Abstract

A series of Nd:YxGd1xVO4 (x=0.17, 0.37, 0.53, 0.63, 0.70, 0.81) mixed laser crystals with doping concentration of 0.5at.% Nd were successfully grown by the Czochralski method. Thermal properties including the specific heat, thermal diffusion coefficient, and the thermal conductivity were systematically studied. The material constants Ms were calculated and show that the thermal fracture limit of the mixed crystals should be comparable with that of Nd:YVO4. Diode-pumped continuous-wave (CW) laser performance at 1.34μm and 1.06μm with a- and c-cut crystals was demonstrated. The influence of different x values on laser performance and emission cross sections was also discussed. All the results show that Nd:YxGd1xVO4 represents a new series of crystals suitable for application as high-power diode-pumped lasers.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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2007 (3)

H. H. Yu, H. J. Zhang, Z. P. Wang, J. Y. Wang, Y. G. Yu, X. F. Cheng, Z. S. Shao, M. H. Jiang, Z. C. Ling, and H. R. Xia, “Characterization of mixed Nd:LuxGd1−xVO4 laser crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 1-7(113109) (2007).

H. H. Yu, H. J. Zhang, Z. P. Wang, J. Y. Wang, Y. G. Yu, Z. S. Shao, M. H. Jiang, and X. Y. Zhang, “Continuous wave and passively Q-switched laser performance of Nd-doped mixed crystal Nd:Lu0.5Gd0.5VO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 1-3(231110) (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Yu, H. Zhang, Z. Wang, J. Wang, Z. Shao, M. Jiang, and X. Zhang, “CW and Q-switched laser output of LD-end-pumped 1.06μm c-cut Nd:LuVO4 laser,” Opt. Express 15, 3206-3211 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

S. P. Ng, D. Y. Tang, A. Q. Liu, L. J. Qin, and X. L. Meng, “Short pulse passively Q-switched Nd:GdYVO4 laser using a GaAs mirror,” Opt. Commun. 259, 256-260 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2004 (3)

2003 (7)

J. Liu, J. Yang, and J. He, “Diode-pumped passively Q-switched c-cut Nd:GdVO4 laser,” Opt. Commun. 219, 317-321 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. J. Qin, X. L. Meng, H. Y. Shen, L. Zhu, B. C. Xu, L. X. Huang, H. R. Xia, P. Zhao, and G. Zheng, “Thermal conductivity and refractive indices of Nd:GdVO4 crystals,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 38, 793-797 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. Lupei, N. Pavel, Y. Sato, and T. Taira, “Highly efficient 1063-nm continuous-wave laser emission in Nd:GdVO4,” Opt. Lett. 28, 236-238 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. J. Qin, X. L. Meng, C. Du, L. Zhu, B. C. Xu, Z. Shao, Z. Liu, Q. Fang, and R. X. Cheng, “Growth and properties of mixed crystal Nd:YGdVO4,” J. Alloys Compd. 354, 259-262 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. J. Qin, X. L. Meng, L. Zhu, J. H. Liu, B. C. Xu, H. Z. Xu, F. Y. Jiang, C. L. Du, and X. Q. Wang, and Z. S. Shao, “Influence of the different Gd/Y ratio on the properties of Nd:YxGd1−xVO4 mixed crystals,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 380, 273-278 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, X. Meng, Z. Shao, M. Jiang, B. Ozygus, A. Ding, and H. Weber, “Pulse energy enhancement in passive Q-switching operation with a class of Nd:GdxY1−xVO4 crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1289-1291 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, Z. P. Wang, X. L. Meng, and Z. Shao, “Improvement of passive Q-switching performance reached with a new Nd-doped mixed vanadate crystal Nd:Gd0.64Y0.36VO4,” Opt. Lett. 28, 2330-2332 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

Y. F. Chen and Y. P. Lan, “Comparison between c-cut and a-cut Nd:YVO4 lasers passively Q-switched with a Cr4+:YAG saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. B 74, 415-418 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Zhang, J. H. Liu, J. Y. Wang, L. Zhu, Z. S. Shao, X. L. Meng, X. B. Hu, M. H. Jiang, and Y. T. Chow, “Characterization of the laser crystal Nd:GdVO4,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 18-27 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

2000 (5)

H. J. Zhang, X. L. Meng, L. Zhu, C. Q. Wang, Y. T. Chow, and M. K. Lu, “Growth spectra and influence of annealing effect on laser properties of Nd:YVO4 crystal,” Opt. Mater. 14, 25-30 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Zhang, X. L. Meng, J. Liu, L. Zhu, Q. C. Wang, Z. S. Shao, J. Y. Wang, and Y. G. Liu, “Growth of lowly Nd doped GdVO4 single crystal and its laser properties,” J. Cryst. Growth 216, 367-371 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Q. Wang, Y. T. Chow, L. Reekie, W. A. Gambling, H. J. Zhang, L. Zhu, and X. L. Meng, “A comparative study of the laser performance of diode-laser-pumped Nd:GdVO4 and Nd:YVO4 crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 70, 769-722 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. F. Chen, S. W. Tsai, and S. C. Wang, “High-power diode-pumped Q-switched and mode-locked Nd:YVO4 laser with a Cr4+:YAG saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1442-1444 (2000).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhang, S. Zhao, and Q. Wang, “Modeling of passively Q-switched lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1166-1175 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (3)

A. Sennaroglu, “Efficient continuous-wave operation of a diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 laser at 1342nm,” Opt. Commun. 164, 191-197 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chr. P. Wyss, W. Lüthy, H. P. Weber, V. I. Vlasov, Yu. D. Zavartsev, P. A. Studenikin, A. I. Zagumennyi, and I. A. Shcherbakov, “Performance of a diode-pumped 5WNd3+:GdVO4 microchip laser at 1.06μm,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 659-661 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Zhang, L. Zhu, X. L. Meng, Z. H. Yang, C. Q. Wang, W. T. Yu, Y. T. Chow, and M. K. Lu, “Thermal and laser properties of Nd:YVO4 crystal,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 34, 1011-1016 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

L. Fornasiero, S. Kück, T. Jensen, G. Huber, and B. H. T. Chai, “Excited state absorption and stimulated emission of Nd3+ in crystals. Part 2: YVO4, GdVO4, and Sr5(PO4)3F,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 549-553 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Zhang, X. L. Meng, L. Zhu, H. Z. Zhang, P. Wang, J. Dawes, C. Q. Wang, and Y. T. Chow, “Investigation on the growth and laser properties of Nd:GdVO4 single crystal,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 33, 801-806 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

P. A. Studenikin, A. I. Zagumennyi, Y. D. Zavartsev, P. A. Popov, and I. A. Shcherbakov, “GdVO4 as a new medium for solid-state lasers: some optical and properties of crystals doped with Cd3+, Tm3+, and Er3+ ions,” Quantum Electron. 25, 1162-1165 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Degnan, “Optimization of passively Q-switched lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 1890-1901 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

T. Jensen, V. G. Ostroumov, J.-P. Meyen, G. Huber, A. I. Zagumennyi, and I. A. Shcherbakov, “Spectroscopic characterization and laser performance of diode-laser-pumped Nd:GdVO4,” Appl. Phys. B 58, 373-379 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

A. I. Zagumennyi, V. G. Ostroumov, I. A. Shcherbakov, T. Jensen, J. P. Meyen, and G. Huber, “The Nd:GdVO4 crystal: a new material for diode pumped lasers,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 22, 1071-1072 (1992).
[CrossRef]

N. Mermilliod, R. Romero, I. Chartier, C. Garapon, and R. Moncorge, “Performance of various diode-pumped Nd:Laser materials: influence of inhomogeneous broadening,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1179-1187 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

R. A. Fields, M. Birnbaum, and C. L. Fincher, “Highly efficient Nd:YVO4 diode-laser end-pumped laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1885-1886 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

J. M. Eggleston, T. J. Kane, K. Kuhn, J. Unternahrer, and R. L. Byer, “The slab geometry laser. I. Theory,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 289-301 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

A. W. Tucher, M. Birnbaum, C. L. Fincher, and J. W. Erler, “Stimulated-emission cross section at 1064 and 1342nm in Nd:YVO4,” J. Appl. Phys. 48, 4907-4911 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

K. Chow and H. G. McKnight, “The growth and characterization of pure and rare-earth-substituted YVO4,” Mater. Res. Bull. 8, 1343-1350 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Asundi, A.

Bass, M.

B. H. T. Chai, G. Loutts, J. Lefaucheur, X. X. Zhang, P. Hong, M. Bass, I. A. Shcherbakov, and A. I. Zagumennyi, “Comparison of laser performance of Nd-doped YVO4, GdVO4, Ca5(PO4)3F, Sr3(PO4)3F and Ca5(VO4)3F,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, T.Y.Fan, and B.H.Chai, eds., Vol. 20 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 1994), pp. 41-52.

Bi, Y.

Birnbaum, M.

R. A. Fields, M. Birnbaum, and C. L. Fincher, “Highly efficient Nd:YVO4 diode-laser end-pumped laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1885-1886 (1987).
[CrossRef]

A. W. Tucher, M. Birnbaum, C. L. Fincher, and J. W. Erler, “Stimulated-emission cross section at 1064 and 1342nm in Nd:YVO4,” J. Appl. Phys. 48, 4907-4911 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Byer, R. L.

J. M. Eggleston, T. J. Kane, K. Kuhn, J. Unternahrer, and R. L. Byer, “The slab geometry laser. I. Theory,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 289-301 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Chai, B. H. T.

L. Fornasiero, S. Kück, T. Jensen, G. Huber, and B. H. T. Chai, “Excited state absorption and stimulated emission of Nd3+ in crystals. Part 2: YVO4, GdVO4, and Sr5(PO4)3F,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 549-553 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. H. T. Chai, G. Loutts, J. Lefaucheur, X. X. Zhang, P. Hong, M. Bass, I. A. Shcherbakov, and A. I. Zagumennyi, “Comparison of laser performance of Nd-doped YVO4, GdVO4, Ca5(PO4)3F, Sr3(PO4)3F and Ca5(VO4)3F,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, T.Y.Fan, and B.H.Chai, eds., Vol. 20 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 1994), pp. 41-52.

Chartier, I.

N. Mermilliod, R. Romero, I. Chartier, C. Garapon, and R. Moncorge, “Performance of various diode-pumped Nd:Laser materials: influence of inhomogeneous broadening,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1179-1187 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

Chen, Y. C.

Chen, Y. F.

Cheng, R. X.

L. J. Qin, X. L. Meng, C. Du, L. Zhu, B. C. Xu, Z. Shao, Z. Liu, Q. Fang, and R. X. Cheng, “Growth and properties of mixed crystal Nd:YGdVO4,” J. Alloys Compd. 354, 259-262 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, X. F.

H. H. Yu, H. J. Zhang, Z. P. Wang, J. Y. Wang, Y. G. Yu, X. F. Cheng, Z. S. Shao, M. H. Jiang, Z. C. Ling, and H. R. Xia, “Characterization of mixed Nd:LuxGd1−xVO4 laser crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 1-7(113109) (2007).

Chow, K.

K. Chow and H. G. McKnight, “The growth and characterization of pure and rare-earth-substituted YVO4,” Mater. Res. Bull. 8, 1343-1350 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Chow, Y. T.

H. J. Zhang, J. H. Liu, J. Y. Wang, L. Zhu, Z. S. Shao, X. L. Meng, X. B. Hu, M. H. Jiang, and Y. T. Chow, “Characterization of the laser crystal Nd:GdVO4,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 18-27 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Zhang, X. L. Meng, L. Zhu, C. Q. Wang, Y. T. Chow, and M. K. Lu, “Growth spectra and influence of annealing effect on laser properties of Nd:YVO4 crystal,” Opt. Mater. 14, 25-30 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Q. Wang, Y. T. Chow, L. Reekie, W. A. Gambling, H. J. Zhang, L. Zhu, and X. L. Meng, “A comparative study of the laser performance of diode-laser-pumped Nd:GdVO4 and Nd:YVO4 crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 70, 769-722 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Zhang, L. Zhu, X. L. Meng, Z. H. Yang, C. Q. Wang, W. T. Yu, Y. T. Chow, and M. K. Lu, “Thermal and laser properties of Nd:YVO4 crystal,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 34, 1011-1016 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Zhang, X. L. Meng, L. Zhu, H. Z. Zhang, P. Wang, J. Dawes, C. Q. Wang, and Y. T. Chow, “Investigation on the growth and laser properties of Nd:GdVO4 single crystal,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 33, 801-806 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cui, D. F.

Dawes, J.

H. J. Zhang, X. L. Meng, L. Zhu, H. Z. Zhang, P. Wang, J. Dawes, C. Q. Wang, and Y. T. Chow, “Investigation on the growth and laser properties of Nd:GdVO4 single crystal,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 33, 801-806 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Degnan, J. J.

J. J. Degnan, “Optimization of passively Q-switched lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 1890-1901 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ding, A.

J. Liu, X. Meng, Z. Shao, M. Jiang, B. Ozygus, A. Ding, and H. Weber, “Pulse energy enhancement in passive Q-switching operation with a class of Nd:GdxY1−xVO4 crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1289-1291 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Du, C.

L. J. Qin, X. L. Meng, C. Du, L. Zhu, B. C. Xu, Z. Shao, Z. Liu, Q. Fang, and R. X. Cheng, “Growth and properties of mixed crystal Nd:YGdVO4,” J. Alloys Compd. 354, 259-262 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Du, C. L.

L. J. Qin, X. L. Meng, L. Zhu, J. H. Liu, B. C. Xu, H. Z. Xu, F. Y. Jiang, C. L. Du, and X. Q. Wang, and Z. S. Shao, “Influence of the different Gd/Y ratio on the properties of Nd:YxGd1−xVO4 mixed crystals,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 380, 273-278 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Du, J.

Eggleston, J. M.

J. M. Eggleston, T. J. Kane, K. Kuhn, J. Unternahrer, and R. L. Byer, “The slab geometry laser. I. Theory,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 289-301 (1984).
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A. W. Tucher, M. Birnbaum, C. L. Fincher, and J. W. Erler, “Stimulated-emission cross section at 1064 and 1342nm in Nd:YVO4,” J. Appl. Phys. 48, 4907-4911 (1977).
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Fan, Y. X.

Fang, Q.

L. J. Qin, X. L. Meng, C. Du, L. Zhu, B. C. Xu, Z. Shao, Z. Liu, Q. Fang, and R. X. Cheng, “Growth and properties of mixed crystal Nd:YGdVO4,” J. Alloys Compd. 354, 259-262 (2003).
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R. A. Fields, M. Birnbaum, and C. L. Fincher, “Highly efficient Nd:YVO4 diode-laser end-pumped laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1885-1886 (1987).
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Fincher, C. L.

R. A. Fields, M. Birnbaum, and C. L. Fincher, “Highly efficient Nd:YVO4 diode-laser end-pumped laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1885-1886 (1987).
[CrossRef]

A. W. Tucher, M. Birnbaum, C. L. Fincher, and J. W. Erler, “Stimulated-emission cross section at 1064 and 1342nm in Nd:YVO4,” J. Appl. Phys. 48, 4907-4911 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Fornasiero, L.

L. Fornasiero, S. Kück, T. Jensen, G. Huber, and B. H. T. Chai, “Excited state absorption and stimulated emission of Nd3+ in crystals. Part 2: YVO4, GdVO4, and Sr5(PO4)3F,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 549-553 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gambling, W. A.

C. Q. Wang, Y. T. Chow, L. Reekie, W. A. Gambling, H. J. Zhang, L. Zhu, and X. L. Meng, “A comparative study of the laser performance of diode-laser-pumped Nd:GdVO4 and Nd:YVO4 crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 70, 769-722 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Garapon, C.

N. Mermilliod, R. Romero, I. Chartier, C. Garapon, and R. Moncorge, “Performance of various diode-pumped Nd:Laser materials: influence of inhomogeneous broadening,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1179-1187 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Guo, L.

Hang, Y.

He, J.

J. Liu, J. Yang, and J. He, “Diode-pumped passively Q-switched c-cut Nd:GdVO4 laser,” Opt. Commun. 219, 317-321 (2003).
[CrossRef]

He, J. L.

He, Y.

Y. He, X. Y. Hou, L. Qin, Y. M. Sun, Y. F. Li, H. J. Qi, and L. Pan, “Laser-diode pumped passively Q-switched Nd:YxGd1−xVO4 laser with a GaAs saturable absorber,” Opt. Commun. 234, 305-308 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hong, P.

B. H. T. Chai, G. Loutts, J. Lefaucheur, X. X. Zhang, P. Hong, M. Bass, I. A. Shcherbakov, and A. I. Zagumennyi, “Comparison of laser performance of Nd-doped YVO4, GdVO4, Ca5(PO4)3F, Sr3(PO4)3F and Ca5(VO4)3F,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, T.Y.Fan, and B.H.Chai, eds., Vol. 20 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 1994), pp. 41-52.

Hou, W.

Hou, X. Y.

Y. He, X. Y. Hou, L. Qin, Y. M. Sun, Y. F. Li, H. J. Qi, and L. Pan, “Laser-diode pumped passively Q-switched Nd:YxGd1−xVO4 laser with a GaAs saturable absorber,” Opt. Commun. 234, 305-308 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hu, X. B.

Huang, L. X.

L. J. Qin, X. L. Meng, H. Y. Shen, L. Zhu, B. C. Xu, L. X. Huang, H. R. Xia, P. Zhao, and G. Zheng, “Thermal conductivity and refractive indices of Nd:GdVO4 crystals,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 38, 793-797 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Huber, G.

L. Fornasiero, S. Kück, T. Jensen, G. Huber, and B. H. T. Chai, “Excited state absorption and stimulated emission of Nd3+ in crystals. Part 2: YVO4, GdVO4, and Sr5(PO4)3F,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 549-553 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Jensen, V. G. Ostroumov, J.-P. Meyen, G. Huber, A. I. Zagumennyi, and I. A. Shcherbakov, “Spectroscopic characterization and laser performance of diode-laser-pumped Nd:GdVO4,” Appl. Phys. B 58, 373-379 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. I. Zagumennyi, V. G. Ostroumov, I. A. Shcherbakov, T. Jensen, J. P. Meyen, and G. Huber, “The Nd:GdVO4 crystal: a new material for diode pumped lasers,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 22, 1071-1072 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Jensen, T.

L. Fornasiero, S. Kück, T. Jensen, G. Huber, and B. H. T. Chai, “Excited state absorption and stimulated emission of Nd3+ in crystals. Part 2: YVO4, GdVO4, and Sr5(PO4)3F,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 549-553 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Jensen, V. G. Ostroumov, J.-P. Meyen, G. Huber, A. I. Zagumennyi, and I. A. Shcherbakov, “Spectroscopic characterization and laser performance of diode-laser-pumped Nd:GdVO4,” Appl. Phys. B 58, 373-379 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. I. Zagumennyi, V. G. Ostroumov, I. A. Shcherbakov, T. Jensen, J. P. Meyen, and G. Huber, “The Nd:GdVO4 crystal: a new material for diode pumped lasers,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 22, 1071-1072 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, F. Y.

L. J. Qin, X. L. Meng, L. Zhu, J. H. Liu, B. C. Xu, H. Z. Xu, F. Y. Jiang, C. L. Du, and X. Q. Wang, and Z. S. Shao, “Influence of the different Gd/Y ratio on the properties of Nd:YxGd1−xVO4 mixed crystals,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 380, 273-278 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, M.

H. Yu, H. Zhang, Z. Wang, J. Wang, Z. Shao, M. Jiang, and X. Zhang, “CW and Q-switched laser output of LD-end-pumped 1.06μm c-cut Nd:LuVO4 laser,” Opt. Express 15, 3206-3211 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Liu, X. Meng, Z. Shao, M. Jiang, B. Ozygus, A. Ding, and H. Weber, “Pulse energy enhancement in passive Q-switching operation with a class of Nd:GdxY1−xVO4 crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1289-1291 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, M. H.

H. H. Yu, H. J. Zhang, Z. P. Wang, J. Y. Wang, Y. G. Yu, Z. S. Shao, M. H. Jiang, and X. Y. Zhang, “Continuous wave and passively Q-switched laser performance of Nd-doped mixed crystal Nd:Lu0.5Gd0.5VO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 1-3(231110) (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. H. Yu, H. J. Zhang, Z. P. Wang, J. Y. Wang, Y. G. Yu, X. F. Cheng, Z. S. Shao, M. H. Jiang, Z. C. Ling, and H. R. Xia, “Characterization of mixed Nd:LuxGd1−xVO4 laser crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 1-7(113109) (2007).

H. J. Zhang, J. H. Liu, J. Y. Wang, L. Zhu, Z. S. Shao, X. L. Meng, X. B. Hu, M. H. Jiang, and Y. T. Chow, “Characterization of the laser crystal Nd:GdVO4,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 18-27 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kane, T. J.

J. M. Eggleston, T. J. Kane, K. Kuhn, J. Unternahrer, and R. L. Byer, “The slab geometry laser. I. Theory,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 289-301 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Kong, Y. P.

Ku, M. L.

Kück, S.

L. Fornasiero, S. Kück, T. Jensen, G. Huber, and B. H. T. Chai, “Excited state absorption and stimulated emission of Nd3+ in crystals. Part 2: YVO4, GdVO4, and Sr5(PO4)3F,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 549-553 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kuhn, K.

J. M. Eggleston, T. J. Kane, K. Kuhn, J. Unternahrer, and R. L. Byer, “The slab geometry laser. I. Theory,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 289-301 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Lan, Y. P.

Y. F. Chen and Y. P. Lan, “Comparison between c-cut and a-cut Nd:YVO4 lasers passively Q-switched with a Cr4+:YAG saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. B 74, 415-418 (2002).
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Lefaucheur, J.

B. H. T. Chai, G. Loutts, J. Lefaucheur, X. X. Zhang, P. Hong, M. Bass, I. A. Shcherbakov, and A. I. Zagumennyi, “Comparison of laser performance of Nd-doped YVO4, GdVO4, Ca5(PO4)3F, Sr3(PO4)3F and Ca5(VO4)3F,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, T.Y.Fan, and B.H.Chai, eds., Vol. 20 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 1994), pp. 41-52.

Li, R. N.

Li, Y. F.

Y. He, X. Y. Hou, L. Qin, Y. M. Sun, Y. F. Li, H. J. Qi, and L. Pan, “Laser-diode pumped passively Q-switched Nd:YxGd1−xVO4 laser with a GaAs saturable absorber,” Opt. Commun. 234, 305-308 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ling, Z. C.

H. H. Yu, H. J. Zhang, Z. P. Wang, J. Y. Wang, Y. G. Yu, X. F. Cheng, Z. S. Shao, M. H. Jiang, Z. C. Ling, and H. R. Xia, “Characterization of mixed Nd:LuxGd1−xVO4 laser crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 1-7(113109) (2007).

Liu, A. Q.

S. P. Ng, D. Y. Tang, A. Q. Liu, L. J. Qin, and X. L. Meng, “Short pulse passively Q-switched Nd:GdYVO4 laser using a GaAs mirror,” Opt. Commun. 259, 256-260 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J.

J. Liu, J. Yang, and J. He, “Diode-pumped passively Q-switched c-cut Nd:GdVO4 laser,” Opt. Commun. 219, 317-321 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, X. Meng, Z. Shao, M. Jiang, B. Ozygus, A. Ding, and H. Weber, “Pulse energy enhancement in passive Q-switching operation with a class of Nd:GdxY1−xVO4 crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1289-1291 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, Z. P. Wang, X. L. Meng, and Z. Shao, “Improvement of passive Q-switching performance reached with a new Nd-doped mixed vanadate crystal Nd:Gd0.64Y0.36VO4,” Opt. Lett. 28, 2330-2332 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. J. Zhang, X. L. Meng, J. Liu, L. Zhu, Q. C. Wang, Z. S. Shao, J. Y. Wang, and Y. G. Liu, “Growth of lowly Nd doped GdVO4 single crystal and its laser properties,” J. Cryst. Growth 216, 367-371 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J. H.

L. J. Qin, X. L. Meng, L. Zhu, J. H. Liu, B. C. Xu, H. Z. Xu, F. Y. Jiang, C. L. Du, and X. Q. Wang, and Z. S. Shao, “Influence of the different Gd/Y ratio on the properties of Nd:YxGd1−xVO4 mixed crystals,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 380, 273-278 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Zhang, J. H. Liu, J. Y. Wang, L. Zhu, Z. S. Shao, X. L. Meng, X. B. Hu, M. H. Jiang, and Y. T. Chow, “Characterization of the laser crystal Nd:GdVO4,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 18-27 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Liu, S.

Liu, Y. G.

H. J. Zhang, X. L. Meng, J. Liu, L. Zhu, Q. C. Wang, Z. S. Shao, J. Y. Wang, and Y. G. Liu, “Growth of lowly Nd doped GdVO4 single crystal and its laser properties,” J. Cryst. Growth 216, 367-371 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Z.

L. J. Qin, X. L. Meng, C. Du, L. Zhu, B. C. Xu, Z. Shao, Z. Liu, Q. Fang, and R. X. Cheng, “Growth and properties of mixed crystal Nd:YGdVO4,” J. Alloys Compd. 354, 259-262 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Loutts, G.

B. H. T. Chai, G. Loutts, J. Lefaucheur, X. X. Zhang, P. Hong, M. Bass, I. A. Shcherbakov, and A. I. Zagumennyi, “Comparison of laser performance of Nd-doped YVO4, GdVO4, Ca5(PO4)3F, Sr3(PO4)3F and Ca5(VO4)3F,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, T.Y.Fan, and B.H.Chai, eds., Vol. 20 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 1994), pp. 41-52.

Lu, M. K.

H. J. Zhang, X. L. Meng, L. Zhu, C. Q. Wang, Y. T. Chow, and M. K. Lu, “Growth spectra and influence of annealing effect on laser properties of Nd:YVO4 crystal,” Opt. Mater. 14, 25-30 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Zhang, L. Zhu, X. L. Meng, Z. H. Yang, C. Q. Wang, W. T. Yu, Y. T. Chow, and M. K. Lu, “Thermal and laser properties of Nd:YVO4 crystal,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 34, 1011-1016 (1999).
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Lupei, V.

Lüthy, W.

Chr. P. Wyss, W. Lüthy, H. P. Weber, V. I. Vlasov, Yu. D. Zavartsev, P. A. Studenikin, A. I. Zagumennyi, and I. A. Shcherbakov, “Performance of a diode-pumped 5WNd3+:GdVO4 microchip laser at 1.06μm,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 659-661 (1999).
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McKnight, H. G.

K. Chow and H. G. McKnight, “The growth and characterization of pure and rare-earth-substituted YVO4,” Mater. Res. Bull. 8, 1343-1350 (1973).
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Meng, X.

J. Liu, X. Meng, Z. Shao, M. Jiang, B. Ozygus, A. Ding, and H. Weber, “Pulse energy enhancement in passive Q-switching operation with a class of Nd:GdxY1−xVO4 crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1289-1291 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Meng, X. L.

S. P. Ng, D. Y. Tang, A. Q. Liu, L. J. Qin, and X. L. Meng, “Short pulse passively Q-switched Nd:GdYVO4 laser using a GaAs mirror,” Opt. Commun. 259, 256-260 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. J. Qin, X. L. Meng, H. Y. Shen, L. Zhu, B. C. Xu, L. X. Huang, H. R. Xia, P. Zhao, and G. Zheng, “Thermal conductivity and refractive indices of Nd:GdVO4 crystals,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 38, 793-797 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. J. Qin, X. L. Meng, L. Zhu, J. H. Liu, B. C. Xu, H. Z. Xu, F. Y. Jiang, C. L. Du, and X. Q. Wang, and Z. S. Shao, “Influence of the different Gd/Y ratio on the properties of Nd:YxGd1−xVO4 mixed crystals,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 380, 273-278 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. J. Qin, X. L. Meng, C. Du, L. Zhu, B. C. Xu, Z. Shao, Z. Liu, Q. Fang, and R. X. Cheng, “Growth and properties of mixed crystal Nd:YGdVO4,” J. Alloys Compd. 354, 259-262 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, Z. P. Wang, X. L. Meng, and Z. Shao, “Improvement of passive Q-switching performance reached with a new Nd-doped mixed vanadate crystal Nd:Gd0.64Y0.36VO4,” Opt. Lett. 28, 2330-2332 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. J. Zhang, J. H. Liu, J. Y. Wang, L. Zhu, Z. S. Shao, X. L. Meng, X. B. Hu, M. H. Jiang, and Y. T. Chow, “Characterization of the laser crystal Nd:GdVO4,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 18-27 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. Q. Wang, Y. T. Chow, L. Reekie, W. A. Gambling, H. J. Zhang, L. Zhu, and X. L. Meng, “A comparative study of the laser performance of diode-laser-pumped Nd:GdVO4 and Nd:YVO4 crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 70, 769-722 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Zhang, X. L. Meng, L. Zhu, C. Q. Wang, Y. T. Chow, and M. K. Lu, “Growth spectra and influence of annealing effect on laser properties of Nd:YVO4 crystal,” Opt. Mater. 14, 25-30 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Zhang, X. L. Meng, J. Liu, L. Zhu, Q. C. Wang, Z. S. Shao, J. Y. Wang, and Y. G. Liu, “Growth of lowly Nd doped GdVO4 single crystal and its laser properties,” J. Cryst. Growth 216, 367-371 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Zhang, L. Zhu, X. L. Meng, Z. H. Yang, C. Q. Wang, W. T. Yu, Y. T. Chow, and M. K. Lu, “Thermal and laser properties of Nd:YVO4 crystal,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 34, 1011-1016 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Zhang, X. L. Meng, L. Zhu, H. Z. Zhang, P. Wang, J. Dawes, C. Q. Wang, and Y. T. Chow, “Investigation on the growth and laser properties of Nd:GdVO4 single crystal,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 33, 801-806 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mermilliod, N.

N. Mermilliod, R. Romero, I. Chartier, C. Garapon, and R. Moncorge, “Performance of various diode-pumped Nd:Laser materials: influence of inhomogeneous broadening,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1179-1187 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Meyen, J. P.

A. I. Zagumennyi, V. G. Ostroumov, I. A. Shcherbakov, T. Jensen, J. P. Meyen, and G. Huber, “The Nd:GdVO4 crystal: a new material for diode pumped lasers,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 22, 1071-1072 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Meyen, J.-P.

T. Jensen, V. G. Ostroumov, J.-P. Meyen, G. Huber, A. I. Zagumennyi, and I. A. Shcherbakov, “Spectroscopic characterization and laser performance of diode-laser-pumped Nd:GdVO4,” Appl. Phys. B 58, 373-379 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Moncorge, R.

N. Mermilliod, R. Romero, I. Chartier, C. Garapon, and R. Moncorge, “Performance of various diode-pumped Nd:Laser materials: influence of inhomogeneous broadening,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1179-1187 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ng, S. P.

S. P. Ng, D. Y. Tang, A. Q. Liu, L. J. Qin, and X. L. Meng, “Short pulse passively Q-switched Nd:GdYVO4 laser using a GaAs mirror,” Opt. Commun. 259, 256-260 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ostroumov, V. G.

T. Jensen, V. G. Ostroumov, J.-P. Meyen, G. Huber, A. I. Zagumennyi, and I. A. Shcherbakov, “Spectroscopic characterization and laser performance of diode-laser-pumped Nd:GdVO4,” Appl. Phys. B 58, 373-379 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. I. Zagumennyi, V. G. Ostroumov, I. A. Shcherbakov, T. Jensen, J. P. Meyen, and G. Huber, “The Nd:GdVO4 crystal: a new material for diode pumped lasers,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 22, 1071-1072 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ozygus, B.

J. Liu, X. Meng, Z. Shao, M. Jiang, B. Ozygus, A. Ding, and H. Weber, “Pulse energy enhancement in passive Q-switching operation with a class of Nd:GdxY1−xVO4 crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1289-1291 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pan, L.

Y. He, X. Y. Hou, L. Qin, Y. M. Sun, Y. F. Li, H. J. Qi, and L. Pan, “Laser-diode pumped passively Q-switched Nd:YxGd1−xVO4 laser with a GaAs saturable absorber,” Opt. Commun. 234, 305-308 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pavel, N.

Peng, X.

Popov, P. A.

P. A. Studenikin, A. I. Zagumennyi, Y. D. Zavartsev, P. A. Popov, and I. A. Shcherbakov, “GdVO4 as a new medium for solid-state lasers: some optical and properties of crystals doped with Cd3+, Tm3+, and Er3+ ions,” Quantum Electron. 25, 1162-1165 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Qi, H. J.

Y. He, X. Y. Hou, L. Qin, Y. M. Sun, Y. F. Li, H. J. Qi, and L. Pan, “Laser-diode pumped passively Q-switched Nd:YxGd1−xVO4 laser with a GaAs saturable absorber,” Opt. Commun. 234, 305-308 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Qin, L.

Y. He, X. Y. Hou, L. Qin, Y. M. Sun, Y. F. Li, H. J. Qi, and L. Pan, “Laser-diode pumped passively Q-switched Nd:YxGd1−xVO4 laser with a GaAs saturable absorber,” Opt. Commun. 234, 305-308 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Qin, L. J.

S. P. Ng, D. Y. Tang, A. Q. Liu, L. J. Qin, and X. L. Meng, “Short pulse passively Q-switched Nd:GdYVO4 laser using a GaAs mirror,” Opt. Commun. 259, 256-260 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. J. Qin, X. L. Meng, H. Y. Shen, L. Zhu, B. C. Xu, L. X. Huang, H. R. Xia, P. Zhao, and G. Zheng, “Thermal conductivity and refractive indices of Nd:GdVO4 crystals,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 38, 793-797 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. J. Qin, X. L. Meng, C. Du, L. Zhu, B. C. Xu, Z. Shao, Z. Liu, Q. Fang, and R. X. Cheng, “Growth and properties of mixed crystal Nd:YGdVO4,” J. Alloys Compd. 354, 259-262 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. J. Qin, X. L. Meng, L. Zhu, J. H. Liu, B. C. Xu, H. Z. Xu, F. Y. Jiang, C. L. Du, and X. Q. Wang, and Z. S. Shao, “Influence of the different Gd/Y ratio on the properties of Nd:YxGd1−xVO4 mixed crystals,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 380, 273-278 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Reekie, L.

C. Q. Wang, Y. T. Chow, L. Reekie, W. A. Gambling, H. J. Zhang, L. Zhu, and X. L. Meng, “A comparative study of the laser performance of diode-laser-pumped Nd:GdVO4 and Nd:YVO4 crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 70, 769-722 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Romero, R.

N. Mermilliod, R. Romero, I. Chartier, C. Garapon, and R. Moncorge, “Performance of various diode-pumped Nd:Laser materials: influence of inhomogeneous broadening,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1179-1187 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Sato, Y.

Sennaroglu, A.

A. Sennaroglu, “Efficient continuous-wave operation of a diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 laser at 1342nm,” Opt. Commun. 164, 191-197 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Shao, Z.

H. Yu, H. Zhang, Z. Wang, J. Wang, Z. Shao, M. Jiang, and X. Zhang, “CW and Q-switched laser output of LD-end-pumped 1.06μm c-cut Nd:LuVO4 laser,” Opt. Express 15, 3206-3211 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Liu, Z. P. Wang, X. L. Meng, and Z. Shao, “Improvement of passive Q-switching performance reached with a new Nd-doped mixed vanadate crystal Nd:Gd0.64Y0.36VO4,” Opt. Lett. 28, 2330-2332 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. J. Qin, X. L. Meng, C. Du, L. Zhu, B. C. Xu, Z. Shao, Z. Liu, Q. Fang, and R. X. Cheng, “Growth and properties of mixed crystal Nd:YGdVO4,” J. Alloys Compd. 354, 259-262 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, X. Meng, Z. Shao, M. Jiang, B. Ozygus, A. Ding, and H. Weber, “Pulse energy enhancement in passive Q-switching operation with a class of Nd:GdxY1−xVO4 crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1289-1291 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shao, Z. S.

H. H. Yu, H. J. Zhang, Z. P. Wang, J. Y. Wang, Y. G. Yu, X. F. Cheng, Z. S. Shao, M. H. Jiang, Z. C. Ling, and H. R. Xia, “Characterization of mixed Nd:LuxGd1−xVO4 laser crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 1-7(113109) (2007).

H. H. Yu, H. J. Zhang, Z. P. Wang, J. Y. Wang, Y. G. Yu, Z. S. Shao, M. H. Jiang, and X. Y. Zhang, “Continuous wave and passively Q-switched laser performance of Nd-doped mixed crystal Nd:Lu0.5Gd0.5VO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 1-3(231110) (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. J. Qin, X. L. Meng, L. Zhu, J. H. Liu, B. C. Xu, H. Z. Xu, F. Y. Jiang, C. L. Du, and X. Q. Wang, and Z. S. Shao, “Influence of the different Gd/Y ratio on the properties of Nd:YxGd1−xVO4 mixed crystals,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 380, 273-278 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Zhang, J. H. Liu, J. Y. Wang, L. Zhu, Z. S. Shao, X. L. Meng, X. B. Hu, M. H. Jiang, and Y. T. Chow, “Characterization of the laser crystal Nd:GdVO4,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 18-27 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Zhang, X. L. Meng, J. Liu, L. Zhu, Q. C. Wang, Z. S. Shao, J. Y. Wang, and Y. G. Liu, “Growth of lowly Nd doped GdVO4 single crystal and its laser properties,” J. Cryst. Growth 216, 367-371 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Shcherbakov, I. A.

Chr. P. Wyss, W. Lüthy, H. P. Weber, V. I. Vlasov, Yu. D. Zavartsev, P. A. Studenikin, A. I. Zagumennyi, and I. A. Shcherbakov, “Performance of a diode-pumped 5WNd3+:GdVO4 microchip laser at 1.06μm,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 659-661 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Studenikin, A. I. Zagumennyi, Y. D. Zavartsev, P. A. Popov, and I. A. Shcherbakov, “GdVO4 as a new medium for solid-state lasers: some optical and properties of crystals doped with Cd3+, Tm3+, and Er3+ ions,” Quantum Electron. 25, 1162-1165 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. Jensen, V. G. Ostroumov, J.-P. Meyen, G. Huber, A. I. Zagumennyi, and I. A. Shcherbakov, “Spectroscopic characterization and laser performance of diode-laser-pumped Nd:GdVO4,” Appl. Phys. B 58, 373-379 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. I. Zagumennyi, V. G. Ostroumov, I. A. Shcherbakov, T. Jensen, J. P. Meyen, and G. Huber, “The Nd:GdVO4 crystal: a new material for diode pumped lasers,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 22, 1071-1072 (1992).
[CrossRef]

B. H. T. Chai, G. Loutts, J. Lefaucheur, X. X. Zhang, P. Hong, M. Bass, I. A. Shcherbakov, and A. I. Zagumennyi, “Comparison of laser performance of Nd-doped YVO4, GdVO4, Ca5(PO4)3F, Sr3(PO4)3F and Ca5(VO4)3F,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, T.Y.Fan, and B.H.Chai, eds., Vol. 20 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 1994), pp. 41-52.

Shen, H. Y.

L. J. Qin, X. L. Meng, H. Y. Shen, L. Zhu, B. C. Xu, L. X. Huang, H. R. Xia, P. Zhao, and G. Zheng, “Thermal conductivity and refractive indices of Nd:GdVO4 crystals,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 38, 793-797 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Studenikin, P. A.

Chr. P. Wyss, W. Lüthy, H. P. Weber, V. I. Vlasov, Yu. D. Zavartsev, P. A. Studenikin, A. I. Zagumennyi, and I. A. Shcherbakov, “Performance of a diode-pumped 5WNd3+:GdVO4 microchip laser at 1.06μm,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 659-661 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Studenikin, A. I. Zagumennyi, Y. D. Zavartsev, P. A. Popov, and I. A. Shcherbakov, “GdVO4 as a new medium for solid-state lasers: some optical and properties of crystals doped with Cd3+, Tm3+, and Er3+ ions,” Quantum Electron. 25, 1162-1165 (1995).
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Y. He, X. Y. Hou, L. Qin, Y. M. Sun, Y. F. Li, H. J. Qi, and L. Pan, “Laser-diode pumped passively Q-switched Nd:YxGd1−xVO4 laser with a GaAs saturable absorber,” Opt. Commun. 234, 305-308 (2004).
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Tang, D. Y.

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Chr. P. Wyss, W. Lüthy, H. P. Weber, V. I. Vlasov, Yu. D. Zavartsev, P. A. Studenikin, A. I. Zagumennyi, and I. A. Shcherbakov, “Performance of a diode-pumped 5WNd3+:GdVO4 microchip laser at 1.06μm,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 659-661 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C. Q.

C. Q. Wang, Y. T. Chow, L. Reekie, W. A. Gambling, H. J. Zhang, L. Zhu, and X. L. Meng, “A comparative study of the laser performance of diode-laser-pumped Nd:GdVO4 and Nd:YVO4 crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 70, 769-722 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Zhang, X. L. Meng, L. Zhu, C. Q. Wang, Y. T. Chow, and M. K. Lu, “Growth spectra and influence of annealing effect on laser properties of Nd:YVO4 crystal,” Opt. Mater. 14, 25-30 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Zhang, L. Zhu, X. L. Meng, Z. H. Yang, C. Q. Wang, W. T. Yu, Y. T. Chow, and M. K. Lu, “Thermal and laser properties of Nd:YVO4 crystal,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 34, 1011-1016 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Zhang, X. L. Meng, L. Zhu, H. Z. Zhang, P. Wang, J. Dawes, C. Q. Wang, and Y. T. Chow, “Investigation on the growth and laser properties of Nd:GdVO4 single crystal,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 33, 801-806 (1998).
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Wang, H. T.

Wang, J.

Wang, J. Y.

H. H. Yu, H. J. Zhang, Z. P. Wang, J. Y. Wang, Y. G. Yu, X. F. Cheng, Z. S. Shao, M. H. Jiang, Z. C. Ling, and H. R. Xia, “Characterization of mixed Nd:LuxGd1−xVO4 laser crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 1-7(113109) (2007).

H. H. Yu, H. J. Zhang, Z. P. Wang, J. Y. Wang, Y. G. Yu, Z. S. Shao, M. H. Jiang, and X. Y. Zhang, “Continuous wave and passively Q-switched laser performance of Nd-doped mixed crystal Nd:Lu0.5Gd0.5VO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 1-3(231110) (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Zhang, J. H. Liu, J. Y. Wang, L. Zhu, Z. S. Shao, X. L. Meng, X. B. Hu, M. H. Jiang, and Y. T. Chow, “Characterization of the laser crystal Nd:GdVO4,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 18-27 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Zhang, X. L. Meng, J. Liu, L. Zhu, Q. C. Wang, Z. S. Shao, J. Y. Wang, and Y. G. Liu, “Growth of lowly Nd doped GdVO4 single crystal and its laser properties,” J. Cryst. Growth 216, 367-371 (2000).
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Wang, P.

H. J. Zhang, X. L. Meng, L. Zhu, H. Z. Zhang, P. Wang, J. Dawes, C. Q. Wang, and Y. T. Chow, “Investigation on the growth and laser properties of Nd:GdVO4 single crystal,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 33, 801-806 (1998).
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Wang, Q. C.

H. J. Zhang, X. L. Meng, J. Liu, L. Zhu, Q. C. Wang, Z. S. Shao, J. Y. Wang, and Y. G. Liu, “Growth of lowly Nd doped GdVO4 single crystal and its laser properties,” J. Cryst. Growth 216, 367-371 (2000).
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Wang, X. Q.

L. J. Qin, X. L. Meng, L. Zhu, J. H. Liu, B. C. Xu, H. Z. Xu, F. Y. Jiang, C. L. Du, and X. Q. Wang, and Z. S. Shao, “Influence of the different Gd/Y ratio on the properties of Nd:YxGd1−xVO4 mixed crystals,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 380, 273-278 (2003).
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Wang, Y. G.

Wang, Z.

Wang, Z. P.

H. H. Yu, H. J. Zhang, Z. P. Wang, J. Y. Wang, Y. G. Yu, Z. S. Shao, M. H. Jiang, and X. Y. Zhang, “Continuous wave and passively Q-switched laser performance of Nd-doped mixed crystal Nd:Lu0.5Gd0.5VO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 1-3(231110) (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. H. Yu, H. J. Zhang, Z. P. Wang, J. Y. Wang, Y. G. Yu, X. F. Cheng, Z. S. Shao, M. H. Jiang, Z. C. Ling, and H. R. Xia, “Characterization of mixed Nd:LuxGd1−xVO4 laser crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 1-7(113109) (2007).

J. Liu, Z. P. Wang, X. L. Meng, and Z. Shao, “Improvement of passive Q-switching performance reached with a new Nd-doped mixed vanadate crystal Nd:Gd0.64Y0.36VO4,” Opt. Lett. 28, 2330-2332 (2003).
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J. Liu, X. Meng, Z. Shao, M. Jiang, B. Ozygus, A. Ding, and H. Weber, “Pulse energy enhancement in passive Q-switching operation with a class of Nd:GdxY1−xVO4 crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1289-1291 (2003).
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Chr. P. Wyss, W. Lüthy, H. P. Weber, V. I. Vlasov, Yu. D. Zavartsev, P. A. Studenikin, A. I. Zagumennyi, and I. A. Shcherbakov, “Performance of a diode-pumped 5WNd3+:GdVO4 microchip laser at 1.06μm,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 659-661 (1999).
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Wyss, Chr. P.

Chr. P. Wyss, W. Lüthy, H. P. Weber, V. I. Vlasov, Yu. D. Zavartsev, P. A. Studenikin, A. I. Zagumennyi, and I. A. Shcherbakov, “Performance of a diode-pumped 5WNd3+:GdVO4 microchip laser at 1.06μm,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 659-661 (1999).
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H. H. Yu, H. J. Zhang, Z. P. Wang, J. Y. Wang, Y. G. Yu, X. F. Cheng, Z. S. Shao, M. H. Jiang, Z. C. Ling, and H. R. Xia, “Characterization of mixed Nd:LuxGd1−xVO4 laser crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 1-7(113109) (2007).

L. J. Qin, X. L. Meng, H. Y. Shen, L. Zhu, B. C. Xu, L. X. Huang, H. R. Xia, P. Zhao, and G. Zheng, “Thermal conductivity and refractive indices of Nd:GdVO4 crystals,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 38, 793-797 (2003).
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Xu, B. C.

L. J. Qin, X. L. Meng, H. Y. Shen, L. Zhu, B. C. Xu, L. X. Huang, H. R. Xia, P. Zhao, and G. Zheng, “Thermal conductivity and refractive indices of Nd:GdVO4 crystals,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 38, 793-797 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. J. Qin, X. L. Meng, L. Zhu, J. H. Liu, B. C. Xu, H. Z. Xu, F. Y. Jiang, C. L. Du, and X. Q. Wang, and Z. S. Shao, “Influence of the different Gd/Y ratio on the properties of Nd:YxGd1−xVO4 mixed crystals,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 380, 273-278 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. J. Qin, X. L. Meng, C. Du, L. Zhu, B. C. Xu, Z. Shao, Z. Liu, Q. Fang, and R. X. Cheng, “Growth and properties of mixed crystal Nd:YGdVO4,” J. Alloys Compd. 354, 259-262 (2003).
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D. Xu, “Organic crystal,” in Science and Technology of Crystal Growth, K.C.Zhang and L.H.Zhang, eds. (Science Press, Beijing, 1997; in Chinese), p. 328.

Xu, H. Z.

L. J. Qin, X. L. Meng, L. Zhu, J. H. Liu, B. C. Xu, H. Z. Xu, F. Y. Jiang, C. L. Du, and X. Q. Wang, and Z. S. Shao, “Influence of the different Gd/Y ratio on the properties of Nd:YxGd1−xVO4 mixed crystals,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 380, 273-278 (2003).
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Xu, Z. Y.

Yang, J.

J. Liu, J. Yang, and J. He, “Diode-pumped passively Q-switched c-cut Nd:GdVO4 laser,” Opt. Commun. 219, 317-321 (2003).
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Yang, Z. H.

H. J. Zhang, L. Zhu, X. L. Meng, Z. H. Yang, C. Q. Wang, W. T. Yu, Y. T. Chow, and M. K. Lu, “Thermal and laser properties of Nd:YVO4 crystal,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 34, 1011-1016 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yao, A. Y.

Yu, H.

Yu, H. H.

H. H. Yu, H. J. Zhang, Z. P. Wang, J. Y. Wang, Y. G. Yu, Z. S. Shao, M. H. Jiang, and X. Y. Zhang, “Continuous wave and passively Q-switched laser performance of Nd-doped mixed crystal Nd:Lu0.5Gd0.5VO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 1-3(231110) (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. H. Yu, H. J. Zhang, Z. P. Wang, J. Y. Wang, Y. G. Yu, X. F. Cheng, Z. S. Shao, M. H. Jiang, Z. C. Ling, and H. R. Xia, “Characterization of mixed Nd:LuxGd1−xVO4 laser crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 1-7(113109) (2007).

Yu, W. T.

H. J. Zhang, L. Zhu, X. L. Meng, Z. H. Yang, C. Q. Wang, W. T. Yu, Y. T. Chow, and M. K. Lu, “Thermal and laser properties of Nd:YVO4 crystal,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 34, 1011-1016 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yu, Y. G.

H. H. Yu, H. J. Zhang, Z. P. Wang, J. Y. Wang, Y. G. Yu, X. F. Cheng, Z. S. Shao, M. H. Jiang, Z. C. Ling, and H. R. Xia, “Characterization of mixed Nd:LuxGd1−xVO4 laser crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 1-7(113109) (2007).

H. H. Yu, H. J. Zhang, Z. P. Wang, J. Y. Wang, Y. G. Yu, Z. S. Shao, M. H. Jiang, and X. Y. Zhang, “Continuous wave and passively Q-switched laser performance of Nd-doped mixed crystal Nd:Lu0.5Gd0.5VO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 1-3(231110) (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zagumennyi, A. I.

Chr. P. Wyss, W. Lüthy, H. P. Weber, V. I. Vlasov, Yu. D. Zavartsev, P. A. Studenikin, A. I. Zagumennyi, and I. A. Shcherbakov, “Performance of a diode-pumped 5WNd3+:GdVO4 microchip laser at 1.06μm,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 659-661 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Studenikin, A. I. Zagumennyi, Y. D. Zavartsev, P. A. Popov, and I. A. Shcherbakov, “GdVO4 as a new medium for solid-state lasers: some optical and properties of crystals doped with Cd3+, Tm3+, and Er3+ ions,” Quantum Electron. 25, 1162-1165 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. Jensen, V. G. Ostroumov, J.-P. Meyen, G. Huber, A. I. Zagumennyi, and I. A. Shcherbakov, “Spectroscopic characterization and laser performance of diode-laser-pumped Nd:GdVO4,” Appl. Phys. B 58, 373-379 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. I. Zagumennyi, V. G. Ostroumov, I. A. Shcherbakov, T. Jensen, J. P. Meyen, and G. Huber, “The Nd:GdVO4 crystal: a new material for diode pumped lasers,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 22, 1071-1072 (1992).
[CrossRef]

B. H. T. Chai, G. Loutts, J. Lefaucheur, X. X. Zhang, P. Hong, M. Bass, I. A. Shcherbakov, and A. I. Zagumennyi, “Comparison of laser performance of Nd-doped YVO4, GdVO4, Ca5(PO4)3F, Sr3(PO4)3F and Ca5(VO4)3F,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, T.Y.Fan, and B.H.Chai, eds., Vol. 20 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 1994), pp. 41-52.

Zavartsev, Y. D.

P. A. Studenikin, A. I. Zagumennyi, Y. D. Zavartsev, P. A. Popov, and I. A. Shcherbakov, “GdVO4 as a new medium for solid-state lasers: some optical and properties of crystals doped with Cd3+, Tm3+, and Er3+ ions,” Quantum Electron. 25, 1162-1165 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zavartsev, Yu. D.

Chr. P. Wyss, W. Lüthy, H. P. Weber, V. I. Vlasov, Yu. D. Zavartsev, P. A. Studenikin, A. I. Zagumennyi, and I. A. Shcherbakov, “Performance of a diode-pumped 5WNd3+:GdVO4 microchip laser at 1.06μm,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 659-661 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H.

Zhang, H. J.

H. H. Yu, H. J. Zhang, Z. P. Wang, J. Y. Wang, Y. G. Yu, Z. S. Shao, M. H. Jiang, and X. Y. Zhang, “Continuous wave and passively Q-switched laser performance of Nd-doped mixed crystal Nd:Lu0.5Gd0.5VO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 1-3(231110) (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. H. Yu, H. J. Zhang, Z. P. Wang, J. Y. Wang, Y. G. Yu, X. F. Cheng, Z. S. Shao, M. H. Jiang, Z. C. Ling, and H. R. Xia, “Characterization of mixed Nd:LuxGd1−xVO4 laser crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 1-7(113109) (2007).

H. J. Zhang, J. H. Liu, J. Y. Wang, L. Zhu, Z. S. Shao, X. L. Meng, X. B. Hu, M. H. Jiang, and Y. T. Chow, “Characterization of the laser crystal Nd:GdVO4,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 18-27 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Zhang, X. L. Meng, L. Zhu, C. Q. Wang, Y. T. Chow, and M. K. Lu, “Growth spectra and influence of annealing effect on laser properties of Nd:YVO4 crystal,” Opt. Mater. 14, 25-30 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Zhang, X. L. Meng, J. Liu, L. Zhu, Q. C. Wang, Z. S. Shao, J. Y. Wang, and Y. G. Liu, “Growth of lowly Nd doped GdVO4 single crystal and its laser properties,” J. Cryst. Growth 216, 367-371 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Q. Wang, Y. T. Chow, L. Reekie, W. A. Gambling, H. J. Zhang, L. Zhu, and X. L. Meng, “A comparative study of the laser performance of diode-laser-pumped Nd:GdVO4 and Nd:YVO4 crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 70, 769-722 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Zhang, L. Zhu, X. L. Meng, Z. H. Yang, C. Q. Wang, W. T. Yu, Y. T. Chow, and M. K. Lu, “Thermal and laser properties of Nd:YVO4 crystal,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 34, 1011-1016 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Zhang, X. L. Meng, L. Zhu, H. Z. Zhang, P. Wang, J. Dawes, C. Q. Wang, and Y. T. Chow, “Investigation on the growth and laser properties of Nd:GdVO4 single crystal,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 33, 801-806 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H. Z.

H. J. Zhang, X. L. Meng, L. Zhu, H. Z. Zhang, P. Wang, J. Dawes, C. Q. Wang, and Y. T. Chow, “Investigation on the growth and laser properties of Nd:GdVO4 single crystal,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 33, 801-806 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L. H.

Zhang, X.

Zhang, X. X.

B. H. T. Chai, G. Loutts, J. Lefaucheur, X. X. Zhang, P. Hong, M. Bass, I. A. Shcherbakov, and A. I. Zagumennyi, “Comparison of laser performance of Nd-doped YVO4, GdVO4, Ca5(PO4)3F, Sr3(PO4)3F and Ca5(VO4)3F,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, T.Y.Fan, and B.H.Chai, eds., Vol. 20 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 1994), pp. 41-52.

Zhang, X. Y.

H. H. Yu, H. J. Zhang, Z. P. Wang, J. Y. Wang, Y. G. Yu, Z. S. Shao, M. H. Jiang, and X. Y. Zhang, “Continuous wave and passively Q-switched laser performance of Nd-doped mixed crystal Nd:Lu0.5Gd0.5VO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 1-3(231110) (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, P.

L. J. Qin, X. L. Meng, H. Y. Shen, L. Zhu, B. C. Xu, L. X. Huang, H. R. Xia, P. Zhao, and G. Zheng, “Thermal conductivity and refractive indices of Nd:GdVO4 crystals,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 38, 793-797 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, S.

Zheng, G.

L. J. Qin, X. L. Meng, H. Y. Shen, L. Zhu, B. C. Xu, L. X. Huang, H. R. Xia, P. Zhao, and G. Zheng, “Thermal conductivity and refractive indices of Nd:GdVO4 crystals,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 38, 793-797 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, Y.

Zhu, L.

L. J. Qin, X. L. Meng, H. Y. Shen, L. Zhu, B. C. Xu, L. X. Huang, H. R. Xia, P. Zhao, and G. Zheng, “Thermal conductivity and refractive indices of Nd:GdVO4 crystals,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 38, 793-797 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. J. Qin, X. L. Meng, C. Du, L. Zhu, B. C. Xu, Z. Shao, Z. Liu, Q. Fang, and R. X. Cheng, “Growth and properties of mixed crystal Nd:YGdVO4,” J. Alloys Compd. 354, 259-262 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. J. Qin, X. L. Meng, L. Zhu, J. H. Liu, B. C. Xu, H. Z. Xu, F. Y. Jiang, C. L. Du, and X. Q. Wang, and Z. S. Shao, “Influence of the different Gd/Y ratio on the properties of Nd:YxGd1−xVO4 mixed crystals,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 380, 273-278 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Zhang, J. H. Liu, J. Y. Wang, L. Zhu, Z. S. Shao, X. L. Meng, X. B. Hu, M. H. Jiang, and Y. T. Chow, “Characterization of the laser crystal Nd:GdVO4,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 18-27 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. Q. Wang, Y. T. Chow, L. Reekie, W. A. Gambling, H. J. Zhang, L. Zhu, and X. L. Meng, “A comparative study of the laser performance of diode-laser-pumped Nd:GdVO4 and Nd:YVO4 crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 70, 769-722 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Zhang, X. L. Meng, L. Zhu, C. Q. Wang, Y. T. Chow, and M. K. Lu, “Growth spectra and influence of annealing effect on laser properties of Nd:YVO4 crystal,” Opt. Mater. 14, 25-30 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Zhang, X. L. Meng, J. Liu, L. Zhu, Q. C. Wang, Z. S. Shao, J. Y. Wang, and Y. G. Liu, “Growth of lowly Nd doped GdVO4 single crystal and its laser properties,” J. Cryst. Growth 216, 367-371 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Zhang, L. Zhu, X. L. Meng, Z. H. Yang, C. Q. Wang, W. T. Yu, Y. T. Chow, and M. K. Lu, “Thermal and laser properties of Nd:YVO4 crystal,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 34, 1011-1016 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Zhang, X. L. Meng, L. Zhu, H. Z. Zhang, P. Wang, J. Dawes, C. Q. Wang, and Y. T. Chow, “Investigation on the growth and laser properties of Nd:GdVO4 single crystal,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 33, 801-806 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (5)

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

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Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

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IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (3)

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J. Alloys Compd. (1)

L. J. Qin, X. L. Meng, C. Du, L. Zhu, B. C. Xu, Z. Shao, Z. Liu, Q. Fang, and R. X. Cheng, “Growth and properties of mixed crystal Nd:YGdVO4,” J. Alloys Compd. 354, 259-262 (2003).
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J. Appl. Phys. (2)

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J. Cryst. Growth (1)

H. J. Zhang, X. L. Meng, J. Liu, L. Zhu, Q. C. Wang, Z. S. Shao, J. Y. Wang, and Y. G. Liu, “Growth of lowly Nd doped GdVO4 single crystal and its laser properties,” J. Cryst. Growth 216, 367-371 (2000).
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J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (3)

Mater. Res. Bull. (1)

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J. Liu, J. Yang, and J. He, “Diode-pumped passively Q-switched c-cut Nd:GdVO4 laser,” Opt. Commun. 219, 317-321 (2003).
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Y. He, X. Y. Hou, L. Qin, Y. M. Sun, Y. F. Li, H. J. Qi, and L. Pan, “Laser-diode pumped passively Q-switched Nd:YxGd1−xVO4 laser with a GaAs saturable absorber,” Opt. Commun. 234, 305-308 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Ng, D. Y. Tang, A. Q. Liu, L. J. Qin, and X. L. Meng, “Short pulse passively Q-switched Nd:GdYVO4 laser using a GaAs mirror,” Opt. Commun. 259, 256-260 (2006).
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Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (5)

Opt. Mater. (1)

H. J. Zhang, X. L. Meng, L. Zhu, C. Q. Wang, Y. T. Chow, and M. K. Lu, “Growth spectra and influence of annealing effect on laser properties of Nd:YVO4 crystal,” Opt. Mater. 14, 25-30 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Quantum Electron. (1)

P. A. Studenikin, A. I. Zagumennyi, Y. D. Zavartsev, P. A. Popov, and I. A. Shcherbakov, “GdVO4 as a new medium for solid-state lasers: some optical and properties of crystals doped with Cd3+, Tm3+, and Er3+ ions,” Quantum Electron. 25, 1162-1165 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sov. J. Quantum Electron. (1)

A. I. Zagumennyi, V. G. Ostroumov, I. A. Shcherbakov, T. Jensen, J. P. Meyen, and G. Huber, “The Nd:GdVO4 crystal: a new material for diode pumped lasers,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 22, 1071-1072 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

D. Xu, “Organic crystal,” in Science and Technology of Crystal Growth, K.C.Zhang and L.H.Zhang, eds. (Science Press, Beijing, 1997; in Chinese), p. 328.

B. H. T. Chai, G. Loutts, J. Lefaucheur, X. X. Zhang, P. Hong, M. Bass, I. A. Shcherbakov, and A. I. Zagumennyi, “Comparison of laser performance of Nd-doped YVO4, GdVO4, Ca5(PO4)3F, Sr3(PO4)3F and Ca5(VO4)3F,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, T.Y.Fan, and B.H.Chai, eds., Vol. 20 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 1994), pp. 41-52.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Thermal diffusion coefficient of Nd : Y 0.17 Gd 0.83 VO 4 mixed crystal.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Dependence of specific heat of Nd : Y 0.17 Gd 0.83 VO 4 on temperature.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic diagram of the laser experimental setup.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

CW output power versus incident pump power for a-cut Nd : Y x Gd 1 x VO 4 at 1.34 μ m .

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Variation of emission cross sections for different mixed crystals.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

CW output power versus incident pump power for c-cut Nd : Y x Gd 1 x VO 4 at 1.34 μ m .

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

CW output power versus incident pump power for a-cut Nd : Y x Gd 1 x VO 4 at 1.06 μ m .

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

CW output power versus incident pump power for c-cut Nd : Y x Gd 1 x VO 4 at 1.06 μ m .

Tables (6)

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Table 1 Cell Parameters of Nd : Y x Gd 1 x VO 4 for Different x

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Table 2 Thermal Diffusion Coefficient of the Mixed Crystals at 303 K

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Table 3 Specific Heat of Nd : Y x Gd 1 x VO 4 Mixed Crystals with Different x

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Table 4 Measured Density of Nd : Y x Gd 1 x VO 4 Mixed Crystals at 30.2 ° C

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Table 5 Thermal Conductivity of Mixed Crystals for Different x at 303 K

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Table 6 Material Constant of Mixed Crystals for x = 0 , 0.37, 0.63, 0.81, and 1

Equations (6)

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ρ exp = m ρ water m m ,
ρ theory = m z V N A ,
k = ρ c p λ ,
k = 1 3 i c v i ν i l i ,
R s = σ max M s ,
M s = ( 1 v ) ( k α E ) ,

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