Abstract

We review different methods for characterizing mid-infrared femtosecond pulses, including linear methods such as electro-optic sampling, time- and frequency-domain interferometry, and nonlinear self-referenced methods such as frequency-resolved optical gating (FROG) and spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction (SPIDER). Of particular interest are methods based on upconversion through nonlinear mixing with chirped 800nm pulses, enabling a complete measurement of mid-infrared pulses with visible-light spectrometers.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (7)

R. M. Hochstrasser, “Two-dimensional spectroscopy at infrared and optical frequencies,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104, 14190-14196 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Zentgraf, R. Huber, N. C. Nielsen, D. S. Chemla, and R. A. Kaindl, “Ultrabroadband 50-130THz pulses generated via phase-matched difference frequency mixing in LiIO3,” Opt. Express 15, 5775-5781 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Kampfrath, J. Notzold, and M. Wolf, “Sampling of broadband terahertz pulses with thick electro-optic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 231113 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. Tsubouchi and T. Momose, “Femtosecond pulse shaping in the mid-infrared generated by difference-frequency mixing: a simulation and experiment,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 1886-1900 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. J. Nee, R. McCanne, K. J. Kubarych, and M. Joffre, “Two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy detected by chirped pulse upconversion,” Opt. Lett. 32, 713-715 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Treuffet, K. J. Kubarych, J.-C. Lambry, E. Pilet, J.-B. Masson, J.-L. Martin, M. H. Vos, M. Joffre, and A. Alexandrou, “Direct observation of ligand transfer and bond formation in cytochrome c oxidase by using mid-infrared chirped-pulse upconversion,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104, 15705-15710 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Bartels, R. Cerna, C. Kistner, A. Thoma, F. Hudert, C. Janke, and T. Dekorsy, “Ultrafast time-domain spectroscopy based on high-speed asynchronous optical sampling,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 035107 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (6)

2005 (5)

2004 (10)

I. A. Roldan, I. G. Cormack, P. Loza-Alvarez, E. J. Gualda, and D. Artigas, “Ultrashort pulse characterisation with SHG collinear-FROG,” Opt. Express 12, 1169-1178 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. B. Asbury, T. Steinel, and M. D. Fayer, “Vibrational echo correlation spectroscopy probes of hydrogen bond dynamics in water and methanol,” J. Lumin. 107, 271-286 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Wasilewski, P. Wasylczyk, and C. Radzewicz, “Femtosecond laser pulses measured with a photodiode - FROG revisited,” Appl. Phys. B 78, 589-592 (2004).
[Crossref]

P. Baum, S. Lochbrunner, and E. Riedle, “Zero-additional-phase SPIDER: full characterization of visible and sub-20-fs ultraviolet pulses,” Opt. Lett. 29, 210-212 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Baum, S. Lochbrunner, and E. Riedle, “Tunable sub-10-fs ultraviolet pulses generated by achromatic frequency doubling,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1686-1688 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Keilmann, C. Gohle, and R. Holzwarth, “Time-domain mid-infrared frequency-comb spectrometer,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1542-1544 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Kübler, R. Huber, S. Tübel, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Ultrabroadband detection of multi-terahertz field transients with GaSe electro-optic sensors: Approaching the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3360-3362 (2004).
[Crossref]

K. Liu, J. Z. Xu, and X. C. Zhang, “GaSe crystals for broadband terahertz wave detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 863-865 (2004).
[Crossref]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, R. Kienberger, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Direct measurement of light waves,” Science 305, 1267-1269 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Cervetto, J. Helbing, J. Bredenbeck, and P. Hamm, “Double-resonance versus pulsed Fourier transform two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy: An experimental and theoretical comparison,” J. Chem. Phys. 121, 5935-5942 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (7)

M. Khalil, N. Demirdoven, and A. Tokmakoff, “Obtaining absorptive line shapes in two-dimensional infrared vibrational correlation spectra,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 047401 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. B. Asbury, T. Steinel, C. Stromberg, K. J. Gaffney, I. R. Piletic, A. Goun, and M. D. Fayer, “Hydrogen bond dynamics probed with ultrafast infrared heterodyne-detected multidimensional vibrational stimulated echoes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 237402 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Baltuska, M. Uiberacker, E. Goulielmakis, R. Kienberger, V. S. Yakovlev, T. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Phase-controlled amplification of few-cycle laser pulses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 972-989 (2003).
[Crossref]

A. Monmayrant, M. Joffre, T. Oksenhendler, R. Herzog, D. Kaplan, and P. Tournois, “Time-domain interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction by use of an acousto-optic programmable filter and a two-photon detector,” Opt. Lett. 28, 278-280 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-S. Tan and W. S. Warren, “Mid infrared pulse shaping by optical parametric amplification and its application to optical free induction decay measurement,” Opt. Express 11, 1021-1028 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Ventalon, J. M. Fraser, and M. Joffre, “Time-domain interferometry for direct electric field reconstruction of mid-infrared femtosecond pulses,” Opt. Lett. 28, 1826-1828 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Witte, K. L. Kompa, and M. Motzkus, “Femtosecond pulse shaping in the mid infrared by difference-frequency mixing,” Appl. Phys. B 76, 467-471 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (4)

S. Yeremenko, A. Baltuska, F. de Haan, M. S. Pshenichnikov, and D. A. Wiersma, “Frequency-resolved pump-probe characterization of femtosecond infrared pulses,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1171-1173 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. A. Gruetzmacher and N. F. Scherer, “Few-cycle mid-infrared pulse generation, characterization, and coherent propagation in optically dense media,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 2227-2236 (2002).
[Crossref]

M. Hirasawa, N. Nakagawa, K. Yamamoto, R. Morita, H. Shigekawa, and M. Yamashita, “Sensitivity improvement of spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction for the characterization of low-intensity femtosecond pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 74, S225-S229 (2002).
[Crossref]

N. Belabas and M. Joffre, “Visible-infrared two-dimensional Fourier-transform spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 27, 2043-2045 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (3)

2000 (5)

1998 (1)

1997 (3)

Q. Wu and X.-C. Zhang, “Free-space electro-optics sampling of mid-infrared pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1285-1287 (1997).
[Crossref]

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbugel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277-3295 (1997).
[Crossref]

B. A. Richman, M. A. Krumbugel, and R. Trebino, “Temporal characterization of mid-IR free-electron-laser pulses by frequency-resolved optical gating,” Opt. Lett. 22, 721-723 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1996 (3)

Q. Wu and X. C. Zhang, “Ultrafast electro-optic field sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1604-1606 (1996).
[Crossref]

D. N. Fittinghoff, J. L. Bowie, J. N. Sweetser, R. T. Jennings, M. A. Krumbugel, K. W. DeLong, R. Trebino, and I. A. Walmsley, “Measurement of the intensity and phase of ultraweak, ultrashort laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 21, 884-886 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Bonvalet, J. Nagle, V. Berger, A. Migus, J. L. Martin, and M. Joffre, “Femtosecond infrared emission resulting from coherent charge oscillations in quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4392-4395 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1995 (3)

1994 (1)

1993 (1)

1990 (1)

1989 (2)

K. Naganuma, K. Mogi, and H. Yamada, “General method for ultrashort light-pulse chirp measurement,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1225-1233 (1989).
[Crossref]

E. J. Heilweil, “Ultrashort-pulse multichannel infrared spectroscopy using broadband frequency conversion in LiIO3,” Opt. Lett. 14, 551 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1982 (1)

M. Takeda, H. Ina, and S. Kobayashi, “Fourier-transform method of fringe-pattern analysis for computer-based topography and interferometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 72, 156-160 (1982).
[Crossref]

Alexandrou, A.

J. Treuffet, K. J. Kubarych, J.-C. Lambry, E. Pilet, J.-B. Masson, J.-L. Martin, M. H. Vos, M. Joffre, and A. Alexandrou, “Direct observation of ligand transfer and bond formation in cytochrome c oxidase by using mid-infrared chirped-pulse upconversion,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104, 15705-15710 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Artigas, D.

Asbury, J. B.

J. B. Asbury, T. Steinel, and M. D. Fayer, “Vibrational echo correlation spectroscopy probes of hydrogen bond dynamics in water and methanol,” J. Lumin. 107, 271-286 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. B. Asbury, T. Steinel, C. Stromberg, K. J. Gaffney, I. R. Piletic, A. Goun, and M. D. Fayer, “Hydrogen bond dynamics probed with ultrafast infrared heterodyne-detected multidimensional vibrational stimulated echoes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 237402 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Asplund, M. C.

M. C. Asplund, M. T. Zanni, and R. M. Hochstrasser, “Two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy of peptides by phase-controlled femtosecond vibrational photon echoes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 97, 8219-8224 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baltuska, A.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, R. Kienberger, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Direct measurement of light waves,” Science 305, 1267-1269 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Illustration of the retrieval of the analytic signal E ( t ) from the real field E ( t ) according to the recipe associated with expression (3). (a) Real electric field E ( t ) in time domain in the case of a mid-IR chirped pulse centered at 5 μ m . (b) Amplitude (—) and phase (– –) of E ( ω ) obtained from the real field through a Fourier transform (F.T.). The analytic signal E ( ω ) is then obtained by zeroing out the negative-frequency components shown in the shaded area, according to Eq. (2). (c) Amplitude (—) and phase (– –) of the complex field E ( t ) obtained through an inverse Fourier transform of E ( ω ) . Note that the linear part ω 0 t of the time-domain phase ϕ ( t ) has been removed (where ω 0 is the pulse center frequency).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Linear methods for characterizing mid-IR femtosecond pulses. (a) Electro-sampling technique using a reference ultrashort visible pulse. WP stands for Wollaston prism. The slanted arrows indicate a scanned variable. (b) Time-domain interferometry using a reference ultrashort mid-IR pulse. (c) Time-domain interferometry using a reference visible ultrashort pulse and optical rectification. (d) Spectral interferometry using a reference ultrashort mid-IR pulse.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Self-referenced nonlinear methods for measuring a mid-IR femtosecond pulse. All the methods shown are based on sum-frequency mixing using the second-order susceptibility χ ( 2 ) of a suitable nonlinear material such as GaAs , AgGaS 2 , or AgGaSe 2 . A filter F rejects the incoming light at the fundamental frequency. (a) Nonlinear second-order autocorrelation. (b) Frequency-resolved optical gating (FROG). (c) Spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction (SPIDER). φ” stands for a transparent material such as CaF 2 introducing a suitable amount of second-order spectral phase. (d) Time-domain homodyne optical technique for SPIDER (HOT SPIDER).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Characterization of mid-IR pulses using chirped-pulse upconversion (CPU) ZAP SPIDER.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Characterization of mid-IR pulses using a time-encoded arrangement for SPIDER.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

TEA SPIDER experimental trace associated with 31 consecutive laser shots for a chirped mid-IR femtosecond pulse. The 68 ps delay between the two chirped 800 nm pulses corresponds to a shear frequency of 2.8 THz . This large value was chosen to make the tilt of the fringes more visible.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

The reconstructed intensity (solid curve) and phase (dashed curves) in the time domain of the same mid-IR pulse as in Fig. 6 measured by TEA SPIDER. The reconstruction is an average over 1000 laser shots, with a shear frequency of 0.5 THz .

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Experimental setup for performing mid-IR spectral interferometry and TEA SPIDER characterization of the mid-IR reference pulse by use of a visible spectrometer and CCD camera.

Equations (10)

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E ( t ) = Re E ( t ) = E ( t ) + E * ( t ) 2 .
E ( ω ) = 2 Θ ( ω ) E ( ω ) ,
E ( t ) F . T . E ( ω ) × 2 Θ ( ω ) E ( ω ) F . T . 1 E ( t ) ,
S ( τ ) = + R ( τ t ) E ( t ) d t = + R ( ω ) E ( ω ) exp ( i ω τ ) d ω 2 π ,
S ( τ ) = + [ E 0 ( t τ ) + E ( t ) ] 2 d t = Constant + 2 + E 0 ( t τ ) E ( t ) d t .
S ( ω ) = E ( ω ) + E 0 ( ω ) exp ( i ω τ ) 2 .
S ( τ ) = + E ( t ) + E ( t τ ) 4 d t ,
S ( τ , ω ) = + E ( t ) E ( t τ ) exp ( i ω t ) d t 2 ,
φ ( ω Ω 2 ) φ ( ω Ω 1 ) Ω d φ d ω ,
Φ ( ω , τ ) = φ ( ω Ω 2 ) φ ( ω Ω 1 ) Ω 1 τ Ω d φ d ω Ω 1 τ ,

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