Abstract

We report on a version of spectral phase interferometry for direct electric field reconstruction (SPIDER) that uses no nonlinear crystals, instead relying on the harmonic signal from a gold mirror. Surface harmonic generation holds the promise of being able to upconvert extremely broad bandwidths over a large tuning range, thus providing access to both extremely short pulses and wavelengths outside of traditional methods. In this proof of principle demonstration, SPIDER traces for chirped and transform-limited 55fs pulses are presented.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. P. Londero, M. E. Anderson, C. Radzewicz, C. Iaconis, and I. A. Walmsley, “Measuring ultrafast pulses in the near-ultraviolet using spectral phase interferometry for direct electric field reconstruction,” J. Mod. Opt. 50, 179-184 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  28. A. S. Wyatt, I. A. Walmsley, G. Stibenz, and G. Steinmeyer, “Sub-10 fs pulse characterization using spatially encoded arrangement for spectral phase interferometry for direct electric field reconstruction,” Opt. Lett. 31, 1914-1916 (2006).
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2006 (1)

2005 (1)

J. Dai, H. Teng, and C. Guo, “Second- and third-order interferometric autocorrelations based on harmonic generations from metal surfaces,” Opt. Commun. 252, 173-178 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

Q. Lin, K. Wright, G. P. Agrawal, and C. Guo, “Spectral responsitivity and efficiency of metal-based femtosecond autocorrelation technique,” Opt. Commun. 242, 279-283 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

P. Londero, M. E. Anderson, C. Radzewicz, C. Iaconis, and I. A. Walmsley, “Measuring ultrafast pulses in the near-ultraviolet using spectral phase interferometry for direct electric field reconstruction,” J. Mod. Opt. 50, 179-184 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Monmayrant, M. Joffre, T. Oksenhendler, R. Herzog, D. Kaplan, and P. Tournois, “Time-domain interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction by use of an acousto-optic programmable filter and a two-photon detector,” Opt. Lett. 28, 278-280 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (2)

I. G. Cormack, W. Sibbett, and D. T. Reid, “Rapid measurement of ultrashort-pulse amplitude and phase from a two-photon absorption sonogram trace,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 1377-1382 (2001).
[CrossRef]

I. G. Cormack, W. Sibbett, and D. T. Reid, “Practical measurement of femtosecond optical pulses using time-resolved optical gating,” Opt. Commun. 194, 415-424 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1998 (1)

1997 (5)

N. A. Papadogiannis, S. D. Moustaizis, P. A. Loukakos, and C. Kalpouzos, “Temporal characterization of ultra short laser pulses based on multiple harmonic generation on a gold surface,” Appl. Phys. B: Photophys. Laser Chem. 65, 339-345 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Meshulach, Y. Barad, and Y. Silberberg, “Measurement of ultrashort optical pulses by third-harmonic generation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 2122-2125 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. T. Reid, M. Padgett, C. McGowan, W. E. Sleat, and W. Sibbett, “Light-emitting diodes as measurement devices for femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 22, 233-235 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. K. Ranka, A. L. Gaeta, A. Baltuska, M. S. Pshenichnikov, and D. A. Wiersma, “Autocorrelation measurement of 6-fs pulses based on the two-photon-induced photocurrent in a gaasp photodiode,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1344-1346 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Cundiff, W. H. Knox, F. H. Baumann, K. W. Evans-Lutterodt, M.-T. Tang, M. L. Green, and H. M. van Driel, “Si/SiO2, interface roughness: comparison between surface second harmonic generation and x-ray scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 1414-1416 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1994 (2)

1993 (2)

1992 (1)

W. Plaß, H. Rottke, W. Heuer, G. Eichhorn, and H. Zacharias, “Surface sum-frequency mixing for auto- and cross-correlation of ultrashort UV and IR pulses,” Appl. Phys. B: Photophys. Laser Chem. 54, 199-201 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

V. A. Zubov and T. I. Kuznetsova, “Solution of the phase problem for time-dependent optical signals by an interference system,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 21, 1285-1286 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989 (2)

Y. R. Shen, “Optical second harmonic generation at interfaces,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 40, 327-350 (1989).
[CrossRef]

K. Naganuma, K. Mogi, and H. Yamada, “General method for ultrashort light pulse chirp measurement,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1225-1233 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

C. K. Chen, A. R. B. de Castro, and Y. R. Shen, “Surface-enhanced second-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 145-148 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

D. J. Bradley and G. H. C. New, “Ultrashort pulse measurements,” Proc. IEEE 62, 313-345 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

F. Brown and M. Matsuoka, “Effect of adsorbed surface layers on second-harmonic light from silver,” Phys. Rev. 185, 985-987 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

N. Bloembergen, R. K. Chang, S. S. Jha, and C. H. Lee, “Optical second-harmonic generation in reflection from media with inversion symmetry,” Phys. Rev. 174, 813-822 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1962 (1)

N. Bloembergen and P. S. Pershan, “Light waves at the boundary of nonlinear media,” Phys. Rev. 128, 606-622 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Agrawal, G. P.

Q. Lin, K. Wright, G. P. Agrawal, and C. Guo, “Spectral responsitivity and efficiency of metal-based femtosecond autocorrelation technique,” Opt. Commun. 242, 279-283 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, M. E.

P. Londero, M. E. Anderson, C. Radzewicz, C. Iaconis, and I. A. Walmsley, “Measuring ultrafast pulses in the near-ultraviolet using spectral phase interferometry for direct electric field reconstruction,” J. Mod. Opt. 50, 179-184 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Baltuska, A.

Barad, Y.

Baumann, F. H.

S. T. Cundiff, W. H. Knox, F. H. Baumann, K. W. Evans-Lutterodt, M.-T. Tang, M. L. Green, and H. M. van Driel, “Si/SiO2, interface roughness: comparison between surface second harmonic generation and x-ray scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 1414-1416 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bloembergen, N.

N. Bloembergen, R. K. Chang, S. S. Jha, and C. H. Lee, “Optical second-harmonic generation in reflection from media with inversion symmetry,” Phys. Rev. 174, 813-822 (1968).
[CrossRef]

N. Bloembergen and P. S. Pershan, “Light waves at the boundary of nonlinear media,” Phys. Rev. 128, 606-622 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Bradley, D. J.

D. J. Bradley and G. H. C. New, “Ultrashort pulse measurements,” Proc. IEEE 62, 313-345 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Brown, F.

F. Brown and M. Matsuoka, “Effect of adsorbed surface layers on second-harmonic light from silver,” Phys. Rev. 185, 985-987 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Canto-Said, E. J.

Chang, R. K.

N. Bloembergen, R. K. Chang, S. S. Jha, and C. H. Lee, “Optical second-harmonic generation in reflection from media with inversion symmetry,” Phys. Rev. 174, 813-822 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. K.

C. K. Chen, A. R. B. de Castro, and Y. R. Shen, “Surface-enhanced second-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 145-148 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Cormack, I. G.

I. G. Cormack, W. Sibbett, and D. T. Reid, “Practical measurement of femtosecond optical pulses using time-resolved optical gating,” Opt. Commun. 194, 415-424 (2001).
[CrossRef]

I. G. Cormack, W. Sibbett, and D. T. Reid, “Rapid measurement of ultrashort-pulse amplitude and phase from a two-photon absorption sonogram trace,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 1377-1382 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cundiff, S. T.

S. T. Cundiff, W. H. Knox, F. H. Baumann, K. W. Evans-Lutterodt, M.-T. Tang, M. L. Green, and H. M. van Driel, “Si/SiO2, interface roughness: comparison between surface second harmonic generation and x-ray scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 1414-1416 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dai, J.

J. Dai, H. Teng, and C. Guo, “Second- and third-order interferometric autocorrelations based on harmonic generations from metal surfaces,” Opt. Commun. 252, 173-178 (2005).
[CrossRef]

de Castro, A. R. B.

C. K. Chen, A. R. B. de Castro, and Y. R. Shen, “Surface-enhanced second-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 145-148 (1981).
[CrossRef]

DeLong, K. W.

Eichhorn, G.

W. Plaß, H. Rottke, W. Heuer, G. Eichhorn, and H. Zacharias, “Surface sum-frequency mixing for auto- and cross-correlation of ultrashort UV and IR pulses,” Appl. Phys. B: Photophys. Laser Chem. 54, 199-201 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Evans-Lutterodt, K. W.

S. T. Cundiff, W. H. Knox, F. H. Baumann, K. W. Evans-Lutterodt, M.-T. Tang, M. L. Green, and H. M. van Driel, “Si/SiO2, interface roughness: comparison between surface second harmonic generation and x-ray scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 1414-1416 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fittinghoff, D. N.

Gaeta, A. L.

Green, M. L.

S. T. Cundiff, W. H. Knox, F. H. Baumann, K. W. Evans-Lutterodt, M.-T. Tang, M. L. Green, and H. M. van Driel, “Si/SiO2, interface roughness: comparison between surface second harmonic generation and x-ray scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 1414-1416 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Guo, C.

J. Dai, H. Teng, and C. Guo, “Second- and third-order interferometric autocorrelations based on harmonic generations from metal surfaces,” Opt. Commun. 252, 173-178 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Q. Lin, K. Wright, G. P. Agrawal, and C. Guo, “Spectral responsitivity and efficiency of metal-based femtosecond autocorrelation technique,” Opt. Commun. 242, 279-283 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Herzog, R.

Heuer, W.

W. Plaß, H. Rottke, W. Heuer, G. Eichhorn, and H. Zacharias, “Surface sum-frequency mixing for auto- and cross-correlation of ultrashort UV and IR pulses,” Appl. Phys. B: Photophys. Laser Chem. 54, 199-201 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Iaconis, C.

P. Londero, M. E. Anderson, C. Radzewicz, C. Iaconis, and I. A. Walmsley, “Measuring ultrafast pulses in the near-ultraviolet using spectral phase interferometry for direct electric field reconstruction,” J. Mod. Opt. 50, 179-184 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Iaconis and I. A. Walmsley, “Spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction of ultrashort optical pulses,” Opt. Lett. 23, 792-794 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jasapara, J.

Jha, S. S.

N. Bloembergen, R. K. Chang, S. S. Jha, and C. H. Lee, “Optical second-harmonic generation in reflection from media with inversion symmetry,” Phys. Rev. 174, 813-822 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Joffre, M.

Jordan, C.

Kalpouzos, C.

N. A. Papadogiannis, S. D. Moustaizis, P. A. Loukakos, and C. Kalpouzos, “Temporal characterization of ultra short laser pulses based on multiple harmonic generation on a gold surface,” Appl. Phys. B: Photophys. Laser Chem. 65, 339-345 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kane, D. J.

Kaplan, D.

Knox, W. H.

S. T. Cundiff, W. H. Knox, F. H. Baumann, K. W. Evans-Lutterodt, M.-T. Tang, M. L. Green, and H. M. van Driel, “Si/SiO2, interface roughness: comparison between surface second harmonic generation and x-ray scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 1414-1416 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Krumbugel, M. A.

Kuznetsova, T. I.

V. A. Zubov and T. I. Kuznetsova, “Solution of the phase problem for time-dependent optical signals by an interference system,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 21, 1285-1286 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. H.

N. Bloembergen, R. K. Chang, S. S. Jha, and C. H. Lee, “Optical second-harmonic generation in reflection from media with inversion symmetry,” Phys. Rev. 174, 813-822 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Q.

Q. Lin, K. Wright, G. P. Agrawal, and C. Guo, “Spectral responsitivity and efficiency of metal-based femtosecond autocorrelation technique,” Opt. Commun. 242, 279-283 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Londero, P.

P. Londero, M. E. Anderson, C. Radzewicz, C. Iaconis, and I. A. Walmsley, “Measuring ultrafast pulses in the near-ultraviolet using spectral phase interferometry for direct electric field reconstruction,” J. Mod. Opt. 50, 179-184 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Loukakos, P. A.

N. A. Papadogiannis, S. D. Moustaizis, P. A. Loukakos, and C. Kalpouzos, “Temporal characterization of ultra short laser pulses based on multiple harmonic generation on a gold surface,” Appl. Phys. B: Photophys. Laser Chem. 65, 339-345 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Marowsky, G.

Matsuoka, M.

F. Brown and M. Matsuoka, “Effect of adsorbed surface layers on second-harmonic light from silver,” Phys. Rev. 185, 985-987 (1969).
[CrossRef]

McGowan, C.

Meshulach, D.

Mogi, K.

K. Naganuma, K. Mogi, and H. Yamada, “General method for ultrashort light pulse chirp measurement,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1225-1233 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Monmayrant, A.

Moustaizis, S. D.

N. A. Papadogiannis, S. D. Moustaizis, P. A. Loukakos, and C. Kalpouzos, “Temporal characterization of ultra short laser pulses based on multiple harmonic generation on a gold surface,” Appl. Phys. B: Photophys. Laser Chem. 65, 339-345 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Naganuma, K.

K. Naganuma, K. Mogi, and H. Yamada, “General method for ultrashort light pulse chirp measurement,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1225-1233 (1989).
[CrossRef]

New, G. H. C.

D. J. Bradley and G. H. C. New, “Ultrashort pulse measurements,” Proc. IEEE 62, 313-345 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Nicholson, J. W.

Oksenhendler, T.

Omenetto, F. G.

Padgett, M.

Papadogiannis, N. A.

N. A. Papadogiannis, S. D. Moustaizis, P. A. Loukakos, and C. Kalpouzos, “Temporal characterization of ultra short laser pulses based on multiple harmonic generation on a gold surface,” Appl. Phys. B: Photophys. Laser Chem. 65, 339-345 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Pershan, P. S.

N. Bloembergen and P. S. Pershan, “Light waves at the boundary of nonlinear media,” Phys. Rev. 128, 606-622 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Plaß, W.

W. Plaß, H. Rottke, W. Heuer, G. Eichhorn, and H. Zacharias, “Surface sum-frequency mixing for auto- and cross-correlation of ultrashort UV and IR pulses,” Appl. Phys. B: Photophys. Laser Chem. 54, 199-201 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Pshenichnikov, M. S.

Radzewicz, C.

P. Londero, M. E. Anderson, C. Radzewicz, C. Iaconis, and I. A. Walmsley, “Measuring ultrafast pulses in the near-ultraviolet using spectral phase interferometry for direct electric field reconstruction,” J. Mod. Opt. 50, 179-184 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ranka, J. K.

Reid, D. T.

Rottke, H.

W. Plaß, H. Rottke, W. Heuer, G. Eichhorn, and H. Zacharias, “Surface sum-frequency mixing for auto- and cross-correlation of ultrashort UV and IR pulses,” Appl. Phys. B: Photophys. Laser Chem. 54, 199-201 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Rudolph, W.

Shen, Y. R.

Y. R. Shen, “Optical second harmonic generation at interfaces,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 40, 327-350 (1989).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Chen, A. R. B. de Castro, and Y. R. Shen, “Surface-enhanced second-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 145-148 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Sibbett, W.

Silberberg, Y.

Simon, P.

Sleat, W. E.

Steinmeyer, G.

Stibenz, G.

Tang, M.-T.

S. T. Cundiff, W. H. Knox, F. H. Baumann, K. W. Evans-Lutterodt, M.-T. Tang, M. L. Green, and H. M. van Driel, “Si/SiO2, interface roughness: comparison between surface second harmonic generation and x-ray scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 1414-1416 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, A. J.

Teng, H.

J. Dai, H. Teng, and C. Guo, “Second- and third-order interferometric autocorrelations based on harmonic generations from metal surfaces,” Opt. Commun. 252, 173-178 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tournois, P.

Trebino, R.

Tsang, T.

van Driel, H. M.

S. T. Cundiff, W. H. Knox, F. H. Baumann, K. W. Evans-Lutterodt, M.-T. Tang, M. L. Green, and H. M. van Driel, “Si/SiO2, interface roughness: comparison between surface second harmonic generation and x-ray scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 1414-1416 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Walmsley, I. A.

Wiersma, D. A.

Wong, V.

Wright, K.

Q. Lin, K. Wright, G. P. Agrawal, and C. Guo, “Spectral responsitivity and efficiency of metal-based femtosecond autocorrelation technique,” Opt. Commun. 242, 279-283 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wyatt, A. S.

Yamada, H.

K. Naganuma, K. Mogi, and H. Yamada, “General method for ultrashort light pulse chirp measurement,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1225-1233 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Zacharias, H.

W. Plaß, H. Rottke, W. Heuer, G. Eichhorn, and H. Zacharias, “Surface sum-frequency mixing for auto- and cross-correlation of ultrashort UV and IR pulses,” Appl. Phys. B: Photophys. Laser Chem. 54, 199-201 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Zubov, V. A.

V. A. Zubov and T. I. Kuznetsova, “Solution of the phase problem for time-dependent optical signals by an interference system,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 21, 1285-1286 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. (1)

Y. R. Shen, “Optical second harmonic generation at interfaces,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 40, 327-350 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B: Photophys. Laser Chem. (2)

N. A. Papadogiannis, S. D. Moustaizis, P. A. Loukakos, and C. Kalpouzos, “Temporal characterization of ultra short laser pulses based on multiple harmonic generation on a gold surface,” Appl. Phys. B: Photophys. Laser Chem. 65, 339-345 (1997).
[CrossRef]

W. Plaß, H. Rottke, W. Heuer, G. Eichhorn, and H. Zacharias, “Surface sum-frequency mixing for auto- and cross-correlation of ultrashort UV and IR pulses,” Appl. Phys. B: Photophys. Laser Chem. 54, 199-201 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

S. T. Cundiff, W. H. Knox, F. H. Baumann, K. W. Evans-Lutterodt, M.-T. Tang, M. L. Green, and H. M. van Driel, “Si/SiO2, interface roughness: comparison between surface second harmonic generation and x-ray scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 1414-1416 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

K. Naganuma, K. Mogi, and H. Yamada, “General method for ultrashort light pulse chirp measurement,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1225-1233 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

P. Londero, M. E. Anderson, C. Radzewicz, C. Iaconis, and I. A. Walmsley, “Measuring ultrafast pulses in the near-ultraviolet using spectral phase interferometry for direct electric field reconstruction,” J. Mod. Opt. 50, 179-184 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Opt. Commun. (3)

Q. Lin, K. Wright, G. P. Agrawal, and C. Guo, “Spectral responsitivity and efficiency of metal-based femtosecond autocorrelation technique,” Opt. Commun. 242, 279-283 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the experimental setup.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Sample Spidergram for a near-transform-limited 55 fs pulse recorded with an integration time of 5 s .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Retrieved pulse at λ 0 = 803 nm , FWHM = 18.5 nm . The inset shows the recontructed temporal intensity distribution. The FWHM is 54.6 fs , which is 2% over the FTL of 53.6 fs .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Phase difference of two CPA compressor settings retrieved with Gold-SPIDER. The measured phase, i.e., the difference phase from two consecutive SPIDER measurements, (solid curve) agrees well with the calculated compressor phase (dots). The inset shows the near FTL and the slightly stretched pulse ( 125.5 fs ) temporal profiles.

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