christov, H. C. Kapteyn, K. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, M. A. Krumbugel, J. N. Sweetser, and R. Trebino, “Measurement of 10-fs laser pulses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 575-585 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Backus, J. Peatross, E. Zeek, A. Rundquist, G. Taft, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn “16-fs, 1-mJ ultraviolet pulses generated by third-harmonic conversion in air,” Opt. Lett. 21, 665-667 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

1993 (2)

D. J. Kane and R. Trebino, “Characterization of arbitrary femtosecond pulses using frequency resolved optical gating,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 571-579 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Kane and R. Trebino, “Single-shot measurement of the intensity and phase of an arbitrary ultrashort pulse by using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Opt. Lett. 18, 823-825 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Akturk, S.

Apolonski, A.

V. Pervak, A. V. Tikhonravov, M. K. Trubetskov, S. Naumov, F. Krausz, and A. Apolonski, “1.5-octave chirped mirror for pulse compression down to sub-3fs,” Appl. Phys. B 87, 5-12 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Fuji, J. Rauschenberger, A. Apolonski, V. S. Yakovlev, G. Tempea, T. Udem, C. Gohle, T. W. Hänsch, W. Lehnert, M. Scherer, and F. Krausz, “Monolithic carrier-envelope phase-stabilization scheme,” Opt. Lett. 30, 332-334 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Backus, S.

Baltuska, A.

A. Baltuska, M. S. Pshenichnikov, and D. A. Wiersma, “Second-harmonic generation frequency-resolved optical gating in the single-cycle regime,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 459-478 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Baltuska, M. S. Pshenichnikov, and D. Wiersma, “Amplitude and phase characterization of 4.5fs pulses by frequency-resolved optical gating,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1474-1476 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Baum, P.

Biegert, J.

Birge, J. R.

Brabec, T.

T. Brabec and F. Krausz, “Intense few-cycle laser fields: frontiers of nonlinear optics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 72, 545-591 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chakraborty, H. S.

Christov, I. P.

I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “High-harmonic generation of attosecond pulses in the “single-cycle” regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1251-1254 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Taft, A. Rundquist, M. M. Murnane, I. P. Christov, H. C. Kapteyn, K. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, M. A. Krumbugel, J. N. Sweetser, and R. Trebino, “Measurement of 10-fs laser pulses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 575-585 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Couairon, A.

Cundiff, S. T.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stenz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288, 635-639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

De Silvestri, S.

DeLong, K.

G. Taft, A. Rundquist, M. M. Murnane, I. P. Christov, H. C. Kapteyn, K. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, M. A. Krumbugel, J. N. Sweetser, and R. Trebino, “Measurement of 10-fs laser pulses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 575-585 (1996).
[CrossRef]

DeLong, K. W.

Diddams, S. A.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stenz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288, 635-639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dorrer, C.

Ell, R.

Ferencz, K.

Fittinghoff, D. N.

G. Taft, A. Rundquist, M. M. Murnane, I. P. Christov, H. C. Kapteyn, K. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, M. A. Krumbugel, J. N. Sweetser, and R. Trebino, “Measurement of 10-fs laser pulses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 575-585 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Franco, M.

Fuji, T.

Gaarde, M. B.

Gallmann, L.

Gohle, C.

Gu, X.

Guandalini, A.

Hall, J. L.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stenz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288, 635-639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hänsch, T. W.

Harris, S. E.

M. Y. Shverdin, D. R. Walker, D. D. Yavuz, Y. G. Yin, and S. E. Harris, “Generation of a single-cycle optical pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 033904 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hauri, C. P.

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 673-677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Heinrich, A.

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 673-677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Helbing, F. W.

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 673-677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Holler, M.

Iaconis, C.

C. Iaconis and I. A. Walmsley, “Self-referencing spectral interferometry for measuring ultrashort optical pulses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 501-509 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jones, D. J.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stenz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288, 635-639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kane, D. J.

D. J. Kane, “Real-time measurement of ultrashort laser pulses using principal-components generalized projections,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 278-284 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Kane and R. Trebino, “Characterization of arbitrary femtosecond pulses using frequency resolved optical gating,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 571-579 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Kane and R. Trebino, “Single-shot measurement of the intensity and phase of an arbitrary ultrashort pulse by using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Opt. Lett. 18, 823-825 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kapteyn, H. C.

I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “High-harmonic generation of attosecond pulses in the “single-cycle” regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1251-1254 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Taft, A. Rundquist, M. M. Murnane, I. P. Christov, H. C. Kapteyn, K. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, M. A. Krumbugel, J. N. Sweetser, and R. Trebino, “Measurement of 10-fs laser pulses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 575-585 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Backus, J. Peatross, E. Zeek, A. Rundquist, G. Taft, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn “16-fs, 1-mJ ultraviolet pulses generated by third-harmonic conversion in air,” Opt. Lett. 21, 665-667 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kärtner, F. X.

Keller, U.

Kimmel, M.

Kornelis, W.

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 673-677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. Kornelis, J. Biegert, J. W. G. Tisch, M. Nisoli, G. Sansone, C. Vozzi, S. De Silvestri, and U. Keller, “Single-shot kilohertz characterization of ultrashort pulses by spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction,” Opt. Lett. 28, 281-283 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kosik, E. M.

Krausz, F.

Krumbugel, M. A.

G. Taft, A. Rundquist, M. M. Murnane, I. P. Christov, H. C. Kapteyn, K. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, M. A. Krumbugel, J. N. Sweetser, and R. Trebino, “Measurement of 10-fs laser pulses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 575-585 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lehnert, W.

Lochbrunner, S.

Morita, R.

Murnane, M. M.

I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “High-harmonic generation of attosecond pulses in the “single-cycle” regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1251-1254 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Taft, A. Rundquist, M. M. Murnane, I. P. Christov, H. C. Kapteyn, K. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, M. A. Krumbugel, J. N. Sweetser, and R. Trebino, “Measurement of 10-fs laser pulses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 575-585 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Backus, J. Peatross, E. Zeek, A. Rundquist, G. Taft, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn “16-fs, 1-mJ ultraviolet pulses generated by third-harmonic conversion in air,” Opt. Lett. 21, 665-667 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mysyrowicz, A.

Naumov, S.

V. Pervak, A. V. Tikhonravov, M. K. Trubetskov, S. Naumov, F. Krausz, and A. Apolonski, “1.5-octave chirped mirror for pulse compression down to sub-3fs,” Appl. Phys. B 87, 5-12 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Akturk, M. Kimmel, P. O'Shea, R. Trebino, S. Naumov, E. Sorokin, and I. Sorokina, “Measuring several-cycle 1.5-μm pulses using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Opt. Express 11, 3461-3466 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nisoli, M.

Oka, K.

O'Shea, D.

O'Shea, P.

Peatross, J.

Pervak, V.

V. Pervak, A. V. Tikhonravov, M. K. Trubetskov, S. Naumov, F. Krausz, and A. Apolonski, “1.5-octave chirped mirror for pulse compression down to sub-3fs,” Appl. Phys. B 87, 5-12 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pshenichnikov, M. S.

A. Baltuska, M. S. Pshenichnikov, and D. A. Wiersma, “Second-harmonic generation frequency-resolved optical gating in the single-cycle regime,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 459-478 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Baltuska, M. S. Pshenichnikov, and D. Wiersma, “Amplitude and phase characterization of 4.5fs pulses by frequency-resolved optical gating,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1474-1476 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ranka, J. K.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stenz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288, 635-639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rauschenberger, J.

Riedle, E.

Rundquist, A.

S. Backus, J. Peatross, E. Zeek, A. Rundquist, G. Taft, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn “16-fs, 1-mJ ultraviolet pulses generated by third-harmonic conversion in air,” Opt. Lett. 21, 665-667 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Taft, A. Rundquist, M. M. Murnane, I. P. Christov, H. C. Kapteyn, K. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, M. A. Krumbugel, J. N. Sweetser, and R. Trebino, “Measurement of 10-fs laser pulses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 575-585 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sansone, G.

Sartania, S.

Schapper, F.

Schenkel, B.

Scherer, M.

Shverdin, M. Y.

M. Y. Shverdin, D. R. Walker, D. D. Yavuz, Y. G. Yin, and S. E. Harris, “Generation of a single-cycle optical pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 033904 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sorokin, E.

Sorokina, I.

Spielmann, C.

Stagira, S.

Steinmeyer, G.

G. Stibenz and G. Steinmeyer, “Optimizing spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 073105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Stenz, A.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stenz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288, 635-639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stibenz, G.

G. Stibenz and G. Steinmeyer, “Optimizing spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 073105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Svelto, O.

Sweetser, J. N.

G. Taft, A. Rundquist, M. M. Murnane, I. P. Christov, H. C. Kapteyn, K. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, M. A. Krumbugel, J. N. Sweetser, and R. Trebino, “Measurement of 10-fs laser pulses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 575-585 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Szipocs, R.

Taft, G.

G. Taft, A. Rundquist, M. M. Murnane, I. P. Christov, H. C. Kapteyn, K. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, M. A. Krumbugel, J. N. Sweetser, and R. Trebino, “Measurement of 10-fs laser pulses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 575-585 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Backus, J. Peatross, E. Zeek, A. Rundquist, G. Taft, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn “16-fs, 1-mJ ultraviolet pulses generated by third-harmonic conversion in air,” Opt. Lett. 21, 665-667 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tempea, G.

Tikhonravov, A. V.

V. Pervak, A. V. Tikhonravov, M. K. Trubetskov, S. Naumov, F. Krausz, and A. Apolonski, “1.5-octave chirped mirror for pulse compression down to sub-3fs,” Appl. Phys. B 87, 5-12 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tisch, J. W. G.

Trebino, R.

S. Akturk, M. Kimmel, P. O'Shea, and R. Trebino, “Extremely simple device for measuring 20fs pulses,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1025-1027 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Akturk, M. Kimmel, P. O'Shea, R. Trebino, S. Naumov, E. Sorokin, and I. Sorokina, “Measuring several-cycle 1.5-μm pulses using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Opt. Express 11, 3461-3466 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. O'Shea, M. Kimmel, P. O'Shea, and R. Trebino, “Ultrashort-laser-pulse measurement using swept beams,” Opt. Lett. 26, 1442-1444 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. O'Shea, M. Kimmel, X. Gu, and R. Trebino, “Highly simplified device for ultrashort-pulse measurement,” Opt. Lett. 26, 932-934 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. O'Shea, M. Kimmel, X. Gu, and R. Trebino, “Increased-bandwidth in ultrashort-pulse measurement using an angle-dithered nonlinear-optical crystal,” Opt. Express 7, 342-349 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Taft, A. Rundquist, M. M. Murnane, I. P. Christov, H. C. Kapteyn, K. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, M. A. Krumbugel, J. N. Sweetser, and R. Trebino, “Measurement of 10-fs laser pulses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 575-585 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. W. DeLong and R. Trebino, “Improved ultrashort pulse-retrieval algorithm for frequency-resolved optical gating,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 2429-2437 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Kane and R. Trebino, “Single-shot measurement of the intensity and phase of an arbitrary ultrashort pulse by using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Opt. Lett. 18, 823-825 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Kane and R. Trebino, “Characterization of arbitrary femtosecond pulses using frequency resolved optical gating,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 571-579 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. Trebino, Frequency-Resolved Optical Gating (Kluwer Academic, 2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Akturk, X. Gu, and R. Trebino, “Practical devices for measuring extremely short and extremely long pulses,” in CLEO Europe (IEEE, 2005).

Trubetskov, M. K.

V. Pervak, A. V. Tikhonravov, M. K. Trubetskov, S. Naumov, F. Krausz, and A. Apolonski, “1.5-octave chirped mirror for pulse compression down to sub-3fs,” Appl. Phys. B 87, 5-12 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Udem, T.

Vozzi, C.

Walker, D. R.

M. Y. Shverdin, D. R. Walker, D. D. Yavuz, Y. G. Yin, and S. E. Harris, “Generation of a single-cycle optical pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 033904 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walmsley, I. A.

C. Dorrer, E. M. Kosik, and I. A. Walmsley, “Direct space-time characterization of the electric fields of ultrashort optical pulses,” Opt. Lett. 27, 548-550 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. Iaconis and I. A. Walmsley, “Self-referencing spectral interferometry for measuring ultrashort optical pulses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 501-509 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z.

Z. Wang, “Next generation ultrashort-pulse retrieval algorithm for frequency-resolved optical gating: the inclusion of random (noise) and nonrandom (spatio-temporal pulse distortions) error,” Ph.D thesis (Georgia Institute of Technology, 2005), http://smartech.gatech.edu/bitstream/1853/6913/1/wang_ziyang_200505_phd.pdf.

Wiersma, D.

Wiersma, D. A.

A. Baltuska, M. S. Pshenichnikov, and D. A. Wiersma, “Second-harmonic generation frequency-resolved optical gating in the single-cycle regime,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 459-478 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Windeler, R. S.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stenz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288, 635-639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yakovlev, V. S.

Yamane, K.

Yamashita, M.

Yavuz, D. D.

M. Y. Shverdin, D. R. Walker, D. D. Yavuz, Y. G. Yin, and S. E. Harris, “Generation of a single-cycle optical pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 033904 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yin, Y. G.

M. Y. Shverdin, D. R. Walker, D. D. Yavuz, Y. G. Yin, and S. E. Harris, “Generation of a single-cycle optical pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 033904 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zair, A.

Zeek, E.

Zhang, Z.

Appl. Phys. B (2)

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 673-677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. Pervak, A. V. Tikhonravov, M. K. Trubetskov, S. Naumov, F. Krausz, and A. Apolonski, “1.5-octave chirped mirror for pulse compression down to sub-3fs,” Appl. Phys. B 87, 5-12 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (3)

C. Iaconis and I. A. Walmsley, “Self-referencing spectral interferometry for measuring ultrashort optical pulses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 501-509 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Kane and R. Trebino, “Characterization of arbitrary femtosecond pulses using frequency resolved optical gating,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 571-579 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. Baltuska, M. S. Pshenichnikov, and D. A. Wiersma, “Second-harmonic generation frequency-resolved optical gating in the single-cycle regime,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 459-478 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

G. Taft, A. Rundquist, M. M. Murnane, I. P. Christov, H. C. Kapteyn, K. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, M. A. Krumbugel, J. N. Sweetser, and R. Trebino, “Measurement of 10-fs laser pulses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 575-585 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Kane, “Real-time measurement of ultrashort laser pulses using principal-components generalized projections,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 278-284 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (16)

B. Schenkel, J. Biegert, U. Keller, C. Vozzi, M. Nisoli, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and O. Svelto, “Generation of 3.8-fs pulses from adaptive compression of a cascaded hollow fiber supercontinuum,” Opt. Lett. 28, 1987-1989 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Couairon, M. Franco, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Pulse self-compression to the single-cycle limit by filamentation in a gas with a pressure gradient,” Opt. Lett. 30, 2657-2659 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Chakraborty, M. B. Gaarde, and A. Couairon, “Single attosecond pulses from high harmonics driven by self-compressed filaments,” Opt. Lett. 31, 3662-3664 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, R. Szipocs, K. Ferencz, C. Spielmann, S. Sartania, and F. Krausz, “Compression of high-energy laser pulses below 5fs,” Opt. Lett. 22, 522-524 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Dorrer, E. M. Kosik, and I. A. Walmsley, “Direct space-time characterization of the electric fields of ultrashort optical pulses,” Opt. Lett. 27, 548-550 (2002).
[CrossRef]

W. Kornelis, J. Biegert, J. W. G. Tisch, M. Nisoli, G. Sansone, C. Vozzi, S. De Silvestri, and U. Keller, “Single-shot kilohertz characterization of ultrashort pulses by spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction,” Opt. Lett. 28, 281-283 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Baum, S. Lochbrunner, and E. Riedle, “Zero-additional-phase SPIDER:full characterization of visible and sub-20-fs ultraviolet pulses,” Opt. Lett. 29, 210-212 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Yamane, Z. Zhang, K. Oka, R. Morita, and M. Yamashita, “Optical pulse compression to 3.4fs in the monocycle region by feedback phase compensation,” Opt. Lett. 28, 2258-2260 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Birge, R. Ell, and F. X. Kärtner, “Two-dimensional spectral shearing interferometry for few-cycle pulse characterization,” Opt. Lett. 31, 2063-2065 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Backus, J. Peatross, E. Zeek, A. Rundquist, G. Taft, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn “16-fs, 1-mJ ultraviolet pulses generated by third-harmonic conversion in air,” Opt. Lett. 21, 665-667 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Baltuska, M. S. Pshenichnikov, and D. Wiersma, “Amplitude and phase characterization of 4.5fs pulses by frequency-resolved optical gating,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1474-1476 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Kane and R. Trebino, “Single-shot measurement of the intensity and phase of an arbitrary ultrashort pulse by using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Opt. Lett. 18, 823-825 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Akturk, M. Kimmel, P. O'Shea, and R. Trebino, “Extremely simple device for measuring 20fs pulses,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1025-1027 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Fuji, J. Rauschenberger, A. Apolonski, V. S. Yakovlev, G. Tempea, T. Udem, C. Gohle, T. W. Hänsch, W. Lehnert, M. Scherer, and F. Krausz, “Monolithic carrier-envelope phase-stabilization scheme,” Opt. Lett. 30, 332-334 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. O'Shea, M. Kimmel, P. O'Shea, and R. Trebino, “Ultrashort-laser-pulse measurement using swept beams,” Opt. Lett. 26, 1442-1444 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. O'Shea, M. Kimmel, X. Gu, and R. Trebino, “Highly simplified device for ultrashort-pulse measurement,” Opt. Lett. 26, 932-934 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

M. Y. Shverdin, D. R. Walker, D. D. Yavuz, Y. G. Yin, and S. E. Harris, “Generation of a single-cycle optical pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 033904 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “High-harmonic generation of attosecond pulses in the “single-cycle” regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1251-1254 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

T. Brabec and F. Krausz, “Intense few-cycle laser fields: frontiers of nonlinear optics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 72, 545-591 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

G. Stibenz and G. Steinmeyer, “Optimizing spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 073105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stenz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288, 635-639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (3)

Z. Wang, “Next generation ultrashort-pulse retrieval algorithm for frequency-resolved optical gating: the inclusion of random (noise) and nonrandom (spatio-temporal pulse distortions) error,” Ph.D thesis (Georgia Institute of Technology, 2005), http://smartech.gatech.edu/bitstream/1853/6913/1/wang_ziyang_200505_phd.pdf.

S. Akturk, X. Gu, and R. Trebino, “Practical devices for measuring extremely short and extremely long pulses,” in CLEO Europe (IEEE, 2005).

R. Trebino, Frequency-Resolved Optical Gating (Kluwer Academic, 2002).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Top-view layout of single-shot FROG for measuring pulses in the single-cycle regime. The bi-mirror consists of two rectangular flat mirrors on top of each other, with the input beam centered in between. CM, cylindrical mirror; SM, spherical mirror; HS, horizontal slit; VS, vertical slit.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Effect of crystal GVD on a single-cycle pulse for different crystal thicknesses. Note that 5 μ m thick crystal has negligible effects on the pulse.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

SHG conversion efficiency curves for 5 μ m thick BBO cut for different phase-matching wavelengths.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

SHG conversion efficiency curves for 5, 10, and 20 μ m thick BBO crystals. In all cases, the phase-matched wavelength is 550 nm .

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Shift of the center of the FROG trace in the delay axis by moving one of the bi-mirrors. This provides the required delay calibration.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Top, the measured and retrieved FROG traces without doing the spectral correction. The FROG error is 2.1%. Bottom, the measured and retrieved FROG traces after the spectral correction. The FROG error is 0.8%. The retrieved pulse duration is 6.8 fs FWHM. All traces are at 128 × 128 grids.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Intensity and phase measurements of the shortest pulses we generated. The retrieved pulse duration is 4.9 fs FWHM.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Top, frequency (right) and delay (left) marginals of measured and retrieved FROG traces shown in Fig. 7. Bottom, spectral autoconvolution calculated using FROG-retrieved and independently measured spectra.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I meas ( Ω , τ , L ) R ( Ω ) I FROG SHG ( Ω , τ ) ,
R ( Ω ) = Q ( Ω ) Ω 2 n E ( Ω ) [ ( n E 2 ( Ω ) 1 ) ( n O 2 ( Ω 2 ) 1 ) 2 ] 2 sinc 2 ( Δ k ( Ω 2 , Ω 2 ) L 2 ) ,

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